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  • 1.
    Adli, Erik
    et al.
    University of Oslo, Oslo (NOR).
    Gjersdal, Håvard
    University of Oslo, Oslo (NOR).
    Sjøbæk, Kyrre N.
    University of Oslo, Oslo (NOR).
    Christoforo, Grey
    University of Oslo, Oslo (NOR).
    Fackelman, Eric D.
    University of Oslo, Oslo (NOR).
    Røhne, Ole M.
    University of Oslo, Oslo (NOR).
    Ringnes, Jonas S.
    University of Oslo, Oslo (NOR).
    Solbak, Simen R.
    University of Oslo, Oslo (NOR).
    Lithun, Maren C.
    University of Oslo, Oslo (NOR).
    Thomas, Cyrille
    ESS ERIC, Lund (SWE).
    Levinsen, Yngve
    ESS ERIC, Lund (SWE).
    Rosengren, Kaj
    ESS ERIC, Lund (SWE).
    Shea, Thomas
    ESS ERIC, Lund (SWE).
    Bell, Gerard
    STFC (GBR).
    Ibison, Mark
    University of Liverpool and Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury (GBR).
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Progress Of The Ess Proton Beam Imaging Systems2022In: LINAC2022, ACoW Publishing , 2022, p. 395-398Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ESS Target Proton Beam Imaging Systems has the objective to image the 5 MW ESS proton beam as it entersthe spallation target. The imaging systems has to operate in a harsh radiation environment, leading to a number of challenges : development of radiation hard photon sources, long and aperture-restricted optical paths and fast electronics required to provide rapid information in case of beam anomalies. This paper outlines how main challenges of the imaging systems have been addressed, and the status of deployment as ESS gets closer to beam.

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  • 2.
    Baiamonte, Lidia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. LIMS, INSTM Reference Laboratory for Engineering of Surface reatments, Department of Chemical Engineering Materials Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, ITA.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Mulone, Antonio
    Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.
    Klement, Uta
    Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Carbide-laden coatings deposited using a hand-held high-velocity air-fuel (HVAF) spray gun2021In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 406, article id 126725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driven by sustainability and cost considerations, there is growing interest in power generation utilizing renewable sources, especially biomass and waste. While premature degradation of power plant components due to corrosion is well-known, erosion can be a dominant damage mechanism in plants that use “pure” biomass with less corrosive elements like Cl, K, etc. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) parts are prone to erosion-driven damage and demand periodic re-protection or replacement. In response to the above, this preliminary study evaluates a selection of complex carbide-based coatings to enhance protection against erosion to prolong service life of boiler components. Recognizing on-site coating requirements of real boiler applications, a specific focus is on evaluating performance of a hand-held high-velocity air-fuel (HVAF) spray gun and compare it with the current state-of-the-art high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) deposition. Coatings developed by the above routes have been characterized with microstructural analyses, and their performance evaluated and ranked in an air-jet erosion rig at various impact angles.

  • 3.
    Bellippady, Madhura
    et al.
    University West.
    Florent, Manon
    University West.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Li, Xin Hai
    mens Energy AB, Finspang (SWE).
    Robert, Frykholm
    Hoganas AB, Hoganas (SWE).
    Kjellman, Björn
    GKN Aerospace AB, Trollhattan (SWE).
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Characteristics and performance of suspension plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings on additively manufactured superalloy substrates2023In: Surface and Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, Vol. 472, article id 129926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complex-shaped hot-section parts of new-generation turbine engines demand unique design solutions. Additive Manufacturing (AM) is an emergent production method that can produce metallic parts with complex geometries and minimal material wastage. In this work, the characteristics and performance behavior of Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) deposited on forged and AM-built HAYNES®282® superalloy substrates were studied and compared. The bond coats were produced by High-Velocity Air-Fuel (HVAF) spraying using NiCoCrAlY powder feedstock and TBC top-coats by Suspension Plasma Spraying (SPS) using water- and ethanol-based suspensions of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ). The microstructural features, adhesion, Thermal Cycling Fatigue (TCF) lifetime, and thermal shock lifetimes of the TBCs were comprehensively investigated. The results showed that the deposition of bond coats reduced the roughness and asperities of the AM-built substrates. Depending on the type of suspension used and the spray parameters employed, the TBCs exhibited vertically cracked and columnar microstructures. However, no significant differences in TCF and thermal shock lifetimes of TBCs on AM and forged substrates were observed. It is demonstrated that TBC systems can be produced on AM-built metallic substrates, and the resulting TBCs can have similar microstructures and properties as TBCs deposited on conventional substrates.

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  • 4.
    Bellippady, Madhura
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of mechanical engineering.
    Parmar, Shivang Dinesh
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Process Parameter Impact on Axial Plasma Sprayed Ytterbium Disilicate Coatings for Environment Barrier Coating Applications2024In: Sustainable Production through Advanced Manufacturing, Intelligent Automation and Work Integrated Learning: Proceedings of the 11th Swedish Production Symposium (SPS2024) / [ed] Joel Andersson, Shrikant Joshi, Lennart Malmsköld, Fabian Hanning, IOS Press , 2024, p. 101-110Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In future generation aviation, light weight, and thermally stable SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are considered the most promising structural materials to replace traditionally used Ni-based superalloys. However, in the presence of steam (a common combustion reaction product) and corrosive species (from ingestion of debris along with the intake air during take-off and landing), accelerated degradation of CMCs compromising its structural integrity is inevitable. Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBCs) are protective ceramic coatings consisting of rare earth (RE) silicates as a topcoat with silicon as a bond coat, and are widely used on CMCs, to impede their surface recession.

    Thermal spray techniques are commonly employed to deposit EBCs, with highly crystalline, dense, and crack free coatings being desired for robust performance. In general, the high particle velocity and efficient energy transfer in axial feeding systems can result in coatings with higher density, reduced oxide content, and improved mechanical properties. In the present study, axial plasma sprayed ytterbium disilicate (YbDS) coatings deposited on silicon carbide (SiC) substrates using varying plasma spray parameters have been comprehensively characterized. Microstructure, porosity, and hardness have been studied for YbDS coatings deposited by varying nozzle diameter, carrier gas flow rate and stand of distance (SOD) during plasma spraying. Erosion and thermal cyclic fatigue performance of these coatings has also been investigated. 

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  • 5.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Förbättrad lönsamhet för biogasanläggningar genom beläggning av knivar2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Björklund, Stefan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Goel, Sneha
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Function-dependent coating architectures by hybrid powder-suspension plasma spraying: Injector design, processing and concept validation2018In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 142, p. 56-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The attractive properties achieved by Suspension Plasma Spraying (SPS), combined with the availability of high throughput capable plasma spray systems that permit axial feeding, provide encouragement to explore use of suspensions for next generation functional applications. This paper deals with realization of coatings with various pre-determined function-dependent architectures by employing a hybrid powder-suspension feedstock. Some illustrative application-relevant coating architecture designs are discussed, along with the specific benefits that can accrue by deploying a multi-scale powder-suspension feedstock combination. An elegant feedstock delivery arrangement to enable either simultaneous or sequential feeding of powders and suspensions to enable convenient processing of coatings with desired architectures is presented. As proof-of-concept, deposition of layered, composite and functionally graded coatings using the above system is also demonstrated using appropriate case studies

  • 7.
    Choquet, Isabelle
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Johansson, J.
    Wigren, J.
    New powder port holder geometry to avoid lump formation in APS2005In: 17th international symposium on plasma chemistry (ISPC 17) :: Toronto, Canada, August 7th – 12th, 2005, 2005, p. OP7. 1-6Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new geometry of the powder port ring holder used in atmospheric plasma spraying has recently been designed to avoid lump formation, and successfully tested for a set of process parameters associated with Ni-5Al powder used in production to form bond coat [1]. But with ZrO 2 powder used to made top coat, improvements were not enough satisfactory. Here, we investigate numerically the cause of the remaining defects, and further improve the ring geometry to prevent lump from forming in any part of the coating.

  • 8.
    Choquet, Isabelle
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhättan.
    Wigren, Jan
    Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhättan.
    Clogging and lump formation during atmospheric plasma spraying with powder injection downstream the plasma gun2007In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 512-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to numerically and experimentally investigate lump formation during atmospheric plasma spraying with powder injection downstream the plasma gun exit. A first set of investigations was focused on the location and orientation of the powder port injector. It turned out impossible to keep the coating quality while avoiding lumps by simply moving the powder injector. A new geometry of the powder port ring holder was designed and optimized to prevent nozzle clogging, and lump formation using a gas screen. This solution was successfully tested for applications with Ni-5wt.%Al and ZrO2-7wt.%Y2O3 powders used in production. The possible secondary effect of plasma jet shrouding by the gas screen, and its consequence on powder particles prior to impact was also studied.

