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  • 1.
    Fuentes Martinez, Ana
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ekström, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Kritiska föreställningar och reflektioner om robotar och artificiell intelligens i svensk skola: när lärarnas programmeringskunskaper spelar roll2019In: VILÄR 5-6 december 2019, University West, Trollhättan: Abstracts / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: University West , 2019, p. 9-10Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Robotar och artificiell intelligens (AI) är redan en del av verkligheten och kan komma att göra intåg i skolan inom en snar framtid. I en studie av Hrastinski et al (2019) belyses lärares och forskares kritiska reflektioner om vad användningen av robotar och AI kan innebära för en utbildningskontext. Studien konstaterar ett ökat behov av kompetensutveckling, men påvisar också en viss oro över en förändrad lärarroll, mänskliga relationer, individualisering, pedagogisk ledning och etik. Både lärare och forskare visade upp en begränsad förståelse för skillnaderna mellan de två teknologierna. Dessutom framkom det i studien att det finns en skillnad mellan deltagarnas tankar om införandet av robotar och AI; lärarnas resonemang handlade om möjligheter att förbättra den nuvarande undervisningspraktiken medan forskarna såg en potential till att transformera undervisningen.

    I Sverige har läroplanen nyligen reviderats med följden att alla elever, från förskolan till gymnasiet, ska lära sig datalogiskt tänkande och programmering. Förändringen innebär ökade fortbildningskrav på lärarna, vilket har medfört att många svenska universitet erbjuder programmeringskurser för verksamma lärare. För att studera hur de ökade programmeringskunskaperna påverkar lärarnas syn på användningen av robotar och AI i undervisningen ombads sjutton universitetslärare, med ansvar för programmeringskurserna, att i en enkät reflektera över hur dessa teknologier kan forma framtidens undervisningspraktik. För att kunna jämföra med Hrastinskis tidigare studie, fick universitetslärarna föreställa sig en undervisningssituation där (a) sociala robotar och (b) robotar med artificiell intelligens var en realitet. De reflekterade över vilka utmaningar och möjligheter användningen av robotar och AI skulle kunna medföra i ett framtida klassrum. Hur skiljer sig universitetslärarnas reflektioner från resultatet i den tidigare studien?

    Analysen visade att universitetslärarna resonerade kring potentiella vinster med att individualisera undervisning och befria lärare från rutinuppgifter. Deras framtidssyn låg också närmare lärarnas än forskarnas i Hrastinskis studie, då de inte heller förutspådde någon betydande transformation av den nuvarande undervisningspraktiken. Resultatet indikerade att universitetslärarna generellt sett hade mer kunskap om robotar och AI än deltagarna i den tidigare studien. Trots det var de skeptiska till de kognitiva fördelarna med att använda en fysisk robot istället för en traditionell dator. Utifrån framtidsscenariot med programmeringskunniga lärare i klassrummen, föreslog universitetslärarna inte någon ytterligare kompetensutveckling, vilket står i kontrast till reflektionerna i Hrastinskis studie. Om universitetslärare tror att programmeringskunskaper kan överbrygga kompetensgapet, och de inte förväntar sig någon radikal förändring av undervisningspraktiken, då kanske tröskeln för att integrera robotar och AI i undervisning är lägre än vad den tidigare studien förutsåg.

  • 2.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology,Division of Digital Learning, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå University, Department of Applied Educational Science, Umeå, Sweden.
    Arkenback, Charlotte
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied IT, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekström, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ericsson, Elin
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied IT, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Gävle, Sweden.
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    Mid Sweden University, Department of Education, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Ryberg, Thomas
    Aalborg University, Department of Communication and Psychology, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Department of Computer and System Science, Östersund, Sweden.
    Fuentes, Ana
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Gustafsson, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Department of Applied Educational Science, Umeå, Sweden.
    Humble, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University, Department of Computer and System Science, Östersund, Sweden.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Department of Computer and System Science, Östersund, Sweden.
    Sundgren, Marcus
    Mid Sweden University, Department of Education,Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Utterberg, Marie
    University of Gothenburg,Department of Applied IT, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Critical Imaginaries and Reflections on Artificial Intelligence and Robots in Postdigital K-12 Education2019In: Postdigital Science and Education, ISSN 2524-485X, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 427-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly suggested that emerging technologies will revolutionize education. In this paper, two such emerging technologies, artificial intelligence (AI) and educational robots (ER), are in focus. The aim of the paper is to explore how teachers, researchers and pedagogical developers critically imagine and reflect upon how AI and robots could be used in education. The empirical data were collected from discussion groups that were part of a symposium. For both AI and ERs, the need for more knowledge about these technologies, how they could preferably be used, and how the emergence of these technologies might affect the role of the teacher and the relationship between teachers and students, were outlined. Many participants saw more potential to use AI for individualization as compared with ERs. However, there were also more concerns, such as ethical issues and economic interests, when discussing AI. While the researchers/developers to a greater extent imagined ideal future technology-rich educational practices, the practitioners were more focused on imaginaries grounded in current practice.

