Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 99
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Abdulkareem, Haji  
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Javidan, Mustafa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Nätutvecklingsplan för området Hälltorp i Trollhättan2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After many long power failure occurrences on the overhead line that feeds the receiving substation Torsred, and because of the household expansion in nearby area, Trollhättan Energi Elnät AB has decided that a new receiving substation that replaces the existing one should be built at a new location. This thesis includes investigation and calculation of a new electricity network and suggestions on how the new electricity network can integrate with the existing one. Also, a new selective coordination plan and new backup power alternatives are investigated.

    The existing receiving substation Torsred is fed by Vattenfall Eldistribution AB:s 130/10 kV transformer OT00 by an 1 km long overhead line. The neutral point in Torsred is connected to the high voltage bar and consists of neutral grounding resistor and neutral point reactor. The total load current in Torsred is 925 A and during short-circuit in the busbar 154 MVA short-circuit power emerges. The substation Ängen with a short-circuit power 138 MVA is an underlying substation to Torsred that feeds the areas Öresjö, Edsäter and Hjärtum. All the outgoing electric lines in Torsred and Ängen are protected with relay protection and with different time- and current setting on these relays is selectivity installed for the underlying electrical network.

    The new receiving substation is planned to be built near the feeding point OT00. According to calculations the short-circuit power in the new receiving substations will be 227 MVA and in Ängen 200 MVA. The capacitive current increases because the over 1 km overhead line is demolished, and additional 7,5 km underground cable is added on in the new electrical network. A neutral point reactor needs to be upgraded to a 20 A bigger than the existing one because of the increasing capacitive generation in the electrical network. The price to build the receiving substation will be about 9 Mkr. The existing receiving substation Torsred will be demolished and replaced with a new 800 kVA network substation which will be used to feed a couple of the low voltage network in the area Strömslund. The distribution substation Ängen will be modernized. The total price for the whole project is calculated to 11,4 Mkr.

  • 2.
    Adamsson, Kristoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Analys och optimering av verktygsförslitning vid skärande bearbetning i superlegering2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the aerospace industry today, super alloys are used in components for jet engines. To increase the efficiency of these engines, through higher combustion temperatures, new materials are developed which maintain their strength at elevated temperatures. The increase in strength as well as the ability to maintain the strength at elevated temperatures, makes them more difficult to manufacture with metal cutting technology.

    The Sector Workshop at GKN Aerospace Sweden in Trollhättan produces a large number of products with a variety of cutting tools. Some of these tools, for a certain product, have been investigated in this work. The products are manufactured from a hard-wearing superalloy which results in extremely high tool wear and high tooling costs.

    To enable improvements in the metal cutting process, a literature study was first conducted. The study focus was to identify information about the various tool wears that occur in metal cutting process of super alloys. Thereafter, specifically selected tools were analyzed. The analysis consisted primarily of a classification of the different tool wear types. In parallel with the tools being classified, measurements were made of the size of wears using a digital microscope.

    The collected data was later used for a statistical analysis, which identified the tool wear type that was the most common. The analysis showed that most of the tools had chipping. Then, to identify where in the machining process the chipping occurred further analyzes were made where the tool wear curves for two cutting tools were plotted. During this analysis to produce the tool wear curves, it was found that the chipping appeared when the tools engaged the workpiece.

    In the later parts of the work, a list of proposal was generated about how the metal cutting process could change to reduce the identified tool wears. One suggestion was to optimize the tool engagement of the workpiece. Also, an optimization of cutting data and especially the spindle speed were also recommended to reduce chipping. This due to some of the chipping could be caused by chatter vibration. For the ceramic tools an increased cutting speed was recommended because machining today was carried out at a much lower cutting speed than research results indicate is necessary for ceramic cutting tools in super alloys. Finally, a checklist for manufacturing personnel was formulated, which could be used to optimize tool wear at GKN Aerospace Sweden.

  • 3.
    Ahrnfeldt, Olof
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Användning av reservelverk för att minska avbrottstiden på grund av fel på mellanspänningskablar2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every Network operator strives to have as few and short outages as possible. Network operators therefore work continuously to convert the overhead lines to cables. Therefore, there is a need to gather knowledge about outages on cables and look into methods to decrease the outage time. There are laws and guidelines that need to be taken in consideration that limit the allowed maximum outage time and that is why backup generators could be a method to prevent breaking them.

    Problems that can arise regarding cable outages are to locate the flaw. Visual troubleshooting is often not a viable option which requires that the prerequisites are good enough to be able to use other fault detection methods. Factors that could affect the possibilities to use other measurement methods are the length, number of joints and the surrounding environment of the cable.

    Backup generators are most commonly used for maintenance and to reduce the outage time. The generators are mainly connected at the low voltage busbars but with additional equipment as portable transformers it can also be connected to the high voltage busbars.

    The result of the work performed shows that there are different factors that affect the outage time and frequency. One contributing factor that leads to increased outage time is the length of the cable. It may be due to difficulties to locate the flaw or that the cable pass inaccessibility areas increases when the length of the cable increases. During the winter period the average outage time is longer as compared with summertime, but during the summertime the outage frequency is higher.

    Vattenfall have backup generators, portable transformers and diesel containers available for booking on the internal website. The most common time before a backup generator is connected is between three and four hours. By using backup generators, it would be possible to reduce the outage time on about 100 outages during the analyzed time period. The potential decrease of SAIDI by using backup generators has not been able to be calculated because of lack of data.

    Available data is based on what is documented and there have probably been more situations when backup generators have been used but not been documented. With access to higher quality documentation the analyzes could be done more accurate.

  • 4.
    Akram, Yasser
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Mirzad, Elias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Studie av övertoners inverkan på relätripptiden hos ett elektromekaniskt överströmsrelä2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A problem that has been noticed in the electricity grid is the increase in level of harmonics. In some cases, there may also be currents or voltages with frequencies that differ from the fundamental tone and this leads to the grid having harmonics meaning that when loads and components in the electricity grid are not sinusoidal, harmonics occur. For example, an increase in these types of loads e.g. charging an electric car or computers, in the electricity grid gives rise to an increasing harmonic content.

    In view of the aforementioned, this thesis has been carried out in collaboration with the Megger Sweden AB, Stockholm, as the official client for this study. The purpose here is to study the effect of harmonics on the relay trip time of an electromechanical overcurrent relay that is installed in the power grid's control facilities.

    The tests are performed with the test instrument Sverker 900 and an electromechanical overcurrent relay, ASEA RI. For testing the RI relay, a Swedish standard, an upcoming international standard as well as instructions from the client have been thoroughly followed and applied. The results of the tests shows the difference between the trip time with harmonics and the trip time for the fundamental tone.

    Conclusions based on the results are partly that the overcurrent relay is slower at weak currents, that is 2.8A and 3A respectively, as well as for long trip times in relation to the behavior without harmonics. According to the findings conducted herein, there is no significant correlation between the presence of harmonics and the influence of the relay trip time on medium and strong currents, between 4A-8A, or on shorter trip times.

    By reason of the time constraint experienced in conducting this study, the results and findings reached leaves a sound potential and promise for future tests conducted at different harmonic levels. A future recommendation for similar studies will be to test only at low currents, long trip times and slow disk speeds as this would facilitate the possibility of fulfilling a more robust result analysis.

  • 5.
    Alagic, Almira
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Balint, Norbert
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Marknadsanpassning av kabelskopa2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Excavating buckets are tools that construction machines use for excavation, demolition or moving different sorts of soils. Buckets are exposed to harsh environments there for ex-ample weather and the soil material that wears and strains the tool. To minimize wear and increase the tool's efficiency, can the material for the bucket be suited for the environment in which the tool is used.

    The aim of the project is to help the company to increase their exports to the EU. The goal is to produce a cable bucket adapted for the Dutch market, which is based on the product's current weight, material composition, performance and cost.

    Based on the company's needs the focus of this project is to adapt a cable bucket to the conditions and the market in the Netherlands. In order to implement a market expansion the company also needs to get information about market conditions, circumstances and customer requirements.

    In the end of the project a cable bucket considered to be adapted for the Dutch market were proposed. The comparison between the new bucket and the existing bucket resulted in a lighter and cheaper bucket where the material choices are based on the most common in the Netherlands and the bucket performs as its competitors.

  • 6.
    Alfredsson, Jonas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av kravspecifikation och affärsmodell för fjärrdiagnostisering av lyftlösning2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In collaboration with Binar Quick-Lift Systems AB, a product development project has been carried out at the University West in Trollhättan. Binar Quick-Lift Systems AB manufactures and develops lifting solutions for loads up to 300 kg and is an affiliate of the Binary Group, where operations are conducted in two primary areas: Industrial Solutions and First Responder Technology.

    The vision for most companies is to develop and given the current trend of the Internet of Things, Binar wanted to see how a wireless communication solution can integrate with the company's existing lifting solutions. The goal of this mission was to establish a requirement specification and a business model for wireless diagnostics of their lifting solution, based on customer needs and the company's basic requirements.

    The introduction of the project consisted of a preliminary study which included information gathering and interviews with stakeholders and experts. A market investigation was performed in parallel with the interviews where a function and competitor analysis were conducted to obtain relevant customer data as well as an understanding of the market. The requirement specification was established using collected information in the preliminary study and the business model was generated from the preliminary study as well as the customer and base requirements.

    The result was a requirement specification with mainly subjective requirements as well as a business model with a basic contract offer for the sale of the wireless solution.