  • 9.
    Curry, Nicholas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes. Treibacher Industrie AG, Althofen 9330, Austria.
    VanEvery, Kent
    Progressive Surface, Grand Rapids, MI 49512, USA.
    Snyder, Todd
    Progressive Surface, Grand Rapids, MI 49512, USA.
    Susnjar, Johann
    Treibacher Industrie AG, Althofen 9330, Austria.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Performance Testing of Suspension Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings Produced with Varied Suspension Parameters2015In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 338-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suspension plasma spraying has become an emerging technology for the production of thermal barrier coatings for the gas turbine industry. Presently, though commercial systems for coating production are available, coatings remain in the development stage. Suitable suspension parameters for coating production remain an outstanding question and the influence of suspension properties on the final coatings is not well known. For this study, a number of suspensions were produced with varied solid loadings, powder size distributions and solvents. Suspensions were sprayed onto superalloy substrates coated with high velocity air fuel (HVAF) -sprayed bond coats. Plasma spray parameters were selected to generate columnar structures based on previous experiments and were maintained at constant to discover the influence of the suspension behavior on coating microstructures. Testing of the produced thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems has included thermal cyclic fatigue testing and thermal conductivity analysis. Pore size distribution has been characterized by mercury infiltration porosimetry. Results show a strong influence of suspension viscosity and surface tension on the microstructure of the produced coatings.

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  • 10.
    Ekberg, Johanna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology,Göteborg, Sweden.
    Klement, Uta
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology,Göteborg, Sweden.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Analysis of single splats produced by axial suspension plasma spraying2018In: Surface Engineering, ISSN 0267-0844, E-ISSN 1743-2944, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 407-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Axial suspension plasma spraying (ASPS) is a relatively new, innovative technique with which microstructures have been produced that are similar to the ones produced by electron beam physical vapor deposition. They have a columnar structure and consist of nm- and µm-sized pores. However, so far the formation of the microstructure is not fully understood because fragmentation and vaporisation of the liquid significantly affects the deposition process. Analysis of single splats can provide important information on the phenomena controlling the coating formation process and the final coating properties. Therefore, the present study aims at providing first results of 8 wt-% yttria-stabilised zirconia single splats sprayed onto a steel substrate by use of ASPS. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have been used to characterise the splats with respect to appearance, shape, and size distribution. © 2017 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining Published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the Institute

  • 11.
    Fefekos, Alexandros G.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Gupta, Mohit Kumar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Mahade, Satyapal
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. GKN Aerospace Sweden AB, Trollhättan (SWE).
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Effect of spray angle and substrate material on formation mechanisms and properties of HVAF sprayed coatings2023In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 452, article id 129115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermally sprayed coatings are often used to enhance the surface properties (wear resistance, corrosion resistance, etc.) of engineering components in order to extend their performance and service lifetime. Typically, the industrial components to be coated possess complex geometries and are fabricated using different materials, which can influence the deposited coating’s microstructure and performance. High-velocity air fuel (HVAF) process is a relatively new thermal spray processing technique that has shown tremendous potential to deposit high performance coatings for durable industrial components. However, no detailed studies have been reported on HVAF sprayed coating formation mechanisms so far in relation to the spray angle and substrate properties, and the influence of coating material on the above. The objective of this work was to study the influence of spray angles and substrate materials on splat characteristics, coating microstructure evolution, properties and performance for two distinct coating materials. In this study, one cermet (WC-CoCr) and one metallic (Inconel 625) feedstock were deposited onto three different substrates (aluminium alloy, carbon steel and Hastelloy-X) utilising different spray angles (40°, 60° and 90°). The coating evolution was analysed utilising SEM/EDS, image analysis, and micro-indentation. To determine the tribological performance, coatings were subjected to dry sliding wear test utilising alumina ball as counter surface and specific wear rates were obtained. The results showed that initial splat characteristics were substantially altered on changing the substrate and the spray angle. However, the final coating properties were not affected significantly even though the deposition rate was reduced significantly at lower spray angle, suggesting the versatility of the HVAF process. 

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  • 12.
    Frodelius, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics.
    Sonestedt, Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Department of Applied Physics.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Palmquist, Jens-Petter
    Kanthal AB, 734 27 Hallstahammar, Sweden.
    Stiller, Krystyna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Department of Applied Physics.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics.
    Ti2AlC coatings deposited by High Velocity Oxy-Fuel spraying2008In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 202, no 24, p. 5976-5981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High Velocity Oxy-Fuel has been utilized to spray coatings from Ti2AlC (MAXTHAL 211®) powders. X-ray diffraction showed that the coatings consist predominantly of Ti2AlC with inclusions of the phases Ti3AlC2, TiC, and Al–Ti alloys. The fraction of Ti2AlC in coatings sprayed with a powder size of 38 μm was found to increase with decreasing power of the spraying flame as controlled by the total gas flow of H2 and O2. A more coarse powder (56 μm) is less sensitive to the total gas flow and retains higher volume fraction of MAX-phase in the coatings, however, at the expense of increasing porosity. X-ray pole figure measurements showed a preferred crystal orientation in the coatings with the Ti2AlC (000l) planes aligned to the substrate surface. Bending tests show a good adhesion to stainless steel substrates and indentation yields a hardness of 3–5 GPa for the coatings sprayed with a powder size of 38 μm.

  • 13.
    Frost, R. J. W.
    et al.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (SWE); Department of Physics, Lund University, Lund (SWE).
    Thomas, C. A.
    Accelerator Division, European Spalation Source (ESS), Lund (SWE).
    Elfman, M.
    Department of Physics, Lund University, Lund (SWE).
    Johansson, R.
    Accelerator Division, European Spalation Source (ESS), Lund (SWE).
    Hartl, M.
    Accelerator Division, European Spalation Source (ESS), Lund (SWE).
    Kocevar, H.
    Accelerator Division, European Spalation Source (ESS), Lund (SWE).
    Michel, K.
    Accelerator Division, European Spalation Source (ESS), Lund (SWE).
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Preliminary results from a study of luminescent materials: For application in the beam imaging system at the ESS2023In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 540, p. 227-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of the development of the beam imaging system at the European Spallation Source, luminescent screens have been fabricated by the flame spraying of scintillating materials onto stainless steel backings. A total of seven screens were produced, three of chromia alumina (Al2O3:Cr), two of YAG (Y3Al5O12:Ce) and two of a 50/50 mix of these. The properties of these screens under proton irradiation were evaluated using a2.55 MeV proton beam at currents of up to 10 μA. Irradiation times were up to 25 h per sample, during which luminescence-, spectrographic-, thermal- and current-data was sampled at a rate of 1 Hz. Preliminary results of these measurements are reported here; with a quantitative analysis presented for one of the chromia alumina screens and a qualitative comparison of all three material types. The luminescent yield for chromia alumina was determined to be around 2000 photons/MeV for a virgin screen, and was found to drop to 1.5% after 167 mC of proton irradiation. A recovery of the luminescence of chromia alumina to >60% was observed after beam current was reduced for an 8 h period. Observations indicate that the YAG and mixed composition screens retain higher luminescence than the chromia alumina even at temperatures of over 200 ◦C. It is indicated that the luminescence from YAG feeds the R-lines of chromia alumina in the mixed composition screens. 

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  • 14.
    Ganvir, Ashish
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Yao, Yiming
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Gothenburg, 41296, Sweden.
    Vadali, Srikanth V.S.S.
    University of Hyderabad, School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Hyderabad, 500046, India.
    Klement, Uta
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Gothenburg, 41296, Sweden.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    A facile approach to deposit graphenaceous composite coatings by suspension plasma spraying2019In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 9, no 3, article id 171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates, for the first time ever, the deposition of graphenaceous composite coatings using an easy, yet robust, suspension plasma spraying (SPS) process. As a case study, a composite coating comprising 8 wt.% of yttria-stabilized-zirconia (8YSZ) and reinforced with graphene oxide (GO) was deposited on a steel substrate. The coatings were sprayed using an 8YSZ-GO mixed suspension with varied plasma spray parameters. Establishing the possibility of retaining the graphene in a ceramic matrix using SPS was of specific interest. Electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of graphenaceous material distributed throughout the coating in the 8YSZ matrix. The experimental results discussed in this work confirm that SPS is an immensely attractive pathway to incorporate a graphenaceous material into virtually any matrix material and can potentially have major implications in enabling the deposition of large-area graphene-containing coatings for diverse functional applications. © 2019 by the authors.

