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  • 1.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för juridik, ekonomi, statistik och politik.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Att utveckla Lysekils centrum tillsammans: utmaningar och möjligheter2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie designades och analyserades av Högskolan Väst 2016-2017. Undersökningen kompletterar den besökar- och boendestudie som Högskolan Väst tidigare genomförde inom projektet i Lysekil under sensommaren 2016 (se Högskolan Väst Rapport 2 Urban Platsinnovation Besökar- och boendestudie i Lysekil sensommaren 2017). Denna studie genomfördes under tiden 26 maj - 11 augusti 2017 med 363 svarande respondenter, varav 165 var besökare och 198 permanent boende i Lysekil. Syftet med studien var att öka kunskapen om både besökares och boendes uppfattningar om Lysekil. Högskolan Väst har även genomfört en intervjustudie med centrumaktörer i Lysekil under 2017 (se Högskolan Väst Rapport 4 Urban Platsinnovation Att utveckla Lysekils centrum tillsammans - utmaningar och möjligheter). Studierna1 avser även att bidra gränsöverskridande inspiration samt vara ett underlag för planering och utveckling av kommande centrumutvecklande aktiviteter såväl inom som utanför projektets regi.Undersökningen visar att besökare framför allt kommer till Lysekil för att koppla av och är nöjda med sitt besök i Lysekil samt med service och utbud, stadsmiljö och faciliteter. En stor majoritet av besökarna har besökt Lysekil innan och anger att de kommer att besöka Lysekil igen. Av de besökare är det 88% som sannolikt kommer rekommendera andra ett besök i Lysekil. Ungefär hälften av besökarna bor mer än 10 mil från Lysekil.De permanent boende i Lysekil är också nöjda med utbudet av restauranger, kvalitén på både maten och servicen. De boende var också nöjda med servicen i butikerna men ställde sig neutrala till utbudet av butiker. Det största missnöjet bland de permanent boende i Lysekil finns kring parkeringssituationen.Studien är i stort samstämmig med den besökar- och boendeundersökning som genomfördes 2016.Ett stort antal förbättringsförslag ges av respondenterna och finns redovisade i rapporten. Dessa förslag är allt från konkreta till visionära.Det är vår rekommendation att denna rapport ihop med rapporten från undersökningen 2016 (se Högskolan Västs Rapport 2) delges och diskuteras med de aktörer och nätverk som finns i Lysekil i arbetet i att ta fram nya centrumutvecklande aktiviteter.

  • 2.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för juridik, ekonomi, statistik och politik.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Besökar- och boendestudie i Lysekil sommaren 20172018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie designades och analyserades av Högskolan Väst 2016-2017. Undersökningen kompletterar den besökar- och boendestudie som Högskolan Väst tidigare genomförde inom projektet i Lysekil under sensommaren 2016 (se Högskolan Väst Rapport 2 Urban Platsinnovation Besökar- och boendestudie i Lysekil sensommaren 2017). Denna studie genomfördes under tiden 26 maj - 11 augusti 2017 med 363 svarande respondenter, varav 165 var besökare och 198 permanent boende i Lysekil. Syftet med studien var att öka kunskapen om både besökares och boendes uppfattningar om Lysekil. Högskolan Väst har även genomfört en intervjustudie med centrumaktörer i Lysekil under 2017 (se Högskolan Väst Rapport 4 Urban Platsinnovation Att utveckla Lysekils centrum tillsammans - utmaningar och möjligheter). Studierna1 avser även att bidra gränsöverskridande inspiration samt vara ett underlag för planering och utveckling av kommande centrumutvecklande aktiviteter såväl inom som utanför projektets regi. Undersökningen visar att besökare framför allt kommer till Lysekil för att koppla av och är nöjda med sitt besök i Lysekil samt med service och utbud, stadsmiljö och faciliteter. En stor majoritet av besökarna har besökt Lysekil innan och anger att de kommer att besöka Lysekil igen. Av de besökare är det 88% som sannolikt kommer rekommendera andra ett besök i Lysekil. Ungefär hälften av besökarna bor mer än 10 mil från Lysekil. De permanent boende i Lysekil är också nöjda med utbudet av restauranger, kvalitén på både maten och servicen. De boende var också nöjda med servicen i butikerna men ställde sig neutrala till utbudet av butiker. Det största missnöjet bland de permanent boende i Lysekil finns kring parkeringssituationen. Studien är i stort samstämmig med den besökar- och boendeundersökning som genomfördes 2016. Ett stort antal förbättringsförslag ges av respondenterna och finns redovisade i rapporten. Dessa förslag är allt från konkreta till visionära. Det är vår rekommendation att denna rapport ihop med rapporten från undersökningen 2016 (se Högskolan Västs Rapport 2) delges och diskuteras med de aktörer och nätverk som finns i Lysekil i arbetet i att ta fram nya centrumutvecklande aktiviteter

  • 3.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för juridik, ekonomi, statistik och politik.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Lessons Learned From A Cross-Sector Development Project: An Integrative Research Approach2018Ingår i: INTED 2018: Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, 2018, s. 3914-3922Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws on the experiences of work-integrated learning from a Swedish-Norwegian cross-sector research project where actors from university, industry, government and volunteer sector collaborate on city center development. The empirical setting of the present study consists of six smaller cities in rural municipalities with limited resources and experiences of collaboration with higher education institutions. The following research question is addressed: How can research and development projects serve as a vehicle for facilitating mutual knowledge exchange between academia and society in cross-sector and rural collaboration contexts? The aim is hence to suggest a tentative collaboration model that identify and integrate knowledge flows between actors involved in cross-sector collaborations in such setting. To gain deep insights in the complex dynamics of project collaboration we applied a mixed methods approach including surveys, structured, in-depth qualitative interviews, observations, workshops and student projects. The data collection was performed during 2016-2017. Findings indicate that trust, continuity, and relationship building are the basis vital for successful creation, development and maintenance of knowledge flows. Furthermore, there is a need to develop an integrative tool box with different methodological tools, work practices and strategies to plan, perform, compile to leverage the knowledge flows and coproduce sustainable results. Our tentative model aims to illustrate conceptualize lessons learned on work-integrated learning and collaboration with academia. We discuss how the model may support co-creative and mutual results over time. 

  • 4.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för juridik, ekonomi, statistik och politik.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Besökar- och boendestudie i Lysekil sensommaren 20162016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    En studie av besökare och boende i Lysekil genomfördes med 279 svarande respondenter under tiden 26 juli - 14 september 2016. Syftet med studien var att öka kunskapen om både boendes och besökandes uppfattningar om Lysekil.Studien syftar även till att ge ett bidrag till ett större underlag för och gränsöverskridande inspiration till planering och utveckling av kommande centrumutvecklande aktiviteter såväl inom som utanför projektets regi.151 besökande och 128 permanent boende besvarade undersökningen.Undersökningen visar att de besökande framför allt kommer till Lysekil för att koppla av och är nöjda med sitt besök i Lysekil samt med service och utbud, stadsmiljö och faciliteter. En stor majoritet av besökarna har besökt Lysekil innan och anger att man kommer att besöka Lysekil igen. Av de besökande är det 97% som sannolikt kommer rekommendera andra ett besök i Lysekil. Ungefär hälften av de besökande bor mer än 10 mil från Lysekil.Bland de permanent boende i Lysekil är man också nöjd med utbudet av restauranger, kvalitén på restaurangmaten samt service på restaurang och i butik. Man är också nöjd med stadsmiljön, skyltning/vägvisning, hur lätt det är att ta sig till Lysekil, faciliteter och kvalitén på boende. En majoritet av de tillfrågade är missnöjda med parkeringssituationen i Lysekil. Utbudet av butiker och uteliv har mer utspridda svar.Samtliga respondenter fick tillfälle att ge förslag på vad som kan förbättras i Lysekils centrum. Av 279 respondenter gav 123 besökande och 114 boende i Lysekil förbättringsförslag. Förslagen, som är både konkreta och visionära, rör huvudsakligen följande sju teman; Trivsel och intryck av stadsmiljön, Infrastruktur, parkering mm, Husbilsparkering/ställplatser, Information och Skyltning, Aktiviteter/evenemang, Utbud och Övrigt.Vår rekommendation är att, de nätverk och aktörer som är anslutna till projektet i Lysekil, tar del av och diskuterar studiens resultat inför framtida centrumutvecklande aktiviteter. Vi rekommenderar även att man åtgärdar de förbättringsförslag som går att genomföra på kort sikt och redan nu diskuterar de mer långsiktiga och eventuellt resurstunga förbättringsförslag.