  • 7.
    Alléus, Jonas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Dalin, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Vass, Sebastian
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Planering av laddstationer vid flerbostadshus2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sales of electric vehicles grow annually which increases the need for charging stations on parking lots at apartment houses. This report explore both the technical and the economical aspects of electric car charging for Stenungsundshem. The types of electric cars available on the market that can be charged by energy from the electric power network is the Plug-in hybrid and the electric car. The most common type on the market is the Plug-in hybrid which is driven by an electric motor and an internal combustion engine. The electric car is only driven by an electric motor. Charging times for electric cars depend on if the charging station is designed with normal charging or fast charging. For home charging, normal charging is the most common type of charging where the car is fully charged after six to ten hours. The connection between charging stations and cars can be made by different types of connectors. The European standard is the Type 2 connector. Safety is very important when charging electric cars, Therefore, charging stations have been divided into four different safety modes. Safety modes differ depending on the type of communication available between the charging station and the car. Mode 3 is the standardized mode in the Nordic countries. Charging of electric cars can result in power peaks which the main fuse must be dimensioned for. Power peaks can be reduced by using some type of load balancing system where available power during the day is distributed between charging stations to keep the power consumption below rated power. Terms of how charging is done and installation of charging station must be in compliance with Ellagen. For easier compliance and clarification of Ellagen standards and regulations should be used. In this project cable dimensioning by power requirements for different amounts of charging stations has been made, PEX insulated aluminum cable is exclusively used within the project. The market of charging stations is explored to look at different solutions and costs for charging stations and routing of cables. The best option for Stenungsundshem is currently to install two charging station for charging outlets to four parking spaces. Contributions like “Klimatklivet” can reduce total costs of investments for charging stations and cable routing with up to 50%.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Anette
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Bojort, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Nätplan för fördelningsstation M5 Hålta2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the area of Tjuvkil on the west coast, about 16 kilometers west of Kungälv city, a new residential area is about to be planned for about 140 new houses and holiday houses turned into permanent houses. A grid plan will therefore be made to investigate if there are any flaws to consider for the 10 kV-net, before and after the introduction which the new load will cause on behalf of the houses, plus extra space for the installation of an amount of charging posts.

    The purpose of this thesis is to compile the grid plan which will make the groundwork for the power distribution grid under the M5 transformer Hålta, which contains the areas for the new settlement. Backed up by the software dpPower this work will point out the flaws such as thin cables where large load currents and voltage drop occur, and also the statistics for interruption for the five outgoing lines from M5. This work also shows the status for the transformer in Hålta and how the surrounding grids status will be affected during their backup of emergency power for the M5. This work shows the grid status in the 4 steps as present status, with new load, emergency power and solutions.

    The thesis's evaluation of M5 Hålta will result in a suggested change of cable for the line L501 to Tjuvkil, which will decrease voltage drop and lower load current to avoid interruptions on the grid. Emergency power is lacking for a large-scale consumer and can be fixed with a looped feeding instead of a single line feeding on line L503. The transformer M5 in Hålta is already heavy loaded and in need to be replaced by a larger transformer later on. The thesis gives a suggestion on how to connect the adjacent transformers M1, M4 and M6 for emergency power.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Kristian
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Jason, Evelina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beskrivning och vidareutveckling av en modell för beräkning av övertoners fördelning i distributionsnät2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to describe and develop a model used to determine demand permissions regarding power quality on behalf of Vattenfall Distribution. The purpose of the model is to calculate the level of current harmonics allowed for different types of energy subscriptions by studying how harmonics spread in a power grid and how subscribers affect each other. This model needs to be described seeing that the documentation of the original model was lacking. The model also needs to be further developed to increase the flexibility and its ease of use.

    Harmonics are a phenomenon that occurs on the power grid and are generated by non-linear loads like EV-chargers and photovoltaic systems. If the harmonic distortion level is too high, grid connected electronics can experience issues or stop working.

    There are a number of standards, reports and regulations regarding emission rights considering harmonics. This report summarizes three of these as a background to how emissions are regulated today (2018). Two of these papers focus on voltage harmonics levels which is also the case for Vattenfall Distributions governing documents. Vattenfall Distribution needs to develop a new method to determine these current harmonics emission levels, and the model is a part of that process.

    A thorough analysis and mapping of the model were made to produce the documentation for the model. The model was then further developed to allow for more flexibility and could be simplified compared to the original model.

    The original model is considered to fulfil its purpose and therefore no structural changes have been made. The changes that have been made have been implemented to make the model as flexible and user friendly as possible. To help the user to understand the model, a flowchart was made to describe the structure and internal workings of the model.

    The authors believe that a thorough and detailed documentation of the model has been produced and that the model fulfills the purpose of producing representative values to determine demand permissions regarding power quality. The model has been restructured and is now perspicuous and easy to use. However the result from the model is highly dependent of the input data and it's important that it is of good quality.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Markus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Säkerhetsanalys av interna IT-säkerheten på ett mellanstort företag2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about a security analysis of a company's use of IT and their internal network security. The company is a midsized with about 100 employees and half of them use IT in their daily work. The company is active within industrial manufacturing and is located in western Swe-den. They want to develop in IT and are curious about how secure their network is today.

    A review of the layer 2 network security and computers used in the daily work was performed and evaluated. Anonymous interview of employees were made to find out how IT is used at work. A risk analysis was filled in by the responsible employees at the company to get an overview of how they think about risks and vulnerabilities in the use of IT. All this was done to bring recommendations to the company about how they can improve their security compared to what it is today.

    The results from the analysis of the network indicates weaknesses in the layer 2 security and that no security features are currently used to stop attacks from the inside of the net-work. The company has no high demands on the network or the security on the in-side but has given priority to flexibility and physical security.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Rebecka
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av styrdokument för elanläggningsinnehavare2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A control plan is a document that makes the maintenance work more efficient. These documents can for instance be used on a power plant to maintain routines and inspections on the electrical equipment. It is the plant owner's responsibility to ensure that the plant and its associated equipment is checked continuously to ensure the safety of the plant. The frequency of the inspections and what needs to be checked is not mentioned in any laws or regulations. It is thereby up to the owner to decide the ranges and the need of which inspections that are implemented on the plant. This study has been made to simplify the decisions that the owner must take when developing the routine and inspection plans.

    The developed control plan is taken from literary studies and two interviews from two separate companies. Through a comparative study data has been produced that describes what should be performed during a visual inspection and functional controls on a power plant. The study is limited to equipment that is generally occurring in a restricted access area. The produced result is two control documents – one for patrols and one for functional controls. The documents show what type of inspection that should be performed during a control, while the report describes how often these routines should be implemented. The time intervals are produced from a comparison of four companies' routines. Two of the companies has been interviewed while intern documents at two other companies have been reviewed.

    The study has given insight into the inspections that are implemented in a restricted access area and the responsibility that power plant owners have on the plant. The sources are considered relevant to the study and the interviews have been made with persons that possess knowledge in the field of study.

  • 12.
    Augustsson,, Jimmy
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Printz, Kristoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Svensson, Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Larmanalys för Vattenfall Vattenkrafts produktionsanläggningar längs Göta Älv2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vattenfall Vattenkraft AB owns 57 large scale hydro power plants in Sweden with installed power exceeding 10 MW. The study relates to four of the plants located along Göta river. This report analyzes incidents and the related remedial actions that have occurred during the period 2014 – 2017 as well as the alarm and control systems with the aim to identify potential improvements. The incidents are categorized by error, what actions have been undertaken to correct the issue, plant and season. The incidents have predominately originated in the turbine and generator facilities and have been caused by abnormal levels or temperatures. During summer and winter time, this is mainly due to variation in temperature and flow in the river. The four plants have caused a similar amount of alarms, which is interesting as there is a large variation in age. The analysis does not identify any reoccurring issues which were previously unknown to the company, but the authors recommends that an investigation is conducted to assess if eel screens should be installed for the cooling pumps of Lilla Edet. The alarms are generated in the plants and are sent to the control facility in Bispgården near Sundsvall, where the operator calls the local engineer on duty in Trollhättan. The engineer subsequently goes to the plant to access detailed information on the incidents from the local computers. This report examines the possibility to provide the engineer on duty with detailed information from the plant computer via VPN. This would be possible to implement but would require a detailed assessment of the security implications. The status of the alarm system have also been assessed as it have been modified and extended retroactively, and there is currently no comprehensive overview. The conclusion is that a review of the list of incident codes and their priority is recommended.

  • 13.
    Augustsson, Per
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Mansori, Farsad
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Skapande av dynamiskt modellnät för analys av lasters beteenden vid nätstörningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis is carried out on behalf of Vattenfall Eldistribution AB in Trollhättan. This work aims to make modelling of power grids for simulations, of load behaviour during perturbations, in PSS/E more effective. Modelling will be made more effective by means of programming, using the programming language Python, and also by allowing certain assumptions to be made about the grid. The idea for this work arose from a certain case, during which Vattenfall was tasked with investigating why voltage levels near an industry would not recover after a short circuit, on the transmission line feeding the industry, was cleared. Investigations demanded simulations of the disturbance to be carried out in PSS/E, to describe what had happened. To enable simulation and to make it representative, the grid and its components must be adequately modelled. Svenska kraftnät has the data nessecary for such modelling, but it is inaccessible due to confidentiality. Due to the data being confidential extensive work with modelling was nessecary. Early simulations were based on the idea that some parts of the grid can be modelled using only simplified models, and with typical, or default, values. This thesis uses that hypothesis in the programming code. The low voltage after these perturbations were caused by motors, more specifically induction motors, drawing high currents from the grid during reacceleration when the voltage starts to recover after the perturbation. This high, and mostly reactive, current causes significant voltage drops across the lines and transformers, in turn causing other motors to draw more current and further lowering voltage. The programming code, called a script, developed during this work allows the user to quickly create dynamic model data to use when conducting simulations of the dynamic behaviour of this type of loads. Modelling of the generators is done quickly thanks to the assumption that generators are located far enough away that they are barely affected by the studied disturbance. They are, for this reason, modelled using typical values. Through a graphical interface, the user then select which loads to model. For each load model, the distribution across different types of loads is specified by the user. Finally, protection relays are modelled to enable current monitoring. The script has been tested by comparisons to a reference network model created by Vattenfall. The comparisons show minor deviation between the script and the reference. This could be because the script uses default values and models less components than the reference.

