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  • 1.
    Abdulla, Zine
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Varför blir inte detaljplanelagd mark för bostadsändamål bebyggd?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to Boverket's housing market survey 2018, which is a result of a national survey of the housing market in Sweden, there is a deficit in housing in 243 of Sweden's 290 municipalities. In order to meet increased demand for housing, increased housing construction is needed. Detailed development plans govern the rights, construction rights, which indicate what and to what extent property owners can build land. Detailed development plans are the legally binding documents that are established and adopted by municipalities in order to determine, among others, the use of land and water areas. There are several reasons for housing shortage and one is that Sweden's population continues to increase, both due to natural population growth and because of immigration. A growing population entails, for instance, an increase in housing demand, which in turn places demands on the housing market. The demand and supply of housing need to match each other. Another reason is that today it is the private sector that accounts for the majority of housing supply. The private sector does not have the responsibility that municipalities have in terms of meeting the residents' housing needs. The private actors intend to make a profit. Consequently, privately owned construction and housing companies build when it is economically beneficial and not just because there is a housing requirement. Due to the fact that there are still housing shortages in most municipalities, which is problematic, it is interesting to investigate which factors are important for housing construction.

    Current detailed development plans for housing purposes were studied. The detailed development plans that had not been implemented were used as starting material during interviews with relevant actors.

    The purpose of the study was to try to find out what factors affect the fact that detailed development plan land for housing purposes is not built.

    The study's results show that among the factors it is primarily the market situation, high business activity and recession, which affect whether housing construction is going to start or not. There are also factors such as construction law handling times that affect how soon a residential building can get started.

    The conclusion of the study was, among other things, that the market situation seems to be the most influential factor and because the market is governed by profit-dependent players, supply and demand will not always meet. Other conclusions that were drawn were that what is being built is not what is requested and that the building permits take longer than is required by plan- och bygglagen.

  • 2.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Stockholm, SE-100 44, Sweden.
    Sampietro, D.
    GReD S.r.l., Via Cavour 2, Lomazzo (CO), 22074, Italy.
    Contribution of satellite altimetry in modelling Moho density contrast in oceanic areas2018In: Journal of Applied Geodesy, ISSN 1862-9016, E-ISSN 1862-9024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The determination of the oceanic Moho (or crust-mantle) density contrast derived from seismic acquisitions suffers from severe lack of data in large parts of the oceans, where have not yet been sufficiently covered by such data. In order to overcome this limitation, gravitational field models obtained by means of satellite altimetry missions can be proficiently exploited, as they provide global uniform information with a sufficient accuracy and resolution for such a task. In this article, we estimate a new Moho density contrast model named MDC2018, using the marine gravity field from satellite altimetry in combination with a seismic-based crustal model and Earth's topographic/bathymetric data. The solution is based on the theory leading to Vening Meinesz-Moritz's isostatic model. The study results in a high-accuracy Moho density contrast model with a resolution of 1° × 1° in oceanic areas. The numerical investigations show that the estimated density contrast ranges from 14.2 to 599.7 kg/m3 with a global average of 293 kg/m3. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the MDC2018 model, the result was compared with some published global models, revealing that our altimetric model is able to image rather reliable information in most of the oceanic areas. However, the differences between this model and the published results are most notable along the coastal and polar zones, which are most likely due to that the quality and coverage of the satellite altimetry data are worsened in these regions.

  • 3.
    Alizadeh-Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Jensen, Anna O.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Optimization of deformation monitoring networks using finite element strain analysis2018In: Journal of Applied Geodesy, ISSN 1862-9016, E-ISSN 1862-9024, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 187-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An optimal design of a geodetic network can fulfill the requested precision and reliability of the network, and decrease the expenses of its execution by removing unnecessary observations. The role of an optimal design is highlighted in deformation monitoring network due to the repeatability of these networks. The core design problem is how to define precision and reliability criteria. This paper proposes a solution, where the precision criterion is defined based on the precision of deformation parameters, i. e. precision of strain and differential rotations. A strain analysis can be performed to obtain some information about the possible deformation of a deformable object. In this study, we split an area into a number of three-dimensional finite elements with the help of the Delaunay triangulation and performed the strain analysis on each element. According to the obtained precision of deformation parameters in each element, the precision criterion of displacement detection at each network point is then determined. The developed criterion is implemented to optimize the observations from the Global Positioning System (GPS) in Skåne monitoring network in Sweden. The network was established in 1989 and straddled the Tornquist zone, which is one of the most active faults in southern Sweden. The numerical results show that 17 out of all 21 possible GPS baseline observations are sufficient to detect minimum 3 mm displacement at each network point. © 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.

  • 4.
    Andersson, H. Robert H.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    De Blanche, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Thomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Flipping the Data Center Network: Increasing East-West Capacity Using Existing Hardware2017In: 2017 IEEE 42nd Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN), 9-12 Oct. 2017, IEEE, 2017, p. 211-214, article id 8109355Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today's datacenters, there is an increasing demand for more network traffic capacity. The majority of the increase in traffic is internal to the datacenter, i.e., it flows between different servers within the datacenter. This category of traffic is often referred to as east-west traffic and traditional hierarchical architectures are not well equipped to handle this type of traffic. Instead, they are better suited for the north-southbound traffic between hosts and the Internet. One suggested solution for this capacity problem is to adopt a folded CLOS topology, also known as spine-leaf, which often relies on software defined network (SDN) controllers to manage traffic. This paper shows that it is possible to implement a spine-leaf network using commodity-ofthe-shelf switches and thus improve the east-west traffic capacity. This can be obtained using low complexity configuration and edgerouting for load balancing, eliminating the need for a centralized SDN controller.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Jens
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lybratt, Rickard
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Överklagade lantmäteriförrättningar: I Västra Götalands och Hallands län mellan år 2012 och 20172018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigates and maps the extent to which decisions taken by the Cadastral authorities have been appealed in Västra Götaland County and Halland County between the years 2012 and 2017, where the years 2013 and 2016 were chosen to be studied at a deeper level. Furthermore, the study investigates differences between KLM and SLM regarding working methods and the proportion of appealed cadastral procedures. The study was conducted by reviewing 321 rulings from the Land and Environment Court, which is all the rulings regarding appealed cadastral procedures in Västra Götaland County and Halland County during the years 2013 and 2016. All 321 rulings were categorized as following; the cadastral measure being appealed, appellant, municipality, the reason for the appeal and the outcome in the Land and Environment Court and appeal to the Land and Environment Court of Appeal. In addition, interviews have been conducted with a judge and a Technical Judge from the Land and Environment Court. Interviews were also made with five current and former surveyors with experience from KLM, SLM or both. The interviews were conducted primarily to investigate differences between working methods at KLM and SLM and to investigate whether this may have any connection with the proportion of appealed cadastral procedures. The result shows that the proportion of appeals has been on average 5 % in Västra Götaland County and 4 % in Halland County between the years 2012 and 2017. The most common cadastral measure being appealed has been property reallotments and facility procedures. Furthermore, cadastral procedure costs has been the most common cause of appeal. In almost 50 % of all the reviewed rulings, the Land and Environment Court chose to establish the decisions made by the Cadastral authorities. In approximately 25 % of the cases, the court chose to change the decisions made by the Cadastral authorities. The result also showed a difference regarding the proportion of appeals between municipalities with KLM (3 %) and municipalities without (5 %). If the statistics are related to the different working methods at SLM and KLM cannot be said with certainty. From the interviews, however, it was found that many had the opinion that personal contact with the interested party and local knowledge is two important factors in order to make a good cadastral procedure. These are things that appear to be more common at KLM.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Thyrsson, Alicia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Marklov för trädfällning & skogsplantering: Kravets omfattning och utbredning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In community planning, there are many regulations that can be made to control land use and a detail development plan is an instrument that Sweden's municipalities have access to in order to do so. In a detail development plan, the municipality may specify properties that will apply in an area, such as the protection of trees, whish this study is about. To protect trees a plan regulation is required in the plan indicating what is applicable. In the Planning and Building Act 9 chap. 12 § it is stated that the municipality in a detail development plan may decide that a land permit is required for felling trees and for afforestation. An application for a permit to felling trees and / or afforestation shall be sent to the municipality, which will examine whether the application is to be granted or refused. Entering a land permit for felling trees in the detail development plan protects trees that may otherwise be cut down without the municipality's knowledge.

    The survey aims at examining the extent to which the municipalities of Sweden use the opportunity to decide on land permits in a detail development plan. Furthermore, the municipality's motive for the protection of trees is investigated and if it is done otherwise than with the plan regulation, and whether there has been any change in how the municipalities regulate trees in 2017 compared to 1990, when the detail development plan had recently been introduced. This has been done with both qualitative and quantitative methods to get a versatile and complete study.