  • 5.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för juridik, ekonomi, statistik och politik.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    En gränsöverskridande workshop om: Hvordan kan vi bruke undersøkelser til å skape et bedre sentrum?2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    En gränsöverskridande workshop om Hvordan kan vi bruke undersøkelser til å skape et bedre sentrum? genomfördes den 27 oktober 2016 i Fredrikstad under stormöte 2 i projektet Urban Platsinnovation. Syftet med workshopen var att näringsidkare och kommuner i Sverige och Norge ska knyta kontakter och utbyta erfarenheter. Under workshopen diskuterade de 62 deltagarna undersökningar som beslutsunderlag samt deltagande och samverkan för utveckling av centrum. I anslutning till workshopen redogjordes för tre i projektet genomförda studier. Workshopens genomförande och dokumentation syftar till att ge ett underlag och gränsöverskridande inspiration till planering och utveckling av kommande centrumutvecklande aktiviteter såväl inom som utanför projektets regi.Workshopsdeltagarna får idag information om kunder, besökare och medborgare genom olika spridda kanaler; via kartläggningar, handelsutredningar, nationella näringslivstudier, egna undersökningar via sociala medier, webbstatistik, kommunens kundtjänst, medborgarkontor, medborgardialoger (brukermedvirkning), samtal och personlig kontakt, sociala möten och nätverk, cafédialoger/dialog med organisationer, företag och föreningar, mässor och genom nyheter i dagstidning (avis). Samtliga deltagare menar att studier av det slag som presenterades vid workshopen är mycket viktiga. Presenterade studier är intressanta då de visar på fakta och statistik – vilket inte alltid stämmer med vad man tror eller hört. Faktaunderlag är viktigt för att kunna arbeta framåt. Kritisk och djupare analys, koordinering, samordning och bättre kommunikation kring studier och resultat behövs. Deltagarna framhåller vikten av att dels ha tillgång till ett kvantitativt datamaterial i form av besöksdata som kan kopplas till annan data såsom omsättning, dels till ett kvalitativt material som fokuserar på vem besökaren är, orsaker till besök samt vilka önskemål besökare men även boende har.Det råder en stark vilja till samverkan mellan de olika aktörerna för centrumutvecklingen. I vissa fall och i vissa kommuner fungerar samverkan riktigt bra mellan framför allt kommun och butiksägare. Dock inses vikten av en bredare representativitet i grupperingar för centrumutvecklingen. Nya aktörer välkomnas samt tydliga strategier och roller. Viljan att engagera sig och delta finns, och många ser möjligheten att genom detta projekt få till en hel del bra grundarbete. Bra exempel ges på kanaler och plattformar för informationsspridning och kommunikation och deltagarna ser gärna en fortsatt utveckling av dessa för samverkan och koordinering av olika aktiviteter.

  • 6.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för juridik, ekonomi, statistik och politik.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Samverkan och utveckling i Gamlebyen2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Högskolan Västs Rapport 3 - Samverkan och utveckling i Gamlebyen består av en studie av Gamlebyen Fredrikstads kommune, Norge. Denna studie baseras på 18 djupintervjuer med 21 aktörer i och kring Gamlebyen, Fredrikstads kommune, som genomfördes perioden november 2016 - februari 2017 samt en webb-enkät med 22 elever (blivande hantverkare) vid Plus-skolen i Gamlebyen i mars 2017. Syfte med studien var att fånga aktörernas uppfattning om Gamlebyens attraktivitet, vision, nuläge och utmaningar i samverkan. Syftet var även att ge förslag för samarbete och styrning som potential för framtida näringsutveckling och engagemang. Vidare syftar studien långsiktigt till ge ett underlag och gränsöverskridande inspiration för planering och utveckling av kommande centrumutvecklande aktiviteter såväl inom som utanför projektets regi.Studien visar på den mångfald av aktörer som verkar i Gamlebyen och den brist på samarbete och kommunikation som denna mångfald ger upphov till. Området saknar en gemensam vision om Gamlebyen skall utvecklas och bevaras. Sammantaget gör detta att Gamlebyen hämmas i sin utveckling och inte får den attraktionskraft som området har potential för. Många aktörer känner att kommunens satsningar på andra områden i Fredrikstad har haft ett negativt inflytande på området.För att Gamlebyen skall kunna nå sin potential behövs en samordnande roll av typen centrumutvecklare som koordinerar dels internt i Gamlebyen men även verkar in mot kommun och centrum för ökad samordning. En gemensam intern kommunikationsplattform för aktörerna i Gamlebyen är av stor vikt för att öka kommunikationen i området och samordna aktuell och korrekt information.

  • 7.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    One foot in academia and one in work-life: the case of Swedish industrial PhD students2023Ingår i: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859, Vol. 35, nr 6, s. 506-523Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore the benefits and barriers for learning in industrial PhD education through the perspectives of industrial PhD students. A work-integrated learning (WIL) approach is applied to highlight key issues that university and industry need to consider promoting mutual learning.

    Design/methodology/approach – The empirical context is a Swedish university profiling WIL offering PhD programs in three disciplines for industrial PhD students from both the private and public sectors. Data was gathered using qualitative methods; 19 semistructured interviews with industrial PhD students.

    Findings – Findings show that industrial PhD students are developing practical and transferable skills, hence, contributing to research of interest for academia and work–life. Identified benefits for learning include proximity and access to data, project and networks and contextual understanding and tacit knowledge. Barriers for learning are the perceived limited understanding of employers, the dilemma of balancing and switching between different roles, lack of belonging and identity, deficient collaboration agreements and ethical dilemmas.

    Research limitations/implications – Contributes insights into an industrial PhD education transforming along with societal needs promoting a future workforce of researchers with skills, new work practices and learning capabilities applicable in the work–life of contemporary society.

    Originality/value – This study contributes to the emerging field of studies of alternative doctoral educations by identifying benefits and barriers for learning and providing recommendations for how university and industry may promote learning in a resilient industrial PhD education collaboration.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
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  • 8.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    The Old Town District: Not Just a Scenic Backdrop - Stakeholders' Perspectives in Urban Re-generation2017Ingår i: Uddevalla Symposium 2017: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies: Revised papers first presented at the 20th Uddevalla Symposium 15-17 June, 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2017, s. 111-127Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes its point of departure from an urban place innovation study with focus on local stakeholders with particular interest in the Old Town District in a Norwegian community. The aim of this paper is to identify place innovation challenges among local community stakeholders and to discuss approaches to integrate stakeholders in urban regeneration. We have conducted qualitative interviews with 21 different stakeholders representing local entrepreneurs, non-profit organizations, the municipality, elected officials, tourism organization and residents with particular interest in the Old Town District. Additional observations and document studies were conducted. The results reveal stakeholders' views on challenges and opportunities related to how such regeneration collaboration might be conducted. The complex nature is characterized by strong cultural heritage and a mix of opinions and visions. We argue that urban regeneration requires an integrated approach based on stakeholder collaboration and engagement in order to develop the potential of an old town district into something that is more than a scenic backdrop. We discuss several implications as prerequisites for integrated collaborative approaches in place innovation (urban regeneration).

  • 9.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för juridik, ekonomi, statistik och politik.
    Conceptualizing University-Society Collaboration: A Literature Review Focusing on Drivers of Collaboration2018Ingår i: ICERI2018 Proceedings, 2018, s. 9036-9042Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaboration and learning are vital for development in all sectors of society and there is a constant need for new ideas, innovation and development. Crucial for dealing with contemporary complex challenges on a local, regional, national and global scale is a need for the inclusion of many perspectives and competences. However, collaboration is never friction free but challenging. A reason for this might be that there are different expectations on goals and outcomes due to that collaborating organizations bring different contexts, Inter-organisational collaborations, cultures, traditions etc. These challenges are addressed by several approaches for university-society collaboration, e.g. Work-Integrated Learning (WIL), University-Industry-Government (Triple-helix), University Community Partnership (UCP), and Public Private Academic Partnership (PPAP). These are all aiming at planning, performing, compiling and leveraging knowledge exchange and co-creating sustainable results. What is less developed is what genuine impact such results do have on society, i.e. societal impacts. Thus, there is a need for gaining more knowledge in research about what key mechanisms that constitutes successful collaboration between academia and various public and private organizations in research projects.This conceptual paper explores the underlying concepts of principles that are used as guidelines for successful university-society collaboration. It draws on a literature review of key concepts selected from established frameworks and models that are current in the field of university-society collaboration, e.g. co-creation, trust, relationship building. The aim of the paper is to gain deeper insights in the complex dynamics of research collaboration by combining previous models with current research literature and suggest implications for both model development as well as principles of conduct when societal impact are to be ensured in university-society collaboration. Hence, the research questions to be addressed in this paper are: What are the key concepts that underlie the dynamics of university-society collaboration in the research literature? How can successful university-society collaboration be conceptualized in order to facilitate co-creation and societal impact?

  • 10.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Olsson, Anna KarinHögskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    A Nordic Perspective on Co‐Operation for Sustainable Destination and Regional Development2015Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna forskningsrapport bidrar med ett nordiskt perspektiv på samverkan för hållbar destinations och regionalutveckling baserad på studier inom ett svenskt-danskt Interregprojekt 2012-2014 (MARIFUS). Rapporten inleds med ett introduktionskapitel med huvudteman, följt av fem kapitelskrivna av forskare från Ålborgs Universitet, Danmark (Incevida) och Högskolan Väst, Sverige (Institutionen för Ekonomi och IT). Syftet med rapporten är att ge djupare insikter i nordisk destinations- och regionalutveckling genom empiriska fallstudier. Dessa studier har presenterats och diskuterats vid seminarier vid internationella vetenskapliga konferenser inom regionalvetenskap (16:e Uddevalla Symposiet 2013 i Kansas City, USA och 17: e Uddevalla Symposiet 2014 i Uddevalla, Sverige) som anordnades av Högskolan Väst. Bidragen är tvärvetenskapliga då de är skrivna av forskare från olika vetenskapliga discipliner såsom företagsekonomi, informatik, planering och kulturvetenskap. Alla forskare har emellertid ett destinations- och/eller regionalt perspektiv som utgångspunkt i fallstudierna som genomförts. Det treåriga projektet erbjöd goda möjligheter tillgränsöverskridande lärande och tillämpad forskning i nära samarbete (Arbetsintegrerat lärande) med projektpartners och studenter. Studierna genomfördes med bidrag från projektet MARIFUS "Maritime Inlands – past, present and future strengths” som delfinansierades av Europeiska Unionens Regionala Utvecklingsfond (Interreg IV A). 