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  • 3.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ekström, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Barendregt, Wolmet
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied IT, IT Faculty,Sweden .
    Serholt, Sofia
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied IT, IT Faculty,Sweden .
    Kiesewetter, Svea
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied IT, IT Faculty,Sweden .
    Augmenting Game-Based Learning With a Robot Tutee2019In: Proceedings of the European conference on games-based learning, Reading: Academic Publishing International, 2019, p. 560-568Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the initial design of an educational setup where a humanoid robot is used as a game companionto a child while they play an educational arithmetic game together. Drawing on the learning-by-teaching paradigm, therobot’s purpose is to act as the child’s tutee and ask questions related to gameplay and the arithmetic content of the game. The original version of the game utilized a virtual teachable agent, which was shown to be effective for children’s learning in previous studies. Here we replace the virtual agent with a social robot to explore if and how the embodiment and social-like behaviour of robots can augment game-based learning further. Our aim is to design a robot tutee that will enhance the game experience and stimulate elaboration of the game’s learning material. So far we have conducted two design workshops with 81 schoolchildren in grades 2 and 4 where they experienced the robot and the game in their classrooms. In this paper, we present the results of two post-workshop questionnaires, where the children were asked about desired behaviour for learning companions and their experiences with the robot as a game playing tutee. The first post-workshop questionnaire revealed that children would like to have a robot tutee that behaves as a kind and helpful human peer, but with improved capacities such as being kind to everyone, providing better explanations, and giving more compliments. The second postworkshop questionnaire revealed that the children accepted the tutor–tutee role-division and that a majority of children were able to hear, but less so, understand, the robot’s questions. Implications of these findings for design of the robot tutee are discussed

  • 4.
    Serholt, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Division of Learning, Communication and IT, Department of Applied IT, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ekström, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ljungblad, Sara
    University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Interaction Design, Department of Computer Science and Engineering,Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Trouble and Repair in Child-Robot Interaction: A Study of Complex Interactions With a Robot Tutee in a Primary School Classroom2020In: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 7, article id 46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     View references (31)Today, robots are studied and expected to be used in a range of social roles within classrooms. Yet, due to a number of limitations in social robots, robot interactions should be expected to occasionally suffer from troublesome situations and breakdowns. In this paper, we explore this issue by studying how children handle interaction trouble with a robot tutee in a classroom setting. The findings have implications not only for the design of robots, but also for evaluating their benefit in, and for, educational contexts. In this study, we conducted video analysis of children's group interactions with a robot tutee in a classroom setting, in order to explore the nature of these troubles in the wild. Within each group, children took turns acting as the primary interaction partner for the robot within the context of a mathematics game. Specifically, we examined what types of situations constitute trouble in these child–robot interactions, the strategies that individual children employ to cope with this trouble, as well as the strategies employed by other actors witnessing the trouble. By means of Interaction Analysis, we studied the video recordings of nine group interaction sessions (n = 33 children) in primary school grades 2 and 4. We found that sources of trouble related to the robot's social norm violations, which could be either active or passive. In terms of strategies, the children either persisted in their attempts at interacting with the robot by adapting their behavior in different ways, distanced themselves from the robot, or sought the help of present adults (i.e., a researcher in a teacher role, or an experimenter) or their peers (i.e., the child's classmates in each group). In terms of the witnessing actors, they addressed the trouble by providing guidance directed at the child interacting with the robot, or by intervening in the interaction. These findings reveal the unspoken rules by which children orient toward social robots, the complexities of child–robot interaction in the wild, and provide insights on children's perspectives and expectations of social robots in classroom contexts. © Copyright © 2020 Serholt, Pareto, Ekström and Ljungblad

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