    The results show that the municipalities used the plan regulation for land permit for felling trees in 60 of the detail development plans in 2017. To ensure protection of trees municipalities use other methods than land permit, for example a Plan regulation to protect trees. The motives given by the municipalities to protect trees vary widely and there are ecological, social and aesthetic reasons. In the comparison of detail development plans from 2017 and 1990, differences have been observed. More plans in 2017 with land permit for felling trees have been observed as well as more and more varied motivations. Plan regulation about afforestation has been found only once in a total of 1 353 detail development plans.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Sara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Mänsklig faktor: hur kan man få den svagaste länken inom IT-säkerhet starkare?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today´s IT environments, the role of the users becomes more important. In 2016 there were 200,000 crimes in Sweden that could be linked to social engineering attacks. These attacks are targeting the users and it is therefore important that users are aware of what they look like. This report is conducted in cooperation with a municipality in Västergötland, Sweden, and investigate four different methods to use when sharing IT information to their users. The methods differ not only in implementation but also in difficulty in the choice of words and expressions. The first method is a document of information taken from the municipality´s intranet. The second is also a document but is rewritten to simplify for the users. The third method is a video presentation and the fourth was made as a lecture with the possibility of interaction between the lecturer and the users. To evaluate these four methods two surveys were conducted. The first survey was performed before the users received IT information to create a baseline. After one and a half month the second survey was made. The surveys are compared to see how much the users remember and which method was most effective. The results indicate that the information on the municipality´s intranet is difficult to understand for the users. The other three methods provide a greater positive change in the user’s questionnaire response, indicating that users need a different form and structure when information is to be provided for them.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Sara
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Karlsson, Madeleine
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    802.1X, Cisco ISE och FortiAuthenticator: Autentiseringsmetoder för Ethernet i ett kommunalt nätverk2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When people connect to the network in the main building of a municipality in Västra Götaland they get an IP address from their administrative network.

    The municipality want to be able to separate the staff from the guests. In the current situation, their older servers are on the administrative network and therefore represents a security risk, as some of the servers do not have a firewall in between that can stop malicious traffic.

    The report will include the possible security risks that the municipality in the current situation can be exposed to and therefore three different authentication methods will be compared. The authentication methods that will be compared in the report is FortiAuthenticator, Cisco ISE and 802.1X with RADIUS. The reason these have been selected are because the municipality in the current situation is using FortiGate firewalls, Cisco devices and RADIUS. The report also includes dynamic VLAN as this can be used with 802.1X.

    The result that has been developed is that FortiAuthenticator and Cisco ISE has many similarities, however there are a few things that set them apart. In the implementation of 802.1X there are advantages and disadvantages to be considered. However, all three methods work well in the municipal network.

  • 9.
    Andlovic, Mihael
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    How real-world IP-distribution affects load balancing2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay looks at how IP addresses on the last octet are distributed and how they are balanced by different load balancer algorithms. We collected the data from a data center in Sweden to get real data. The IP addresses we collected were used with a load balancer using IP source algorithms. We used 4 different algorithms in different scenarios: the entire IP address, the first 3 octets, and the last octet with and without hash between two to five links/servers. The results were that the efficiency of the algorithm depends on the setup that is being used. Each of these algorithms did not have an even distribution, when comparing between two to five links/servers. The best overall distribution that did not have any weaknesses compared to the other algorithms was Nginx that uses the Bob Jenkins hash algorithm.

  • 10.
    Bejbom, David
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Mätmetodik vid interiörmätning – kan den effektiviseras genom vidareutvecklad EDM-teknik?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines surveying with indoor surveying as main focus. Indoor surveying is used to produce plans of an existing building that is being conversed to e.g. dwellings. The study evaluates reflectorless and prism measurement with total station. The purpose with the study is to identify the problems that occur when measured surveying is conducted and establish adequate surveying methods with regards to efficiency and quality. It will also be examined if a further development of the electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) technique will enable for reflectorless measuring to phase out the use of prism. To put the purpose into practice a few question formulations were established:  What objects are today problematic when conducting indoor surveying?  Which are the most adequate methods when measuring the objects identified above with regards to efficiency and uncertainty?  What are the ratio between reflectorless measuring made with different developed EDM technique? A number of qualitative interviews with surveyors were carried out to identify problematic objects and surveying methods used today. Together with earlier studies in the field, those interviews was the basis for the design of the quantitative field examination. The problematic areas examined were; large incidence angle, outside corner, inside corner and circular objects. Each of the reflectorless measurements were carried out by two instruments using different developed EDM technique, which enabled a comparison. Furthermore prism measurement were conducted since that is the leading method this day. The examination showed that prism measurement had the largest amount of results meeting the requirement of an enlarged uncertainty < 10 mm. Prism measurement fulfilled the requirement in 34 out of 46 of the scenarios, compared to 38 out of 54 when using reflectorless measuring with the newer total station. The examination also showed that the instrument using a newer EDM technic performed better in 50 out of 54 scenarios. Hence the conclusion were made that a further development of the EDM technique may enable a phase out of the use of prism on a wider scale. To be able to make correct choices of surveying methods, the final products requirements, which instrument that are being used and the shape and placing of objects need to be taken into consideration.

  • 11.
    Bertilsson, Alexander
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Sandberg, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Jämförelse av två VPN lösningar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about comparing two different virtual private network (VPN) solutions. One of them is OpenVPN running on a single-board computer called Raspberry pi. The other one is Cisco AnyConnect that runs on a Cisco firewall called ASA 5510. To compare and find out which one of the solutions that worked best, we chose to use three parameters: CPU usage under high load of UDP streams which were sent in a server-client mode over the solutions, the variation of the delay in a connection under same load namely UDP jitter, and how much data loss occurred at the same amount of load. We chose to use Jperf as measurement tool for the values we compared, the measurements occurred both during and after the transmission of traffic in the private tunnel. The software Jperf was used to create a UDP stream with 100 Mbit/s on different packet sizes, the same method was performed on both solutions. In the result, it emerged that the solution with a Cisco ASA 5510 was the better option in terms of the parameters we measured. The ASA had lower CPU usage during the transmission of traffic, the UDP jitter was slightly higher than the other solution, but the packet loss was much lower in all measurements. Based on the results is the Raspberry Pi a quite good solution considering the size and price of the unit. It can handle big sized packets in terms of CPU, jitter and data loss. On the contrary, traffic with smaller packet sizes it has some problems with both CPU usage and packet loss. This leads to poor transmission of traffic with small packet sizes, for instance IP telephony. [1] The best solution considering the parameters we chose to use is the Cisco ASA 5510 with AnyConnect. It performed better in two cases out of our three tests.

  • 12.
    Borg, Louise
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Ekosystemtjänster i kommunal planering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2018 the meaning of biodiversity and the value of ecosystem services should be general knowledge and integrated into economical standpoints, political considerations and other decisions where relevant and reasonable. This is one of the milestone targets that the Swedish government decided in 2012. We know today that only parts of this target will be reached. This study includes a survey regarding the concept of ecosystem service in Sweden, all the local authority comprehensive planning, and an examination of three housing projects in Stockholm’s county where ecosystem services were the focal point during the comprehensive planning. In the first part of the study, which concentrates on surveying the concept of ecosystem services, it can be shown that 116 of 290 municipalities have been using the concept in their local authority comprehensive planning. Furthermore, the concept is used more often than not during the last three years in local authority comprehensive planning. In the second part of the study the outline planning was examined, plan handlings and implementation contracts from projects in Täby, Nacka and Haninge municipality. The research was based on text analysis and on-site inspection. The results from the research showed that the municipalities have a high ambition regarding working with ecosystem services, and that there exist a correlation between the visions in the local authority comprehensive planning and regulations in the detailed developed plan. In the agreement the developers are bound to work according to implementation contracts and sustainability program which regulate the considerations of ecosystem services. The concept of ecosystem services is used to show which benefits we humans receive from nature’s work. We are dependent on continual ecosystem services, which are also essential to the public health and wellbeing. Joint effort and a considerate use of ecosystem services is needed to keep them intact. It can result in large profit for society to preserve, develop and recreate nature and green areas in population centers. To integrate ecosystem services in the physical planning is a step in the right direction. The local authority comprehensive planning show the direction for the municipality’s community planning, and the outline of the future physical structure, it also serves to guide upcoming detailed development plans and building acts. The local authority comprehensive planning plays a key part in the ecosystem services future, since its importance can be illustrated within. To reach the visions of the local authority comprehensive planning and the opportunity to actualize it in the detailed development plan is required. To secure the continued functionality of the ecosystem services, a clear and purposive legislation is required. An increase in knowledge and awareness of ecosystem services is essential, and everyone must see their part in the in our common responsibility and work toward a sustainable society.