    Redaktörerna vill slutligen framföra tack till författarna och alla partners i MARIFUS-projektet

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  • 11.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Industrial PhD Education: Exploring Doctoral Students Acting in the Intersection of Academia and Work-Life2022Ingår i: Proceedings of the Informing Science and Information Technology Education Conference,  InSite 2022,: Informing Science and Information Technology Education Conference, Online July 6-7, 2022 / [ed] Jones, Michael, Informing Science Institute , 2022, s. 1-16Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim/Purpose:

    The aim is to explore the benefits and challenges of industrial PhD education through the perspectives of industrial PhD students who are acting in the intersection of academia and work-life by applying a work-integrated learning (WIL) approach to highlight issues that academy and industry need to consider.

    Background:

    Industrial PhD education is a vital part of collaboration between academia and society although still an under-researched field. This paper reveals the perspectives of the industrial PhD students who are at the same time involved in both academia and industry, with the same academic demands as traditionally enrolled academic PhD students combined with demands and expectations from their industrial employers.

    Methodology:

    Qualitative methods were applied and 19 semi-structured interviews with industrial PhD students were conducted. The empirical context is a Swedish university profiling work-integrated learning offering PhD programs for industrial PhD students from both the private and public sectors.

    Contribution:

    This explorative study contributes to advance the current knowledge of third cycle education to deepen the insights into benefits and challenges in industrial PhD education through the perspectives of industrial PhD students acting in the intersection of academia and work-life. By applying a WIL approach on third-cycle education, issues that academy and industry need to consider for successful collaboration within doctoral education are identified.

    Findings:

    Findings indicate that industrial PhD students acting in the intersection of academia and work-life are developing practical and transferable skills requested by employers outside academia, hence increasing societal impact. Findings show that industrial PhD education generates several WIL benefits. Novel challenges identified include unclear financial agreements, conflicts of interest, administrative bureaucracy, work promotion opportunities, and lack of be-longing and identity, hence not exploiting the full potential of WIL. This has been further intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic with restricted travel and dependence solely on virtual connections.

    Recommendations for Practitioners:

    It is vital to recognize that challenges do exist and need to be considered to strengthen industrial PhD education as well as collaboration between academia and society. Increased communication and continuous interactions between academia and industry during the entire industrial PhD education are needed.

    Recommendations for Researchers: Future studies of WIL in industrial PhD education are encouraged.

    Impact of society

    This study contributes insights into PhD education transforming along with societal needs based on successful university-society collaboration.

    Future Research:

    Further research is encouraged to deepen and broaden the industry perspective of industrial PhD education.

  • 12.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Network collaboration for local and regional development the case of Swedish women entrepreneurs2020Ingår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 41, nr 4, s. 539-561Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore women entrepreneurs participation in networks with focus on local community collaboration. In recent years interest in the importance of women entrepreneurship worldwide has increased, especially from the viewpoint of local and regional development. Previous studies show that local competitors coordinated in networks can gain cross sector knowledge sharing and boost the attractiveness of a region. Using case study methodology with 14 qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews in two phases with business counselors and women entrepreneurs, participatory observations and document studies, this study explores women entrepreneurs in smaller cities and their collaboration in networks with particular reference to a Swedish context. Results state that women entrepreneurs are active and participate in various local community networks and that networks are viewed as valuable assets for business development. Women entrepreneurs strategically choose to join strong networks that have an impact on local community development. Challenges faced by women entrepreneurs are mainly related to the role as entrepreneur and running a business in a smaller city. However, some specific gendered challenges are lack of trust or respect from other business and public actors, especially in contact with authorities. The women entrepreneurs have mixed experiences of local community support hence the main sources for renewal processes and knowledge sharing are co-owners, staff, digital tools, networks partners, families and friends.

  • 13.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Understanding Women Entrepreneurs' Encounters with an Increasingly Digitalized Workplace2019Ingår i: Uddevalla Symposium 2019: Unlocking the Potential of Regions Through Entrepreneurship and Innovation Revised papers presented at / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2019, s. 73-89Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to explore how women entrepreneurs encounter and learn to use ICT at work in response to calls for further research regarding ICT and small businesses, especially women entrepreneurs' adaptation to an increasingly digitalized workplace. Qualitative methods were applied including a total of 13 interviews in two phases with 11 women entrepreneurs, and observations of the irdigital presence. Findings indicate the benefits of digitalization of small businesses, although the women entrepreneurs also emphasize digital disadvantages such as negative online comments and reviews and digital stress. Informal learning and self development were practiced. In order to remain competitive, the women entrepreneurs were aware that they constantly have to learn new things to capture the potential and keep up the pace in digitalizing their workplaces. The importance of recruiting young digitally skilled employees was strongly highlighted.

  • 14.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    University-Industry Collaboration in Higher Education: Exploring the Informing Flows Framework in Industrial PhD Education2020Ingår i: Informing Science: The International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline, ISSN 1547-9684, E-ISSN 1521-4672, Vol. 3, s. 147-163Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim/PurposeThe aim is to explore the informing flows framework as interactions within aPhD education practicing a work-integrated learning approach in order to revealboth the perspectives of industrial PhD students and of industry.

    Background An under-researched field of university-industry collaboration is explored revealing both the perspectives of industrial PhD students and of industry.

    Methodology Qualitative methods were applied including interviews and document studies. Intotal ten semi-structured interviews in two steps were conducted. The empiricalcontext is a Swedish PhD program in informatics with a specialization in workintegrated learning.

    Contribution By broadening the concept of work-integrated learning, this paper contributesempirical results on benefits and challenges in university-industry collaborationfocusing on industrial PhD students and industry by applying the informingflows framework.

    Findings Findings expose novel insights for industry as well as academia. The industrialPhD students are key stakeholders and embody the informing flows betweenpractice and university and between practice and research. They are spanningboundaries between university and industry generating continuous opportunities for validation and testing of empirical results and models in industry. Thismay enable increased research quality and short-lag dissemination of researchresults as well as strengthened organizational legitimacy.

  • 15.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Women Entrepreneurs in Local Community Networks: Participation, Challenges and Place Development2017Ingår i: Uddevalla Symposium 2017: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies: Revised papers first presented at the 20th Uddevalla Symposium 15-17 June, 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2017, s. 129-147Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore women entrepreneurs' participation in local community networks with focus on place development. In recent years interest in the importance of female entrepreneurship worldwide has increased, especially from the viewpoint of local and regional development. Previous studies show that local competitors coordinated in networks can boost the attractiveness of a place and achieve network synergies. This study is a continuation of an earlier study of Swedish municipal business counsellors' support to female entrepreneurs in tourism where findings show that there was a lack of support for women as entrepreneurs. Using a qualitative method approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews and document studies, this study explores women entrepreneurs' participation and collaboration in local community networks, challenges and local support with particular reference to a Swedish context. The study is based on interviews with 11 women entrepreneurs who were selected from three municipalities in Sweden. All respondents are active in the tourism sector and participate in local community networks. Results indicate that cross-sector networks, preferably strong networks that may have an impact on local community development, are important, especially from the perspective of a small entrepreneur. Smaller informal groups of other local entrepreneurs are also vital for inspiration and renewal processes. Furthermore, findings indicate that participating in collaboration in networks (face-to-face and digital), smaller groups or co-ownership is seen as means to develop the business as well as contributing to boost the attractiveness of a place. Challenges faced by women entrepreneurs are mainly related to the role as entrepreneur and running a business in a smaller city. However, some specific gendered challenges are lack of trust or respect from other actors, especially in contact with authorities and the dual roles in combining entrepreneurship and family. Respondents have mixed experiences of local community support. However, several women entrepreneurs stress the importance of local support, stating the importance of family and friends.

  • 16.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Work-Integrated Learning and Collaboration in Higher Education 3rd Cycle: The Case of Industrial PhD Students2020Ingår i: INTED2020 Proceedings: 14th International Technology, Education and Development ConferenceValencia, Spain. 2-4 March, 2020. / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, Valencia: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2020, s. 2344-2353Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today universities and higher education face challenges related to collaboration with the society. Societal impacts and innovation from academia are highly valued from governments and interaction with and impacts on society and practice are of crucial importance for universities today (Gellerstedt, et al. 2018; Galan, 2018). University West in Sweden has a profile area in work-integrated learning (WIL), which generally aims to address issues on integrating theory and practice in education in a sustainable and coherent way (Olsson et al. 2019; Gellerstedt et. al. 2015). In this paper the arguments are based on a study of a PhD-education (3rd cycle) in Informatics with the specialization of work-integrated learning. at University West.

    The focus is on the collaboration between the university and industry through industrial PhD-students who are active in the university-industry interface i.e. fully employed by the industry during their PhD-education.Research on collaboration between PhD- students and industry is, according to Thune scarce. Previous research mainly focuses on the students´ learning outcomes and educational experiences (Thune, 2009) although some benefits of this kind of collaboration are recognized (Assbring and Nuur, 2017). Thus, research on interaction and informing flows between university, students, research and practice needs to be further developed ( Bernhard et al, 2018).

    In a recent study aiming at evaluating a PhD education (third-cycle) and research environment from a WIL perspective several collaboration activities were identified at key stakeholders in university as well as in the industry (Bernhard et al 2018) by adopting an informing science model in order to conduct a current state analysis. The findings implicate e.g. that flows from PhD-student and research environment towards stakeholders were generally strong, while the opposite flows were weaker. This was especially crucial for the flows originating in practice.Thus, the overall aim of this paper is to explore university-industry collaboration and identify possible aspects of societal impact of industrial PhD-student education. The research is conducted as a case study and qualitative methods will be applied.