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  • 15.
    Ganvir, Ashish
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Curry, Nicholas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Characterization of Microstructure and Thermal Properties of YSZ Coatings Obtained by Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying (ASPS)2015In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 24, no 7, p. 1195-1204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims at demonstrating various microstructures which can be obtained using the suspension spraying technique and their respective significance in enhancing the thermal insulation property of a thermal barrier coating. Three different types of coating microstructures are discussed which were produced by the Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying. Detailed characterization of coatings was then performed. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were utilized for microstructure evaluations; x-ray diffraction for phase analysis; water impregnation, image analysis, and mercury intrusion porosimetry for porosity analysis, and laser flash analysis for thermal diffusivity measurements were used. The results showed that Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying can generate vertically cracked, porous, and feathery columnar-type microstructures. Pore size distribution was found in micron, submicron, and nanometer range. Higher overall porosity, the lower density of vertical cracks or inter-column spacing, and higher inter-pass porosity favored thermal insulation property of the coating. Significant increase in thermal diffusivity and conductivity was found at higher temperature, which is believed to be due to the pore rearrangement (sintering and pore coarsening). Thermal conductivity values for these coatings were also compared with electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) thermal barrier coatings from the literature and found to be much lower. © 2015 ASM International

  • 16.
    Ganvir, Ashish
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Goel, Sneha
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Govindarajan, Sivakumar
    International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), 500005 Hyderabad (IND).
    Jahagirdar, Adwait Rajeev
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Klement, Uta
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, (SWE).
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Tribological performance assessment of Al2O3-YSZ composite coatings deposited by hybrid powder-suspension plasma spraying2021In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 409, p. 1-13, article id 126907Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of high-throughput plasma spray systems that allow axial feeding encourages the study of using liquid feedstock for various next-generation functional applications. The current study explores the benefit of such a plasma spray system to deposit hybrid powder-suspension Al2O3-YSZ ceramic matrix composite (CMC) coatings for tribological applications. The tribological performance of the hybrid processed CMC coatings was assessed using scratch, ball-on-plate wear and erosion tests and compared with that of monolithic powder-derived Al2O3 coatings. As-deposited and tribo-tested coatings were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy to analyse their microstructure and phase constitution. The results showed that the tribological performance of the hybrid powder-suspension Al2O3-YSZ CMC coating was significantly improved by enhancing the wear resistance under scratch, dry sliding ball-on-plate and erosion tests as compared to the conventional APS deposited monolithic Al2O3 coating. About 36% decrease in the dry sliding ball-on-plate specific wear rate and up to 50% decrease in the erosion wear rate was noted in the hybrid powder-suspension Al2O3-YSZ CMC coating as compared to the conventional APS deposited monolithic Al2O3 coating. The study concludes that the hybrid powder-suspension route can create CMC coatings with unique multi-length scale microstructures which can be attractive for combining different tribological attributes in the same coating system.

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  • 17.
    Ganvir, Ashish
    et al.
    University of Turku, Turku (FIN).
    Jahagirdar, Adwait Rajeev
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Mulone, Antonio
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.
    Örnfeldt, Louise
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Klement, Uta
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Novel utilization of liquid feedstock in high velocity air fuel (HVAF) spraying to deposit solid lubricant reinforced wear resistant coatings2021In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 295, article id 117203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to axially inject liquid feedstock has encouraged the thermal spray research community to explore this concept to deposit coatings for various next generation functional applications. The current study explores the utilization of liquid feedstock in high velocity air fuel (HVAF) spraying to deposit solid lubricant reinforced wear resistant coatings for the first time. The study successfully demonstrates the use of a powder-suspension hybrid processing approach to incorporate a solid lubricant Boron Nitride (as suspension) in a wear resistant Cr3C2–NiCr (as powder) cermet matrix. Coatings were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Raman Spectroscopy to analyze their microstructure and phase constitution. The results show that the tribological performance of the hexagonal boron nitride (hBN)-incorporated composite coating was significantly better than the traditional powder-derived Cr3C2–NiCr coating. Such hBN-incorporated composite coatings are needed to improve the mechanical properties and enhance the overall tribological performance of metallic components used in various applications, especially at high temperature such as cylinder bore, pistons, deformation tools, etc. The limitations of liquid based lubricants at high temperature motivates the use of hBN reinforced composite coatings as it can form a protective solid lubrication tribo-film. The study concludes that the emerging HVAF technology can accommodate liquid feedstock and be successfully utilized to deposit hybrid powder-suspension composite coatings to create multi length scale microstructures which can be attractive for combining different tribological attributes in the same coatings system.

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  • 18.
    Goel, Sneha
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Curry, Nicholas
    Treibacher Industrie AG, Althofen, 9330, Austria (AUT).
    Govindarajan, Sivakumar
    International Advanced Research Center for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Hyderabad, 500 005, India (IND).
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Applied Materials Science, Uppsala, 75121, Sweden.
    Gaudiuso, Caterina
    University of Bari, Physics Department, via Amendola 173, Bari, 70126, Italy (ITA).
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Axial plasma spraying of mixed suspensions: A case study on processing, characteristics, and tribological behavior of Al2O3-YSZ coatings2020In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, no 15, article id 5140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal spraying deploying liquid feedstock offers an exciting opportunity to obtain coatings with characteristics vastly different from those produced using conventional spray-grade powders. The most extensively investigated variant of this technique is Suspension Plasma Spraying (SPS), which utilizes a suspension of fine powders in an appropriate medium. The relatively recent advent of axial feed capable plasma spray systems can enable higher throughputs during SPS, provides the possibility for spraying with longer stand-off distances, and also permit the use of suspensions with higher solid loading. The present work investigates axial plasma sprayed coatings produced using a mixed suspension of fine (submicron or nano-sized) powders of Al2O3 and YSZ as a case study. Deposition of the mixed suspension using axial injection plasma spraying, comprehensive evaluation of characteristics of the resulting coatings, and assessment of their tribological behavior were of particular interest. Evaluation of surface morphology, microstructure, and hardness of the coatings reveals that axial SPS of mixed suspensions provides an exciting pathway to realize finely structured multi-constituent coatings using suspensions with as high as 40 wt. % solid loading. The study of scratch, dry sliding wear, and erosion behavior also specifically shows that the addition of YSZ in the Al2O3 matrix can improve the tribological properties of the coating. © 2020 by the authors.

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    fulltext
  • 19.
    Goel, Sneha
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Curry, Nicholas
    Treibacher Ind AG, Althofen, Austria.
    Wiklund, U.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Technol, Mat Sci Div, S-75121 Uppsala, Swede.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Axial suspension plasma spraying of Al2O3 coatings for superior tribological properties2017In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 315, p. 80-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suspension plasma spray is a relatively new thermal spray technique which enables feeding of fine powder to produce advanced coatings for varied applications. This work investigates the difference in structure and performance of Al2O3 coatings manufactured using conventional micron-sized powder feedstock and a suspension of sub-micron to few micron sized powder. Axial injection was implemented for deposition in both cases. The effect of feedstock size and processing on the tribological performance of the two coatings was of specific interest. The coatings were characterized by Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy, micro-hardness and scratch resistance testing, and their dry sliding wear performance evaluated. The suspension sprayed coatings yielded significantly higher scratch resistance, lower friction coefficient and reduced wear rate compared to conventional coatings. The improved tribological behaviour of the former is attributable to finer porosity, smaller splat sizes, and improved interlamellar bonding. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 20.
    Goel, Sneha
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Joshi, Shrikant
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Deposition of Novel Composite Coatings by Suspension-Powder Hybrid Plasma Spraying2016In: The 7th International Swedish Production Symposium, SPS16, Conference Proceedings: 25th – 27th of October 2016, Lund: Swedish Production Academy , 2016, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suspension Plasma Spray (SPS) is an emerging technique which overcomes the difficulties typically associated with feeding of fine (submicron or nano-sized) powders in conventional atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) to obtain superior coating properties for various engineering applications. The advent of plasma spray systems that allow axial injection of feedstock, which considerably improves thermal exchange between the plasma plume and the injected feedstock, has enabled substantial enhancement in deposition rates/efficiencies to make SPS techno-commercially exciting. The present study utilizes both the above advances in plasma spraying to demonstrate the ability to deposit novel coating architectures by sequential/simultaneous axial injection of both powder and a suspension feedstock. The results reveal that composite coatings uniquely combining the micron-size features arising from the spray-grade powder and the submicron or nano-sized features attributable to the suspension, can be conveniently realized using the above approach. Three different kinds of coating architectures were generated, namely layered, composite, and functionally graded. The sprayed coatings were extensively characterized for attributes such as surface morphology, microstructure, and composition particularly in the case of composite coatings.

  • 21.
    Goel, Sneha
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Wiklund, U.
    Uppsala University, Materials Science Division, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Hybrid powder-suspension Al2O3-ZrO2 coatings by axial plasma spraying: Processing, characteristics & tribological behaviour2017In: Proceedings of the International Thermal Spray Conference & Exposition, New York: Curran Associates, Inc , 2017, Vol. 1, p. 374-379Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of suspension plasma spraying (SPS) to overcome difficulties associated with feeding of fine (submicron or nano-sized) powders and achieve more refined microstructures than possible in atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is well established. In recent times, the use of axial injection plasma spray systems has yielded substantial enhancement in deposition rates/efficiencies due to improved thermal exchange between the plasma plume and injected feedstock. The present paper describes utilization of both the above advances in plasma spraying to create various function-dependent coating architectures through simultaneous and/or sequential spraying of hybrid powder-suspension feedstock. A specific variant of such hybrid axial plasma spraying that enables deposition of composite coatings by simultaneous injection of a powder and a suspension is discussed in particular detail. Results obtained using an Al2O3-ZrO2 material system as a case study reveal that composite coatings combining the micron-size features arising from the spray-grade Al2O3 powder and submicron or nano-sized features attributable to the ZrO2 suspension can be conveniently realized. The surface morphology, microstructure, and composition of these coatings, as well as their tribological behaviour determined using scratch and ball-on-disc tests, are presented herein. The utility of this method to develop a wide array of composite coatings is also discussed. 

  • 22.
    Hameed, Pearlin
    et al.
    Centre for Biomaterials, Cellular & Molecular Theranostics (CBCMT), Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, 632014, India.
    Gopal, Vasanth
    Centre for Biomaterials, Cellular & Molecular Theranostics (CBCMT), Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, 632014, India; Department of Physics, School of Advanced Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, 632014, India.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Ganvir, Ashish
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Sen, Dwaipayan
    Centre for Biomaterials, Cellular & Molecular Theranostics (CBCMT), Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, 632014, India.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Manivasagam, Geetha
    Centre for Biomaterials, Cellular & Molecular Theranostics (CBCMT), Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, 632014, India.
    Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying: An ultimate technique to tailor Ti6Al4V surface with HAp for orthopaedic applications2019In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 173, p. 806-815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolution of atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings on Ti-6Al-4 V medical implants have always been a challenge to overcome in the field of biomedical industry. In the present work, an attempt has been made to develop a HAp coating using a novel thermal spray process called axial suspension plasma spraying (SPS), which leads to thin adherent coatings. Two HAp coatings fabricated by APS (P1 and P2) and four SPS HAp coatings (S1, S2, S3 and S4) produced with varying spraying parameters were characterized in terms of (1) microstructure, porosity, hardness, adhesion strength, contact angle and phase purity; (2) corrosion resistance in 10% Fetal bovine serum (FBS); (3) in-vitro cell adherence and cell viability using human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Amongst different APS and SPS coatings, P1 and S3 exhibited superior properties. S3 coating developed using SPS exhibited 1.3 times higher adhesion strength when compared to APS coating (P1) and 9.5 times higher corrosion resistance than P1. In addition, both S3 and P1 exhibited comparatively higher biocompatibility as evidenced by the presence of more than 92% viable hMSCs. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

  • 23.
    Jonnalagadda, K.P.
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Mahade, Satyapal
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Curry, Nicholas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Li, X-H.
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinary, Finspång, Sweden.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Nylen, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Peng, R.L.
    Trebacher Indiustrie, Austria.
    Hot corrosion behavior of multi-layer suspension plasma sprayed Gd2Zr2O7 /YSZ thermal barrier coatings2016In: Thermal Spray 2016: Proceedings from the International Thermal Spray Conference in Shanghai, P.R China, May 10-12, 2016, DVS Media GmbH , 2016, Vol. 324, p. 261-266Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Jonnalagadda, Krishna Praveen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mahade, Satyapal
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Curry, Nicholas
    Treibacher Ind AG, Althofen, Austria.
    Li, Xin-Hai
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspång, Sweden.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Nylen, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Peng, Ru Lin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hot Corrosion Mechanism in Multi-Layer Suspension Plasma Sprayed Gd2Zr2O7 /YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings in the Presence of V2O5 + Na2SO42017In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 26, no 1-2, p. 140-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the corrosion resistance of two-layer Gd2Zr2O7/YSZ, three-layer dense Gd2Zr2O7/ Gd2Zr2O7/YSZ, and a reference single-layer YSZ coating with a similar overall top coat thickness of 300-320 µm. All the coatings were manufactured by suspension plasma spraying resulting in a columnar structure except for the dense layer. Corrosion tests were conducted at 900 °C for 8 h using V2O5 and Na2SO4 as corrosive salts at a concentration of approximately 4 mg/cm2. SEM investigations after the corrosion tests show that Gd2Zr2O7-based coatings exhibited lower reactivity with the corrosive salts and the formation of gadolinium vanadate (GdVO4), accompanied by the phase transformation of zirconia was observed. It is believed that the GdVO4 formation between the columns reduced the strain tolerance of the coating and also due to the fact that Gd2Zr2O7 has a lower fracture toughness value made it more susceptible to corrosion-induced damage. Furthermore, the presence of a relatively dense layer of Gd2Zr2O7 on the top did not improve in reducing the corrosion-induced damage. For the reference YSZ coating, the observed corrosion-induced damage was lower probably due to combination of more limited salt penetration, the SPS microstructure and superior fracture toughness of YSZ.

  • 25.
    Jonnalagadda, Krishna Praveen
    et al.
    Linkoping University, Department of Manangement and Engineering,Linkoping, Sweden.
    Peng, Ru Lin
    Linkoping University, Department of Manangement and Engineering,Linkoping, Sweden.
    Mahade, Satyapal
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Curry, Nicholas
    Treibacher Industrie AG, Austria.
    Li, Xin-Hai
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspang, Sweden.
    Hot corrosion behavior of multi-layer suspension plasma sprayed Gd2Zr2O7/YSZ thermal barrier coatings2017In: InterCeram: International Ceramic Review, ISSN 0020-5214, Vol. 66, no 5, p. 180-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the corrosion resistance of double layer Gd2Zr2O7/YSZ, triple layer dense Gd2Zr2O7 / Gd2Zr2O7/YSZ and a reference single layer YSZ coating with a similar overall top coat thickness of 300-320 Όm. All the coatings were manufactured by suspension plasma spraying (SPS), resulting in a columnar structure. Corrosion tests were conducted at 900°C for 8 hours using vanadium pentoxide and sodium sulphate as corrosive salts at a concentration of 4 mg/cm2. SEM investigations after the corrosion tests show that Gd2Zr2O7 coatings exhibited lower corrosion resistance than the reference material, YSZ. Reaction between the corrosive salts and Gd2Zr2O7 results in the formation of gadolinium vanadate ( GdVO4) along the top surface and between the columns. While the stresses due to phase transformation of zirconia can be relieved to some extent by realigning of the columns in the top coat, it is believed that GdVO4 formation between the columns, along with low fracture toughness of Gd2Zr2O7 had resulted in lower corrosion resistance. Furthermore, the presence of a relatively dense layer of Gd2Zr2O7 on the top, as a preventive layer for salt infiltration, did not improve the corrosion resistance.

  • 26.
    Kiilakoski, Jarkko
    et al.
    Tampere University, Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Tampere Finland.
    Trache, Richard
    Treibacher Industrie AG, Althofen, Austria.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Vuoristo, Petri
    Tampere University, Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Tampere Finland.
    Process Parameter Impact on Suspension-HVOF-Sprayed Cr2O3 Coatings2019In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 1933-1944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chromium oxide (Cr2O3) is commonly used as an atmospheric plasma-sprayed (APS) coating from powder feedstock in applications requiring resistance to sliding wear and corrosion, as well as amenability to texturing, e.g., in anilox rolls. Recently, high-velocity oxy-fuel spray methods involving suspension feedstock have been considered an extremely promising alternative to produce denser and more homogeneous chromium oxide coatings with lower as-sprayed surface roughness, higher hardness and potentially superior wear performance compared to conventional APS-sprayed coatings. In this study, the impact of process parameters namely auxiliary air cleaning nozzles and a transverse air curtain on suspension high-velocity oxy-fuel-sprayed Cr2O3 suspensions is presented. The produced coatings are characterized for their microstructure, mechanical properties and wear resistance by cavitation erosion. The results reveal the importance of optimized air nozzles and air curtain to achieve a vastly improved coating structure and performance.

  • 27.
    Kiilakoski, Jarmo
    et al.
    Tampere University, Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Tampere Finland.
    Trache, Richard
    Treibacher Industrie AG, Althofen, Austria..
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Vuoristo, Petri
    Tampere University, Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Tampere Finland.
    Correction to: Process Parameter Impact on Suspension-HVOF-Sprayed Cr2O3 Coatings (Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, (2019), 28, 8, (1933-1944), 10.1007/s11666-019-00940-7)2019In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 28, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the references section there is a correction to reference number 41. It should read as follows: V. Matikainen, S. Rubio Peregrina, N. Ojala, H. Koivuluoto, J. Schubert, S. HoudkovaÂŽ, and P. Vuoristo, Erosion Wear Performance of WC-10Co4Cr and Cr3C2– 25NiCr Coatings Sprayed with High-Velocity Thermal Spray Processes, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2019, 370, p 196- 212. © 2019, ASM International.

  • 28.
    Kovářík, Ondrej
    et al.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Haušild, Petr
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Medricky, Jan
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Tomek, Libor
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Siegl, Jan
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Mušálek, Radek
    Institute of Plasma Physics CAS..
    Curry, Nicholas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Fatigue crack growth in bodies with thermally sprayed coating2015In: Proceedings from the International Thermal Spray Conference (May 11–14, 2015, Long Beach, California, USA), ASM International, 2015, Vol. 1-2, p. 398-405Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many applications of thermally sprayed coatings call for increased fatigue resistance of coated parts. Despite the intensive research in this area, the influence of coating on fatigue is still not completely understood. In this paper, the spatiotemporal localization of crack initiation and the dynamics of crack propagation are studied. The resonance bending fatigue test is employed to test flat specimens with both sides coated. Hastelloy-X substrates coated with classical TBC YSZ/NiCoCrAlY composites were tested. The strain distribution on the coating surface is evaluated by the digital image correlation method (DIC) through the whole duration of the fatigue test. Localization of crack initiation sites and the mode of crack propagation in the coated specimen are related to the observed resonance frequency. The individual phases of specimen degradation, i.e. the changes of material properties, crack initiation, and crack propagation are identified. The tested coatings strongly influenced the first two phases, the influence on the crack propagation was less significant. © Copyright (2015) by ASM International All rights reserved.

  • 29.
    Kovářík, Ondrej
    et al.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Haušild, Petr
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Medřický, Jan
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Tomek, Libor
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Siegl, Jan
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Mušálek, Radek
    Institute of Plasma Physics CAS.
    Curry, Nicholas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Fatigue Crack Growth in Bodies with Thermally Sprayed Coating2016In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 25, no 1-2, p. 311-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many applications of thermally sprayed coatings call for increased fatigue resistance of coated parts. Despite the intensive research in this area, the influence of coating on fatigue is still not completely understood. In this paper, the localization of crack initiation sites and the dynamics of crack propagation are studied. The resonance bending fatigue test was employed to test flat specimens with both sides coated. Hastelloy-X substrates coated with classical thermal barrier coating consisting of yttria stabilized zirconia and NiCoCrAlY layers. The strain distribution on the coating surface was evaluated by the Digital Image Correlation method through the whole duration of the fatigue test. Localization of crack initiation sites and the mode of crack propagation in the coated specimen are related to the observed resonance frequency. The individual phases of specimen degradation, i.e., the changes of material properties, crack initiation, and crack propagation, were identified. The tested coatings strongly influenced the first two phases, and the influence on the crack propagation was less significant. In general, the presented crack detection method can be used as a sensitive nondestructive testing method well suited for coated parts. © 2015 ASM International

  • 30.
    Kovářík, Ondrej
    et al.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Haušild, Petr
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Čapek, Jiří
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Medřický, Jan
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Siegl, Jan
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Mušálek, Radek
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Pala, Zdeněk
    Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Prague, Czech Republic.
    Curry, Nicholas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Resonance bending fatigue testing with simultaneous damping measurement and its application on layered coatings2016In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 82, Part 2, p. 300-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The use of specimen loss factor as fatigue damage indicator of Hastelloy-X substrates with different surface treatments was investigated together with other fatigue damage indicators, namely resonance frequency and crack mouth length. The tested surface treatments included grit-blasting and plasma spraying of NiCoCrAlY bond coat and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coat. The loss factors of fatigue test specimens were measured repeatedly during the resonance bending fatigue test using the conventional free decay method. The analysis of the damping spectra, i.e. the model describing the relation of loss factor to maximum macroscopic specimen strain εyy was drafted. The model is based on the combination of defect models developed by Göken and Riehemann (2004) and classical dislocation model of Granato and LÌcke (1956). It appears, that the damping spectra can be well approximated as a combination of two defect peaks (C1 and C2) and one dislocation peak (D1). The low strain defect peak (peak C1) is sensitive to the presence of fatigue cracks. The second defect peak (peak C2) can be attributed to the remaining substrate and coating defects such as embedded grit particles, coating porosity, surface roughness and sliding in the sample clamping area. The fatigue damage detection using the C1 peak magnitude was performed and its results were related to the crack length obtained by digital image correlation (DIC) method. In the crack initiation stage I., the C1 peak height shows different behavior than the resonance frequency and therefore provides new information. The underlying processes causing C1 peak changes need to be found yet, however. In the crack growth stage II., both resonance frequency and peak height C1 correlate with the measured fatigue crack size.

  • 31.
    Kovářík, Ondřej
    et al.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Haušild, Petr
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Čapek, Jiří
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Medřický, Jan
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Siegl, Jan
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Mušálek, Radek
    Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Prague, Czech Republic.
    Pala, Zdeněk
    Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Prague, Czech Republic.
    Curry, Nicholas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Damping measurement during resonance fatigue test and its application for crack detection in TBC samples2016In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 82, no Part 2, p. 300-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The use of specimen loss factor as fatigue damage indicator of Hastelloy-X substrates with different surface treatments was investigated together with other fatigue damage indicators, namely resonance frequency and crack mouth length. The tested surface treatments included grit-blasting and plasma spraying of NiCoCrAlY bond coat and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coat. The loss factors of fatigue test specimens were measured repeatedly during the resonance bending fatigue test using the conventional free decay method. The analysis of the damping spectra, i.e. the model describing the relation of loss factor to maximum macroscopic specimen strain εyy was drafted. The model is based on the combination of defect models developed by Göken and Riehemann [1] and classical dislocation model of Granato and LÌcke [2]. It appears, that the damping spectra can be well approximated as a combination of two defect peaks (C1 and C2) and one dislocation peak (D1). The low strain defect peak (peak C1) is sensitive to the presence of fatigue cracks. The second defect peak (peak C2) can be attributed to the remaining substrate and coating defects such as embedded grit particles, coating porosity, surface roughness and sliding in the sample clamping area. The fatigue damage detection using the C1 peak magnitude was performed and its results were related to the crack length obtained by digital image correlation (DIC) method. In the crack initiation stage I., the C1 peak height shows different behavior than the resonance frequency and therefore provides new information. The underlying processes causing C1 peak changes need to be found yet, however. In the crack growth stage II., both resonance frequency and peak height C1 correlate with the measured fatigue crack size.

  • 32.
    Kuhn, Joel
    et al.
    University of Toronto, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Gupta, Mohit Kumar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Kesler, Oivera
    University of Toronto, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    The effect of fuel electrode roughness on the properties of plasma sprayed solid oxide cells2017In: ECS Transactions, ISSN 1938-5862, E-ISSN 1938-6737, Vol. 78, no 1, p. 1477-1487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid oxide cell electrolytes fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying are frequently found to have nonzero gas leak rates. Electrode surface roughness is known to have an influence on electrolyte leak rates. A jet of high velocity air, produced with an air knife, was aimed at the plasma plume during fuel electrode deposition to reduce the surface roughness prior to electrolyte deposition. The resulting fuel electrode masses, electrode compositions, and electrode surface roughnesses were measured for varying air knife inlet pressures. Surface asperity populations and maximum heights were significantly reduced using air knife pressures of > 6 bar at the expense of deposition efficiency. The distribution of surface gradients was also improved with the use of the air knife, but some regions with steep gradients still remained in surfaces prepared with an air knife pressure of 8 bar. © The Electrochemical Society.

  • 33.
    Kuhn, Joel
    et al.
    University of Toronto, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada.
    Gupta, Mohit Kumar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Kesler, Olivera
    University of Toronto, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    The Effect of Fuel Electrode Roughness on the Properties of Plasma Sprayed Solid Oxide Cells2018In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 165, no 9, p. F693-F701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid oxide cell electrolytes fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying are frequently found to have considerable gas leak rates.Electrode surface roughness is known to have an influence on electrolyte leak rates. A jet of high velocity air, produced with an airknife, was aimed at the plasma plume during fuel electrode deposition to reduce the surface roughness prior to electrolyte deposition.The resulting fuel electrode masses, electrode compositions, and electrode surface roughnesses were measured for varying air knifeinlet pressures. Surface asperity populations and maximum heights were significantly reduced using air knife pressures of >6 barat the expense of deposition efficiency. The nickel volume fraction in the fuel electrode increased slightly with increasing air knifepressure. Open circuit voltages were larger on the smoother fuel electrodes that were produced at higher air knife pressures, but nosignificant effect of air knife pressure on cell power density could be discerned.© 2018 The Electrochemical Society

  • 34.
    Lyphout, Christophe
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Internal Diameter HVAF Spraying for Wear and Corrosion Applications2014In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 24, no 1-2, p. 235-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrolytic hard chrome (EHC) methods are still widely utilized in the printing, automotive and off-shore industries. Alternative methods to EHC have been widely developed in the past decade by conventional HVOF processes and more recently HVAF systems, which are processing at higher kinetic energy and more particularly at lower temperature, significantly increasing wear and corrosion resistance properties. A dedicated internal diameter HVAF system is here presented, and coatings characteristics are compared to the one obtained by standard HVAF coatings. Specially R&D designed fixtures with inside bore of 200 mm have been manufactured for this purpose, with a possibility to spray samples at increasing depth up to 400 mm while simulating closed bottom bore spraying. WC-based and Cr3C2-based powder feedstock materials have been deposited onto high-strength steel substrates. Respective coating microstructures, thermally induced stresses and corrosion resistance are discussed for further optimization of coating performances. The fact that the ID-HVAF system is utilized both for spraying and gritblasting procedures is also given a particular interest.