  • 13.
    De Blanche, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Thomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Node Sharing for Increased Throughput and Shorter Runtimes: an Industrial Co-Scheduling Case Study2018In: Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Co-Scheduling of HPC Applications (COSH 2018): Held together with HiPEAC 2018 / [ed] Trinitis, Carsten; Weidendorfer, Josef, 2018, p. 15-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The allocation of jobs to nodes and cores in industrial clusters is often based on queue-system standard settings, guesses or perceived fairness between different users and projects. Unfortunately, hard empirical data is often lacking and jobs are scheduled and co-scheduled for no apparent reason. In this case-study, we evaluate the performance impact of co-scheduling jobs using three types of applications and an existing 450+ node cluster at a company doing large-scale parallel industrial simulations. We measure the speedup when co-scheduling two applications together, sharing two nodes, compared to running the applications on separate nodes. Our results and analyses show that by enabling co-scheduling we improve performance in the order of 20% both in throughput and in execution times, and improve the execution times even more if the cluster is running with low utilization. We also find that a simple reconfiguration of the number of threads used in one of the applications can lead to a performance increase of 35-48% showing that there is a potentially large performance increase to gain by changing current practice in industry.

  • 14.
    Engblom, Tove
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Gunnarsson, Lisa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lovet på landet: En rättsdogmatisk studie av 9 kap. 6 § PBL2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When the older planning and building act was replaced in 2011 by todays planning and building act, the paragraph regulating permits exempt buildings actions received some linguistic updates. The updates where intended to simplify and update the interpretation. Any changes in the countryside in how this was supposed to be interpreted was not intended. This thesis examines how multiple Swedish municipalities interpret the permits exempt buildings according to 9 chap. 6 § planning and building act. The examination was done with a survey sent to all Swedish municipalities, which was then put together and the results where compared. To be able to decide if the municipalities have been making correct interpretations this thesis have also made a thorough legal examination of the law and preliminary work.

    9 chap. 6 § planning and building act is a complicated paragraph and cannot be interpreted without reading the preparatory work. Unfortunately, just reading the propositions to the planning and building act is not enough. The preparatory work for older planning and building act must also be read to fully grasp the meaning of the law. The paragraph has gone through multiple updates since 1987, therefor the information has been spread out.

    The permits exempt buildings in this paragraph is aimed at property owners owning houses with one or two families in the countryside that want to erect a small extension for the house or a complimentary building adjacent to the main building. The condition is that there is a house on the property and that the building is of a complementary nature to not dominate over the actual main house. The property owner does not need to report to or consult with the municipality but is rather supposed to judge if the rules are applicable for them self.T

    hat the average citizen, without basic legal education, is supposed to be able to interpret a complicated paragraph like this is troublesome. The consequence of a misjudgement is expensive. Unfortunately, there is not a lot of guidance to be had from the municipalities since our survey shows that almost all Building Department are making incorrect decisions based on interpreting the paragraph incorrectly.

    This thesis shines a light on the problem with assigning a complicated paragraph to be interpreted by the property owners. Furthermore, allowing the municipalities to make their own regulations regarding the interpretation of the law, without accountability to superior government agencies does not make the problems fewer. Our conclusion with this thesis results in that better guidance and stricter demands on the municipalities must be enacted to not place too big of a responsibility on the individual citizen.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Kevin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lunde, Jesper
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Teknikstudie över olika laddningstekniker för elfordon2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electric vehicles are on a strong rise with increasing sales and larger infrastructure every year. For a fast-growing industry like electric vehicles, it is interesting to look at how they are charged as this affects all owners of electric vehicles. The commercial technologies for electric vehicle charging today are conductive and have been standardized. However, several different standards exist, partly competing with each other. The report describes the major standards of IEC, CCS, CHAdeMO and GB/T, in addition to these, there is also the car manufacturer Tesla with its own standard. The thesis takes a closer look at some development projects to see in which directions the technology is developing. Among other things, conductive transmission via rail in or on the road and transmission by wires above the road, but also upgrading of existing standards. Inductive charging projects are further investigated with static inductive charging stations and dynamic inductive charging while driving. The thesis investigates dynamic inductive charging in deeper detail. There is a lot of research and projects going on, but there are still many problems to solve in order to commercialize the technology. The advantage of inductive charging is that it can be wireless and when the vehicle is charged while driving, fewer stops are required to charge. The technology, on the other hand, has some efficiency issues that can vary greatly depending on how the vehicle is aligned towards the transfer coil. Communication to pay for charging, among other things, is still early in the development, as a very high communication speed is required when charging during travel. The writers view is that the major development and expansion will occur in inductive transmission as well as upgrading of the existing conductive standards. Standardization of the upcoming technologies is considered important in order to avoid creating many incompatible technologies on the roads. Work on standardization of inductive transmission is in progress but is not yet complete.

  • 16.
    Eriksson, Monica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Alsén, Pia
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Lycke, Liselott
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Tano, Ingrid
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    ARK: modell för att systematiskt arbeta med hållbart arbetsliv inom universitet och högskola (UoH)2018In: FALF 2018 - program och abstraktbok / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: University Press , 2018, p. 123-123Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Hållbart arbetsliv är idag ledord för arbetslivets förändrade villkor. Inom UoH i Sverige fanns i slutet av 2017 omkring 75 000 anställda varav ca 35 000 inom forskning och undervisning (UKÄ, 2017). Det är en sektor med stor betydelse för samhällsutvecklingen i Sverige. Arbetsmiljön inom sektorn ställer särskilda krav på personalen. Förvånansvärt få studier har gjorts i Sverige om arbetsmiljön för personal inom UoH. Med förebild från Norge implementeras nu för första gången i Sverige en forskningsbaserad (krav-resurs-modellen) och sektorsspecifik ny modell för att systematiskt arbeta med arbetsmiljön, den s.k. Ark-modellen (arbeidsmiljø- og klimaundersøkelser, se figur) vid Högskolan Väst. Arbetsmiljöverkets föreskrift 2015:4 betonar den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljön, vilket väl tillgodoses i denna modell.

    Syfte

    Att systematiskt och långsiktigt arbeta med arbetsmiljön ur ett främjande, förebyggande och rehabiliterande perspektiv på såväl individ- som organisatorisk nivå för att utveckla förhållanden som bidrar till ett hållbart arbetsliv.

    Metod

    Genom KIWEST (Knowledge Intensive Work Environment Survey Target) kartläggs arbetsmiljön utifrån 28 olika dimensioner. Kategorier som belyses är t.ex. sociala, uppgiftsbaserade och organisatoriska resurser samt jobbkrav och tillhörighet till jobbet. Organisatoriska förhållanden mäts med FaktaARK 1 medan genomförda insatser mäts med FaktaARK 2.

    Resultat

    KIWEST sändes till all personal med 20 % anställning eller mer. Utav 539 tillfrågade personer svarade 376, vilket ger en svarsfrekvens på 69,8 %. Resultatet visar att specifikt för sektorn är upplevelsen av tidspress samtidigt som arbetet upplevs som meningsfullt och viktigt. Nu följer analyser, planering, genomförande och utvärdering av insatser på olika nivåer inom högskolan. KIWEST-formuläret sänds till personalen med 3-års intervall. I förbättringsarbetet ingår även att granska och utvärdera genomförandet, därvid ingår även metodutveckling. Förbättringsarbetet sätts in i ett större organisatoriskt perspektiv och är en naturlig del i kvalitetssäkringsprocessen och ledningssystemet. ARK-processen förväntas bidra till teoriutveckling av krav- och resursmodellen samt öka kunskapen om arbetsmiljön inom UoH.

  • 17.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Elastic thickness determination based on Vening Meinesz-Moritz and flexural theories of isostasy2018In: Geophysical Journal International, ISSN 0956-540X, E-ISSN 1365-246X, Vol. 213, no 3, p. 1682-1692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elastic thickness (Te) is one of mechanical properties of the Earth's lithosphere. The lithosphere is assumed to be a thin elastic shell, which is bended under the topographic, bathymetric and sediment loads on. The flexure of this elastic shell depends on its thickness or Te. Those shells having larger Te flex less. In this paper, a forward computational method is presented based on the Vening Meinesz–Moritz (VMM) and flexural theories of isostasy. Two Moho flexure models are determined using these theories, considering effects of surface and subsurface loads. Different values are selected for Te in the flexural method to see by which one, the closest Moho flexure to that of the VMM is achieved. The effects of topographic/bathymetric, sediments and crustal crystalline masses, and laterally variable upper mantle density, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are considered in whole computational process. Our mathematical derivations are based on spherical harmonics, which can be used to estimate Te at any single point, meaning that there is no edge effect in the method. However, the Te map needs to be filtered to remove noise at some points. A median filter with a window size of 5° × 5° and overlap of 4° works well for this purpose. The method is applied to estimate Te over South America using the data of CRUST1.0 and a global gravity model.