  • 17.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Inclusive place innovation as a means for local community regeneration2020Ingår i: Diversity, innovation and clusters: spatial perspectives / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Urban Gråsjö and Charlie Karlsson, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2020, s. 57-80Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter contributes knowledge on the challenges of collaboration within local community regeneration in order to identify innovative approaches at work in smaller cities through case studies in Sweden and Norway. Place innovation perspectives are applied to address issues of diversity and inclusiveness in the renewal of a small city centre or district based on cultural heritage. In-depth qualitative interviews in 2016–2018, participatory observations and document studies were conducted. The results reveal stakeholders' views on challenges related to collaborative approaches for place innovation. The complex nature of the two cases is characterized by diverse perspectives, conflicts and attitudes; limited inclusion of stakeholders; lack of digital communication and information as well as face-to-face information, and indistinct place identity. Findings indicate that place innovation requires an integrated approach based on including diverse stakeholder perspectives through common communication spaces, cultivating place identity and applying a step-by-step regeneration.

  • 18.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Stakeholder Collaboration for Place Innovation: Challenges and Visions in Local Regeneration2018Ingår i: Uddevalla Symposium 2018: Diversity, Innovation, Entrepreneurship – Regional, Urban, National and International Perspectives: Revised papers presented at the 21st Uddevalla Symposium, 14–16 June, 2018, Luleå, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2018, s. 127-145Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes its point of departure from urban place innovation studies with focus on stakeholders' interests and involvement in developing local communities in smaller cities. The aim of the present paper is to identify place innovation challenges among local community stakeholders and to discuss approaches to involve stakeholders in local regeneration through case studies in Norway and Sweden.

    In-depth qualitative interviews have been conducted during the years 2016-2018. In total 40 different stakeholders representing local entrepreneurs, non-profit organizations, municipalities, elected officials and residents with particular interests in regeneration of the local communities have been interviewed. Additional participatory observations and document studies were conducted. The results reveal stakeholders' views on challenges and opportunities related to collaborative approaches for place innovation. The complex nature of the two cases is characterized by cultural heritage, authenticity, indistinct place identity, insufficient communication and inclusion together with a mix of nostalgia and resignation. Findings indicate that place innovation requires an integrated approach based on stakeholder collaboration and engagement in order to develop the potential of city centers.

  • 19.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi. Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Women Entrepreneurs' Participation in Local Tourism Networks in Sweden: a Pilot Study2016Ingår i: Uddevalla Symposium 2016: Geography, Open Innovation,Diversity and Entrepreneurship. Revised papers presented at the 19th Uddevalla Symposium, 30 June- 2 July, 2016, London, UK / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2016, s. 257-267Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In tourism contexts entrepreneurship contributes to the ongoing transformation and development of places and regions. In recent decades interest in the importance of women entrepreneurship in the perspective of local and regional development has increased worldwide. The tourism industry is characterized by a high degree of women entrepreneurs in small enterprises, innovation capacity and also a high growth of benefits from networking. The aim of this study is to explore women entrepreneurs' participation in local tourism networks in Sweden. Using a qualitative method approach, this pilot study on women entrepreneurs' participation in local tourism networks explores local support and collaboration in networks with particular reference to a Swedish context. Findings indicate that there is no special focus on or support for women entrepreneurs in any of the three cases. Furthermore there is limited knowledge ofthe local distribution of male and female entrepreneurs. There are contextual characteristics of the Swedish tourism sector that may affect women entrepreneursand their participation in tourism networks.

  • 20.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Hattinger, Monika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Desperately seeking industrial digital strategy: a dynamic capability approach2021Ingår i: International Journal of Information Systems and Change Management, ISSN 1479-3121, E-ISSN 1479-313X, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 345-364Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on managers’ perceptions of organisational capabilities for strategy formulation related to industrial digitalisation. A qualitative case study based on ten interviews in two manufacturing companies explores managers’ perceptions of industrial digitalisation. A dynamic capability framework, consisting of the organisational capabilities sensing, seizing, and transforming opportunities, is applied to recognise and analyse nuances in managers’ interpretation of prevailing organisational capabilities. Findings reveal that the studied companies have a limited maturity concerning knowledge, skills, and resources for industrial digitalisation which is needed in order to formulate a digital strategy. An additional core capability was discerned, i.e., ’seeking’. Seeking includes actions for articulating, appropriating, and involving in the very early phases of understanding and formulating a digital strategy. This article contributes to the existing dynamic capability framework by adding the core capability seeking illustrated in an elaborated and holistic ’dynamic capability loop’. The loop frames industrial digitalisation as a continuous process closely integrated with strategy formulation.  

  • 21.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Eriksson, Kristina
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Taking Responsibility for Industrial Digitalization: Navigating Organizational Challenges2022Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 866-866Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, an employee perspective has been applied in aiming to explore how organizations face challenges and take responsibility for industrial digitalization, thus extending the research on the human-centric perspective in relation to Industry 4.0 technologies. To give emphasis to the human-centric perspective, the co-workership wheel was applied to identify and analyze data. The findings of an explorative longitudinal qualitative case study consisting of 35 in-depth interviews with informants from a manufacturing company were used. Additional data collection consisted of documents and project meetings. By applying a human-centric perspective, llessons learned from this case study show that taking responsibility for industrial digitalization is challenging and the importance of an adaptive organizational culture and a focus on learning and competence are crucial. We argue that the findings give useful implications for manufacturing organizations navigating the challenges of industrial digitalization to sense and seize the benefits of Industry 4.0 technologies.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
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  • 22.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Taking care of Digital initiatives: Managers approaching industrial digitalization2021Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Association for Computer Information Systems: Europe June 24 - 25 2021 - Virtual Conference, 2021, s. 22-24Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Rangraz, Masood
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Managers’ Perceptions of Industrial Digitalization in the Early Phases of a Pandemic: A Qualitative Study2022Ingår i: CEUR Workshop Proceedings: 8th International Workshop on Socio-Technical Perspective in Information Systems Development, STPIS 2022 Reykjavik 19 August 2022 through 20 August 2022 / [ed] Bednar P., Bednar P., Islind A.S., Hult H.V., Hult H.V., Nolte A., Nolte A., Rajanen M., Zaghloul F., Ravarini A., Braccini A.M., CEUR-WS , 2022, Vol. 3239, s. 99-110, artikel-id 183336Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how managers in the manufacturing industry simultaneously accommodated industrial digitalization and the impact of COVID-19. Managers’ views and understanding of industrial digitalization during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic are narrated through the circumstances that came to their proxy during the spring of 2020. The study result is based on qualitative in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted with eight small- and medium-sized manufacturing managers. This study contributes by giving empirically informed implications on manufacturing managers’ perception of industrial digitalization during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings show that industrial digitalization due to the COVID-19 pandemic is viewed differently from previous digitalization processes, causing new ways for managers to perceive how and why digital technologies may be implemented. © 2022 Copyright for this paper by its authors.

  • 24.
    Christiernin, Linn G.
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för datavetenskap och informatik.
    Mankefors-Christiernin, Stefan
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för datavetenskap och informatik. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för teknik, matematik och datavetenskap, Avd för datavetenskap.
    Olsson, A
    Boklund, Andreas
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för datavetenskap och informatik.
    A case study evaluation of RDPM: a process confirmed successfulIngår i: Interacting with computers, ISSN 0953-5438, E-ISSN 1873-7951Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 25.
    de Blanche, Andreas
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för Matematik, Data- och Lantmäteriteknik.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Belenki, Stanislav
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för Matematik, Data- och Lantmäteriteknik.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Hattinger, Monika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Artificial and human aspects of Industry 4.0: an industrial work-integrated-learning research agenda2021Ingår i: VILÄR: 9-10 of December, 2021, University West, Trollhättan, 2021Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry is currently under extreme pressure to transform their organizations and competencies to reap the benefits of industry 4.0. The main driver for industry 4.0 is digitalization with disruptive technologies such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, internet of things, digital platforms, etc. Industrial applications and research studies have shown promising results, but they rarely involve a human-centric perspective. Given this, we argue there is a lack of knowledge on how disruptive technologies take part in human decision-making and learning practices, and to what extent disruptive technologies may support both employees and organizations to “learn”. In recent research the importance and need of including a human-centric perspective in industry 4.0 is raised including a human learning and decision-making approach. Hence, disruptive technologies, by themselves, no longer consider to solve the actual problems.

    Considering the richness of this topic, we propose an industrial work-integrated-learning research agenda to illuminate a human-centric perspective in Industry 4.0. This work-in-progress literature review aims to provide a research agenda on what and how application areas are covered in earlier research. Furthermore, the review identifies obstacles and opportunities that may affect manufacturing to reap the benefits of Industry 4.0. As part of the research, several inter-disciplinary areas are identified, in which industrial work-integrated-learning should be considered to enhance the design, implementation, and use of Industry 4.0 technologies. In conclusion, this study proposes a research agenda aimed at furthering research on how industrial digitalization can approach human and artificial intelligence through industrial work-integrated-learning for a future digitalized manufacturing.

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    VILÄR 2021
  • 26.
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Carlsson, Linnea
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Exploring Socially Sustainable, Smart Manufacturing: Building Bridges Over Troubled Waters2024Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, ISSN 2195-4356, E-ISSN 2195-4364, s. 833-841Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary manufacturing organizations formulate strategies towards smart manufacturing. However, strategies often merely regard technological improvements of working processes and activities and pay limited attention to human-centric perspectives. This study addresses the complex phenomenon of reaching socially sustainable smart manufacturing by exploring the human-centric perspectives in the eras of Industry 4.0 and Industry 5.0. Data were collected through an explorative qualitative case study with focus groups applying the history wall approach to document informants’ choices of activities that impact digitalization. To investigate informants’ interpretations and experiences of digital initiatives and prospects, the history wall approach was coupled with the analytical lens of the co-workership wheel, with its four conceptual pairs: trust and openness, community spirit and cooperation, engagement and meaningfulness, responsibility, and initiative. A total of 17 informants from different organizational levels at a case company participated. Activities, impacting digitalization, brought forward were grouped into technology, organization, and external impact. Results showed that human-centric and intangible perspectives surfaced as prerequisites when navigating industrial digitalization. Further, digital initiatives and prospects risk drowning in re-occurring organizational changes making successful implementation difficult. Thus, organizations cannot rely solely on technology, but must consider activities related to organizational aspects and impacts from the external environment, when introducing digital initiatives. Intrinsically, recognition of the co-workership concept, emphasizing human-centricity, can support the foundation necessary for bridging the gap towards socially sustainable smart manufacturing and strengthening the emerging I5.0 research.