  • 35.
    Lyphout, Christophe
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Karlsson, M.
    Oerlikon Metco WOKA GmbH, Barchfeld-Immelborn, Germany.
    Runte, M
    Oerlikon Metco WOKA GmbH, Barchfeld-Immelborn, Germany.
    Reisel, G.
    Oerlikon Metco WOKA GmbH, Barchfeld-Immelborn, Germany.
    Boccaccio, P.
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy .
    Screening Design of Supersonic Air Fuel Processing for Hard Metal Coatings2014In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1323-1332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Replacement of electrolytic hard chromium method by thermal spray technology has shown a growing interest in the past decades, mainly pioneered by depositing WC-based material by conventional HVOF processes. Lower thermal energy and higher kinetic energy of sprayed particles achieved by newly developed Supersonic Air Fuel system, so-called HVAF-M3, significantly reduces decarburization, and increases wear and corrosion resistance properties, making HVAF-sprayed coatings attractive both economically and environmentally. In the present work, full factorial designs of experiments have been extensively utilized to establish relationships between hardware configurations, process and engineering variables, and coatings properties. The relevance of those process factors is emphasized and their significance is discussed in the optimization of coatings for improved abrasion wear and corrosion performances. © 2014 ASM International.

  • 36.
    Löbel, Martin
    et al.
    Materials and Surface Engineering Group, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz, (DEU).
    Lindner, Thomas
    Materials and Surface Engineering Group, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107, Chemnitz, (DEU).
    Mehner, Thomas
    Materials and Surface Engineering Group, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107, Chemnitz, (DEU).
    Rymer, Lisa-Marie
    Materials and Surface Engineering Group, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107, Chemnitz, (DEU).
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Lampke, Thomas
    Materials and Surface Engineering Group, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107, Chemnitz, (DEU).
    Microstructure and Corrosion Properties of AlCrFeCoNi High-Entropy Alloy Coatings Prepared by HVAF and HVOF2022In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, no 1-2, p. 247-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) represent an innovative development approach for new alloy systems. These materials have been found to yield promising properties, such as high strength in combination with sufficient ductility as well as high wear and corrosion resistance. Especially for alloys with a body-centered cubic (bcc) structure, advantageous surface properties have been revealed. However, typical HEA systems contain high contents of expensive or scarce elements. Consequently, applying them as coatings where their use is limited to the surface represents an exciting pathway enabling economical exploitation of their superior properties. Nevertheless, processing conditions strongly influence the resulting microstructure and phase formation, which in turn has a considerable effect on the functional properties of HEAs. In the presented study, microstructural differences between high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) and high-velocity air fuel (HVAF) sprayed coatings of the alloy AlCrFeCoNi are investigated. A metastable bcc structure is formed in both coating processes. Precipitation reactions are suppressed by the rapid solidification during atomization and by the relatively low thermal input during spraying. The coating resistance to corrosive media was investigated in detail, and an improved passivation behavior was observed in the HVAF coatings. 

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  • 37.
    Mahade, Satyapal
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Aranke, Omkar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Dizdar, Senad
    Höganäs AB, Höganäs, (SWE).
    Awe, Samuel
    Automotive Components Floby AB, Floby (SWE).
    Musalek, Radek
    Institute of Plasma Physics CAS, Prague (CZE).
    Lukac, Frantisek
    Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (CZE).
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Influence of processing conditions on the microstructure and sliding wear of a promising Fe-based coating deposited by HVAF2021In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 409, p. 1-17, article id 126953Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal spray is a versatile and cost-effective process to deposit wear and corrosion resistant coatings. In this work, a relatively new ‘Fe-based’ chemistry comprising boride and carbides, is explored as a ‘greener’ alternative to the relatively expensive and carcinogenic Co-based coatings to mitigate wear. The emergent thermal spray process of high-velocity air-fuel (HVAF) spraying was chosen to deposit the Fe-based coatings, with the high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) also being employed solely for the purpose of preliminary comparison. Detailed characterization of the HVOF and HVAF sprayed Fe-based coatings was carried out. Microstructure, porosity, hardness and phase analysis results demonstrate the influence of processing conditions, where specific spray conditions yielded minimal undeformed particulates content, high hardness, low porosity and feedstock phase retention. Differences in microstructural features of the as-deposited coatings in relation to their processing conditions are discussed in detail. The coatings were subjected to ball-on-disc tribometry tests at different load conditions and their friction and wear performance were evaluated. The coefficient of friction results of investigated coatings concurred with their respective microstructural features. Post-mortem of the worn coating surface, the mating alumina ball surface and wear debris was performed using SEM/EDS analysis to understand the associated wear mechanisms and material transfer. This work provides new insights on identifying appropriate HVAF processing conditions to achieve acceptable microstructural features and phases in Fe-based coatings for improved wear performance.

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  • 38.
    Mahade, Satyapal
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. GKN Aerospace Sweden AB, Trollhattan, 46153, (SWE).
    Awe, Samuel A.
    Automotive Components Floby AB, Floby (SWE).
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Lukáč, František
    Institute of Plasma Physics CAS, Prague, (CZE).
    Mušálek, Radek
    Institute of Plasma Physics CAS, Prague, (CZE).
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Sliding wear behavior of a sustainable Fe-based coating and its damage mechanisms2022In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 500-501, article id 204375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current industry demand is to identify suitable alternatives to the risk-of-supply prone and/or toxic, WC-Co and electrolytic hard chrome coatings without comprising the desired wear performance. Therefore, compositions based on abundantly available elements (e.g. ‘Fe’) that possess adequate wear resistance are desirable from health, sustainability and economic standpoints. In this work, crystalline Fe-based (Rockit-401) coatings were processed using two different thermal spray routes, i.e. HVOF and HVAF spraying. The influence of deposition route and processing conditions on the microstructure, porosity content, hardness and phase composition was examined. The as-deposited coatings were subjected to mild (5 N) and harsh (15 N) dry sliding wear test conditions by employing alumina ball as the counter surface material, and their wear performance was examined. Mild sliding wear test conditions (5 N) resulted in anomalous wear behavior, where the abrupt drop in CoF at several instances during the test was observed in all the investigated coatings. On the other hand, under harsh wear test conditions (15 N), such an abrupt dip in CoF was not observed. Detailed wear mechanisms of the coatings were revealed under different test conditions (5 N and 15 N). This work sheds light on processing, wear behavior and wear mechanisms of a sustainable and high-performance coating that fulfills non-toxic and sustainability goals in tandem for tribological applications. © 2022 The Authors

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  • 39.
    Mahade, Satyapal
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Baiamonte, Lidia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing. Department of Chemical Engineering Materials Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, (ITA).
    Sadeghi, Esmaeil
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Marra, Francesco
    Department of Chemical Engineering Materials Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, (ITA).
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Novel utilization of powder-suspension hybrid feedstock in HVAF spraying to deposit improved wear and corrosion resistant coatings2021In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 412, article id 127015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deployment of a suspension feedstock has been known to alleviate problems associated with using sub-micron and nanosized powder feedstock for thermal spraying of monolithic as well as powder-suspension ‘hybrid’ composite coatings. However, a powder-suspension hybrid feedstock has never been previously used in high-velocity air-fuel (HVAF) spraying. In this work, for the very first time, a chromium carbide (Cr3C2) suspension has been co-sprayed along with an Inconel-625 (IN-625) powder by the HVAF process as an illustrative case study. Two variants of the IN-625 + Cr3C2 hybrid coatings were produced by varying relative powder-suspension feed rates. For comparison, pure IN-625 coating was also deposited utilizing identical spray parameters. Detailed microstructural characterization, porosity content, hardness measurement and phase analysis of the as-deposited coatings was performed. The suspension-derived carbides were retained in the bulk of the coating, resulting in higher hardness. In the dry sliding wear test, the hybrid coatings demonstrated lower wear rate and higher coefficient of friction (CoF) compared to the conventional, powder-derived IN-625 coatings. Furthermore, the wear rate improved slightly with an increase in Cr3C2 content in the hybrid coating. Post-wear analysis of the worn coating, worn alumina ball and the wear debris was performed to understand the wear mechanisms and material transfer in the investigated coatings. In the potentiodynamic polarization test, higher corrosion resistance for hybrid coatings than conventional IN-625 coatings was achieved, indicating that the incorporation of a secondary, carbide phase in the IN-625 matrix did not compromise its corrosion performance. This work demonstrates a novel approach to incorporate any finely distributed second phase in HVAF sprayed coatings to enhance their performance when exposed to harsh environments.

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  • 40.
    Mahade, Satyapal
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Govindarajan, Sivakumar
    International Advanced Research Center for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Hyderabad, India (IND).
    Olsson, Mikael
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Novel wear resistant carbide-laden coatings deposited by powder-suspension hybrid plasma spray: Characterization and testing2020In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 399, article id 126147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal spraying with a hybrid powder-suspension feedstock presents a novel approach to conveniently realize coatings with unusual chemistries and unique microstructures. In this study, coatings were deposited by simultaneous spraying of T-400 (Tribaloy-400) powder and Cr3C2 suspension with varying relative feed rates. For comparison, pure T-400 coating was also deposited using powder feedstock via atmospheric plasma spray (APS) route to assess the role of incorporating a hard, finely distributed carbide phase in the coating. SEM (Scanning electron microscopy)/EDS (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) investigation of the hybrid coatings revealed a lamellar microstructure with distributed fine carbides. XRD (X-ray diffraction) analysis of the feedstock and hybrid coatings showed the presence of original feedstock constituents, along with some oxides of chromium, in the deposited coating. Hardness measurements on the as-sprayed coatings indicated higher hardness in hybrid coatings than in the pure T-400 coating. The deposited coatings were subjected to scratch testing on polished surfaces as well as on polished cross sections. The scratching response of the coatings was examined by SEM analysis. Results demonstrated that the hybrid coatings possess excellent scratch resistance, superior compared to the pure T-400 coating, which is promising for extending the durability of engineering components operating under severe wear conditions. This was confirmed by abrasion test results which established the superior wear resistance of hybrid coatings. The above hybrid approach is easily extendable to other material systems and can have important implications in the realization of next-generation wear resistant coatings. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.

  • 41.
    Mahade, Satyapal
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Curry, Nicholas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Vassen, Robert
    Forschungszentrum Jülich.
    Erosion Behavior of Gadolinium Zirconate/YSZ Multi-Layered Thermal Barrier Coatings Deposited by Suspension Plasma Spray2016In: Proceedings of the International Thermal Spray Conference, 2016, p. 343-347Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) is the standard ceramic material for thermal barrier coating (TBC)applications. However, above 1200º C, it has limitations such as poor sintering resistance & susceptibility to CMAS(Calcium Magnesium Alumino Silicates) degradation. Gadolinium zirconate (GZ) is considered as one of the promising top coat candidates for TBC applications at high temperature (>1200 ºC) due to its lower thermal conductivity, good sintering resistance and CMAS infiltration resistance. Single layer 8YSZ, double layer GZ/YSZand triple layer GZdense/GZ/YSZ TBCs were deposited by suspension plasma spray (SPS). Microstructuralanalysis was carried out by SEM (scanning electron microscopy). Phase analysis of as sprayed TBCs was carriedout using XRD (X ray diffraction). The as sprayed multi-layered TBCs were subjected to erosion test at room temperature and their erosion resistance was compared with single layer 8YSZ. It was observed that the erosion resistance of 8YSZ TBC was higher than GZ/YSZ multi-layered TBCs at room temperature. Among the multilayered TBCs, triple layer TBC was slightly better than double layer in terms of erosion resistance.

  • 42.
    Mahade, Satyapal
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Curry, Nicholas
    Treibacher Industrie AG, Auer von Welsbachstr, 1, A-9330 Althofen, Austria.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Durability of Gadolinium Zirconate/YSZ Double-Layered Thermal Barrier Coatings under Different Thermal Cyclic Test Conditions2019In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 14, article id E2238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher durability in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is constantly sought to enhance the service life of gas turbine engine components such as blades and vanes. In this study, three double layered gadolinium zirconate (GZ)-on-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) TBC variants with varying individual layer thickness but identical total thickness produced by suspension plasma spray (SPS) process were evaluated. The objective was to investigate the role of YSZ layer thickness on the durability of GZ/YSZ double-layered TBCs under different thermal cyclic test conditions i.e., thermal cyclic fatigue (TCF) at 1100 °C and a burner rig test (BRT) at a surface temperature of 1400 °C, respectively. Microstructural characterization was performed using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and porosity content was measured using image analysis technique. Results reveal that the durability of double-layered TBCs decreased with YSZ thickness under both TCF and BRT test conditions. The TBCs were analyzed by SEM to investigate microstructural evolution as well as failure modes during TCF and BRT test conditions. It was observed that the failure modes varied with test conditions, with all the three double-layered TBC variants showing failure in the TGO (thermally grown oxide) during the TCF test and in the ceramic GZ top coat close to the GZ/YSZ interface during BRT. Furthermore, porosity analysis of the as-sprayed and TCF failed TBCs revealed differences in sintering behavior for GZ and YSZ. The findings from this work provide new insights into the mechanisms responsible for failure of SPS processed double-layered TBCs under different thermal cyclic test conditions.

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  • 43.
    Mahade, Satyapal
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Curry, Nicholas
    Treibacher Industrie AG, Austria.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Engineered thermal barrier coatings deposited by suspension plasma spray2017In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 209, p. 517-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is susceptible to CMAS (Calcium Magnesium Alumino Silicates) attack at high temperatures (>1200 °C) which limits its durability. New ceramic materials which can overcome these high temperature challenges are highly desirable. This work investigates the feasibility of depositing two variations of three ceramic layered thermal barrier coatings. The first variation comprised of yttria as the top ceramic layer with gadolinium zirconate (GZ) as the intermediate layer and YSZ as the base layer. The second variation comprised of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) as the top layer with gadolinium zirconate as the intermediate layer and YSZ as the base layer. Microstructural analysis of the as sprayed three layered TBCs were performed by SEM/EDS. Columnar microstructures with a relatively dense top layer were obtained in both the variations. The porosity content of the TBCs was measured by water intrusion and image analysis methods. Phase composition of each layer of the as sprayed TBCs was analyzed using XRD. YAG showed an amorphous phase whereas GZ showed a cubic defect fluorite phase and tetragonal phase was observed in YSZ. In the case of yttria, monoclinic and cubic phases were observed. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

  • 44.
    Mahade, Satyapal
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Curry, Nicholas
    Treibacher Industrie AG, Austria.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Failure analysis of Gd2Zr2O7/YSZ multi-layered thermal barrier coatings subjected to thermal cyclic fatigue2016In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 689, p. 1011-1019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    8 wt.% yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) is the standard ceramic top coat material used in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) due to its excellent thermo-physical and thermo-mechanical properties. However, above 1200 °C, YSZ has issues such as susceptibility to CMAS (Calcium Magnesium Alumino Silicates) attack and enhanced sintering which could lead to catastrophic failure of the TBC. Pyrochlores of rare earth zirconate composition such as gadolinium zirconate have shown to be resistant to CMAS attack and at the same time possess several other attractive properties. However, poor thermal cycling life of single layer gadolinium zirconate (GZ) TBC compared to single layer YSZ has been reported. Therefore, a double layered GZ/YSZ TBC with YSZ as the intermediate coating and GZ as the top coat and a single layer 8YSZ were deposited by the axial suspension plasma spray process. Additionally, a triple layer TBC (GZdense/GZ/YSZ) comprising of denser GZ coating on top of GZ/YSZ TBC was deposited. SEM analysis revealed a columnar microstructure in the single, double and triple layer TBCs. XRD analysis confirmed the presence of tetragonal prime and defect fluorite phases in the top surface of YSZ and GZ based as sprayed TBCs respectively. The single layer YSZ and GZ/YSZ multi-layered TBCs were subjected to thermal cyclic fatigue (TCF) testing at 1100 °C and 1200 °C. The triple layer TBC showed a higher thermal cyclic life at both the temperatures compared to the single and double layer TBCs. The failed TBCs at 1100 °C were analyzed by SEM/EDS and image analysis. It was found that the failure modes in single layer YSZ and GZ based TBCs were different.

  • 45.
    Mahade, Satyapal
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Curry, Nicholas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Environment Production Technology West.
    Thermal conductivity and thermal cyclic fatigue of multilayered Gd2Zr2O7/YSZ thermal barrier coatings processed by suspension plasma spray2015In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 283, p. 329-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rare earth zirconates have lower thermal conductivity, better phase stability, improved sintering resistance and CMAS (calcium magnesium alumino silicates) infiltration resistance than yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) at temperatures above 1200 °C. However, their lower fracture toughness and lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) compared to YSZ lead to premature coating failure. In order to overcome these drawbacks at higher temperatures, a multilayered coating approach is attempted in this study and compared with the single layer YSZ. Suspension plasma spray of single layer YSZ, single layer gadolinium zirconate (GZ) and double layer GZ/YSZ was carried out. Additionally, a triple layer coating system, with denser gadolinium zirconate on top of the GZ/YSZ system was sprayed to impart an added functionality of sealing the TBC from CMAS infiltration. Microstructural analysis was done using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. Columnar microstructure with vertical cracks was observed. XRD analysis was used to identify phases formed in the as sprayed TBC samples. Porosity measurements were done using water impregnation method. Thermal diffusivity of single and multi-layered coatings was obtained by laser flash analysis and thermal conductivity of the coating systems was determined. It was found that the thermal conductivity of single layer gadolinium zirconate was lower than YSZ and that the thermal conductivity of multilayered systems were between their respective single layers. The single (YSZ), double (GZ/YSZ) and triple (GZ dense/GZ/YSZ) layer TBCs were subjected to thermal cyclic fatigue (TCF) test at 1100 °C and 1200 °C. It was observed that the single layer YSZ had lowest TCF life whereas the triple layer TBC had highest TCF life irrespective of test temperature.