  • 18.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    On the approximations in formulation of the Vening Meinesz-Moritz theory of isostasy2017In: Geophysical Journal International, ISSN 0956-540X, E-ISSN 1365-246X, Vol. 210, no 1, p. 500-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different approximations are used in Moho modelling based on isostatic theories. The well-known approximation is considering a plate shell model for isostatic equilibrium, which is an oversimplified assumption for the Earth’s crust. Considering a spherical shellmodel, as used in the Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM) theory, is a more realistic assumption, but it suffers from different types of mathematical approximations. In this paper, the idea is to investigate such approximations and present their magnitudes and locations all over the globe. Furthermore, we show that the mathematical model of Moho depth according to the VMM principle can be simplified to that of the plate shell model after four approximations. Linearisation of the binomial term involving the topographic/bathymetric heights is sufficient as long as their spherical harmonic expansion is limited to degree and order 180. The impact of the higher order terms is less than 2 km. The Taylor expansion of the binomial term involving the Moho depth (T) up to second order with the assumption of T-2 = TT0, T-0 is the mean compensation depth, improves this approximation further by up to 4 km over continents. This approximation has a significant role in Moho modelling over continents; otherwise, loss of frequency occurs in the Moho solution. On the other hand, the linear approximation performs better over oceans and considering higher order terms creates unrealistic frequencies reaching to a magnitude of 5 km in the Moho solution. Involving gravity data according to the VMM principle influences the Moho depth significantly up to 15 km in some areas.

  • 19.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Johansson, Filippa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Karlsson, Lenita
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Horemuz, Milan
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A case study on displacement analysis of Vasa warship2018In: Journal of Geodetic Science, ISSN 2081-9919, E-ISSN 2081-9943, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 43-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring deformation of man-made structures is very important to prevent them from a risk of collapse and save lives. Such a process is also used for monitoring change in historical objects, which are deforming continuously with time. An example of this is the Vasa warship, which was under water for about 300 years. The ship was raised from the bottom of the sea and is kept in the Vasa museum in Stockholm. A geodetic network with points on the museum building and the ship's body has been established and measured for 12 years for monitoring the ship's deformation. The coordinate time series of each point on the ship and their uncertainties have been estimated epoch-wisely. In this paper, our goal is to statistically analyse the ship's hull movements. By fitting a quadratic polynomial to the coordinate time series of each point of the hull, its acceleration and velocity are estimated. In addition, their significance is tested by comparing them with their respective estimated errors after the fitting. Our numerical investigations show that the backside of the ship, having highest elevation and slope, has moved vertically faster than the other places by a velocity and an acceleration of about 2 mm/year and 0.1 mm/year2, respectively and this part of the ship is the weakest with a higher risk of collapse. The central parts of the ship are more stable as the ship hull is almost vertical and closer to the floor. Generally, the hull is moving towards its port and downwards

  • 20.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Pitoňák, Martin
    University of West Bohemia, NTIS-The New Technologies for the Information Society, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Pilsen, Czech Republic.
    Elastic Thickness Determination from on-orbit GOCE Data and CRUST1.02018In: Pure and Applied Geophysics, ISSN 0033-4553, E-ISSN 1420-9136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elastic thickness (Te) is a parameter representing the lithospheric strength with respect to the loading. Those places, having large values of elastic thickness, flexes less. In this paper, the on-orbit measured gravitational gradients of the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mission are used for determining the elastic thickness over Africa. A forward computational method is developed based on the Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM) and flexural theories of isostasy to find a mathematical relation between the second-order derivative of the Earth’s gravity field measured by the GOCE satellite and mechanical properties of the lithosphere. The loading of topography and bathymetry, sediments and crystalline masses are computed from CRUST1.0, in addition to estimates of laterally-variable density of the upper mantle, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The second-order radial derivatives of the gravitational potential are synthesised from the crustal model and different a priori values of elastic thickness to find which one matches the GOCE on-orbit gradient. This method is developed in terms of spherical harmonics and performed at any point along the GOCE orbit without using any planar approximation. Our map of Te over Africa shows that the intra-continental hotspots and volcanoes, such as Ahaggar, Tibesti, Darfur, Cameroon volcanic line and Libya are connected by corridors of low Te. The high values of Te are mainly associated with the cratonic areas of Congo, Chad and the Western African basin.

  • 21.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Steinberger, Bernhard
    Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, Potsdam, Germany & Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics (CEED), University of Oslo, Postboks 1028 Blindern, Oslo, Norway.
    Tenzer, Robert
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Department of Land Surveying and Geo-Informatics, 11 Yuk Chai Rd, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Tassara, Andrés
    Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Victor Lamas 1290, Concepción, Chile.
    Comparison of gravimetric and mantle flow solutions for sub-lithopsheric stress modeling and their combination2018In: Geophysical Journal International, ISSN 0956-540X, E-ISSN 1365-246X, Vol. 213, no 2, p. 1013-1028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on Hager and O’Connell’s solution to mantle flow equations, the stresses induced by mantle convection are determined using the density and viscosity structure in addition to topographic data and a plate velocity model. The solution to mantle flow equations requires the knowledge of mantle properties that are typically retrieved from seismic information. Large parts of the world are, however, not yet covered sufficiently by seismic surveys. An alternative method of modeling the stress field was introduced by Runcorn. He formulated a direct relation between the stress field and gravity data, while adopting several assumptions, particularly disregarding the toroidal mantle flow component and mantle viscosity variations. A possible way to overcome theoretical deficiencies of Runcorn’s theory as well as some practical limitations of applying Hager and O’Connell’s theory (in the absence of seismic data) is to combine these two methods. In this study, we apply a least-squares analysis to combine these two methods based on the gravity data inversion constraint on mantle flow equations. In particular, we use vertical gravity gradients from the Gravity field and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer that are corrected for the gravitational contribution of crustal density heterogeneities prior to applying a localized gravity-gradient inversion. This gravitational contribution is estimated based on combining the Vening Meinesz-Moritz and flexural isostatic theories. Moreover, we treat the non-isostatic effect implicitly by applying a band-limited kernel of the integral equation during the inversion. In numerical studies of modeling, the stress field within the South American continental lithosphere we compare the results obtained after applying Runcorn and Hager and O’Connell’s methods as well as their combination. The results show that, according to Hager and O’Connell’s (mantle flow) solution, the maximum stress intensity is inferred under the northern Andes. Additional large stress anomalies are detected along the central and southern Andes, while stresses under most of old, stable cratonic formations aremuch less pronounced or absent. A prevailing stress-vector orientation realistically resembles a convergent mantle flow and downward currents under continental basins that separate Andean Orogeny from the Amazonian Shield and adjacent cratons. Runcorn’s (gravimetric) solution, on the other hand, reflects a tectonic response of the lithosphere to mantle flow, with the maximum stress intensity detected along the subduction zone between the Nazca and Altiplano plates and along the convergent tectonic margin between the Altiplano and South American plates. The results also reveal a very close agreement between the results obtained from the combined and Hager and O’Connell’s solutions. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society.

  • 22.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Steinberger, Bernhard
    Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany; University of Oslo, Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics (CEED), Postboks1028 Blindern,0315 Oslo, Norway .
    Tenzer, Robert
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Department of Land Surveying and Geo-Informatics, 11 Yuk Chai Rd, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Tassara, Andrés
    Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Facultad de Ciencias Qu ́ımicas, Victor Lamas1290, Concepción, Chile.
    Comparison of gravimetric and mantle flow solutions for sub-lithospheric stress modeling and their combination2018In: Geophysical Journal International, ISSN 0956-540X, E-ISSN 1365-246X, Vol. 213, no 2, p. 1013-1028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on Hager and O’Connell's solution to mantle flow equations, the stresses induced by mantle convection are determined using the density and viscosity structure in addition to topographic data and a plate velocity model. The solution to mantle flow equations requires the knowledge of mantle properties that are typically retrieved from seismic information. Large parts of the world are, however, not yet covered sufficiently by seismic surveys. An alternative method of modeling the stress field was introduced by Runcorn. He formulated a direct relation between the stress field and gravity data, while adopting several assumptions, particularly disregarding the toroidal mantle flow component and mantle viscosity variations. A possible way to overcome theoretical deficiencies of Runcorn's theory as well as some practical limitations of applying Hager and O’Connell's theory (in the absence of seismic data) is to combine these two methods. In this study, we apply a least-squares analysis to combine these two methods based on the gravity data inversion constraint on mantle flow equations. In particular, we use vertical gravity gradients from the Gravity field and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer that are corrected for the gravitational contribution of crustal density heterogeneities prior to applying a localized gravity-gradient inversion. This gravitational contribution is estimated based on combining the Vening Meinesz-Moritz and flexural isostatic theories. Moreover, we treat the non-isostatic effect implicitly by applying a band-limited kernel of the integral equation during the inversion. In numerical studies of modeling, the stress field within the South American continental lithosphere we compare the results obtained after applying Runcorn and Hager and O’Connell's methods as well as their combination. The results show that, according to Hager and O’Connell's (mantle flow) solution, the maximum stress intensity is inferred under the northern Andes. Additional large stress anomalies are detected along the central and southern Andes, while stresses under most of old, stable cratonic formations are much less pronounced or absent. A prevailing stress-vector orientation realistically resembles a convergent mantle flow and downward currents under continental basins that separate Andean Orogeny from the Amazonian Shield and adjacent cratons. Runcorn's (gravimetric) solution, on the other hand, reflects a tectonic response of the lithosphere to mantle flow, with the maximum stress intensity detected along the subduction zone between the Nazca and Altiplano plates and along the convergent tectonic margin between the Altiplano and South American plates. The results also reveal a very close agreement between the results obtained from the combined and Hager and O’Connell's solutions.

  • 23.
    Forsström, Claes
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Redundans med Rapid Spanning-Tree vs. Flex Links2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In networks where network connectivity is crucial, redundancy is needed. To prevent loops [10] from happening, a number of different protocols are used.

    In this report, Rapid Spanning-Tree Protocol and Flex Links are compared. The purpose is to investigate how the protocol works, the convergence time between the protocols, and if there is some kind of delay from the switch.

    The measurements show that the switches are waiting for some kind of timer before it con-siders a link down after it is physically unplugged. However, if the interface on the switch is shutdown, there is no delay. The results also show that Rapid Spanning Tree can be faster than Flex Links if the link interruption occurs close to a blocked port, otherwise Flex Links converge faster. However, Flex Links cannot see link interruptions beyond its own links, which limiting its area of use.

  • 24.
    Fridström, Anders
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Jämförelse av konvergeringstid för OSPF och EIGRP i små och stora topologier2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Minimal downtime of the network is important for most of today's enterprise networks. Preferable it shouldn't be noticeable at all, considering all real-time applications used. It is therefore important for the routing protocol to be able to reconvergence fast. In this study OSPF will be compared to EIGRP's convergence time, in both small and large topologies, when a router on the primary path fails.

    The tests were performed in topologies with 8, 18, 34 and 68 physical Cisco routers and L3 switches each with three different scenarios, OSPF, EIGRP without a pre-calculated backup path and EIGRP with a backup route.

    The result shows that EIGRP outperforms OSPF with several seconds in all topologies.

  • 25.
    Gustafsson, Annika
    et al.
    Advokaterna Gustafsson, Arnbom & Hedberg .
    Carlbring, Marianne
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Exploateringsavtal2018 (ed. Upplaga 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Haag, Isabelle
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Halldin, Pernilla
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Äldre fastighetsindelningsbestämmelser i konflikt med stadsutveckling och förtätning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many people consider the best way to get rid of the housing shortages is to densify the city in existing neighborhoods, as there is already some operational service and infrastructure available. An obstacle to this densification may be existing plans with property division provisions which lock the cadastral and require extensive plan work to be removed. Many municipalities chose to actively remove property division provisions just before the amendment of the law that took effect with new Planning and Building Act in 2011, which made the repeal more complicated. The municipality of Gothenburg did not actively remove these and now they have about 5000 old and new plans with property division provisions.

    The purpose of this study has been to get a picture of the factors and motives that make it possible to rethink plans with property division provisions. To achieve this, we needed to analyze legislation with preliminary work and the considerations made in Gothenburg on plan requests for cancellation of such provisions. It has also resulted in a survey of areas in Gothenburg. The study is legal-judged and implemented with interactive induction.

    As there have been frequent changes in legislation in attempting to simplify the planning process for the cancellations of property division provisions, to take less time and demand less resources, the study has determined to what extent simplification of the planning process results in a more efficient process. Resource efficiency for municipalities and shorter process time for individuals are the result of a more effective planning process but may also jeopardize legal certainty as neighbors' right to conduct their action is restricted. These aspects have been studied in parallel with the Case Study in Gothenburg and result in more legislative simplifications should be introduced with great caution in order not to jeopardize legal certainty.

    The outcome of the Case Study in Gothenburg, where plan requests were studied, will include a survey of priority areas. They are considered to be a priority as a result of the cancellation of the property division provisions would lead to several new residential lots. These areas consist of properties divided into three categories, where category one is areas that should primarily be a priority for removing the property division provisions in and then categories with areas that constitute second and third priority. The lots are subject to property division provisions, are placed within priority development area and are not affected by cultural programs. These criteria proved to be decisive for the outcome of the plan requests. In addition to this, the residential lots have high values and are of such size that there is possible to make it into two lots.

  • 27.
    Hansson Carlberg, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    En utforskande studie om prestanda i utvinning av kryptovalutan Burstcoin2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Talks about cryptocurrencies in society today keeps increasing and currently the most wellknown is Bitcoin. One thing that has been criticized is the amount of energy which Bitcoin consumes and that is one of the reasons why new more environmentally friendly alternatives have been developed. One of these is Burstcoin which uses Proof of Capacity instead of Proof of Work, which is used in Bitcoin. Proof of Capacity is a relatively new concept which uses disk storage instead of computing power. The purpose of this thesis is to explore how mining-performance when mining Burstcoin can be affected by hardware and by using plot files in different ways. This is analyzed by measuring read times and total block times in five different tests. The tests used in this thesis are examining how the size of plot files affect read times and total block times, how different type of storage disks performs when mining Burstcoin, how different instruction sets affect performance, how optimized and non-optimized plot files differs and how continuous plot files performs compared to split up plot files. Beyond this a benchmark is performed on the storage drives to get a baseline for how the drives perform when doing sequential and random reads. The results show that SSD drives perform best while mining, but the difference compared to hard disk drives is too small to motivate the price difference to hard disk drives which are cheaper. The most important thing about instruction sets is to not use SSE2 since it performs a lot worse than SSE4, AVX and AVX2, although the difference between the last three is too small to concretely say that the latest (AVX2) is a requirement when mining. Non-optimized and split up plot files perform worse than their counterparts. Though split up plot files can still be used as long as they are not split up in to too many files since every file increases the number of searches performed by the mining software.

  • 28.
    Ivarsson, Olof
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Jämförelse av TCP BBR och TCP Cubic gällande Throughput, Cwnd och RTT2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, Google released a new congestion control, TCP BBR. Instead of responding to packet loss as a sign of congestion, BBR tries to avoid congestion by estimating how much bandwidth is available at the bottleneck in the network as well as round-trip time (RTT) and then based on that information deciding its transmission rate. The goal of BBR is to send as much data as possible without creating queues at the bottleneck buffer, which increases the RTT without increasing the throughput. The purpose of this work is to conduct an independent study of how BBR and Cubic behave in different network environments where delay differs to reflect the difference between LAN and WAN communication for the two TCP algorithms. The measurements showed that it might be important to consider whether Cubic and BBR are mixed in the network. Changing to TCP BBR on a device in a low delay network when the other devices in the network uses Cubic results in that the device with BBR gets almost all available bandwidth when the transmissions meet at a common bottleneck.

  • 29.
    Jensen, Max
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Djärv, Mattias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Övergångstider och CPU-utnyttjande i First Hop Redundancy Protokoll2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s society is in a position where we become more dependent on technology for every day that passes, in pace with this dependency we demand higher availability from the technology that we use. Redundancy is one way of minimizing outages in the network. Therefore, it has been studied if First Hop Redundancy Protocols (FHRP) can be implemented with low transition period for a router to do a change from being standby to become active in each FHRP and to start forwarding packets, all in under 150 milliseconds. It was decided to see if HSRP, VRRP and GLBP can achieve this limit. Furthermore, it was measured how the CPU is affected by this changeover in FHRP. The results show that HSRP is the fastest protocol and can just about make the limit, and that these protocols have a very small load on the router, but that it uses more resources to be in the active mode than in standby-mode.

  • 30.
    Johannesson, Stefan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Olsson, Katarina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Bristfälliga grundkartor och fastighetsutredningar: En studie om hur stort problemet är och följderna av dem2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to PBL 5 chap 8 § it is required to have at least one basemap during the creation of a local plan. However, it is possible to overlook this if it is deemed to be unnecessary.

    The idea for this study was formed after a meeting at the beginning of this year when a group of people learned that the available basemaps were severely flawed and that they did not live up to the standard thus making them unsuited as a foundation for local plans, roadplans and railroadplans. Furthermore, it turned out that property investigations were all too rare. The meeting revealed a couple of cases where things had gone wrong and the consequences that had occurred due to this proved to be delays that lasted for approximately one to two years.

    The study aims to explore different reasons as to if and why there is a problem with the basemaps and property investigations. It also aims to find out what kind of consequences that could possibly arise due to this problem.

    This study is primarily based on interviews with experienced project managers who work at a private housing development companies but also municipal officials who have experience in planning new residences for a more broad study. Furthermore, this study will be based on their personal opinions and experiences regarding the chosen problem which means that not every single professional beyond this study will have the same answers.

    The end result shows that the chosen problem is not considered to be a great problem for the interviewees and that they so far have not come across any consequences caused by flawed basemaps or property investigations. All project managers have however experienced shortcomings, particularly heights, which is a detail that has higher uncertainty in quality. They have also noted that the quality differs between urban areas and countryside areas. The problem is well known amongst the interviewees which means that they are able to fix a problem at an early stage and that reduces the risk for major consequences.

  • 31.
    Johansson, David
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Stefansson, Simon
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Rättighetshantering vid bildandet av 3D fastigheter: med fallstudie Karlatornet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    3D real estate enable buildings to be divided into multiple real estates for different purpose and with different ownership. 3D real estates are created through a cadastral procedure according to Swedish law. When establishing a new 3D real estate there are specific requirements that has to be fulfilled so the purpose of the real estate is adequate. This means that all the real estate rights has to be acquired at the time of the cadastral procedure. The rights can be obtained through jointly-owned facilities or easements. Stairwells, hallways and the buildings core are a few examples where rights may have to be acquired. The purpose of this study is to map how creating a 3D real estate can be done and how the real estate rights is acquired in the cadastral procedure. Furthermore, it examines how rights can be managed and sustainable. How developers and cadastral engineers are cooperating to accomplish a sustainable management is also part of purpose of this study. This study examines what possibilities there are for 3D real estate's according to the Swedish law. To examine how the Swedish law is applied in reality, we studied ten cadastral procedure reports from four different municipalities. Interviews have been done with two experienced cadastral engineers and two developers who has been working with projects where 3D real estates were present. The purpose of the interviews was to acquire answers from questions that arose when the cadastral procedure reports were studied and how the developers and cadastral engineers cooperation works. The study shows the different possibilities of creating 3D real estates. How the cadastral procedure is done is based on the unique conditions between the projects, what way of work the cadastral engineer use, how experienced the developers are and if consultants has been used. To make sure that the management of the jointly-owned facilities can be done in a sustainable way they have to be formed to be adequate both from the beginning and even for future needs. The tower Karlatornet is a unique project where around 20 different real estate owners will share the building. Planning and cooperation between the cadastral engineers and the developer is an important part to make sure the project will work. Avoiding more details than what is needed in the jointly-owned facilities to enable future adjustments is a must in a project like this. The study show four different solutions on how the rights can be obtained. To let the core of the building and the foundation be a part of the jointly-owned facilities and the jointly-owned land may not be of essential importance but the conclusion is that they should be included for a simplified future management.

  • 32.
    Järpestam, David
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Fridström, Anders
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Evaluating common use cases on the distributed InterPlanetary File System2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) is a new distributed peer-to-peer file system protocol, capable of many use cases, one of which is hosting a website. Due to its decentralized network and immutable content hash, it can serve the goal of making the web safer and more open, making data more available and paths permanent. IPFS has been developed since 2015 and is still under extensive development, but is it yet ready for the average internet user? This paper evaluates four common use cases on the internet today; browsing the web, streaming videos, sharing files and personal sync folder. The results show that IPFS is already capable of handling all these four use cases but is substantially slower than other currently established protocols. If an IPFS node is not peers with any of the nodes which distributes the requested data, the lookup time in the distributed hash table could take up to 59 seconds. IPFS also lack back-end programming support and files cannot be executed directly from the IPFS repository.

  • 33.
    Karlsson, Axel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Dynamisk tilldelning av VLAN med hjälp av IEEE 802.1X2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explains what IEEE 802.1X does and what it can be used for. Related protocols that is used in connection with the technology and how they communicate with each other.

    This task is made for a local company that wants to investigate if 802.1X can be used in their internal network. It is also researched what kind of hardware that is needed to make it work. Step by step how to configure it and example on a topology. How to test the tech-nology and how to verify function.

  • 34.
    Karlsson, Oscar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    En studie av Lantmäteriets beaktande av strandskyddet och samråd i fastighetsbildning för bostadsfastigheter inom strandskyddsområden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lantmäteriet decided during 2017 to cancel principle consultation with Länsstyrelsen (county administrative board). The goal was to shorten the time for each case and reduce the number of unnecessary consultations. The purpose of this paper was to examine how frequently consultation takes place for residential properties in areas of protection of the Swedish shoreline. To examine this subject a mapping of this type of residential properties were made for Västra Götalands län. This study has been in cooperation with Plan- och bygg avdelningen (The Department of Community Planning and Building) for county administrative board in Västa Götalands län. The data underlying this study consists of cases that have been sent to this department during 2017. In the examination of this study a mapping of this type of properties has been made. The reason for this is to examine how frequently at consultation have taken place with county administrative board or the specific county.

    The mapping showed that there was more of this type of cases in some parts of Västra Götalands län in 2017.

    The study showed that consultation took place in 31 % of the cases for this type of properties in protective shoreline areas. It also showed that in 23 % of the cases no consultation took place and/or the protection was not taken into account. The result of the study showed that cadastral surveyors decide for them self without consolation in 46 % of the cases. The study showed an indication that this subject has to be further resourced, not only in this part of Sweden but in all of Sweden.

  • 35.
    Kling, Johanna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Utformning av tydliga detaljplanebestämmelser: För skydd av byggnaders kulturvärden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a detailed development plan, the municipality regulates the use of land and water areas and the built environment. Cultural values of buildings can, through the Planning and building act, be protected by provisions in a detailed development plan. The caution provision means that when changing a building, its cultural values and characteristics are to be taken care of. Prohibition against distortion is the strongest protection a building can get. It regulates what to preserve and therefore cannot be changed on a building. In order to further strengthen the protection of cultural values on a building, it may be subject to a demolition ban. The Planning and building act require that the provisions in the detailed development plan should be so clearly designed that everyone who reads it should be able to interpret and understand the provisions. In order to apply the requirement for clarity, Boverket has developed general advices on the design of planning regulations as well as a solid material on the theme "cultural value" and how to protect interesting cultural values of buildings in detailed development plans. Previous studies have shown that the design of regulations that protect cultural values is a problem among Sweden´s municipalities.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether communities around Sweden nowadays make clear provisions according to the law´s requirements, as Boverket has published general advices and a lot of material on its website.

    To achieve the purpose, two questions have been answered. To what extent does inadequate planning provisions in detailed development plans among Sweden's municipalities exists, regarding to caution provisions, prohibitions against distortion and demolition bans? In what way are they inadequate? To answer the questions, 323 detailed development plans from 37 municipalities around Sweden have been reviewed.

    Of the 95 provisions on the protection of cultural values found, shortly half were inadequately designed, and therefore difficult to interpret.

    Inadequate provisions can lead to difficulties in understanding which cultural values the municipality wants to protect and how they should be protected. Since certain provisions may lead to economic compensation for property owners, it is imperative that they are used correctly and properly designed.

    Deficiencies can result in property owners losing the possibility of economic compensation and complications in reviewing of building permit. The risk is also that interesting cultural values get lost and thereby parts of our cultural heritage. To overcome the problem, a state review would be preferable.

  • 36.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Axgärde, Åsa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    External customer satisfaction through team-development based on appreciative inquiry2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Larsson, Elin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Särskilt skäl för strandskyddsdispens: Kan övergivna hus och tomter utgöra ianspråktagna områden?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to analyze how special circumstances in accordance with chapter 7, 18 c § 1 p. of the Swedish environmental code (miljöbalken) is applied in practice. What factors contribute to shore protection (strandskyddet) reinstatement so that home privacy protection (hemfridsskyddet) no longer applies, and when a claimed property (ianspråktagen tomt) is considered abandoned. This study is based on the following questions: 1. In what condition should a building and its yard be in order to grant a shore protection dispensation (strandskyddsdispens) in accordance with chapter 7, 18 c § 1 p. the Swedish environmental code? What determines most; the condition of the building or the yard? 2. Where does one draw the line between a claimed property and an abandoned property? 3. What factors contribute to an existing building no longer having a home privacy protection zone (hemfridszon)? To answer these questions, a survey was directed to 75 different municipalities in Sweden as well as an analysis of five different legal cases. The methods used in this study are a qualitative method and a legal method. The theoretical part of the study presents what the legal situation looks like today, which especially must be regarded in the issues of shore protection dispensation as well as a description of the background and objectives of the article of law that is this study’s focus. The result of this study shows a summary of the responses to the questionnaire and case law analysis. In the analysis, the questions were answered by municipalities based on their rationale and case law. The analysis shows that the building’s condition is the most important factor in the assessment, that public perception of the area is of great importance and when the building was last considered inhabitable. What is also important in assessing whether there are special considerations for shore protection dispensation is that the plot demarcation (tomtplatsavgränsningen) should be given, what the type of building is on the site and if the area closest to the shoreline ensures free passage for the public. The conclusion shows that the study subject area is complex and that the problem is in the interpretation and assessment of individual cases, based on current legislation. The study indicates that there is not a specific answer as to how exactly the assessment takes place, because it depends on the situation in individual cases. The study’s discussion features interesting rationale as well as an idea which might facilitate the assessment if there are special circumstances for a shore protection dispensation in accordance with chapter 7, 18 c § 1 p. of the Swedish environmental code.

  • 38.
    Larsson, Kevin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lundgren, Simon
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Performance Evaluation of Scaling Strategies in Cloud Environments Kevin2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Konceptet cloud computing har diskuterats sedan 1960 talet och det blev verklighet 1999 när salesforce.com startades. En av de största fördelarna av cloud computing är möjligheten att ta bort eller lägga till mer virtuella maskiner utan någon manuell handläggning, i.e. skalning. Det finns inte mycket forskning kring skalningsstrategiers prestanda i cloud miljöer. Detta examensarbetet undersöker och jämför applikationsbaserad, benchmarkbaserade och statiska skalningsstrategier. Huvudfrågeställningarna presenterade i detta examensarbete är; Finns det en prestandaskillnad mellan virtuella maskiner i cloud miljöer? Om det finns kan man då använda skalningsstrategier för att bara använda de bästa maskinerna? Test gjordes i fyra datacenter i Amazons EC2 cloud. Det finns ett flertal olika standard skalningsstrategier i cloud miljöer, ett exempel är AWS Auto Scaling som skalar baserat på ekonomiska aspekter och ålder av konfiguration. Detta examensarbete presenterar ett annat perspektiv genom att undersöka prestandan hos virtuella maskiner. Skalning baserat på prestandan av en applikation gav en prestandaökning på upp till 1.72% jämfört med en LIFO strategi. Den bästa skalningsstrategin var den applikationsbaserade (LuxRender) och den näst och den tredje bästa var den CPU-baserade och den benchmarkbaserade Consolidated.

  • 39.
    Larsson, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Sundahl, Amelie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Markåtkomst för järnvägstunnlar – hur säkerställs det?: En sammanställning av statistik och motiv från år 2004 till idag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1 January 2004 it is possible to form three-dimensional properties in Sweden. One of the purposes of the new legislation was to enable ownership of tunnels. Tunnels can be used for many different purposes, including railway. The Swedish railway needs improvement regarding the capacity. When the railway is expanded and rebuilt, it may sometimes be suitable to build a tunnel. This may be the case when the railway is passing a city or built in a hilly landscape. Unlike when the railway runs on the ground, where the rail holder owns the land in very long real estate, the land access for the tunnels has traditionally been solved with easements. The changes in the legislation in 2004 makes it possible to own the tunnels in the form of three-dimensional properties. In this bachelor thesis, the authors investigate if the actors concerned are using the new legislation and, if so, when, how and why. In the thesis, all railway tunnels whose cadastral application have been submitted between 1 January 2004 and 20 May 2018 or whose railway plan has become final before 20 May 2018 was investigated regarded the land access. This includes 27 railway tunnels, from Malmö in the south of Sweden to Umeå in the north. The data was divided into two periods to investigate if any change occurred regarding how the land access was solved during the period. The result displays that this is the case. In the first time span, easement was clearly the dominant choice, while three-dimensional properties was the main pick in the second. However, as the study shows, easement is still sometimes used as a choice. Five interviews have been carried out in the thesis, four of which are related to two current projects, the new railway tunnel in Strängnäs and Västlänken in Gothenburg. The purpose behind the interviews was to find different motives regarding the choice of land access. The two interviews with the cadastral surveyors reveals that both three-dimensional property formation and official easement are suitable solutions and that the choice in between de facto lays with the applicant. The two interviewed land negotiators at Trafikverket shared the motives on which the choices were based. Both official easements and three-dimensional property formation have pros and cons, meaning that the choice must be decided for each tunnel apart.

  • 40.
    Larsson, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Thorsén, Rasmus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Cryptocurrency performance analysis of Burstcoin mining2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Burstcoin is a cryptocurrency which differ from the well-known Bitcoin, among several integral component which encompass any cryptocurrency, the mining process is one which differ greatly between the two. This difference is basically that the Bitcoin mining process require constant computational calculation, while Burstcoin mining requires a file known as plot file to be read at intervals. As with many altcoins, Burstcoin have very little analysis surrounding it and as such the efficiency of the mining process in how it is usually configured can be questioned. Therefore, the thesis will focus on factors which might affect performance regarding how efficiently the plot file can be read. To begin with, knowledge about which timespans are interesting for Burstcoin mining will be investigated, more precisely the block forge times for the Burstcoin blockchain will be determined to ascertain if any specific timeframes are important regarding how fast a plot file should be processed. Following, three tests will be made focusing on the performance aspect. The first test focus on whether the file system cluster size matters in how fast a plot file is processed and determines if the processor is bottlenecking the processing speed of the plot file. Secondly, it is investigated if the size of the hard drive where a plot file is located play any role in how fast it is processed. The third test compares how fast a plot file is being read when the hard drive which houses the file operates at the SATA 2 standard compared to the SATA 3 one

  • 41.
    Lund, Jesper
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Vallebrant, Niklas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lagen om allmänna vattentjänster: Avgränsning av verksamhetsområden i 6 §2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2007, the Public Water Services Act came in to effect. According to the sixth paragraph in this law, all municipalities shall arrange water supplies and sewerage in a "wider context" if it is necessary with respect to human health or the environment. But sometimes, municipalities choose not to connect certain areas to the operational area even though they should do so according to the sixth paragraph in the Public Water Services Act. These areas are commonly referred to as § 6 areas which means that these areas fulfill the condition "wider context" in the Public Water Services Act, but are outside the operational area. What does it mean that the municipalities shall ensure water supply and sewerage in a "wider context"? The term "wider context" is not defined in the legal text, but preparatory work to the law states that 20 to 30 properties can be seen as a guideline. This amount can be reduced if there are special reasons for it. But how do the municipalities interpret the term? This is the first question that this study answers. The second question that has been answered is why the municipalities choose to not connect some certain areas to the operational area, despite the fact that the conditions for "wider context" in the sixth paragraph are fulfilled. The study concerns the following municipalities: Lerum, Lysekil, Svenljunga, Skövde and Vänersborg. In order to gain information and to find answers to the questions, a combination between legal methodology, a quantitative and a qualitative method has been used. The municipalities VA-plans, which are guiding for municipal VA planning, have been reviewed and interviews have been conducted to supplement the VA-plans and provide a deeper understanding of municipal decisions. The study shows that it varies from municipality to municipality how the term "wider context" is interpreted as the number varies from eight to twenty properties included. Some of the municipalities also use the terms "assembled dwellings" and "assembled built environment" from the Planning and Building Act (2010:900). As for the second issue, there is a connection between how the municipalities have assessed these areas. The reason why some areas not are connected to any operational area is because they have a low priority based on a need and possibility assessment.

  • 42.
    Lundin, Patrick
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Cogelja, Tony
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Implementation av ELK Stack2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ELK Stack is an open source log system which consists of Elasticsearch, Logstash and Kibana. Elasticsearch is a noSQL search database that is used for data storage. The pipeline program Logstash receives data from inputs and sends it to outputs, filtering of the data occurs in Logstash between input and output. Kibana presents data in a graphical environment where diagram is created to provide a simple overview. This report is made as a collaboration with University Wests IT-department which is in need of a new loggingsystem, to replace their current solution. The new solution ELK Stack builds on the existing one where syslog is used. ELK Stack was installed in a test environment and tested according to the IT-departments demands.

  • 43.
    Lundmark, Elias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Persson, Chris
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    De Blanche, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Thomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Increasing Throughput of Multiprogram HPC Workloads: Evaluating a SMT Co-Scheduling Approach2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simultaneous Multithreading (SMT) is a technique that allows formore efficient processor utilization by scheduling multiple threadson a single physical core. Previous research have shown an averagethroughput increase of around 20% with an SMT level of two, e.g.two threads per core. However, a bad combination of threads canactually result in decreased performance. To be conservative, manyHPC-systems have SMT disabled, thus, limiting the number ofscheduling slots in the system to one per core. However, for SMT tonot hurt performance, we need to determine which threads shouldshare a core. In this poster, we use 30 random SPEC CPU job mixedon a twelve-core Broadwell based node, to study the impact ofenabling SMT using two different co-scheduling strategies. Theresults show that SMT can increase performance especially whenusing no-same-program co-scheduling.