  • 27.
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Carlsson, Linnea
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    To digitalize or not? Navigating and merging human: and technology perspectives in production planning and control2022Ingår i: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary manufacturing companies are navigating industrial digitalization anticipating increased production efciency and competitiveness in a volatile environment. This study focuses on the implementation processes of digital tools for production planning and control (PPC), i.e., advanced planning and scheduling (APS) software, in relation to the application of analog planning with physical fow boards. Digital tools can support understanding the consequences of production changes and variations, hence facilitating adaptable and resilient manufacturing. However, technological changes can be daunting, and efective implementations require dynamic capabilities to remain competitive in elusive environments. The aim is to study the implementation processes of an APS software to understand the requirements of fruitfully moving from analog planning to next-generation digital tools for decision support in PPC. The paper presents an explorative case study, at a manufacturing company within the energy sector. The interview study took place over 9 months during 2020–2021, investigating current and retrospective aspects of the case across 2019–2021. The case study comprises 17 in-depth interviews with a range of company employees, e.g., logistics managers and functions responsible for digitalization development. The results highlight the challenges of implementing and especially trusting digital tools for PPC. To realize the value of digital tools for PPC, it is argued that it is imperative to simultaneously apply a human-centric perspective in decision making to ensure trustworthy, sustainable, and resilient human-data-technology nexus implementations towards smart manufacturing

  • 28.
    Hattinger, Monika
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    de Blanche, Andreas
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för Matematik, Data- och Lantmäteriteknik.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Belenki, Stanislav
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för Matematik, Data- och Lantmäteriteknik.
    Reviewing human-centric themes in intelligent manufacturing research2022Ingår i: International Conference on Work Integrated Learning: Abstract Book, Trollhättan: University West , 2022, s. 125-127Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the era of Industry 4.0, emergent digital technologies generate profound transformations in the industry toward developing intelligent manufacturing. The technologies included in Industry 4.0 are expected to bring new perspectives to the industry on how manufacturing can integrate new solutions to get maximum output with minimum resource utilization (Kamble et al., 2018). Industry 4.0 technologies create a great impact on production systems and processes, however, affect organizational structures and working life conditions by disrupting employees’ everyday practices and knowledge, in which competence and learning, human interaction, and organizational structures are key. Hence, new digital solutions need to be integrated with work and learning to generate more holistic and sustainable businesses (Carlsson et al., 2021).

    The core Industry 4.0 technologies are built on cyber-physical systems (CPS), cloud computing, and the Internet of things (IoT) (Kagermann et al., 2013; Zhou et al., 2018). In recent years, an array of additional technologies has been developed further, such as artificial intelligence (AI), big data analytics, augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR), cyber security, robotics, and automation. Industry 4.0 aims to create a potential for faster delivery times, more efficient and automated processes, higher quality, and customized products (Zheng et al., 2021). Hence, the ongoing transformation through the technological shift of production in combination with market demands pushes the industry and its production process.

    Recent research has substantially contributed to an increased understanding of the technological aspects of Industry 4.0. However, the utilization of technologies is only a part of the complex puzzle making up Industry 4.0 (Kagermann et al., 2013; Zheng et al., 2021). The impact Industry 4.0 technologies and application s have on the industrial context also changes and disrupts existing and traditional work practices (Taylor et al., 2020), management and leadership (Saucedo-Martínez et al., 2018), learning and skills (Tvenge & Martinsen, 2018), and education (Das et al., 2020). This research has shown a growing interest in human-centric aspects of Industry 4.0 (Nahavandi, 2019), i.e., the transformative effects Industry 4.0 has on humans, workplace design, organizational routines, skills, learning, etc. However, these aspects are scarcely considered in-depth. Given this, and from a holistic point of view, there is a need to understand intelligent manufacturing practice from a human-centric perspective, where issues of work practices and learning are integrated, herein refe rred to as industrial work-integrated learning. I-WIL is a research area that particularly pays attention to knowledge production and learning capabilities related to use and development when technology and humans co -exist in industrial work settings (Shahlaei & Lundh Snis, 2022). Even if Industry 4.0 still is relevant for continuous development, a complementary Industry 5.0 has arisen to provide efficiency and productivity as the sole goals to reinforce a sustainable, human-centric, and resilient manufacturing industry (Breque et al., 2021; Nahavandi, 2019).

    Given this situation, the research question addressed here is: How does state-of-the-art research of Industry 4.0 technologies and applications consider human-centric aspects? A systematic literature review was conducted aiming to identify a future research agenda that emphasizes human-centric aspects of intelligent manufacturing, that will contribute to the field of manufacturing research and practices. This question was based on very few systematic literature reviews, considering Industry 4.0 research incorporating human -centric aspects for developing intelligent manufacturing (Kamble et al., 2018; Zheng et al., 2021). The literature review study was structured by the design of Xiao and Watson’s (2019) methodology consisting of the steps 1) Initial corpus creation, 2) Finalizing corpus, and 3) Analyzing corpus, and we also used a bibliometric approach throughout the search process (Glänzel & Schoepflin, 1999). The keyword selection was categorized into three groups of search terms, “industry 4.0”, “manufacturing”, and “artificial intelligence”, see figure 1. (Not included here)

    Articles were collected from the meta -databases EBSCOhost, Scopus, Eric, and the database AIS, to quantify the presence of human-centric or human-involved AI approaches in recent manufacturing research. A total of 999 scientific articles were collected and clustered based on a list of application areas to investigate if there is a difference between various areas in which artificial intelligence is used. The application areas are decision -making, digital twin, flexible automation, platformization, predictive maintenance, predictive quality, process optimization, production planning, and quality assessment.Throughout the review process, only articles that included both AI and human -centric aspects were screened and categorized. The final corpus included 386 articles of which only 93 articles were identified as human -centric. These articles were categorized into three themes: 1) organizational change, 2) competence and learning, and 3) human-automation interaction. Theme 1 articles related mostly to the application areas of flexible automation (11), production planning (9), and predictive maintenance (5). Theme 2 concerned the application areas of production planning and quality assessment (7), and process optimization (7).

    Finally, theme 3 mainly focused on flexible automation (10), digital twin (3), and platformization (3). The rest of the corpus only consisted of one or two articles in related application areas. To conclude, only a few articles were found that reinforce human -centric themes for Industry 4.0 implementations. The literature review identified obstacles and opportu nities that affect manufacturing organizations to reap the benefits of Industry 4.0. Hence, I-WIL is proposed as a research area to inform a new research agenda that captures human and technological integration of Industry 4.0 and to further illuminate human-centric aspects and themes for future sustainable intelligent manufacturing. 

  • 29.
    Högberg, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Framing organizational social media: a longitudinal study of a hotel chain2019Ingår i: Information Technology & Tourism, ISSN 1098-3058, E-ISSN 1943-4294, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 209-236Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of social media in the past decade has transformed the hospitality and tourism industry. There is, however, limited empirical research on how individual employees and groups of employees within organizations make sense of new technology, such as social media, over time. In this paper we focus on the individual and organizational level by exploring how hotel employees and managers make sense of organizational social media over a 4-year period. The perceived usefulness of social media is studied in an organizational setting by applying technological frames as a theoretical framework. The study is a longitudinal case study that includes time both during and after the implementation of social media in an international hotel chain in Europe. A total of 37 in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted at 14 hotels as well as additional observations on site and on social media platforms. The study contributes to existing literature by investigating organizational social media use over time.

  • 30.
    Högberg, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Linking Technological Frames to Social Media Implementation: An International Study of Hotels2018Ingår i: Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2018: Proceedings of the International Conference in Jönköping, Sweden, January 24-26, 2018, Cham: Springer, 2018, s. 270-282Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Social media have transformed the hospitality and tourism industry and affected how customers interact and take decisions, but have also affected organisations’ business strategies and processes. Prior research has shown that a key understanding of IT implementation in organisations is how individuals adopt, use and make sense of technologies. Despite the increased use of social media in hotel organisations there is a research gap and little is known about how individuals’ sense-making affects organisational use over time. The aim of the present study is to contribute to the research field by using Orlikowski and Gash’s (ACM Trans Inf Syst 12(2):174–207, 1994) framework of Technological Frames. The interpretative case study follows social media use in 14 hotel organisations within an international hotel chain in seven European countries over four years. The study finds incongruence and lack of dominant frames and discusses the related organisational implications.