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  • 46.
    Mahade, Satyapal
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Curry, Nicholas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Vassen, Robert
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Energy & Climate Res IEK 1, Julich, German.
    Functional performance of Gd2Zr2O7/YSZ multi-layered thermal barrier coatings deposited by suspension plasma spray2017In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 318, p. 208-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    7-8 wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the standard ceramic top coat material used in gasturbines to insulate the underlying metallic substrate. However, at higher temperatures(>1200 °C), phase stability and sintering becomes an issue for YSZ. At these temperatures,YSZ is also susceptible to CMAS (calcium magnesium alumino silicates) infiltration. New ceramic materials such as pyrochlores have thus been proposed due to their excellent properties such as lower thermal conductivity and better CMAS attack resistance compared to YSZ. However, pyrochlores have inferior thermo mechanical properties compared to YSZ.Therefore, double-layered TBCs with YSZ as the intermediate layer and pyrochlore as the top ceramic layer have been proposed. In this study, double layer TBC comprising gadoliniumzirconate (GZ)/YSZ and triple layer TBC (GZdense/GZ/YSZ) comprising relatively denser GZtop layer on GZ/YSZ were deposited by suspension plasma spray. Also, single layer 8YSZ TBC was suspension plasma sprayed to compare its functional performance with the multilayered TBCs. Cross sections and top surface morphology of as sprayed TBCs were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD analysis was done to identify phases formed in the top surface of as sprayed TBCs. Porosity measurements were made using water intrusionand image analysis methods. Thermal diffusivity of the as sprayed TBCs was measured using laser flash analysis and thermal conductivity of the TBCs was calculated. The multi-layered GZ/YSZ TBCs were shown to have lower thermal conductivity than the single layer YSZ. Theas sprayed TBCs were also subjected to thermal cyclic testing at 1300 ºC. The double and triple layer TBCs had a longer thermal cyclic life compared to YSZ. The failed samples were cold mounted and analyzed by SEM.

  • 47.
    Mahade, Satyapal
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Curry, Nicholas
    Treibacher Industrie AGAlthofenAustria.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Vaßen, Robert
    Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-1) Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbHJülich Germany.
    Erosion Performance of Gadolinium Zirconate-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings Processed by Suspension Plasma Spray2017In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 26, no 1-2, p. 108-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    7-8 wt.% Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the standard thermal barrier coating (TBC) material used by the gas turbines industry due to its excellent thermal and thermo-mechanical properties up to 1200 °C. The need for improvement in gas turbine efficiency has led to an increase in the turbine inlet gas temperature. However, above 1200 °C, YSZ has issues such as poor sintering resistance, poor phase stability and susceptibility to calcium magnesium alumino silicates (CMAS) degradation. Gadolinium zirconate (GZ) is considered as one of the promising top coat candidates for TBC applications at high temperatures (>1200 °C) due to its low thermal conductivity, good sintering resistance and CMAS attack resistance. Single-layer 8YSZ, double-layer GZ/YSZ and triple-layer GZdense/GZ/YSZ TBCs were deposited by suspension plasma spray (SPS) process. Microstructural analysis was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A columnar microstructure was observed in the single-, double- and triple-layer TBCs. Phase analysis of the as-sprayed TBCs was carried out using XRD (x-ray diffraction) where a tetragonal prime phase of zirconia in the single-layer YSZ TBC and a cubic defect fluorite phase of GZ in the double and triple-layer TBCs was observed. Porosity measurements of the as-sprayed TBCs were made by water intrusion method and image analysis method. The as-sprayed GZ-based multi-layered TBCs were subjected to erosion test at room temperature, and their erosion resistance was compared with single-layer 8YSZ. It was shown that the erosion resistance of 8YSZ single-layer TBC was higher than GZ-based multi-layered TBCs. Among the multi-layered TBCs, triple-layer TBC was slightly better than double layer in terms of erosion resistance. The eroded TBCs were cold-mounted and analyzed by SEM.

  • 48.
    Mahade, Satyapal
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Jahagirdar, Adwait
    Department of Engineering Science, University West, Trollhattan (SWE).
    Li, Xin-Hai
    Siemens Energy AB, Finspång (SWE).
    Kjellman, Björn
    GKN Aerospace AB, Trollhattan,(SWE).
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Tailoring microstructure of double-layered thermal barrier coatings deposited by suspension plasma spray for enhanced durability2021In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 425, article id 127704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gadolinium zirconate (GZ)-based TBCs comprising GZ as the top layer and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the base layer, are attractive double-layered thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for high temperature gas turbine engine application. This work attempts to understand the influence of individual layer microstructure on the durability of GZ/YSZ double-layered TBCs processed by suspension plasma spray (SPS). Two different spray parameters were chosen to obtain a combination of three microstructurally distinct GZ/YSZ double-layered TBCs i.e. GZ porous (P)/YSZ porous (P), GZ dense (D)/YSZ porous (P) and GZ dense (D)/YSZ dense (D). Thermal diffusivity of the as-deposited coatings was measured using Laser Flash Analysis (LFA) technique and the thermal conductivity of the TBCs was calculated. The GZ/YSZ double-layered TBC specimens were subjected to two different durability tests, i.e. thermal cyclic fatigue (TCF) and burner rig test (BRT). Sintering behavior of the individual layer TBC microstructures was evaluated by comparing the porosity evolution in as-deposited and TCF tested TBCs. Fracture toughness measurements performed on each layer of the double-layered TBCs were correlated with the durability results. Thermal cycling results amply demonstrate that the individual layer microstructure of GZ/YSZ double-layered TBC influenced its durability. Detailed failure analysis of the TCF and BRT failed specimens revealed similar failure modes for GZ (P)/YSZ (P), GZ (D)/YSZ (P) and GZ (D/YSZ (D) TBCs under identical thermal cyclic test conditions. However, failure modes differed when subjected to different thermal cyclic test conditions (TCF and BRT) and the probable causes are discussed. Findings from this work provide key insights on designing durable GZ/YSZ double-layered TBCs.

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  • 49.
    Mahade, Satyapal
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Jonnalagadda, Krishna Praveen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping, Sweden.
    Curry, Nicholas
    Treibacher Industrie AG, Austria.
    Li, Xin-Hai
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspång, Sweden.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Peng, Ru Lin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping, Sweden.
    Engineered architectures of gadolinium zirconate based thermal barrier coatings subjected to hot corrosion test2017In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 328, p. 361-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Gadolinium zirconate (GZ) is considered as a promising top coat candidate for high temperature TBC applications. Suspension plasma spray has shown the capability to generate a wide range of microstructures including the desirable columnar microstructure. In this study, two different TBC architectures were deposited using the axial suspension plasma spray. The first variation was a triple layered TBC comprising of thin YSZ base layer beneath a relatively porous GZ intermediate layer and a dense GZ top layer. The second variation was a composite TBC architecture of GZ and YSZ comprising of thin YSZ base layer and GZ + YSZ top layer. Cross sectional SEM analysis of the layered and composite TBCs revealed a columnar microstructure. The porosity content of the deposited TBCs was measured using two methods (Image Analysis and Water Intrusion). The as-sprayed TBCs were exposed at 900 °C for 8 h to a corrosive salt environment consisting of a mixture of vanadium pentoxide and sodium sulfate. XRD analysis on the as-corroded TBCs top surface showed the presence of gadolinium vanadate in both the layered and the composite TBCs. SEM/EDS analysis of the top surface and the cross-section of the layered and composite TBCs after hot corrosion test revealed the infiltration of the molten salts through the columnar gaps. The composite TBC showed a lower hot corrosion induced damage compared to the layered TBC where a considerable spallation was observed.

  • 50.
    Mahade, Satyapal
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Li, Ran
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Curry, Nicholas
    Treibacher Industrie AG, Althofen, Austria.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Isothermal Oxidation Behavior of Gd2Zr2O7/YSZ Multilayered Thermal Barrier Coatings2016In: International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology, ISSN 1546-542X, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 443-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficiency of a gas turbine can be increased by increasing the operating temperature. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the standard thermal barrier coating (TBC) material used in gas turbine applications. However, above 1200°C, YSZ undergoes significant sintering and CMAS (calcium magnesium alumino silicate) infiltration. New ceramic materials of rare earth zirconate composition such as gadolinium zirconate (GZ) are promising candidates for thermal barrier coating applications (TBC) above 1200°C. Suspension plasma spray of single-layer YSZ, double-layer GZ/YSZ, and a triple-layer TBC comprising denser GZ on top of GZ/YSZ TBC was attempted. The overall coating thickness in all three TBCs was kept the same. Isothermal oxidation performance of the three TBCs along with bare substrate and bond-coated substrate was investigated for time intervals of 10 h, 50 h, and 100 h at 1150°C in air environment. Weight gain/loss analysis was carried out by sensitive weighing balance. Microstructural analysis was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As-sprayed single-layer YSZ and double-layer GZ/YSZ showed columnar microstructure, whereas the denser layer in the triple-layer TBC was not columnar. Phase analysis of the top surface of as-sprayed TBCs was carried out using XRD. Porosity measurements were made by water intrusion method. In the weight gain analysis and SEM analysis, multilayered TBCs showed lower weight gain and lower TGO thickness compared to single-layer YSZ.

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