  • 14.
    Axelsson, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Olsson, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Utvärdering av olika dynamiska lastmodeller i PSS/E2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis has been performed for Vattenfall Eldistribution AB. The purpose of this work has been to create understanding of dynamic load models and clarify how they function and how they can be used. The aim has been to perform simulations on short circuits and motor starts for two different load models. A part of the work is also to describe the basic principles of the induction motor to create a connection between simulation and theory. The theory of the induction motor contains information about the electric induction that is the basic principle of the induction machine. It also contains the correlations between torque, speed, current and voltage and also a description of the equivalent electric circuit. The IMD program is a program connected to PSS/E and it has been used to create the model for the induction motor that has been used for the simulations. The simulations have been based on instructions from the advisor and instructions from the PSS/E manuals. Simulations have been run with two of the built-in load models in PSS/E, one general load model and one model for induction motors. Short circuits have been simulated on both models and motor starts on the induction motor model. Short circuits have been simulated with two different fault durations 0.15 and 0.4 seconds. Motor starts have been simulated with two different transformer sizes 1.5 and 3.0 MVA and three different values of the inertia time constant 0.7, 1.0 and 1.5 MWs/MVA. At short circuit the fault duration causes larger currents and longer recovery times for both load models. At motor start the size of the transformer, in MVA, and the inertia time constant affects the motors starting time. Larger transformer means shorter time because of lesser drop in voltage. A larger inertia time constant means longer time.  If only the size of the voltage drop is of interest and not the course of the event, the motors start admittance can be used instead.

  • 15.
    Bassem Yehia, Khaled
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Abdowod,, Vahab
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Analys av indikatorerna AIT, AIF, SAIDI och SAIFI i lokalnätet2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish Energy Markets Inspectorate (EI) is a regulatory authority for electricity, district heating and natural gas, where one of their tasks is to control the company's power distribution quality. A good electrical delivery reliability is determined on the basis of EI:s regulations and general advice in the publication EIFS 2013:1.

    Every year, the power distribution companies reports data to EI of the disturbances they have had in their networks, which is used to measure and analyse the electrical delivery reliability in the Swedish electricity grid. EI uses established indicators that describe the electrical delivery reliability of the distribution networks in Sweden. The indicators used today are named SAIDI and SAIFI, which are customer-weighted indices that describe the average interruption duration and the average interruption frequency for a specific network.

    In the beginning of 2019, EI will consider introducing two indicators to replace the current SAIDI and SAIFI indices, the indicators are being defined as AIT and AIF. According to EI, these indicators will be better than SAIDI and SAIFI as they take into consideration the customer's expected power consumption during the power outage.

    The purpose of this report is to investigate how the new indicators AIT and AIF affects the delivery reliability indicators in GENAB:s network, where these indicators are exercised on different types of networks and then compared. How the network can be made more efficient in the future by means of automation in the network is investigated based on the results on the indicators.

    From the results and investigations, it can be concluded that the transition to AIT and AIF will result in an increase of the indicator´s interruption time and the number of interruptions for customers per year in GENAB:s network.

  • 16.
    Beissinger Bart, Andres
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Soto Vallejos, Nicolas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beredning av kabelnät i området Sjöhaga - Lerdala Gård2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis describes a preparation work for Ellevio AB. The preparation work is supposed to rebuild the power grid in Sjöhaga - Lerdala in Skövde municipality with the aim to weatherproofing the local area network and increase the reliability. The project concerns all work on preparation such as contact with authorities and landowners involved in the project, in order to agree on where the new cables can be built. Field visits were conducted continuously during the project for an overview of the area and to plan possible cable stretches, as well as the best possible location for the network stations in agreement with the landowners. The preparation of the underground cable is carried out in four parts, part one is Sjöhaga - Melldala, part two is Melldala - Karlsfors, part three is Karlsfors - Dämman and part four is Dämman – Lerdala Farm. Part one will have a serial satellite network station with a 200kVA transformer and no local network preparation will take place at this stage. In part two Karlsfors will keep its current local distribution network and network station, part three will have an ELIT3 network station fitted with a 100kVA transformer. For part four, there will be an ELIT3 network station with 100kVA transformer and three cable cabinets. In addition to these parts, the possibility for a redundancy feeding between Karlsfors - Yttersöra was investigated. However, when this was perceived as not possible due to the environmental conditions, it was decided, on the recommendation of a supervisor at PSN Kraftkonsult, to be placed between Dämman - Björnsäter with a overhead cable on existing poles. The cost of the renewal amounts to 2.6 million SEK and 449 thousand SEK for the redundancy from Dämman to Björnsäter. Network stations are positioned in Melldala, Dämman and Lerdala Farm which also has three cable cabinets. The total cable length of the HV-system is 6.5 km and the LV-system is 1.70 km.

  • 17.
    Ben Mabrouk, Amina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Maalallah, Mustafa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utvecklingsarbete gällande metoder för beräkning av bortkopplad last vid automatisk förbrukningsfrånkoppling2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vattenfall Eldistribution wishes to compile in real time which load that is available for disconnection via AFK (Load shedding) to avoid network collapse. This is done by implementing methods on Vattenfall's operating system to get an estimation of the load available for disconnection when AFK is activated.

    The purpose of the work is to create a summarized measurement value which, in real time, indicates how much load is available for disconnection with AFK in Vattenfall's network. This is to ensure that Vattenfall Eldistribution meets the requirements of SvKFS 2012: 1 during all hours of the year.

    The work is divided into two parts; one part to produce useful methods for obtaining the desired measurement values and another part for the implementation that has taken place in Vattenfall's operating system. These goals have been achieved by carrying out analyses and calculations of approximately one hundred stations containing AFK equipment that are located in three different zones in the electricity area SE3.

    Results are presented through a final overview, which is a fictitious picture of how it looks after implementation based on the methods developed in Vattenfall's operating system. In the resulting overview image, each station containing the AFK equipment is presented with a sum of the available active power for disconnection and each station is located under respective disconnection step.

  • 18.
    Bengtsson, Victor
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Svantesson, David
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Teknisk och ekonomisk analys av svetsmetoden HF-TIG i Ti-6Al-4V2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GKN Aerospace Sweden AB belongs to one of the four divisions within GKN and has most of its operations in Trollhättan, where development, manufacturing and maintenance are performed on components for jet engines. GKN is more than 250 years old and has nearly 60 000 employees, of whom approximately 2 200 works in Trollhättan.

    The aim of the thesis was to evaluate the high frequency tungsten inert gas (HF-TIG) welding method technically and economically for potential future implementation in GKN's production. The hope is that the welding method can contribute to a more stable manufacturing process with fewer delays and reduced quality deficiency costs on the product XWB-ICC (Xtra Wide Body – Intermediate Compressor Case), where today conventional TIG welding is applied. The existing welding method creates deviations in the quality of certain weld joints due to high thermal impact, and according to previous studies, HF-TIG should have a lower thermal impact on the material compared to conventional TIG welding. The project group, in consultation with the supervisors at GKN and University West, has delineated the work to titanium plates with 1.5mm thickness which has been welded "bead-on-plate" without filler material during the experiments.

    Literature studies in HF-TIG, design of experiments, investment assessment and quality deficiency costs have combined with welding experiments, data collection, measurement of results and meetings with staff at GKN contributed to good knowledge of HF-TIG technical and economic impact on GKN. This has been evaluated and compiled to be able to report a technical and financial result for a potential future implementation.

    In the study's design of experiment, the tip angle of the electrode, frequency, balance and the relationship between background current and peak current have been selected as factors to be investigated. The result shows that all factors affect the measured welding results in one way or another. This provides an understanding of the welding process and indicates which factors can reduce costs, caused by lack of quality.

    In conclusion, project participants together with GKN supervisors estimated a 25% reduction of quality deficiency costs for five specific welds on XWB-ICC. The result shows that an implementation of HF-TIG is economically profitable for GKN.

  • 19.
    Bengtsson, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kvalitetsarbete inom mätteknik med FARO-arm2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis has been performed at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB in Trollhättan. The company manufactures combustors for gas turbines. The purpose of the work has been to investigate whether qualified measurements can be performed with Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB's measuring instruments. This study has been performed through a measurement system analysis. The purpose has also been to investigate whether it is possible to introduce statistical process control for a detail.

    To carry out this study, the study designs case study and action research have been used. The case study has been for the measurement system analysis because it concerned a specific case that has been analyzed. Action research has been used to investigate statistical process management since the survey has been part of planning work for the introduction of an improvement. Measurements on a gauge block with known dimensions have also been made. The measurements were compiled in an Excel sheet and analyzed in Minitab. Then a VMEA was performed.

    Analysis of the measurements made it clear that the operators vary in both repeatability and reproducibility. The measuring instrument has proved to be stable and not a basis for variation. The study on implementation of statistical process control has shown that it is not possible to be introduced because the measurement results are too unstable. This leads to the company having to review its measurement methods to achieve a reduced spread of the measurement results. That the study has not used enough measuring objects for a statistically correct result should be emphasized. Consideration should therefore be taken that the result of the study is not entirely reliable, but rather indicate that it is a probable result that has emerged. Suggestions that have emerged during the study is:

    • The details are placed indoors long enough before they are measured.