  • 44.
    Lundqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    De Blanche, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Andersson, H. Robert H.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Thing-to-thing electricity micro payments using blockchain technology2017In: Global Internet of Things Summit (GIoTS), 2017: Proceedings of a meeting held 6-9 June 2017, Geneva, Switzerland, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, article id 8016254Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thing-to-thing payments are a key enabler in the Internet of Things (IoT) era, to ubiquitously allow for devices to pay each other for services without any human interaction. Traditional credit card-based systems are not able to handle this new paradigm, however blockchain technology is a promising payment candidate in this context. The prominent example of blockchain technology is Bitcoin, with its decentralized structure and ease of account creation. This paper presents a proof-of-concept implementation of a smart cable that connects to a smart socket and without any human interaction pays for electricity. In this paper, we identify several obstacles for the widespread use of bitcoins in thing-to-thing payments. A critical problem is the high transaction fees in the Bitcoin network when doing micro transactions. To reduce this impact, we present a single-fee micro-payment protocol that aggregates multiple smaller payments incrementally into one larger transaction needing only one transaction fee. The proof-of concept shows that trustless, autonomous, and ubiquitous thing-to-thing micro-payments is no longer a future technology.

  • 45.
    Lycke, Liselott
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Tano, Ingrid
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Building quality culture in higher education2017In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 9, no 3-4, p. 331-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe an approach to build a quality culture within a higher education institution. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is based on Action research and a Case study. Findings: The authors show the result of the mapped processes of a higher education institution, Management planning and control, Education, Research and Support, and describe how the mapping was performed, working in cross-functional teams. Further on, they discuss the result of the pilot and the plan for implementation. Originality/value: A process-oriented approach in higher education institutions, with its complexity, creates opportunities for successful quality assurance and control when having an integrated quality assurance system. © 2017, © Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 46.
    Niedomysl, Thomas
    et al.
    Lund University, Department of Human and Economic Geography, Lund SE-223 62, Sweden.
    Hall, Ola
    Lund University, Department of Human and Economic Geography, Lund SE-223 62, Sweden.
    Archila Bustos, Maria Francisca
    Lund University, Department of Human and Economic Geography, Lund SE-223 62, Sweden.
    Ernstson, Ulf
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering. University of Gothenburg, Department of Economy and Society, .
    Using Satellite Data on Nighttime Lights Intensity to Estimate Contemporary Human Migration Distances2017In: Annals of the American Association of Geographers, ISSN 2469-4452, Vol. 107, no 3, p. 591-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For well over a century, migration researchers have recognized the lack of adequate distance measures to be a key obstacle for advancing understanding of internal migration. The problem arises from the convention of spatially defining migration as the crossing of administrative borders. Because administrative regions vary in size, shape, and settlement patterns, it is difficult to tell how far movers go, raising doubts about the generalizability of research in the field. This article shows that satellite data on nighttime lights can be used to infer accurate measures of migration distance. We first use the intensity of nighttime lights to locate mean population centers that closely correspond to mean population centers calculated from actual population data. Until now, locating mean population centers accurately has been problematic, as it has required highly disaggregated population data, which are lacking in many countries. The nighttime lights data, which are freely available on a yearly basis, solve this challenge. We then show that this information can be used to accurately estimate migration distances. © 2017 by American Association of Geographers.

  • 47.
    Nielsen, Linn
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Ovik, Anja
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Dagvatten: Vem har ansvaret?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's climate change means warmer temperatures and annual precipitation is expected to increase by 20-60 %. The increased rainfall means more stormwater on the ground. This water must be taken care of in a long-term sustainable manner, otherwise it can lead to problems. Therefore, society must adapt to the climate change that occurs. The study aims at investigating who is responsible for handling the water and clarifying the legal conditions for local stormwater treatment. The study also examines how water management looks like in the detailed plans in Västra Götaland County. The study focuses on looking at and how responsibility for stormwater is distributed in the detailed plan documents as well as the planning rules that are used for water treatment. The method we used is a combination of a qualitative and quantitative as well as a legal method.The study answers the following questions: o Who is responsible for the disposal of stormwater? o How does the municipalities distribute the responsibility of stormwater in the detailed plans? o Are there any plans for regulation of stormwater, which? o What is the distribution of responsibility in the plan descriptions? o Do municipalities have a legal basis for the use of local stormwater treatment, how do legal conditions look? The study results show that 28 % of municipal plans for stormwater are about local stormwater treatment, which is an illegal plan. Local stormwater treatment does not have the support from Chapter 4 Planning and Building Act required for a plan regulation to be used. The conclusion is that the municipalities should take responsibility for the discharge of stromwater if it is within the municipality's area of activity. Nevertheless, only in 16 % of the plans that the real estates are connected to the stormwater network.

  • 48.
    Nordling, Emil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Frants, Pavel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Skalbarhets- och protokollanalys av EoMPLS och Q-in-Q på Cisco IOS switchar2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En VPN är ett nätverk som innehåller klienter och andra slags enheter som är lokaliserade på skilda platser, VPN:er gör det möjligt för klienter och system att kommunicera med varann oavsett geografisk plats. Förr i tiden var WAN tekniker som ATM och Frame Relay vanligt förekommande i ett ISP nätverk för att ha möjlighet att erbjuda sina kunder en internetanslutning. I dagens moderna nätverk används nya tekniker för att på ett framförallt snabbare och mer effektivt sätt erbjuda kunder konnektivitet. MPLS är den mest förekommande WAN tekniken som nyttjas hos en ISP idag, MPLS används i kombination med andra tekniker som OSPF, BGP och VPN för att binda samman flera nätverk. När dessa tekniker kombineras, kallas WAN teknologin för en MPLS lager 3 VPN. Trots att konnektivitet erbjuds och fungerar utmärkt med hjälp av en lager 3 VPN, har efterfrågan ökat om att kunna länka ihop LAN och det är endast möjligt med hjälp utav en lager 2 VPN. En lager 2 VPN kan transportera flera VLAN samt sända andra typer av lager 2 information mellan en kunds geografiskt spridda kontor. För att ha möjlighet att uppnå transportering av VLAN och en förlängning av lager 2 domänen, har ISP:n behov av att implementera lager 2 tekniker som EoMPLS och Q-in-Q.

    ISP:n behöver anpassa sitt nätverk efter nya tekniker som planeras att implementeras, en faktor spelar oerhört mycket roll i det här sammanhanget och det är skalbarhet. Skalbarhet måste idag räknas med innan en ny teknik introduceras i ett nätverk och kan enkelt förbises.

    Målet med den här studien är att undersöka skalbarheten hos två lager 2 VPN tekniker, EoMPLS och Q-in-Q. Vi implementerar teknikerna var för sig i varsin topologi och undersöker RAM nyttjandet, overhead skillnader mellan teknologierna samt mängd konfiguration som behövs för att få en funktionell lager 2 förbindelse mellan kunder. PE switcharna är ISP nätverkets nyckel till att få en fungerande lager 2 VPN, därför är de objekten som analyseras i den här studien.

  • 49.
    Nystedt, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    A proof of the law of sines using the law of cosines2017In: Mathematics Magazine, ISSN 0025-570X, E-ISSN 1930-0980, Vol. 90, no 3, p. 180-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We give a proof of the law of sines using the law of cosines. © Mathematical Association of America.

  • 50.
    Nystedt, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Öinert, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Pinedo, Héctor
    Universidad Industrial de Santander, Escuela de Matemáticas, Carrera 27 Calle 9, Edificio Camilo Torres Apartado de correos 678, Bucaramanga, Colombia.
    Artinian and noetherian partial skew groupoid rings2018In: Journal of Algebra, ISSN 0021-8693, E-ISSN 1090-266X, Vol. 503, p. 433-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Let alpha = {alpha(g) : Rg-1 -> R-g}(g is an element of mor(G)) be a partial action of a groupoid G on a (not necessarily associative) ring R and let S = R-star alpha G be the associated partial skew groupoid ring. We show that if a is global and unital, then S is left (right) artinian if and only if R is left (right) artinian and R-g = {0}, for all but finitely many g is an element of mor(G). We use this result to prove that if a is unital and R is alternative, then S is left (right) artinian if and only if R is left (right) artinian and R-g = {0}, for all but finitely many g is an element of mor(G). This result applies to partial skew group rings, in particular. Both of the above results generalize a theorem by J. K. Park for classical skew group rings, i.e. the case when R is unital and associative, and G is a group which acts globally on R. We provide two additional applications of our main results. Firstly, we generalize I. G. Connell's classical result for group rings by giving a characterization of artinian (not necessarily associative) groupoid rings. This result is in turn applied to partial group algebras. Secondly, we give a characterization of artinian Leavitt path algebras. At the end of the article, we relate noetherian and artinian properties of partial skew groupoid rings to those of global skew groupoid rings, as well as establish two Maschke-type results, thereby generalizing results by M. Ferrero and J. Lazzarin for partial skew group rings to the case of partial skew groupoid rings.

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  • asciidoc
  • rtf