  • 31.
    Högberg, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Making sense of social media implementation: a longitudinal case study of the technological frames of hotel employees2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Social media has become an important part of people’s social life and effect how they communicate, interact and consume online. Social media, has therefore also to a great extent been adopted by organizations in order to be used both for internal and external communication. The purpose of this paper is to study the adoption and implementation of social media in hotel organizations from the employee’s, or user’s perspective by applying the concept of “technological frames” with focus on the nature of technology, technology strategy and technology in use. The paper is designed as a longitudinal, qualitative case study consisting of data collected in seven European countries. In total 28 in-depth interviews have been conducted during 2.5 years. Findings show that the employees’ technological frames to a high extent has been constructed outside the organization during their private usage, or non-usage of social media, and that these frames affect how they use social media in the hotel organizations. The contribution is an insight into how technologies, like social media that is introduced to employees outside the organizational setting, are used during an implementation process within the workplace. Keywords: social media, implementation, adoption, technological frames, social media marketing, usage, perception, hospitality,

  • 32.
    Högberg, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Willermark, Sara
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    In an urban food desert: A study of mobile farmers markets and social entrepreneurship in Washington, DC2019Ingår i: Uddevalla Symposium 2019: Unlocking the Potential of Regions Through Entrepreneurship and Innovation. Revised papers first presented at the 22nd Uddevalla Symposium 27-29 June, 2019, L'Aquila, Italy. / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2019, s. 205-216Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Food deserts, i.e., socially distressed neighborhoods with little access to healthy food, constitute a growing concern in the United States. In this pilot case study, we explore a non-profit organization dedicated to creating a more equitable and sustainable local food system in the Washington, DC area from a social entrepreneurship perspective. In total, six interviews with employees at the non-profit organization were carried out between September 2017 and January 2019. Additionally, quantitative data from sales and education programs has been used as supplementary data sources. The paper contributes to the literature of social entrepreneurship by analyzing how mobile farmers markets are developed and organized through the theoretical lens of social entrepreneurship.

  • 33.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Stakeholder Involvement in City Transformation: Towards a Smart Old Town2020Ingår i: Proceedings of Ongoing Research, Practitioners, Workshops, Posters, and Projects of the International Conference EGOV-CeDEM-ePart 2020 / [ed] Shefali Virkar, Marijn Janssen, Ida Lindgren, Ulf Melin, Francesco Mureddu, Peter Parycek, Efthimios Tambouris, Gerhard Schwabe, Hans Jochen Scholl, 2020, s. 347-350Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing digitalization of society is of increasing importance for city transformation and a driving force for cities to become smart. The aim of this study is to explore stakeholder challenges in becoming a “smart old town” and to contribute with innovative implications based on stakeholder involvement and governance. An interpretative single case study with qualitative interviews was conducted in an old town district in a Norwegian city. The results reveal that in order to transform a city with cultural heritage into a smart city requires efforts that go beyond smart ICT implementations. We argue for collaborative governance based on an open and coordinated involvement of stakeholders. 

  • 34.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    de Blanche, Andreas
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för Matematik, Data- och Lantmäteriteknik.
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Hattinger, Monika
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för produktionssystem (PS).
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Belenki, Stanislav
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för Matematik, Data- och Lantmäteriteknik.
    Artificial and Human Intelligence through Learning: How Industry Applications Need Human-in-the-loop2020Ingår i: VILÄR: 3–4 December 2020 University West,Trollhättan. Abstracts / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2020, s. 24-26Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses work-integrated learning from a workplace learning perspective.Two companies within the manufacturing industry (turbo machinery and aerospace) together with a multi-disciplinary research group explore the opportunities and challenges related to applications of artificial intelligence and human intelligence and how such applications can integrate and support learning at the workplace.The manufacturing industry is currently under extreme pressure to transform their organizations and competencies to reap the benefits of industry 4.0. The main driverf or industry 4.0 is digitalization with disruptive technologies such as artificial intelligence, internet of things, machine learning, cyber-physical systems, digital platforms, etc. Many significant studies have highlighted the importance of human competence and learning in connection to industry 4.0 in general and disruptive technologies and its transformative consequences in particular. What impact have such technologies on employees and their workplace?

    There is a lack of knowledge on how artificial intelligent systems actually take part in practices of human decision making and learning and to what extent disruptive technology may support both employees and organizations to “learn”. The design  and use of three real-world cases of artificial intelligence applications (as instances of industry 4.0 initiatives) will form the basis of how to support human decision making and scale up for strategic action and learning. Following a work-integratedapproach the overall research question has been formulated together with the two industry partners: How can artificial and human intelligence and learning, interact tobring manufacturing companies into Industry 4.0? An action-oriented research approach with in-depth qualitative and quantitative methods will be used in order to make sense and learn about new applications and data set related to a digitalized production.The contribution of this study will be three lessons learned along with a generic model for learning and organizing in the context of industry 4.0 initiatives. Tentative findings concern how artificial and human intelligence can be smartly integrated into the human work organization, i.e. the workplace. Many iterations of integrating the two intelligences are required. We will discuss a preliminary process-model called “Super8”, in which AI systems must allow for providing feedback on progress as well as being able to incorporate high-level human input in the learning process. The   practical implication of the study will be industrialized in the collaborating 

  • 35.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för informatik.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för medier och design.
    Becoming a smart old town: How to manage stakeholder collaboration and cultural heritage2021Ingår i: Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 2044-1266, E-ISSN 2044-1274, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 627-641Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Within the ongoing digitalization of society and dimensions of integration, equality, citizen needs, sustainability and quality of life are of increasing importance as driving forces for cities to become smart. The purpose of this paper is to examine participatory management challenges in becoming a smart old town in the context of cultural heritage. Design/methodology/approach: An explorative approach was applied on a qualitative single case study including in-depth interviews with 21 stakeholders representing local entrepreneurs, nonprofit organizations, the municipality, politicians, tourism organization and residents of an old town district in a Norwegian city. Additionally, participatory observations and document studies were performed. Findings were continuously validated with the respondents. Findings: The present study contributes with stakeholder views on challenges arising from the development of a smart old town and suggests possible innovative solutions for participatory management. The transformation of a city with cultural heritage into a smart city require efforts that go beyond smart ICT implementations into issues of social sustainability. Research limitations/implications: The study brings forward the opportunities that lie in the dynamics of interaction between the spirit of cultural heritage and the body of participatory management. It con-tributes by responding to calls for further research to deepen the insights into stakeholder inclusion in cultural heritage-based city transformation. This explorative study has its limitations as it is based on one qualitative single case. Practical implications: Participatory management insights and recommendations for smart city transformation are provided. Social implications: The study addresses socially sustainable outcomes to create democratic conditions that promote inclusion and community building by understanding what people need and expect from the place where they live and work. Originality/value: This study is positioned as unique in terms of its complex nature of transforming an old town to become a smart old town based on cultural heritage and an open and coordinated inclusion of stakeholders. Smartness in context of city transformation is revealed in many dimensions ranging from technology-driven to more participant-driven. 

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  • 36.
    Mossberg, Lena
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan BI, Norge & Handelshögskolan vid Göteborgs Universitet.
    Björk, Peter
    Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    Therkelsen, Anette
    Aalborg University, Danmark.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Huijbens, Edward
    Icelandic Tourism Research Centre, Island.
    Storytelling: A Means of Creative Destination Development?2010Ingår i: Creative Destinations in a Changing World, Akureyri: Icelandic Tourism Research centre , 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to scrutinize the possibilities and drawbacks of using storytelling as a means of developing and marketing Nordic tourism destinations. On the basis of five selected Nordic cases, the paper sheds light both on the ways in which storytelling is practiced and how stakeholder cooperation unfolds and seeks to determine the prerequisites for using storytelling as part of a destination development strategy.

    Drawing on the literature on storytelling, primarily marketing related contributions, as well as theory on inter-organisational relations, the paper develops a theoretical model which centres on four closely interrelated elements: types of stakeholders involved; stages of the storytelling process; outcome of the storytelling process; and destination development.  The theoretical model serves as a central tool for the subsequent case analyses.

    The five cases consist of rich sets of data: interviews with main stakeholders; collection of industry documents, marketing material and media coverage; observation of stakeholder meetings; and participant observation of storytelling events.

    Preliminary findings suggest that some cases are characterized by individual stories of many qualities in terms of dramaturgical principles and customer involvement, however, an overall story framework is non-existent which makes the storytelling initiative poorly suited as a means of destination development. In other cases a more holistic coordinated story can be identified that ties the individual stories together and on this basis a common identity for the destination seems to materialize. The nature of stakeholder relations helps explain why some storytelling practices have destination development potential whereas others have not.

  • 37.
    Mossberg, Lena
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Therkelsen, Anette
    Tourism Research Unit, Aalborg University, Denmark,.
    Björk, Peter
    Hanken School of Economics, Vaasa, Finland,.
    Huijbens, Edward H.
    Icelandic Tourism Research Centre, Akureyri, Iceland.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Storytelling and destination development2009Ingår i: Tourism and Hospitality: the Nordic Ways, 2009, s. 146-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional packaging models, including transportation, accommodation, dining, and

    activities are fundamental but tend to overlook the fact that today’s offerings or value

    propositions need to create “a total experience” for the customer. Successful organizations

    thus go beyond packaging and instead co-produce attractive offerings to the tourists across

    industries. Studies have shown that a real and fictive story about the destination can give

    the destination a unique competitive advantage and the tourist a more meaningful

    experience. Stories can act as a framework as they communicate the core values in an

    understandable and memorable way. Through the story, the destination or organization can

    create meaning in relation to what they like to communicate. The story becomes a verbal

    and visual metaphor which shows the total offering. A good story needs to have an arena,

    characters, and a structure. Lately a lot of focus is put on the so called literary and film

    induced tourism. Another phenomenon is to develop concepts around traditions like textile,

    cheese, meals, and furniture when actors are marketing the destination together. A key

    success factor in all stories is an unbroken story line. To market a tourism destination on a

    common story implies close contact between all stakeholders, friction free communication,

    and the development of a common story, which later on can be conceptualized and told.

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the potential of storytelling as a tool for destination

    development by exploring five different storytelling cases, one in each Nordic country. In

    particular the study focuses on how storytelling is practiced, how it is organized and if and

    how a specific communication platform can improve storytelling practice in the Nordic

    countries and function as a means of closer stakeholder cooperation and improved tourist

    experiences.

    The data collection includes a combination of different methods: interviews with the main

    stakeholders related to all five cases, collection of existing documents related to the five

    cases, observation of stakeholder meetings, and participant observation of storytelling events.

    The project is ongoing but so far we have interviewed key stakeholders in each destination

    case and gained their insights into how to develop and communicate stories. The next step is

    to experiment with the common communication platform in each of the destinations in the

    Nordic countries.

  • 38.
    Näverå, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Studiestöd, bibliotek och pedagogisk utveckling, Avdelningen för bibliotek, forskarstöd och språkhandledning (BIFS).
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Library-faculty collaboration in the light of a business administration bachelor’s program: ‘The Scientific Wave’2022Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Information Literacy in Higher Education, E-ISSN 1890-5900, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 39-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In contemporary digital society, information literacy is increasingly important and viewed as a necessary life skill for all ages, social groups, and professional sectors, hence also affecting higher education. Universities need to develop strategies and approaches to integrate these skills into course syllabi, assignments and assessments based on close library-faculty collaboration. However, librarians and faculty members in higher education traditionally often have separate agendas and limited collaboration. This paper illustrates the background and process of constructing a successful librarian-faculty partnership, as a shared framework entitled the ‘Scientific Wave’ throughout a bachelor’s program in business administration to enhance students’ critical thinking, research skills and information literacy in particular. A case study approach was applied, and data collection was conducted during 2014–2019. The outcomes of a shared framework and library-faculty collaboration are discussed from the perspectives of students, library, and faculty. Findings show that a shared framework based on close collaboration between librarians and faculty, strategic anchoring and visualization in curricula, syllabi, course objectives and assessments developed in line with the mission of the university have an impact on students’ information literacy skills during their education and after graduation. The Scientific Wave is a co-designed continuous framework based on the separate but complementary skills of librarians and faculty to provide students with tools for critical and creative thinking, research skills and lifelong learning in today’s digital society.

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  • 39.
    Näverå, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Högskolan Västs bibliotek.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    The Active Learning Classroom Experience: A Passion for Collaboration in Higher Education2020Ingår i: INTED2020 Proceedings: 14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference. Valencia, Spain. 2-4 March, 2020 / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, Valencia: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2020, s. 3512-3521Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Large class sizes in lecture halls or traditional amphitheaters with fixed seating in rows is the everyday life of many students and teachers in higher education. The physical learning environments, learning landscape, thus includes several dimensions besides classrooms, such as buildings, campus, and the surrounding society (Nordquist & Laing, 2015). Furthermore, students often have access to digital learning platforms/ virtual classrooms, where students and teachers for a specific course can communicate with each other and exchange information, documents and media. Many courses combine physical and virtual classrooms and adjust learning strategies to cope with large class sizes and traditional lecture halls.

    However, there are emerging new classroom designs and learning strategies to support classroom interaction, active learning or collaborative learning often combined with elements of blended learning or flipped classroom. Active learning strategies are based on the idea that students are involved in more than listening (Prince 2004) supporting inclusion and group discussions, sharing thoughts and analyzing rather than memorizing. The design of active learning classrooms (ALCs) often includes tables with moveable seating, whiteboards, sufficient power outlets and screens to promote sharing and collaborative problem solving (Baepler et al., 2014; Hyun et al., 2017; Rands & Gansmer-Topf, 2017).

    The aim of this paper is to explore the implementation and use of ALCs in higher education to identify the experiences of students, faculty, library and university. A case study methodology approach is applied and focused on library-faculty co-designed media and information literacy sessions in ALCs in a bachelor’s programme in business administration at University West, Sweden. Qualitative methods will be applied. Skills in collaborative learning and media and information literacy are of importance in professional life and affect students’ lifelong learning, hence in this paper viewed as applications of the work-integrated learning, WIL, approach of University West where teachers and librarians interact in the new generation classroom.

  • 40.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    A tourist attraction's members: Their motivations, relations and roles2010Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 411-429Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Active participating consumers are present as members at tourist attractions. This explorative case study aims to deepen the understanding of the consumer's perspective of active membership by focusing on member motivations, relations, and roles at a tourist attraction. A marketing approach is applied that originated in the mutual relational benefits of memberships. Findings indicate that individual multiple member motivations and relations are reflected as different membership roles. Active committed members fill in the roles of supporters and advocates promoting the attraction as well as co-producers performing volunteer work in the interface between visitors, fellow members and paid staff. Active members are present as one vital element in the tourist attraction system. It is of importance to academics and managers in the competitive tourism industry to understand not only what motivates consumers to become active members/volunteers but also what keeps them volunteering. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

  • 41.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Canals, Rivers and Lakes as Experiencescapes: Destination Development Based on Strategic Use of Inland Water2016Ingår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 217-243Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies show that there is an increasing interest in exploration and (re)development of waterways sites with surrounding areas used for leisure, recreation and tourism. The aim of this study is to explore selected Nordic destinations with focus on the strategic use of inland water areas as experiencescapes to promote destination development. Competition among destinations has escalated, hence also the need for well- coordinated tourism offerings. As shown in many studies various stakeholders from private, public and voluntary sectors often interact at destinations. Earlier tourism studies show that coordination of networks is crucial since successful destinations are based on interrelated stakeholders that understand the concept of the destination and are committed to cooperate in offering a holistic experience to visitors. The data collection includes a combination of different methods: observations, interviews with destination stakeholders, and collection of documents related to the selected destinations and regions. Findings show a varied mix of elements and dimensions related to physical, social and sensory settings in the studied experiencescapes. Thevariety in applied approaches for co-ordination of offerings, collaboration and management of destination stakeholders in inland water areas is discussed.

  • 42.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Destination development through storytelling focused on maritime culture 2013Ingår i: Nordic Tourism 2013. Book of Proceedings: “Innovation and value creation in experience‐based tourism” / [ed] Frank Lindberg, 2013, s. 28-28Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract for the 22nd Nordic Symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research: Innovation and value creation in experience-based tourism

    Destination development through storytelling focused on maritime culture

    Anna Karin Olsson

    University West

     

     

    Within recent years, competition among destinations has escalated hence also the need for well-coordinated tourism offerings. Calls have been made for innovative offerings that are coordinated to contribute to overall destination development (Morgan, Pritchard & Piggott, 2003). At many destinations a large number of various stakeholders from private, public and voluntary sectors interact (see Garrod, Fyall, Leask, & Reid, 2012; Getz, et al., 2007). These stakeholders are often involved in different networks accordingly there is a need of coordination of the offerings of destinations. Earlier tourism studies furthermore show that networks are crucial since successful destinations are based on interrelated stakeholders that understand the concept of the destination and are committed to cooperate in offering a holistic experience to visitors (see Bornhorst, Ritchie & Sheehan, 2010; Morgan, Elbe, & Curiel, 2009; Swarbrooke, 2001).

    Storytelling has gained attention as an innovative means of competitive destination marketing as stories can give emphasis to the unique aspects of a place or a destination which often are difficult to replicate by others (Mossberg & Johansen 2006; Mossberg, et al. 2010; Olsson, Therkelsen & Mossberg, 2013). The storytelling concept is applied in business studies related e.g. business culture, personnel, management, consumers, brands, and advertisements (Mossberg & Johansen, 2006). This paper however focus on storytelling linked to marketing concepts of a destination i.e. destination based storytelling. Authentic events or characters though also fictive characters are the main ingredients of story-based marketing concepts e.g. Arn’s footsteps (Mattsson & Praesto, 2005), Astrid Lindgren’s World (Eide, 2011) and the Medieval Week on Gotland (Gustafsson, 2002; Sandström, 2005). Storytelling may offer unique competitive advantages and the opportunity to create storyscapes (Chronis, 2005, p. 389) and offerings as memorable extraordinary experiences (Mossberg, 2008) that stimulate the senses of visitors e.g. involving seeing, hearing, smelling, and tasting. Furthermore storytelling may also create conditions for co-operation among destination stakeholders. In this study storytelling is viewed as strategic experiential approach for destination marketing. This approach may unite networks and stakeholder cooperation hence acts as a strategic compass that directs internal and external destination development (Fog, Budtz, Munch & Blanchette, 2010).

    Today there is an increasing interest for exploring and /re/development of waterways sites with surrounding areas used for leisure, recreation and tourism. Many destinations encourage development of waterfront festivals and events as well as other activities both water-based and land-based (Erfurt-Cooper, 2009).

    The aim of this paper is to provide an explorative case study of destination based storytelling here limited to maritime culture and more specifically the strategic use of storytelling and stakeholder co-operation around canals, inland waterways and coasts within a Nordic context.

    The data collection includes a combination of different methods: interviews with main stakeholders, collection of existing documents related to the selected regions, and observations of storytelling events.

    The study is ongoing but so far a few stakeholders are interviewed and their insights in how to cooperate in order to develop destinations by means of storytelling are gained. Potential findings point out the importance of strategic co-ordination of offerings and various involvement and management of stakeholders in destination-based storytelling.

  • 43.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Destination Development with Focus on Strategic Use of Inland Water Areas as Experiencescapes2015Ingår i: A Nordic Perspective on Co‐Operation for Sustainable Destination and Regional Development / [ed] Iréne Bernhard & Anna Karin Olsson, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, s. 10-31Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing interest in exploration and (re)development of waterways sites with surrounding areas used for leisure, recreation and tourism. The aim of this study is to explore selected Nordic destinations with focus on the strategic use of inland water areas as ‘experiencescapes’ to promote destination development.Competition among destinations has escalated, hence also the need for well-coordinated tourism offerings. At many destinations a large number of various stakeholders from private, public and voluntary sectors interact. Earlier tourism studies show that coordination of networks is crucial since successful destinations are based on interrelated stakeholders that understand the concept of the destination and are committed to cooperate in offering a holistic experience to visitors. The data collection includes a combination of different methods: observations, interviews with destination stakeholders, and collection of documents related to the selected destinations and regions. Findings show a varied mix of elements and dimensions in the studied ‘experiencescapes’. The variety in applied approaches for co-ordination of offerings, collaboration and management of destination stakeholders in inland water areas is discussed. 