    • The company introduces a separate, customized room for measuring the details.

    • The company reviews the work methodology for the measurements.

    • The company updates work instructions for measurements.

    • The company introduces measurement training for operators.

    What has not been made is the actual introduction and making of user data for statistical process control. This is because the measurement results have a too great variation for the use of SPS.

  • 20.
    Berggren, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Engevik, Hampus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utveckling av en båtstol med stötdämpningsegenskaper2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to develop a concept for a shock absorbing boat seat for power-driven leisure boats. The concept will be presented in the form of a CAD model and proposals for materials and components. The work is a product development project and is carried out on behalf of Segula Technologies. The company believes that there is a great potential for shock absorption seats in the leisure boat market. In order to reach the wide market, an important requirement is that the shock absorption function is integrated into the seat and not in the pedestal. This is because the seat will be able to mount on existing pedestals and still fulfill its function.

    To establish a requirement specification for the seat, a market survey has been conducted. The market survey has included visiting the boat fair in Gothenburg to study the types of seats available on the market and to speak with various experts. Internet searches have also been conducted to identify what types of boat seats are available on the market. A literature search in the field of ergonomics has been made to clarify how a seat should be designed. Laws and requirements regarding boat seats have also been investigated.

    Following the market survey, a specification could be established in consultation with the company. When generating concepts, brainstorming, brainwriting and patent investigation have been the most important methods of inspiration. Brainstorming and brainwriting have been performed a number of occasions with experts in different areas. For example, a former employee at Ullman, a world-leading company in shock absorbing boat seats.

    The definitive concept is a bucket type boat seat. This means that the seat is designed so that the armrests are integrated with the backrest. In this way, the chair also allows lateral support. The chair consists of an injection molded plastic frame with glued on cold foam. Cold foam is a common material uses as a cushion in armchairs to increase comfort. The chair's clothing is made of artificial leather, a material suitable for marine environments as it is both UV-resistant and water resistant. The shock absorption consists of an air bellows, four sliding bearings and two attachment plates in acid-proof steel. To protect the components and eliminate the risk of clamping, the shock absorber is covered with a rubber bellows. The device is mounted between the seat and the boat pedestal.

    The final concept is theoretical only and has not been tested in practice. If the company chooses to proceed with the concept, it is recommended that a prototype be prepared to perform proper tests.

  • 21.
    Bjernstrand, Carl
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förstudie inför uppförande av laddstationer för elbilar på personalparkering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years electric cars has increased in numbers, this increase is expected to continue in the coming years. With an increasing number of electric cars, more charging stations are required. Arctic paper Munkedals AB intends to construct charging stations for charging electric cars, primarily for visitors to the factory. There are several parking spaces for employees located next to the factory, and one parking space for visitors. Approximately 120 of the parking lots for the employees has access to sockets for block heaters. To reduce the investment cost, it is beneficial to connect the intended charging stations to the existing installation for the block heaters. The pilot study includes a compilation of data for the existing installation of the block heaters. Based on the compiled data the maximum current load for the existing cables has been calculated, the result of the calculations shows that in 2 centrals it is possible to switch to a higher fuse. The report explains generally about how electric cars and charging stations work. Products from a selection of suppliers that are considered relevant for this work, are described. Solutions and costs have been developed based upon 2 scenarios, where either the existing centrals for block heaters is replaced with charging stations or remains according to current version. The solutions are covered by the parking space next to the 40kV switchgear and a charging station on the parking lots for visitors. Essential for both solutions are the load balancing system, which enables a larger number of charging stations that otherwise wouldn’t be possible regarding to the dimensions of the existing installation. Of the 2 reported alternatives for the construction of charging stations, alternative 2 where the existing block heaters are replaced with charging stations are considered most suitable to proceed with. With this alternative 15 charging stations can be installed to a total cost of approx. 525 kkr. Because of the scalability of the solution, it is recommended to make the installation of the charging stations in stages as the need arises. This means that statistics for the charging stations can be compiled and analyzed to provide a good basis for further expansion. By carrying out the expansion in stages, the total cost will be distributed over time. Initially this means the construction of 1 charging station for visitors to a cost of approx. 110 kkr.

  • 22.
    Bonilla Hernández, Ana Esther
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. GKN Aerospace Engine Systems AB, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Fredriksson, Claes
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Energy and Cost Estimation of a Feature-based Machining Operation on HRSA2017In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 61, no Supplement C, p. 511-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forward-looking manufacturing companies aim for sustainable production with low environmental footprint. This is true also for aerospace engine-makers, although their environmental impact mostly occurs during the use-phase of their products. Materials, such as Nickel alloys, are used for special applications where other materials will not withstand tough working conditions in terms of pressure and temperature. Heat Resistant Super Alloys are, however, considered difficult to machine and cutting tools will wear off rapidly. In this paper, a simple way to estimate the energy required, the cost and environmental footprint to produce a work piece using standard engineering software is presented. The results show that for a hypothetical 3 tonne work piece, Inconel 718 will be considerably cheaper and require less water but will require more energy, and has considerably larger CO2 footprint than Waspaloy.

  • 23.
    Bräck Nordman, Natalie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utredning av Uddevalla Energis elnätskapacitet med avseende på Uddevalla kommuns framtida utbyggnadsplaner i centrum2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This preliminary study has been carried out at the department for operation and maintenance at Uddevalla Energi. The purpose has been to investigate the capacity of the powerlines with regards to Uddevalla Council's future development plans in the port and to identify strong and weak points.

    During a future 25-year period, Uddevalla Council plans to gradually expand the city center towards the harbor area, which today consists of industries and business facilities. The council estimates that the new district will be able to provide 3000 new homes and various types of businesses. The time frame for the exploitation plans are 5-15 years for the southern side of Bäveån and 20-25 years for the northern side. In order to investigate whether there is available power for the additional district, a load forecast is made of the future power requirement. A survey and analysis is made of the lines in central Uddevalla and the transformers of the substations M1, M2 and M5. This is made in order to be able to investigate whether any reinforcement is needed. Reference the values used in the calculations are based on measured values from the peak of load on February 28, 2018.

    The expected power requirement for the planned residential areas is estimated at 4.9 MVA for the south side and 5.1 MVA for the north side.  The cable network in the port has a total capacity of 7 MVA and will be almost saturated after the southern area’s construction is completed. With regard to redundancy, all substations are able to supply an additional residential area on the south side alone, while only M1 has the capacity for the entire forecasted load. The transformers in M2 and M5 will be overloaded only during the development of the residential area on the north side. To the future expansion of the city center, suggestions for placement of three new lines from M1 are made. In connection with the installation, most of M1-L206 can be replaced, which consists of undersized oil cables. The cost for this amounts to 10,3 million (SEK).

    Another future option that would have to be investigated more closely is how the possibilities are to place a new substation in central or southern Uddevalla. The existing ones are located in the northern, western and eastern parts of the city.

  • 24.
    Börjesson, Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beredning av landsbygdsnät i Hassle, Mariestad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis deals with how preparation work is accomplished in rural networks, by field work, landowner contact, contracts and permit applications. The described preparation work is the basis for the implementation of the project from Ellevio AB.  The reconstruction is performed in order to secure the voltage and get a more weatherproofed network, but also to get rejuvenation of the network. The preparation work is done for PSN Kraftkonsult Eldistribution AB in Vedum and performed using their working methods. The preparation work is performed in the area of Hassle north of the town Mariestad. The project is divided into two interim stages. Stage one is called Hassle sub-station – Källtorp and the second one is Fåleberg – Nolhassle. These two stages are parts of one large reconstruction of the distribution network in the area by Ellevio AB in the near time. Due to the fact that a major rebuilding project of the E20 in the affected area the projector’s intended rout for the cable had to be changed. And it became 1100 m further. The result of the preparation work includes two new 10/04 kV substations, one new cable cabinet, 5850 meters of high-voltage cable and 500 meters low-voltage cable. All the cables will be placed in the ground and for the most they will be plowed down. Substations and cable cabinets will be placed strategically to create the strongest network as possible and for good availability for future maintenance.

  • 25.
    Capriles, Claudia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kartläggning av kommunala utvecklingsplaner gällande laddinfrastruktur för elbilar2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden aims to be completely fossil free by 2030. Politicians want to reduce fossil fuel cars while expanding the charging infrastructure for electric cars. The ownership of electric cars has increased by 73% in the last year. The charging infrastructure is increasing and now there are over 3,500 charging points in Sweden. It's possible to apply for investment support through State owned Klimatklivet, which offers financial support up to 50% of the cost of building new charging stations.

    The purpose is to investigate and compare different municipalities' plans regarding the development of charging stations for electric cars, and to compare their methods, strategies and infrastructure. The purpose is also to see which municipalities cooperate with each other and in what way.

    In order to investigate and compare the charging infrastructure in Stockholm, Gothenburg, Malmö, Borås and Trollhättan, interviews were conducted with those in charge of these selected municipalities.

    The result shows that the larger municipalities such as Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö have come quite a long way with the charging infrastructure issue, while the smaller municipalities haven't come as far in their development. The larger municipalities have staff who work with the issue and they have major projects in progress, which will be completed by 2018. Stockholm is moving ahead and is expanding their charging infrastructure onto city street buildings and residential neighborhood areas, while Malmö and Gothenburg are more careful and want to prioritize residential neighborhood areas over city streets as they want to continue giving precedence to bicycle- and bus lanes. The laws are the same but are interpreted differently. Common to all is that they often see legislation as an obstacle. Besides Stockholm, the other municipalities don't really know how to proceed. They don't know how to plan for- or who is responsible for developing the charging infrastructure.

    This is a new area which means that most municipalities are still trying to find their model. Better cooperation between municipalities could mean faster and more cost-effective development.

  • 26.
    Cirkic, Aldin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Qaljaee, Ali
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utveckling av motoriserad vertikal linjärenhet för kontinuerlig drift2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work has been carried out with the purpose of developing and defining a motorized vertical linear actuator for continuous operation. In the present situation, the company does not haves a linear actuator that is capable of 1600 millimeters stroke with a load of 100 kilograms. The goal of the thesis is to present a final conceptual solution through a product development process. Software programming or electronics development is available within the company to define the function, which has been considered as a demarcation.

    The project's method is a general product development process. The first step was to establish a project plan. By identifying the client's requirements the specification could be developed which has transferred into a QFD. The next step was to develop different solutions using external and internal search methods and choose a final concept. To ensure that the final concept is safe, two different risk analyzes have been created. The concept was demonstrated in a CAD software and then different calculations and FEM analyzes were performed. The final conceptual solution turned out to be a motorized linear actuator. To make the load weightless, a pneumatic cylinder has been introduced into the system. The positioning of the weight is carried by a ball screw which is driven by a belt and a stepper motor.

    The result of calculations and analyzes of machine elements showed that the device has a theoretical service life of at least 10,000 hours. The developed conceptual solution meets the goal of establishing a final concept for a linear actuator that can handle a stroke of 1600 millimeters with a load of 100 kilograms.

  • 27.
    Dahlberg, Vincent
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utvidga försäljning till marknader2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The company for which the work is done is Swedish and has about 50 employees in two locations. They offer safe transport solutions for pets in cars which are meant to protect pet, human and the vehicle in a collision. Among the products that they produce are dog transport carriers with a patent solution related to safety. This makes the dog transport carriers unique on the market and therefore compared to competitors, a fairly high price is set by the company. The company does not sell the carriers directly to consumers, sales go through retailers. Sales are mostly done in Scandinavia but there are small sales to Europe, Australia and North America. Managers within the company express a wish to expand the sales and in this case to the European markets of France, Italy and Spain. There is low knowledge so far about these markets due to language difficulties and low priority.

    Managers gave a student from University West the job to plot the markets France, Italy and Spain.

    Through collected theories about company's dog transport carriers and way of doing business, a number of questions where formulated to plot the markets. The questions were answered mostly through online research and resulted in a sheet of information about each market. Result was overall information about each market:

    • Culture

    • Competitors

    • Economy

    • Consumers

    • Channels

    Result showed that the highest purchase power in France is located to big cities, along the coastline and eastern part of the country. Highest purchase power in Italy and Spain are located to the northern parts of the countries. The result generated the customer areas within each country that might be interested in purchasing a dog transport carrier.

    The information about the markets were analyzed between themselves and in some cases with Sweden as a reference. The analyze showed pros and cons with the markets according to the company's dog transport carriers and way of doing business.

  • 28.
    Darefelt, Kristina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Vidén, Filip
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Projekthantering hos Vattenfall Eldistribution AB jämfört med andra nätbolag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work has been carried out on behalf of Vattenfall Eldistribution AB. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the improvement potential of the design process in the optimization department, with the aim of being able to provide suggestions for improvement of the process which ultimately can lead to a more efficient project flow. It is perceived in the department that there are non-value-creating activities at work that should be reviewed. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the process, the group has performed a network design according to the working process. The purpose of the work was to increase the electrical quality of the abonnee fields. Upon completion of the project, electricity quality could be increased for all customers in the area. For all subscribers except for one were the agreed limit values was within Vattenfall's guidelines. To make a comparison with other ways of working, a study inspired by benchmarking has been conducted at different network companies. Based on the analysis, data has been collected through qualitative interviews. The interviews have been recorded and transcribed. The material has since been sorted and analyzed using a qualitative data matrix. Following the interviews conducted, it was found that the working methods of the various companies largely resemble each other. However, some differences in the performance and view of economic calculations and key ratios could be observed. Differences can also be seen in the size of initiated projects. All participants in the benchmarking study stated that they overall are satisfied with the work process. Analysis of the collected material showed that for some aspects of the work process there is an improvement potential. After completion of work, the conclusion could be drawn that there are some elements in the process that contribute to non-value creation. This has been shown in the form of activities in which any form of forced interruption occurs in the process. Improving or eliminating these steps should provide a more efficient workflow. The management of calculations and key ratios is one of these factors. Proposals were made to clarify the information about the purpose and use of these for employees. Even the shortcomings found in the design tools can contribute to a slower process flow. For these, no proposals for improvement could have been provided, but it was still considered important to emphasize these inadequacies.  

  • 29.
    Dawid, Michael
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Tidseffektivisering av materialflöden och materialhantering inför produktion2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As competition increases in markets, it is important to use resources efficiently. Santa Maria, which is currently Northern Europe's largest flavoring company, has identified a need to review the material handling and material flow before production at Spice Factory in Mölndal.

    The study conducted at Spice Factory, is a qualitative study made by Michael Dawid from University West. The aim of the study is to present improvement proposals that lead to a material flow before production, which is 20% more time-efficient than the material flow before production at present. The approach is based on the steps taken during a change work. A state analysis is established to get a clear picture of how the flow looks like today. Data collection methods in the study consisted of interviews, benchmarking, observations and literature studies. Then, improvement proposals is presented.

    The improvement proposals presented are zone storage as well as orderly storage at the production buffer. With the help of key figures in the form of throughput times, a time study have been made, to compare the flow times for the material flow at present and with implemented improvement proposals. The time study showed that the material flow with implemented improvement proposals had a shorter throughput time. When implementing the improvement proposals in the material flow, the goal of the study to create a material flow before process that is 20% more efficient, is reached according to the time study.

    In future work, Santa Maria is recommended to apply the improvement proposals among the other process flows at Spice Factory, to create more standardized processes, which creates the basis to work actively with improving all process flows at Spice Factory.

  • 30.
    Degermosse, Christoffer
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Persson, Emil
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Upprätta en standard för vibrationsmätning i provrum2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Volvo Penta is a manufacturer of complete propulsion systems used in yachts and larger ships, besides the propulsion systems they also produce so-called gensets. A genset combines a combustion engine with an electric generator to induce electricity. Volvo have gotten indications of that their gensets in some cases might produce too much vibrations during full loads, therefore they want to investigate the possibility to include vibrational tests of gensets when they are produced. This thesis aims to define a standard which Volvo can use to measure vibrations on the gensets. Within this thesis it should also be assigned how Volvo should align the test equipment, define the tolerances of vibrations for the gensets, define a test routine for each vibration test, create job descriptions to the equipment and evaluate which risks that is involved during vibrational measurements. Several vibrational measurements were made during this project to acquire knowledge about vibrations, their measurement and the equipment. All data that was recorded during these measurements were later saved to an Excel datasheet as a beginning to database for their continued work, these have also been programmed to switch between different colors depending on what value enters a specific cell, the color depends on whether the value exceed the tolerances or not. Vibration measurements have been made upon three different engine sizes, D5, D13 and D16 which depends on that those were the most frequency produced within period of this project. The vibration measurements gave quite different results from one to another which could be backtracked to depend on them being of different specifications. The measurements did also fail to be accurate in some cases because of the gensets being places in different way upon the concrete floor. Every data value that followed from the vibration measurements have been checked to follow the tolerances given by ISO 8528-9. The thesis brings up several bullets with instructions regarding how to install the measure equipment and how to use the software Dewesoft X1. The bullets have been tested by personnel at Volvo to reduce the risk of them including steps that could be misunderstood. The standards have been defined with the help of the people who are going to use them, which is important according to the Lean methodology. During this project, there have been some mistakes done with the vibrations measurements and other problems that have occurred, those have been declared within the thesis. This is done to help Volvo Penta from doing the same errors and thereby eliminate waste of time and money. There is also included one chapter which declares some of the authors thought of what Volvo should do in their further work with vibrational measurements. The thesis includes a chapter for analysis whether Volvo should investigate if the vibration measurements is affected by the gensets being tested within a controlled environment. At Vara the gensets are placed upon a concrete floor while they usually are placed with some vibration dampening material in between the genset and its placement when it has reached the client. The final conclusions are based on two methods where Volvo themselves need to decide over which one to pick. The first one is that Volvo could do single samples at some gensets and thereby doesn’t need to make any further investments regarding measure equipment. The other method is to start measure every genset that’s is produces and save the data to be able to backtrack if the client makes a complaint regarding vibrations. The data could then also be used as support for new product development or quality control, the second method however is associated with large investments. Regardless of which one Volvo is going to choose, it is recommended that Volvo makes a larger amount of vibrational measurements before doing the final choice. This is recommended since Volvo needs a larger statistical basis, they could then rely on the average values and standard deviation to make up their own tolerances.

  • 31.
    Elfwing, Jonny
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Thersthol, Alexander
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konceptutveckling av provriggsutrustning för framdrivningssystem2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To carry out different tests on an electric car’s driveline, it often necessary to produce different unique test rigs, which may become costly in terms of both time and money. Thus, in the development of vehicle propulsion systems, there is a need for new modular rigging equipment that can allow shorter set times for switching between different test missions and more tests could be performed at the same time. The purpose of the thesis work is to produce one or more theoretical concepts of a test rig module. In the method section, a theoretical frame of reference is presented, describing the theories and assumptions that were considered relevant for solving the task. The approach to achieving the results includes, among other things, the tools TRIZ, idea generation, literature study and concept screening and weighting matrices. The result includes a proposal for a module-based concept and its characteristics and possibilities are described. The concept consists of three different types of functional elements which are objects that are used to hold and linearize the different components of an electric cars driveline, a module used to position and stabilize the objects and fasteners to attach components to each other and to the T-slots. The final part discusses the implementation and outcome of the thesis work, but there are also suggestions for further studies. The conclusion is that it seems possible to carry out tests with different drivelines using the module-based concept.