  • 44.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Destination Development with Focus on Strategic Use of Inland Water Areas as Experiencescapes2014Ingår i: Uddevalla Symposium 2014. Geography of Growth. The Frequency, Nature and Consequences of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Regions of Varying Density: Revised papers presented at the 17th Uddevalla Symposium 12-14 June, 2014, Uddevalla, Sweden / [ed] Bernhard Irené, Trollhättan: University West , 2014, s. 651-675Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing interest in exploration and (re)development of waterways sites with surrounding areas used for leisure, recreation and tourism. The aim of this study is to explore selected Nordic destinations with focus on the strategic use of inland water areas as ‘experiencescapes’ to promote destination development. Competition among destinations has escalated, hence also the need for well-coordinated tourism offerings. At many destinations a large number of various stakeholders from private, public and voluntary sectors interact. Earlier tourism studies show that coordination of networks is crucial since successful destinations are based on interrelated stakeholders that understand the concept of the destination and are committed to cooperate in offering a holistic experience to visitors. The data collection includes a combination of different methods: observations, interviews with destination stakeholders, and collection of documents related to the selected destinations and regions. Findings show a varied mix of elements and dimensions in the studied ‘experiencescapes’. The variety in applied approaches for co-ordination of offerings, collaboration and management of destination stakeholders in inland water areas is discussed.

  • 45.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och informatik. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Exploring Nordic ways of tourism cooperation around canals, rivers and in‐land water areas2014Ingår i: The 23r d Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality: THE VALUES OF TOURISM    / [ed] Budeanu Adriana, Möckel Marie, Gyimóthy Szilvia, 2014, s. 45-46Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing interest for exploring and /re/development of water and waterways sites with surrounding areas used for leisure, recreation and tourism (see e.g. Erfurt-Cooper, 2009; Jennings, 2007). Water has always had great impact on human life and the development of cities and regions. Marine (ocean) and coastal tourism is a very fast growing area within contemporary tourism (Hall, 2001) hence there is also an increasing interest for inland water areas such as lakes, rivers and canals as valuable resources for destination development (Hall and Härkönen, 2006; Prideaux, Timothy and Cooper, 2009). Lakes, rivers, canals and other water areas are used as vital key elements in destination marketing (Hall and Härkönen, 2006). Many destinations encourage development of waterfront festivals and events as well as other activities both water-based and land-based (Erfurt-Cooper, 2009).

     Competition among destinations has increased and so has the need for well-coordinated tourism offerings. Calls have been made for tourism offerings that contribute to overall destination development (Morgan, Pritchard and Piggott, 2003). At many destinations and events cooperation and creation of value is based on cooperation and the ability to organizing between organizations since a large number of various stakeholders from private, public and voluntary sectors often interact (see e.g. Garrod, Fyall, Leask and Reid, 2012; Getz, Andersson and Larson, 2007). Earlier tourism studies show that coordination of networks are crucial since successful destinations are based on interrelated stakeholders that understand the concept of the destination and are committed to cooperate by knotting together the different offerings into holistic experience to visitors and local residents (see Bornhorst, Ritchie and Sheehan, 2010; Morgan, Elbe and Curiel, 2009; Swarbrooke, 2001). Water and waterway sites may hence be of value in developing destinations and destination marketing although water may also act as divides based on geographical, political or cultural boundaries. Despite the increasing interest there is limited tourism research on canals, rivers and in-land water areas (see e.g. Hall and Härkönen, 2006; Prideaux et al. 2009; Tang and Jang, 2010).

    The present study reports on work in progress. The aim is to provide an explorative Nordic study on tourism cooperation and destination development around canals, rivers and in-land water areas. The paper is based on selected Nordic cases and focus on identifying stakeholders and networks that are involved in cooperation and creation of tourism offerings.  Their ways of cooperation, views of cooperation and challenges faced are studied.

     This study takes its point of departure in a marketing approach. A combination of existing theories and research on tourism experiences, stakeholder theory and destination development and marketing is applied.

    The data collection includes a combination of different methods: interviews with main stakeholders, collection of existing documents related to the selected regions, and observations.

    The study is ongoing but so far several stakeholders are interviewed and their insights are gained. Potential findings point out the importance and value of co-ordination of tourism offerings and creation of lasting networks although also obstacles to involvement and management of destination stakeholders with mixed visions for preservation of cultural heritage versus exploration and creation of water-based tourism experiences (c.f. Conzen and Wulfestieg, 2001; Donohoe, 2012, Tang and Jang, 2010, Vanhove, 2002).

     

     

  • 46.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Members as Participating Supporters and Front Line Co-Creators: Spatial Aspects of Member Interactions in Tourism Settings2009Ingår i: Uddevalla Symposium 2009 The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2009, s. 861-876Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many customers of today are members in a variety of membership progammes. In the tourism and hospitality industry membership programmes are of increasing importance as competitive marketing tools. Memberships have been applied in different ways in tourism settings since the 1970s. Gradually memberships have developed from merely rewarding loyal or frequent customers into building long-term relationships generating mutual value. In this study member interaction is approached from a relationship marketing perspective focusing on member interaction as participation, co-creation, and, retention related to spatial aspects. The purpose is to study different kinds of member interaction and furthermore to discuss possible relationships between interaction and distance i.e. the distance between members´ homes and the supported attraction. A survey of 755 members was conducted at a major tourist attraction. Results show that member interactions as support, number of visits, use of information channels, member recruitment, performing volunteer work and appreciation of member work show significant differences due to how far away members live. Further studies of the individual members are needed to find ways of developing memberships as strategic resources and especially member interactions as important innovative elements in performance and competition in tourism settings.

  • 47.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Members in Tourism Settings: their Motivations, Behaviours and Roles2013Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 82-83Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 48.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Members in Tourism Settings: their motivations, behaviours and roles2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Membership programs are widely-used marketing tools. Many customers belong to a number of different membership programs across a variety of organizations and contexts. Memberships are based on the idea of mutual benefits of a relationship. Memberships in general offer tangible and intangible benefits such as free admission, discounts, special offers or access to special services, and a sense of belonging and identity. General organizational benefits of memberships besides customers are funding, fee revenue, legitimacy, and various kinds of member support. Memberships are used as competitive relationship marketing tools to retain customers, build relationships and encourage member participation. Many memberships have developed from merely being reward programs into an attempt to create emotional bonds based on calculative and affective commitment. Research into memberships is an emergent multidisciplinary field of interest for practitioners and scholars representing different disciplines. This thesis is delimited to study members and memberships at nonprofit organizations within tourism settings from a relationship marketing perspective. The aim is to get insight into why individuals choose to become members, why they stay on as members, and how members interact and use their memberships. The overall objective is therefore to explore motivations related to memberships and how this is reflected in different member behaviours and member roles within tourism settings. Throughout this thesis a mixed-method research approach was applied combining qualitative and quantitative research to explore the membership phenomenon. This thesis is comprised of four studies based on data from an explorative pre-study (12 respondents), a questionnaire survey (755 respondents), and a Nordic cross-case study (37 respondents). Findings showed member motivations, behaviours and roles within the tourism system. Member motivations were identified as altruistic (doing good for others), self-interest (doing good for yourself) and social (doing good with others). Findings further showed member interactions with other members (M2M), customers/visitors (M2C) and supported organizations (M2B). Member behaviours found were: returning (retention); supporting, visiting, using member information (participation); marketing, spreading WOM and recruiting new members; and volunteering (co-creation). Furthermore, significant relations were found between motivational dimensions, behaviours and member demographics (age, gender, and distance). Members performed multiple overlapping roles from being supporters and visitors to front-line co-creators

  • 49.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Spatial aspects of member retention, participation and co-creation in tourism settings2012Ingår i: International Journal of Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Marketing, ISSN 1465-4520, E-ISSN 1479-103X, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 231-247Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many customers today belong to a number of different membership programs. Memberships have been applied in different ways in tourism settings since the 1970s. Gradually memberships have developed from merely rewarding loyal or frequent customers into building long-term relationships generating mutual value. Membership programs are of increasing importance as competitive marketing tools. Membership bases are often geographically dispersed as membership organizations attract members living in various locations. This study focuses on member behaviours as interactions within a membership relationship. The influence of distance on member behaviours such as retention, participation, and co-creation is studied. A survey of 755 members was conducted at a major Swedish nonprofit tourist attraction. Findings indicate that member behaviours such as supporting, visiting, use of member information channels, recruiting new members, performing volunteer work, sense of doing something good, and to get appreciation of member work show significant differences depending on how far away members live. Further studies of members are needed to find ways of developing memberships as strategic resources and especially member interactions as important innovative elements in performance and competition in tourism settings.

  • 50.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ekonomi och it, Avd för företagsekonomi.
    Tourist attractions have members-why?2008Ingår i: "Developing tourism attraction in nature and cultural landscape", 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourist attractions have members – why?

     

    Active participating consumers are present as members at tourist attractions. This explorative study aims to deepen the understanding of the consumer’s perspective of membership by focusing on member roles, member motivations and member behaviours in a non profit context. A relationship marketing approach is applied originated in the mutual benefits of membership. Findings indicate that member roles and member motivations are reflected as different membership behaviours. Active committed members fill in the roles of supporters and advocates promoting the attraction as well as performing volunteer work as co-production in the interface between visitors, fellow members and paid staff. Active members are present as one vital frontline ingredient interacting and surrounding the services or experiences offered at the tourist attraction. It is of importance to academics and managers in the highly competitive tourism industry to understand not only what motivates people to become active members/volunteers but also what keeps them volunteering.

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