  • 32.
    Emami, Iman
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Pilqvist, Martin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Implementering av översiktsbild för att hjälpa driftoperatörer bistå anvisningar från Starta Sverige2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vattenfall is currently working to meet the instructions of the project "Starta Sverige" that is created by the Swedish transmission system operators in which a cooperation between different control rooms and control centers will minimize problems during power system restoration after a major disturbance. This work aims to aid the completion of the strategy in Starta Sverige for the control-room operators at Vattenfall to reconnect load after a system failure in the simplest, fastest and safest way possible. This will be done through development of a schematic overview to Vattenfall's operating system.

    The way to achieve this is to conduct interviews with control-room operators and operating system specialists with the purpose of understanding their needs and expectations but also to understand the technical limitations of the operating system. The development has been performed in an iterative way where follow-up interviews weremade to persistently improve the schematic overview.

    The result is a schematic overview roughly the size of an A4-papersheet. Technical limitations prevent some of the control-room operator's wishes to become reality, such asto use graphs to show the remaining active power to reconnect. There is one schematic overview to each of the eight zones of Starta Sverige in Sweden which will contain information about relevant stations, reactive components and transformer taps in addition to showing the voltage and frequency for the connection point to the national transmission grid. According to the instructions of Starta Sverige there is a priority to present the available and used active power since this information is important for system restoration.

    The schematic overview is planned to be implemented in the operating system the same year as the publication of this report, although currently an example is accessible in Vattenfall's operating system. Since the schematic overview is planned to be used after amajor system breakdown there's an uncertainty when the actual use will be.

  • 33.
    Enander, Marcus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Optimering av tankcontainerlastningar för Akzo Nobel Functional Chemicals i Stenungsund2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Akzo Nobel is a global chemical company. The company is divided into three business areas. The business areas are divided into business units. One of the company’s sites are located in Stenungsund, the site belongs to the business unit Functional Chemicals Ethyleneamines. The plant produces different varieties of ethylene and ethanol amines. Production takes place on a large scale and the products are delivered in barrels and tank containers. This study examines the loading and scheduling of the tank containers. According to the company, the schedule for the loadings causes a bottleneck. The company does not think there is enough room for all orders. Delivery precision is a key indicator the company uses to measure how well the deliveries are performed. Loadings that miss loaded pre-determined loading date differ from the delivery precision. At present, the company is well below the set target for the delivery precision. In order to offer more space in the schedule, Akzo Nobel needs to change how they handle and plan the loadings. The purpose of the study is to provide alternative solutions for how the loadings can be handled and planned. The solutions should focus on reducing the bottleneck effect of the loading terminal. The aim of the study is to identify why the loading terminal is a bottleneck. The aim of the study is also to develop solutions that can increase delivery precision. In order to complete the study, a literature study was conducted. Relevant topics associated with the study area were studied. Example of studied topics where supply chain, logistics and Lean. The literature study worked as a reference frame for the study. The study was based on an analysis of the situation and a benchmark. The purpose of the analysis was to gather information about the business. It was important to be able to derive the causes of the problem. The purpose of the benchmarking was to find other ways to manage and plan the loading terminal. The analysis, benchmarking and literature study then lay the foundation for the development of alternative solutions. The conclusion of the study was that Akzo Nobel's fear of a bottleneck did not quite match the reality. On the other hand, there are good opportunities for improvement. The sales trend also points to increased sales. Which means that in the future a more efficient loading terminal may be needed.

  • 34.
    Gohil, Kuldeepsinh
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Verification and Visualization of Safe Human Robot Collaboration for Robotic Cell2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Robotics and Automation field is booming in today´s scenario. Researchers and Technologist comes up with new ideas in the robotics field to achieve a higher productivity, flexibility and efficiency. To achieve the above goals, it shall be required that human and robot share their work space with each other and works in a collaborative nature. Safety is a main concern and in focus. Robot should not injure the operator in any way during working in robotic cell. In this master thesis main focus is to create a various test plans and validate them to ensure the safety level in robotic cell. The test plan should be validated in a real robot environment. The test plans consist of functional and individual verification of safety devices which are being used in a robotic cell at PTC which is known as smart automation lab. Apart from that it includes design simulation of robotic cells with manikins to ensure validation of safety in virtual environment. Design simulation of robotic cell with manikins are created in RobotStudio 6.06. However, smart components, trap routines, SafeMove and offline program in RAPID have been created. Various test results are incorporated in the results section to ensure the verification and validation of safe human robot collaboration of virtual environment in RobotStudio 6.06.

  • 35.
    Gopinath,, Kiran
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Mimicking of human hand motion on robot arm using point cloud and Machine learning techniques2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative robots may be required to do complex assembly operations during production and programming the Robot to perform such operations can be a challenging task. If the motions of the human palm could be mimicked on the Robot, it would mitigate the com-plexities involved in teaching such skills to the Robot. This mimicking action could also be used in other applications like robot based painting where it is necessary to capture motion generated by a skilled human hand and reproduce it on a robot.

    To achieve this there may be many methods. A point cloud camera could be used to capture and store point cloud data of an object at different positions and orientations inside the Robot work volume. Corresponding Tool centre point positions and orientations read from the Robot controller serve as labelled data necessary for machine learning.

    The task involves generation of Robot programs to synchronize point cloud capture and robot pose capture resulting in generation of data necessary for machine learning. The point cloud data is generated using Kinect point cloud camera by establishing the communication between the robot and the Kinect V2.

    The objective in this paper is concluded by gathering the point cloud data for limited positions using Kinect V2 which is necessary for machine learning. Since machine learning techniques can be applied for further process huge amount of data is required hence this data is generated.

  • 36.
    Granlund, Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av koncept för tryckindikator och informationsöverföring för luftaxel2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the project has been to develop a concept for both indicating the pressure level in the rolling axle hoses and for transferring this information from the rotating shaft to non-rotating machine parts. The report's literature study describes sensor technology and information-transferring-techniques for non-stationary objects. Study visits and interviews have been made to pay attention to the demands and expectations of future stakeholders on the product. During the concept generation phase, several methods have been used, including function trees and investigations of patents. A total of 21 concepts were generated. During the concept screening and concept scoring phase, an independent engineering student has been used for feedback. A cost analysis based on estimates for the sub-concepts has been carried out before the concept selection. The work resulted in a total of four subconcepts. Two sub-concepts for pressure indication and two sub-concepts for information transfer. Prior to final conceptual selection, more assessment steps should be performed, for example, subcontractors should be contacted regarding quotation requests and a FMEA should be created.

  • 37.
    Gröndahl, Sander
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utförande och dimensionering av jordning i inomhusställverk upp till 145 kV2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is written as a system study with the purpose of ensuring, through studies of existing knowledge, that Otera Ratel AB's construction regarding grounding in substations is up to par with today's standards. The challenge is that in-depth knowledge is required to understand and apply existing implementation and design standards for construction of grounding systems. Additionally, the requirements regarding safe voltage levels must be laid down so a standardized workplan based on that can be formed.

    The report processes the overall theories and concepts which are necessary for the contractor’s decisions. Theory is collected from studies of regulations, standards, handbooks, reports and interviews. The theories treat subjects such as: earth fault currents, earthing conductors, earthing electrodes, earth potential rise, and touch voltage. These theories are subsequently applied to an example based on real data.

    Thereafter, a discussion about the importance of a correct executed grounding system follows. The consequence of an incorrect designed system could be fault currents which take the wrong path to ground. The theory section and example case are both also discussed and inserted into a broader context. Despite the extensive knowledge of the standard provided in the report no standardized workplan can be determined. The decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis relying on case specific facts. The validity of the example case can be called in question since data is missing which affects the result of the example.

    The report concludes by presenting the results and recommendations on how to scrutinize the standard and its concepts regarding successful grounding. The voltage requirements are also determined and hence the aim of the report is achieved.

    Proposals for continued work include the themes which this report neglects but which are in some way connected to grounding, like EMC compatibility and lightning conductors. Furthermore, fault current splitting and methods for measurements are areas in which extra insight is needed.

  • 38.
    Göransson, Oskar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Tessin, Tobias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utredning och projektering av smarta elbilsladdstationer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An expansive use of electric vehicles and therefore charging stations will eventually lead to a much greater load on the electrical grid. One way to avoid overloads is to fit charging stations with load balancing systems that can adjust every charging station’s power output in relation to the rest of the local substations load. Since cars usually remain parked for long periods of time the load balancer can ensure that the cars only charge with a high amount of power when the general load is low, and thereby the local electrical grid doesn’t risk overloading in consequence of the increased total energy consumption.  This paper includes a market review of the three largest load balancing system suppliers on the Swedish market to clarify what separates the different systems and whether they are applicable in different areas. There will also be a design, carried out through ÅF, of a scenario of 50 charging stations controlled by load balancing systems in the parking lot of a company. In conjunction with this there will be an investigation of the ability to charge 50 of the employee's electric cars during an 8-hour working day with an assumed average commute of 50 km. Which charging stations and load balancing systems that are to be used in the design are determined by those which are best suited to the circumstances of the company. The design has been done in accordance with Swedish standards and with the help of information and software provided by ÅF. The companies that participated in the market investigation were found through Power Circle. According to the customer's requirements, the charging stations needed a power output of 22 kW, and since variations of the power consumption of the plant are present, the load balancing system must be able to measure the load of a transformer to adjust all charging stations power output accordingly. The charging stations and systems that were considered most suitable for the situation were Eldon's. The design included cable sizing, cable layout maps, cost calculations and transformer calculations. Each car needed only about 10 kWh to reach a fully charged state, and the available power of the transformer was sufficient to complete the charging of up to 182 electric cars during the workday. Thus, the cost of both cables and charging stations could have been much lower if the requirement of 22 kW power output was not set.

  • 39.
    Hadzic, Mirella
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Stridsberg, Louise
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Tejp som kraftöverförande fogmetod: en kartläggning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis is a survey of adhesive tape as a force-transmitting bonding method in partnership with TechROi Engineering, Trollhättan, Sweden. TechROi Engineering is a consulting company that works with design solutions frequently for the automotive industry and the manufacturing industry. The company wishes to implement taping as a bonding method but wants to evaluate the strength of the adhesive joint. A matrix that consists of characteristics of the tapes and established requirements are conducted with the purpose to enable an obtainment of correlations. The identified requirements are of surface preparation prior application of adhesives and its effects on the durability and the strength of the joint. Two methods for surface preparation is degreasing and abrasion. Further, factors and thus requirements are identified that are necessary whilst conducting an analysis and experiments of the strength of the adhesive joints. The identification of requirements for strength tests are done so with the benefit of a number of selected standards as well as previously conducted tests by researchers. The test methods are primarily intended to evaluate the mechanical properties such as fracture toughness and are sorted in the report depending on the fracture modes. Mode I, mode II and mixed-mode are studied in this thesis. The standardized test methods contain guidelines regarding how the tests shall be conducted. There is an importance to execute the tests, preparations and calibration according to the same circumstances. There is a need to rank the requirements although this may prove difficult since it depends on the application in which the adhesive joint shall be. Additionally, the occurrence of conflicting requirements is dependent on the application. Difficulties with obtaining test methods for mixed-mode arise, particularly due to the absence of standardized tests.

  • 40.
    Hallqvist, Alexandra
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Effektivisering av genomloppstid inom termisk sprutning2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis was to investigate possible ways to increase the throughput efficiency for a part that is thermally sprayed at GKN Aerospace in Trollhättan.

    The goal of the project was to identify technical solutions that can reduce the lead time for the part by at least 40 % and to investigate improvements that could increase the efficiency for all the products that are coated at the department. The project was carried out because the part had one of the longest process times at the department due to a lot of handwork, masking, low-power spray gun and multiple machine stops during the spray operation. The process has been observed and employees have been interviewed to map the current state. Process documentation and part drawings have also been investigated to understand the requirements and ensure that the solutions are useful for the department. The time each activity took were mapped during the observations. Based on the recorded times histograms were made to investigate which moments are most time consuming and therefore needs to be improved. Through the interviews, observations and the benchmarking, solutions were found and further investigated and assessed to identify which ones are the most effective and implementable. Together with operators and technicians, the possible solutions were discussed for in terms of feasibility and improvements. The technicians also discussed the possible time reductions per activity that the proposed solutions are expected to entail when implemented. To achieve the goal, the masking needs to be changed as the masking tools cause the bouncing of coating on the tools and back on the gun, which makes necessary to stop the spraying process after each stroke. If the masking tools are redesigned, a five-hour deburring operation that is performed at another department can be eliminated.

    The conclusion from this work is that it is possible to increase the process efficiency by 49.5% if the existing spray gun is used. If a higher-powered gun can be employed, it enables further efficiency improvement. The increased efficiency of the process makes it possible that the lead time can be shortened from seven days to four days as the part can be completed in the department.

  • 41.
    Hansen, Björn
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Underlag för ombyggnation av reservskydd2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This problem-solving system study has highlighted what problems a power distribution network can have with the combination of large transformers and long cables and wirings. This means that the short-circuit currents become too small for the transformer or busbar protection to function as backup protection if the outgoing 10 kV lines regular relay protection fails.

    With the requirements that exist in the safety of a plant and power distribution network, it is important to have relevant protection that meets the requirements contained in laws and regulations. The protection that exists in a power distribution network must be fast and safe. There can always be a failure in the equipment that exists and then some form of reserve must be available to ensure that the safety requirements are met.

    The goals that have been met with this study, are that it has been possible to clarify the problems that exists with back-up protection and to present solutions that are able to disconnect all faulty parts as quickly as possible in order to protect persons and animals, property and facilities from damage. The study shows some solutions that are simple and economical, the costs are realistic estimates from experienced competent personnel from different manufacturers. The various solutions have been discussed and weighed against each other with the pros and cons that form the basis for a decision making about which solution is best.

  • 42.
    Hansson, Hedvig
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Review of stable gas and its safety applications2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been performed at Autoliv Sverige AB in Vårgårda. The purpose of the thesis was to increase Autoliv’s knowledge regarding stable gas and its safety applications. To achieve this, a literature study, eight interviews and patent searches has been performed. To broader the understanding further, a concept study of an inflatable life buoy has been made. This idea was presented during a brainstorming session with nine employees at Autoliv. There are some certain characteristics that differentiates gas from solid and liquid substances. The first characteristic is that gases does not have a specific shape or volume. The volume is determined by the size of the container. Another property of gas is that it could be compressed to decrease its volume. The last characteristic is that a contained gas obtain pressure against all walls in the container. If the temperature increases, the pressure will increase as well. In this thesis, stable gas is defined as gases that not react with other gases when it is let out in the air. An unreactive gas means that the valence shell is full and that no electrons are missing or needs to be bound to another molecule. This corresponds to stable gases, for example the noble gases that is presented to the far right in the periodic table of elements. There are several safety products on today’s market that uses stable gas. This thesis includes a screening of three variants of inflatable vests, a bicycle helmet and a lifeboat. These products activate in different ways, both automatically and manually. The purpose of the life buoy was to do design a product that is easier to throw and takes less space than a traditional life buoy. Thus, demonstrate how stable gas can be applied in a real-world scenario. A complete solution has not been developed in this thesis due to the limiting time factor. Basic constraints, such as pressure and volume were calculated to show the necessary requirements on the buoy and the cylinder. The concept study of the inflatable life buoy resulted in a buoy of 35 litres with a cross section diameter of 1.6 dm. To be able to inflate this volume, a cylinder containing 90 ml is required. The dimensions of the cylinder have been calculated to minimize the use of material which resulted in a height and diameter of 50 mm. One of the conclusion of this thesis is that stable gas is useable for safety applications. The choice of gas depends on the specific product and its conditions and requirements. Therefore, a specific gas cannot be considered as the most optimal.

  • 43.
    Hermansson, Alexander
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Palmqvist, Christoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ett prioriteringssystem för frekvent snabbladdning av el- och laddhybridbussar2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government has set a goal to reach a fossil-free vehicle fleet by year 2030. The way against the target has already begun by replacing the fossil-driven vehicles against electric vehicles, including buses in public transport.

    In conjunction with the introduction of electric buses there are a number of different aspects to be considered, where one of them is the time for charging. With the Opportunity Charge fast-loading method you´ll be able to quickly and efficiently load buses at bus stops. A problem with Opportunity Charge is that queues can occur at charging stations. This problem can occur because the buses delays can´t be foreseen in the timetable, but also because only one bus can be served at a time per charging station. This can in turn lead to uncertainties about who will be charge first. There is therefore a need to create a prioritization system that tells in which order each buss should be charge.

    In order to create a priorization system that describes in which order the buses should be loaded, a survey of queue theory and priority systems for rail traffic, air traffic and healthcare was made. With this information the basis of the priority model was made. To the priority model identified and weighted the parameters that was considered to be important for the buses priorities. Two of the most important parameters to observe were battery status and time according to timetable. Based on these to parameters, it was then created a flowchart and also a priority list of remaining parameters. The flow chart together with the priority list then came to be the final priority model that was presented at the end of the report. In the priority model it shows in which order each bus will be charged.

    In the priority model there is a risk that important parameters are missing, which may be due to delimitations and information shortages. The reliability of the prioritization allocation can also be increased by letting traffic companies weighting the parameters against each other.

  • 44.
    Hodzic, Irma
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Karlsson, Elin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kartläggning och effektivisering av Oriolas inleveransflöde i centrallagret i Mölnlycke2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Oriola KD Corporation is a Finnish-owned group positioned in the pharmaceutical and distribution industries. The group consists of Oriola AB and has subsidiaries such as Kronan's drug store and Medstop. Oriola AB is active in Finland, Sweden, Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania. In Sweden, the company is established in Stockholm, Mölnlycke and Enköping, where the central logistics business for wholesale trade is located in Mölnlycke and Enköping The purpose of the study is to map and analyse the supply flow at the central warehouse in Mölnlycke, to identify waste and non-value-creating activities. Lastly, proposals for improvement will be presented. Earlier mapping of the supply flow has been done, but since then, some changes been done and an updated analysis and mapping of the flow is required. The students have chosen, in consultation with the supervisor of Oriola AB, to define the mapping and analyze to "Product Type 1" and "Outsourcer 1".  From literature studies for instance in logistics and lean production, interviews with staff at Oriola AB, mapping of the delivery flow, measurement performed and benchmarking done on Volvo Cars in Skövde, good knowledge of the delivery flow was obtained. The focus was on identifying each waste and non-value creation time during the various process steps in the flow. This was evaluated and a potential future position was created through a future detailed process map. The future process map shows the wastages and non-value creation time which is eliminated by implementing the improvement proposals. An important conclusion is that commitment is required from both parts and it is also important to motivate the outsourcer that the changes are necessary. Lastly, this can help Oriola AB to increase the value creation time and short lead times to improve flow efficiency.

  • 45.
    Hultgren, Jessica
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Undersökning av procentuell belastningsnivå på servisledningar anslutna till kundkategorierna flerbostadshus, skolor och förskolor2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis has been carried out on behalf of Göteborg Energi Nät AB. The work has a descriptive first part about how new customers are connected to the existing electric grid and the main part of the essay is a survey about power consumption for the customer categories apartment buildings, schools and pre-schools. When customers want to connect a property to the electricity grid, they often request an electric output that the network company perceive to be higher than necessary/what is required. If this is the case, the supply service line connection should have lower load and not be optimally dimensioned from a network company’s perspective. There is no data available that shows what level of load the supply service line connection have, which makes it difficult to start a dialogue with the customer or the electrician regarding requested power. The network companies do not want to take the responsibility to dimension the customer’s facility. The responsibility for this lies with an electrician. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate whether the power demand requested by the customer in advance is higher or lower than the actual maximum consumption. The report examines the level of load that the supply service line connection have and based on that information it gives an estimation of whether the supply service line connection are over or under dimensioned. By obtaining measured values from selected connection points and comparing the actual power consumption with the requested power, calculations can show the load rate of the supply service line connection. In this report, connection points were investigated on 87 apartment buildings, 7 schools, 18 pre-schools and 3 units with school and pre-school under the same connection point. The result of the study shows that the load rates for most electric supply service line connections. For apartment buildings the load rates were 25-34 percent and for schools and pre-schools 20-29 percent. This strengthens the hypothesis that the supply service line connections are over dimensioned. One step in the effort to reduce over dimensioning of the supply service line connections is to try to have a dialogue with the customers or electricians. It is then important to explain that the load can be aggregated and that all loads will not consume maximum power at the same time.

  • 46.
    Håkansson, Petter
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Wadstedt, Lisa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Calculation model for actuators2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the development of a calculation model for estimating costs of actuators in the company SKF Motions Technologies. The aim with the calculation model is to show costs that are not apparent today, e.g. Costs that occur when establishing a new supplier or creating new manuals.  SKF has a standard assortment, including and many variants of these due to special orders. The calculation model being used today does not include the total costs, which results in uncertainties in whether the price is correct or not.   The method used in this thesis includes a theoretical study, to attain understanding of cost calculation and different methods to use.  The theoretical study also included studying other projects with comparable developments. The thesis continued with a research that started with a qualitative approach where semistructured interviews were performed to map the current situation. The information from these interviews were compiled in flow charts to achieve understanding of the processes involved, and to see what generates costs in those processes. Furthermore, it continued with a quantitative research when analyzing orders, customer requirements and costs. Meetings with the company´s finance system expert aimed at understanding the current model, and the factors included. The current model has also been the basis for verifying the new calculation model. After the data collection and the current state analysis, it was clear that the company's costs are scattered and that there is more cost than manufacturing and material, which can be attributed to activities. Such costs are difficult to show in a traditional calculation, and can easily be unnoticed. The thesis resulted in a new calculation model. The model was created to handle more variables than its predecessor, to achieve an insight in how different variables affect the pricing

  • 47.
    Jacobsson, Filip
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Standardiserad manuell hantering av fel- och omärkta lådor på Varner DC2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Varner distribution center in Vänersborg, Sweden, is a part of Varner Retail, which contains brands as Dressman, Cubus, Bik Bok and Volt. The distribution center in Vänersborg was opened in 2016 and will distribute goods to all of the shops included in the group spread across northern parts Europe. The purpose of the newly built distribution center is to make distribution of goods more efficient and lower costs connected to warehouse management and distribution. When the distribution center was built, processes standards was being developed. The tool used to create and manage the standards are called Standard Operating Procedures (SOP). The SOP is presented in a document including determined risks of the process, and a work instruction. Continuous development of the SOP is important to ensure that the documents are up to date and relevant for the process. This project was initiated in response to the demand of a standardized work instruction in managing one of the common failure with handling incoming boxes containing goods. If boxes do not have a bar code or has an incorrect barcode, they have to be managed separately. The automated system will not be able to determine what kind of goods the box contains otherwise. Before this report and its result was presented to Varner Distribution Center no standardized work instruction was available in the existing SOP. This report describes the work progression in developing a work instruction which will be in addition to existing SOP's. It contains description of the methodology used, existing theory, prior scientific work in the subject developing and working with a standardized working instruction. Ending the report will be recommendations for continuous improvement through implementing more standards and educating operating personnel.

  • 48.
    Jannborg, Fredrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Pettersson, Mike
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beredning av nytt distributionsnät i området Långekärrs skola2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns a preparatory work for a distribution power grid 0,4 kV/12 kV in the area Långekärrs school on the island of Tjörn. The preparation is made by TROLKs El & Tele AB at the request from the network owner Ellevio AB and consists of a reconstruction. The project affects 34 subscribers and includes demolition of 3,1 km overhead power lines, construction of 6,4 km underground cable grid and replacement of 4 substations and 8 cable cabinets. This because Ellevio shall maintain their delivery reliability of 99,98 %. In this preparation, there is one field visit to get a better understanding about the project and the conditions. During the field visit photos are taken which are helpful for the placement of the substations, cable grids and cables. Permissions from the County Administrative Board, the municipality and the Swedish Transport Administration are sought, but are done by TROLKs project leader since this preparatory work is done parallel with TROLK. However, the procedure is described in the rapport. In the preparation two options are considered for cabling on a mountain that is a conservation area between Toröd–Vik. One option is to do as it was before and put up new composite poles and overhead cable. But the preparers instead are choosing a second option which means that the cable will be placed in a protection pipe and then attach it to the mountain. Advantages and disadvantages about which side of the road 727 the cable shall be placed at is being considered. Which side of the road is decided by where it will be the least amount of work and intrusion on the subscribers properties. The cost of the project is calculated with the help of Ellevios internal pricelist that is buildt upon the cost index of EBR. The total cost is estimated to 1,4 million SEK.

  • 49.
    Johansson, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utformning och omläggning av last till ett mobilt ställverk2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the electric power industry, complex requirements are often set to minimize disturbances during construction or service work. A similar requirement is set by ST1 when they during a production stop intend to replace a switchgear in a station that feeds large parts of the plant. The requirement is that the switchgear should be replaced, but the plant must remain in operation. The purpose of the thesis work has then been to design a functional mobile switchgear for the voltage level of 10 kV. This mobile switchgear will then be placed outside the station that shall be renovated. Subsequently, several changes of cabling will take place and the feed from the switchgear that is to be replaced is moved to the temporary switchgear which distributes to the remaining part of the plant during the construction period.

    Borås Hospital has a 10 kV switchgear that is not in operation. This switchgear has been bought and can be used as a cost-effective solution if it is built up in a container and constitutes a mobile switchgear.

    Visits have been carried out at ST1's facility in Gothenburg and at Borås hospital for information gathering and identification of requirements and opportunities for the project. By processing the information retrieved during the two visits, an investigation could start. The investigation formed the basis for the design of the switchgear with protection functions, relay protection settings, dimensioning of cabling and redistribution of load to the mobile switchgear.

    Appropriate calculations have been made to ensure that the equipment that will be used in the project is sufficient from a thermal- and mechanical point of view. The calculations include short-circuit calculations, earth-closing calculations and loading.

    In addition to protective functions in a relay protection, safety for the design of the mobile switchgear has been investigated. This is done by using appropriate rules and requirements set by national and international standards. 

    The final result includes a physical placement of the switchgear inside the container with holes for cables, proposals for relay protection settings and a proposal for the redistribution of the load into the mobile switchgear. In addition, the thesis proposes appropriate safety measures issued by laws and regulations and technical descriptions.

  • 50.
    Johansson, Dahniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Modulbaserad arkitektur av lyftutrustning med tillbehör2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The battery pack that supplies the cars’ electric motor with energy is, on a regular basis, assembled and disassembled to the cars chassis. A product that can aid this procedure is required. The current practice does not satisfy all the customer needs that exist when the battery pack is handled. The identification of such needs and requirements are done by study visits at NEVS (National Electric Vehicle Sweden), study visits and benchmarking at competitors’, market research and questionnaires targeted to NEVS’ staff. During the initial identification of customer needs, more potential customers are discovered, both in the production department and in the aftermarket. As a result, customer needs increase and, in some cases, they are conflicting. Modularization is a method that enables update and variation to a product’s features without being locked into a singular product solution. The main identified customer need is positioning of a battery pack. The positioning is divided into sub-functions, which enables identification of potential modules. From these modules several concept ideas are generated. Parallel with the concept generation, European standards for machines are used to mitigate risks that invariably arise during product operation. Employing matrices, the concept suggestions for the various modules are screened according to a wide array of criteria. The conditions for combining module concepts with each other are analyzed. To minimize the risk of patent infringement, an investigation is performed with the help of the Swedish patent database. Based on the selected concepts, CAD (Computer Aided Design) models are created using Siemens NX 9. Models with critical functions are structurally analyzed by FEA (Finite Element Analysis) in ANSYS Workbench 17.2. The design work is an iterative process and when the models finally are optimized, prototype drawings are created. The drawings are sent to mechanical workshops for cost estimates. As a result, the objective of the project is met; a prototype to facilitate management of a 500 kg battery pack has been realized.

12 1 - 50 of 99
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf