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  • 1.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS).
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Spatial dependence and the representation of space in empirical models2009In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 159-180Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    University Colleges Effect on Municipal Growth in Swedish Middle-sized Municipalities2008In: Uddevalla Symposium 2008: Spatial Dispersed Production and Network Governance: Revised papers presented at the 11th Uddevalla Symposium, 15-17 May, 2008, Kyoto, Japan / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2008, p. 85-98Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose in this paper is to study to what extent accessibility to R&D is an important factor of explaining municipal economic growth. Of special interests is the question whether, the effect of company (private) R&D efforts on economic growth differ if a university college is present in the municipality or not. Therefore the empirical analysis is conducted on a reduced dataset (92 out of 290 municipalities), containing only middle-sized municipalities without traditional ´old´ universities. The idea of the selection process was to find two sets of comparable municipalities with one containing municipalities with university colleges and one with municipalities without university colleges. In the empirical analysis a knowledge production function is estimated with the difference in Gross Municipal Product, GMP, between 1993 and 2001 as the output. In order to account for the importance of proximity, the explanatory variables are expressed as accessibilities to university and company R&D. The total accessibility is then decomposed into local, intra-regional and inter-regional accessibility to R&D. The main results show that local and intra-regional accessibility to company R&D has positive effects on economic growth. On the other hand, local accessibility to university R&D is of no importance, while there are influential effects of intra-regional university R&D. Moreover, the presence of university college R&D activities decreases the importance of the local accessibilitiy to company R&D or put it differently, local accessibility to company R&D is more important in municipalitites without university college activities.

  • 3.
    Asal, Maher
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Non-linear Growth Impacts of Financial Development in Euro Area2012In: International Journal of Economics and Finance, ISSN 1916-971X, Vol. 4, no 12, p. 23-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using GMM model and data from 11 Euro Area countries and 5 non-Euro countries over the period 1989 to 2011, we explore the nonlinear effects of financial development on the performance of Euro Area economy that is: its growth, capital accumulation, investment and productivity. Four measures of financial developments are examined, namely, liquidity, size, volatility and bank’s loans to private enterprises. Special consideration is devoted to modeling threshold effects of public debt that has increased substantially in recent years in several Euro countries. We found that the effect of stock market size is always positive whether we consider the level of real per capita income or its growth. However, the effect of banking sector, volatility, liquidity and public debt are generally negative. In addition, we find support for the channels of investment, saving, total factor productivity, and capital intensity. For all the four channels, the results indicate a significant negative link between banking development and volatility of stock returns. The impact of debt on growth seems to be negative with the turning point of public debt likely to be between 45-65%.

  • 4.
    Asal, Maher
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Schäfer, Christian H.
    The Application of Equity Index Futures in Portfolio Management Strategies: An Empirical Study2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this book is to analyse how investors can reduce the systematic risk of a portfolio of stocks by using equity index futures, and how the leverage effect of futures can help to seize a market opportunity to lift a portfolio's return. Another contribution is to introduce the reader to the practical handling of equity index futures transactions using Eurex's products.

  • 5.
    Assmo, Per
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Creative Industrial Development for Regional Economic Growth: The Example of Regional Film Centres in Sweden.2007In: Uddevalla Symposium 2006: Entrepreneurship and Development - Local Processes and Global Patterns: Revised papers presented at the 9th Uddevalla Symposium, 15-17 June, Fairfax, VA, USA / [ed] Iréne Johansson, Trollhättan: University West , 2007, p. 91-103Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge and creativity are increasingsly important factors for economic growth. Changes in the economic landscape mean that the location of human capacity becomes a key aspect for knowledge creation and regional economic growth. This article discusses the influence of political-economic structures and the importance of the creative human capital, in relation to the development and localisation of a government supported regional film industry in Sweden. The overall aim for initialising these regional film production centres is to enhance regional economic growth in new creative industrial sectors that can replace and/or supplement the traditional industry in the respective region. This article argues that this kind of creative industry is generally most likely to be mor successful in locations that can provide financial support and attract the key creative human capital. Regions with high population density and diversified economy will thereby be the best suited.

  • 6.
    Assmo, Per
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Creative Industry Cluster Growth for Regional Development: Illustrations from Sweden2008In: Uddevalla Symposium 2008: Spatial Dispersed Production and Network Governance : Revised papers presented at the 11th Uddevalla Symposium, 15-17 May, 2008, Kyoto, Japan  / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2008, p. 99-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To survive and thrive in market economy, actors seek for continuous increased productivity and effectiveness. To do so, there is a dominant argument that concentration or clustering of economic activities might enhance economic performance and growth. In an increasingly global market, knowledge and creativity are often highlighted as increasingly important factors for economic growth in post-industrial societies. Changes in the economic landscape mean that the location of human capacity becomees a key aspect for knowledge creation and regional economic growth, especially for the development of the creative industry. In many EU countries, political institutions at various levels strive to assist the growth of, or even develop creative economic clusters. But is it possible, through political means, to actually construct a flourishing and sustainable creative industry clusters? And if so, is it possible to attract and/or develop the creative capital, the essential element for the development and growth of the creative industry. The article aims to critically discuss and further develop the conceptual discussion of creative capital, its relation in time and space, and thereby impact on regional economic growth. In an attempt to take the theoretical discussion a step forward, the creative capital theory will be critically analysed, where the author apply comparative studies to examine the impact of creative capital at national, regional and local level in a time-spatial context.  

  • 7.
    Assmo, Per
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    A time-spatial approach towards integrated sustainable development2011In: Uddevalla Symposium 2011. Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions: Revised papers presented at the 14th Uddevalla Symposium, 16-18 June, 2011, Bergamo, Italy / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2011, p. 83-94Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Assmo, Per
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Beyond the Economic Meanings of Development: A Discussion of Political-Geographical Constructions of Societal Development2007In: Uddevalla Symposium tenth anniversary 2007: Institutions for Knowledge Generation and Knowledge Flows - Buildning Innovative Capabilities for Regions: Revised papers presented at the 10th Uddevalla Symposium, 14-16 June, 2007, University West, Uddevalla, Sweden. / [ed] Iréne Johansson, Trollhättan: University West , 2007, p. 155-168Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socio-economic development, in any society, includes many productive activities excluded in conventional economic analyses. This paper aims to critically uncover, explore and discuss how productive activities included in societal development are hidden by a monetary bias. By doing so, the paper strives to initiate a critical conceptual discussion related to what is generally indentified as weaknesses and relevant policies in regional development. The goal is to reach beyond convetional economic analyses to unlock and develop implications for conceptual models that can exted perceptions of societal development with its political, temporal and spatial meaning. The paper proceeds as follows: Firstly, through some illustrative empirical examples, uncover the meanings of ´economic´ activities from completely different contexts; Secondly, to explore the more general implications of a perspective/approach, inspired by Hägerstrand, which emphasizes political implications in time and space; Finally, to point out a conceptual discussion that enhances a broadened perspective for societal regional development that reaches beyond the conventional meanings of economic development.

  • 9.
    Assmo, Per
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Home: The Arena for Sustainable Development: A Conceptual Discussion2009In: Uddevalla Symposium 2009: The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Revised papers presented at the 12th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, 2009, Bari, Italy / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2009, p. 91-105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contemporary society, environmental problems are most often regarded as global phenomena that require international attention and solutions. However, global environmental problems can be regarded as symptoms and results of people´s daily activities at a local level where, the focus is on the household, defined as a space where individuals live together, where everyday life is organised and takes place. Interpretations and analyses of households and everyday life vary in different academic disciplinary contexts. Even in everyday language, different meanings are attributed to the term. The aim of this paper is to distinguish between, and discuss, understandings of the household as a physical dwelling, as a node of economic resource management, and finally as a social and emotional space. These three dimensions of everyday life are related to the three dimensions of sustainable development and an analysis that can indentify and integrate these dimensions can provide openings to enhance sustainable development processes combining the local and the global.

  • 10.
    Assmo, Per
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Turning Time-Spatial Modes: An Alternative Perspective to Integrate Environmental-economic Processes of Change2008In: Uddevalla Symposium 2008: Spatial Dispersed Production and Network Governance : Revised papers presented at the 11th Uddevalla Symposium, 15-17 May, 2008, Kyoto, Japan  / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2008, p. 115-128Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global market economy is built on a political institutional arrangement promoting free and open trade. The existing natural and human resources make up the basis for all productive activities. The dominating economy strive to reach efficient use of human and natural resources, by enhancing processes of spatial expansion and time-compression.   The conceptual argument in this paper takes its starting point in Hägerstrand´s traditional time-space model. It illustrates two conflicting perspectives the global market economic horizontal norm (expansion in space, compression in time) and the environmental sustainable vertical processes (expansion over time in limited spaces). These two norms head in different directions and environmental sustainability is therefore conflicting with the common meaning of economic development.   In a time-spatial perspective, a sustainable use of resources is spatially limited, and extended over time. A development process, in terms of environmental sustainability, relies on local resource use and extension in time, to limit the use of external input of energy. This process is the opposite to what today is seen as economic development (growth) that compresses time and expands in space, to reach the most favourable comparative advantages.    The monetary market economy is a political construction. What activities and resources that are given a price on the market depend on the istitutional arrangements of property rights, prices and legal structures. Our conceptual conclusion is that the current political construction of the economy is "in-complete" and thus creates and fosters a mis-match with environmental pre-conditions. The political system can have the capacity to use the tools and power to harmonise economic development with environmental sustainability, locally, nationally and globally.

  • 11.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Establishment of Customer Centres in the Public Sector in Sweden: the Citizens' Views2010In: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on e-Government: National Centre for Taxation Studies University of Limerick, Ireland 17-18 June 2010 / [ed] Dave O´Donnell, Intellectual Capital Research, Limerick, Ireland, Reading, UK: Academic Publishing Limited , 2010, p. 63-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today there is a development in Sweden towards reforming the public sector with the help of information technology (IT). The international name for this is eGovernment. This is a political decision aiming  not only for  increased IT-use in the public sector, but also for  the implementation of  an organizational change within the municipalities in Sweden. This has led to several Swedish municipalities customer centres having been established.

    The main function of a municipal customer centre is to supply services to the citizens more efficiently by primarily using telephone and ICTtechnology in order to handle customer contacts. The employees at  the customer centres are educated in different subject  areas in order to being able to directly answer and solve routine questions and tasks from the citizens that are not too complicated without having to send the questions to the back office of the organisation. This paper aims to analyze some of the consequences for the citizens.

    The empirical data comes  from four municipalities in Sweden and the research method of the study is qualitative (semi-structured telephone-interviews with citizens and recorded interviews with different personnel categories from three municipalities) . The analyzing model used is the “the MOA-model”. It was implemented in order to analyze the establishment’s focus on the customers and it was also used as this study’s  theoretical frame of reference.

    The main result shows that the establishment of the customer centres is something positive from the  citizens’ point of view. E.g., the accessibility to the public municipal service has increased for most of the citizens and their experience of the delivered service via the telephone contacts was positive, as well as the registering of every issue with the customer centre which implies that the citizens can govern the needs for public municipality service. However, there are some negative aspects, e.g. the use of touch tone, and  there is still a risk of creating a digital divide, especially among  elderly citizens.

    Keywords: Public customer centres, citizens, e-governance, municipality, New Public Management

  • 12.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2009 The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Revised papers presented at the 12th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June 2009, Bari, Italy2009Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Public E-servive as an Innovative Organisational Setting for Entrepreneurial Behavior2009In: Uddevalla Symposium 2009 The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Revised papers presented at the 12th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June 2009, Bari, Italy / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2009, 1, p. 205-222Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public e-services are technical innovations leading to organisational changes. The basic pre-conditions of e-services in the public sector differ in several perspectives from the private sector and e-commerce. For example when the “customers” are citizens instead of consumers the distribution of, access to and use of the services are different. Thus there are demands for developing general models and approaches to analyse as well as promote public e-services. Governmental e-services bring out innovative organisational changes based on how the public sector can meet the e-society and bridge over formerly unseen divides. However, such changes demand an innovative behaviour among actors in usually strictly and formally defined roles. 

        The conceptual model developed in this paper will discuss the differences of e-services, e-administration and e-democracy. Following on to this model an illustrative case of a public e-service on the Internet is presented analysed through the model. The e-service extending the geographical reach of public organisations is the Common application system for upper secondary school, in the regions of West Sweden and Östergötland in Sweden.

  • 14.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Evaluation of Customer Centre and e-Services in a Swedish Municipality with Focus on the Citizens' Perspective2009In: 3rd European Conference on Management and Evaluation / [ed] Jan Ljungberg and Kerstin Grundén, Reading: Academic Publishing Limited , 2009, p. 34-41Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication and quality of service to the citizens are considered to be of utmost importance in today’s society. Even though the Swedish municipalities have a high level of self-regulation and freedom to organize communication and dialogue with their citizens in their own way, the Swedish government has expressed their demands of increased expectations by citing the potential of e-governance and high quality of service in order to increase the efficiency of the service to the citizens. To implement customer centres is one way to meet these demands. This paper offers a critical evaluation of consequences for Swedish citizens regarding the quality of service from the citizens’ perspective in a municipality where a new customer centre and e-services have been developed and established. The main research method is qualitative based upon analysis from interviews with different personnel categories of employees within the municipality. The results are also based on analysis of customer investigations. The results show that this implementation and developing of e-services are mostly positive for the quality of service to the citizens but there are also some weak aspects found.

  • 15.
    Bucken-Knapp, Gregg
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Varieties of capitalism and labor migration policy2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with a declining workforce, why does the Swedish Social Democratic Party (SAP) oppose employer proposals for increased labor migration from non-EU countries? This article explores whether perspectives on policymaking in the varieties of capitalism (VoC) literature can account for this puzzle. VoC scholars maintain that policymakers prefer reforms conforming to the national political economy, improving firm capacity and ensuring better economic performance. Employers are also thought to support policies incentivecompatible with the prevailing model of capitalism. My analysis shows that while the SAP backed labor migration policies compatible with the Swedish coordinated market economy, it did not do so for reasons of efficiency or economic performance. The SAP fears that liberal reform, preferred by employers, will damage the Swedish model, undermine active labor market policies and weaken unions. The case of Swedish labor migration policy underscores how economic reform reflects political conflict and not the desire to preserve equilibrium.

  • 16.
    Djumaev, Bekhan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Sohlman, Rickard
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Should the Plundered Arts be Restituted?: How international norms are interpreted differently in national contexts2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this essay is to look at two cases where the debate rages regarding whether or not to restitute stolen art back to the states from which it was originally stolen. By looking at the debate in each country the essay focuses on gaining understanding in how one state might decide upon returning the cultural treasures and the other refuses to. In assisting the analysis of the debate, theories from social constructivism, norms and ideas of different national identities are assessed. More closely, this essay tries to examine the different ideas of national identity (Imperial Cosmopolitanism and Egalitarian Cosmopolitanism) and analyze the domestic interpretations of the international norm on restitution of plundered treasures that follow from these identities. In doing so, states of interest, Sweden and Great Britain, are chosen and the theoretical model for analysis developed by Bacchi (2010) will be used in order to present ―the problem‖, the causes to the problem and the solutions provided to solve the problem. Thereby, the essay aims to show how the actions, behavior and arguments of these states, in the question of restitution, are greatly dependant on the differences in the ideas of national identity that each state might possess or have inherited from past.

  • 17. Ejermo, Olof
    et al.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Invention, Innovation and Regional Growth in Swedish Regions2011In: Innovation, Technology and Knowledge: Their Role in Economic Development / [ed] Johansson, B., Karlsson, C. and Stough, R, London: Routledge, 2011, p. 187-208Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Ejermo, Olof
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Invention, Innovation and Regional Growth in Swedish Regions2009In: Uddevalla Symposium 2009. The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Revised papers presented at the 12th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June 2009, Bari, Italy / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2009, p. 449-467Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the link between invention and innovation on the one hand and the level of economic activity and economic growth in Sweden by using patents granted and the quality of patens as our indicators of invention and innovation respectively. Our results indicate that both types of measures are able to explain the level and the changing levelof economic activity equally well. However, an important difference is that the economic activity is affected differently by the two measures. We find that inventions have the strongest marginal effect in regions where economic activity is the highest. Instead, innovations have similar marginal effects across regions with different economic activity. Our interpretation is that quality-adjusted patents sort out "bad" from "good" patents in a manner which reflect economic importance.

  • 19.
    Flensburg, Per
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Nåfors, Annika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    IT-Supported Work Processes for Contact Services in Swedish Municipalities: The Initial Design Steps2009In: Proceedings of ECIME 2009. The 3rd European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation held at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden on 17-18 September 2009 / [ed] Jan Ljungberg & Kerstin Grundén, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet , 2009, p. 497-503Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A contact service in a municipality is a place where the citizens can apply for processing of their claims concerning municipal jurisdiction. Examples could be application for a place at pre-school, planning permission or change of dustbin etc. The clerks at the contact centre should be able to provide immediate service in most of the matters. This requires the work-process for each matter to be known. Before starting of a contact service this knowledge existed in the administration for the actual claim. In many cases it was tacit and not described. This paper discusses the problem of making this knowledge explicit and described in order to be used at the contact service. Issues concerning work organisation, personnel and job satisfaction are recognised, but not in focus. Instead our focus lies on the work content, processing of the claims, which the clerks are dealing with. It is a qualitative study, based upon three existing contact services and one, which is in the design phase. We start with a brief discussion of different types of knowledge, related to classical epistemologies within the organisation area (Nonaka & Takeuchi, Brown & Duguid, Cook & Brown, Polyani, etc). Based upon empirical material from the cases we identify some typical knowledge categories. It might be general knowledge about rules, procedures and such things; it might be experience-based knowledge from previous claims, typical claims and work praxis developed over time. It might also be knowledge about the specific citizen and about the specific application. But it can also be totally new categories. Two categories we are pretty sure to identify are matter-oriented knowledge, concerning the actual matter and procedural knowledge, concerning the processing of the matter-oriented knowledge. In our previous research about work-flow four levels have been identified and we suspect the same basic reasoning might apply here.

  • 20. Flood, Lennart
    et al.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Tid för barn, tid för arbete: En undersökning av svenskahushålls tidsanvändning1997In: Familj, makt och jämställdhet: Utredningen om fördelningen av ekonomiska resursermellan kvinnor och män / [ed] Göran Ahrne & Inga Persson, Stockholm: Fritzes, 1997, p. 159-188Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Folkesson, Enar
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Företaget i ekonomisk kris: en inblick i insolvensjuridiken2007 (ed. 7)Book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Folkesson, Enar
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Företaget i ekonomisk kris: en inblick i insolvensjuridiken2006 (ed. 6)Book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Folkesson, Enar
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Något om den svenska kredit‑ och obeståndsrättens utveckling under de senaste 150 åren2007In: AC : de första 150 åren: från köpmannaföreningar till Ackordscentralen : 1857-2007 / [ed] Kubu, Mert, Sverige: Ackordcentralen , 2007, p. 191-197Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    A Monte Carlo Simulation Study of Tobit Models2001In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 581-584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on a comparison of diOEerent kinds of Tobit models. According to the ® ndings, a simple Tobit I method can produce results that are similar to and in some cases better than much more sophisticated methods. This is especially true if the participation or index equation is incorrectly speci® ed.

  • 25.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Accessibility to R&D and Patent Production2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose in this paper is to study to what extent accessibility to R&D can explain patent production. Therefore a knowledge production function is estimated both on aggregated level and for different industrial sectors. The output of the knowledge production is the number patent applications in Swedish municipalities from 1994 to 1999. In order to account for the importance of proximity, the explanatory variables are expressed as accessibilities to university and company R&D. The total accessibility is then decomposed into local, intra-regional and inter-regional accessibility to R&D. As often is the case with R&D outputs, the regional distribution of patents is highly skewed with influential outliers. The estimations are therefore conducted with quantile regressions. The main results on aggregated level indicate that high accessibility (local) to company R&D has the greatest positive effects on patent production. The effects are statistically significant for municipalities with a patent production corresponding to the median and to quantiles above the median. Local accessibility to university R&D is only of importance for certain industrial sectors and not on aggregated level. There is also evidence that intra-regional accessibility to company R&D affects patent production positively. A conclusion is that concentrated R&D investments in companies situated in municipalities with a high patenting activity would not only gain the municipalities themselves, but also the patent production in other municipalities in the functional region.

  • 26.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Accessibility to R&D on Patent Production2009In: Innovation, Agglomeration and Regional Competition / [ed] Karlsson, Charlie. Johansson Börje. and Stough Roger R., Edward Elgar , 2009, p. 231-260Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Imports, R&D and Local Patent Production2012In: The Regional Economics of Knowledge and Talent Local Advantage in a Global Context / [ed] Karlsson C., Johansson B. & Stough, R., Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, p. 343-368Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Imports, R&D and Local Patent Production2007In: Uddevalla Symposium tenth anniversary 2007: Institutions for Knowledge Generation and Knowledge Flows - Buildning Innovative Capabilities for Regions : Revised papers presented at the 10th Uddevalla Symposium, 14-16 June, 2007, University West, Uddevalla, Sweden.  / [ed] Iréne Johansson, Trollhättan: University West , 2007, p. 433-450Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of national and international knowledge flows on innovative activity. Therefore a knowledge production function is estimated with patent applications in Swedish municipalities as the measure of innovation. The knowledge resources applied are R&D investments and high valued imports. In order to account for the importance of proximity, the knowledge resources are expressed as accessibilities. The total accessibility of a municipality is decomposed into local, intra-regional and inter-regional accessibility. The main results indicate that knowledge resources in a given municipality tend to have a positive effect on the innovative activity of another municipality, given that the municipalities belong to the same functional region. Thus, the results of the analysis indicate that knowledge flows transcend municipal borders, but that they tend to be bounded within functional regions. This result holds for both R&D investments and high valued import products.

  • 29.
    Gråsjö, Urban.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Spatial econometrics: Methods and applications2011In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 90, no 4, p. 886-888Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Spatial Spillovers of Knowledge Production: An Accessibility Approach2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of the thesis is on issues concerning production of knowledge. It is a common observation that knowledge activities have a tendency to agglomerate as well as to spill over in space. In order to incorporate geographical proximity, the thesis applies an accessibility approach in which actual travel time distances between locations are used to discount spatial knowledge spillovers. The thesis consists of three individual essays and a joint introduction. The first essay explores to what extent accessibility to R&D conducted at universities and companies can explain the number of patent applications in Swedish municipalities. The second essay analyses the relationship between knowledge accessibility and regional export performance. The knowledge resources used are R&D efforts and university educated labour. Since the distributions of the dependent variables are skewed with a few influential outliers, the estimations are conducted with quantile regressions. The empirical findings indicate that accessibility to university R&D has minor effects on patent production and export performance in Sweden. However, the other used inputs, i.e. accessibility to company R&D and accessibility to university educated labour, are of greater importance. The results also show that knowledge flows transcend municipal borders but that they tend to be bounded within functional regions. The third essay investigates how the inclusion of accessibility variables, i.e. spatially lagged explanatory variables, affects the extent of spatial autocorrelation. The basic proposition is that the inclusion of inputs external to the spatial observation as separate variables reveals spatial dependencies via the parameter estimates. This is confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations. The Monte Carlo Simulations also indicate that problems with spatial autocorrelation and biased parameter estimates are reduced.

  • 31.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    University-educated labor, R&D and regional export performance2008In: International regional science review, ISSN 0160-0176, E-ISSN 1552-6925, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 211-256Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    University-educated Labour, R&D and Regional Export Performance2009In: Entrepreneurship and Innovations in Functional Regions / [ed] Karlsson C., Stough R. and Johansson B., Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2009, p. 141-184Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Andersson, Martin
    On the Specification of Regression Models with Spatial Dependence: An Application of the Accessibility concept2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the taxonomy by Anselin (2003), this paper investigates how the inclusion of spatially discounted variables on the ‘right-hand-side’ (RHS) in empirical spatial models affects the extent of spatial autocorrelation. The basic proposition is that the inclusion of inputs external to the spatial observation in question as a separate variable reveals spatial dependence via the parameter estimate. One of the advantages of this method is that it allows for a direct interpretation. The paper also tests to what extent significance of the estimated parameters of the spatially discounted explanatory variables can be interpreted as evidence of spatial dependence. Additionally, the paper advocates the use of the accessibility concept for spatial weights. Accessibility is related to spatial interaction theory and can be motivated theoretically by adhering to the preference structure in random choice theory. Monte Carlo Simulations show that the coefficient estimates of the accessibility variables are significantly different from zero in the case of modelled effects. The rejection frequency of the three typical tests (Moran’s I, LM-lag and LM-err) is significantly reduced when these additional variables are included in the model. When the coefficient estimates of the accessibility variables are statistically significant, it suggests that problems of spatial autocorrelation are significantly reduced. Significance of the accessibility variables can be interpreted as spatial dependence

  • 34.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Andersson, Martin
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Human Capital and Productivity in a Spatial Economic System2007In: Annales d'Èconomie et de Statistique, ISSN 0769-489X, no 87/88, p. 125-144Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Andersson, Martin
    Jönköping University.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University.
    Regional Knowledge Accessibility and Regional Economic Growth2007In: Uddevalla Symposium 2006: Entrepreneurship and Development - Local Processes and Global Patterns: Revised papers presented at the 9th Uddevalla Symposium, 15-17 June, Fairfax, VA, USA / [ed] Iréne Johansson, Trollhättan: University West , 2007, p. 47-63Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge is maintained as a core variable for growth in a large set of contemporary theories. In this paper we have analyzed the relationship between knowledge accessibility and regional growth. The knowledge resource used in our model is R&D conducted at universities and in companies. A precise definition of accessibility was introduced and calculations were based on actual travel time distances. Using data at the municipality level in Sweden, the hypothesis that knowledge accessibility has a positive effect on growth cannot be rejected. The knowledge accessibility in a given period has a statistically significant effect on the growth in value-added per employee in subsequent periods.

    The total accessibility of a municipality was divided into three types (i) intramunicipal accessibility, (ii) intra-regional accessibility and (iii) extra-regional accessibility. The paper has shown that this division gives a clear indication of that there is spatial dependence in the sense that the knowledge resources in a given municipality tend to have a positive effect on the growth of another municipality, conditional on that the municipalities belongs to the same functional region. Thus, the results of the analysis indicate that knowledge flows transcend municipal borders, but that they tend to be bounded within functional regions.

    The findings in the paper provide support for the theories that emphasize the role of knowledge for growth. However, the paper demonstrates that spatial proximity to knowledge resources is important to materialize the positive effect of such resources. Accessibility to knowledge in space is thus imperative.

  • 36.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Andersson, Martin
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School.
    The Role of Higher Education and University R&D for Industrial R&D Location2009In: Universities, Knowledge Transfer and Regional Development: Geography, Entrepreneurship and Policy / [ed] Attila Varga, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2009, p. 85-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    University Colleges’ Effect on Economic Growth in Swedish Middle-sized Municipalities2014In: Knowledge, Innovation and Space / [ed] Karlsson C, Johansson B, Kobayashi, K. & Stough, R, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, p. 287-302Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Ejermo, Olof
    CIRCLE, Lunds Universitet.
    Accessibility to R&D: A Reexamination of the Consequences for Invention and Innovation2014In: Knowledge, Innovation and Space / [ed] Karlsson C, Johansson B, Kobayashi, K. & Stough, R, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, p. 51-79Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Ejermo, Olof
    Lund University.
    The Effects of R&D on Regional Invention and Innovation2008In: Uddevalla Symposium 2008: Spatial Dispersed Production and Network Governance : Revised papers presented at the 11th Uddevalla Symposium, 15-17 May, 2008, Kyoto, Japan  / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2008, p. 263-282Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effects of regional R&D on patenting for Sweden within an accessibility framework. We use two measures of patenting: number of patents granted per capita and a composite of quality-adjusted patents which we regard as an innovation indicator, respectively. Three conclusions emerge. First, we find that the specification where innovations per capita is used as a dependent variable performs much better than with granted patents per capita for capturing relationships with regional R&D. In fact, quantile regressions over the distribution of different patenting and innovation levels per capita show that R&D efforts within regions affect innovations per capita positively, except for the regions with the lowest levels of R&D. The effetcs on granted patents per capita are less robust and depend inconsistently on the level of R&D. Secondly, accessibility to inter-regional R&D do not affect innovation significantly in our results, which suggests that effects are locally bounded. This implies that studies of the R&D-innovation relationship are plagued by misspecification, since studies tend to show that R&D-effects diffuse to other regions. This is also the case in our study: the inter-regional effects are an important factor for granted patents. Third, the share of university R&D of all regional R&D has no effect on patenting, which suggests that the two types of R&D are substitutes. In view of these results the redommendation must be to use quality-adjusted patents for regional innovation studies rather than patent grants.

  • 40.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Jansson, Elisabeth
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lindh, Kristina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lundh-Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media Production.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Experience Design: Understanding the Role of Technology for Virtual Experiences2006In: Proceedings of 29th Information System Research Seminar in Scandinavia, IRIS 29: Paradigms, Politics, Paradoxes, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New technologies have always teased the imagination of avant-garde artists on how to challenge existing cultural paradigms. For instance, experience design for the creative industries of today provides exciting challenges with a potential to innovate practices and creating new ways of interaction between the artist and her audience. In an ongoing research project we aim at framing the design space for virtual experiences. The paper presents and discusses the role of technology in such context and use three ongoing case studies where ICT has been used to augment and support consumers of cultural experiences. The analysis shows how technology-driven interventions are less oriented towards radical change compared to interventions that are rooted in their nondigital origins.

  • 41.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Knowledgeflows, knowledge externalities and regional economic development2014In: Handbook of Regional Science / [ed] Fischer, M. M. & Nijkamp, P., Springer, 2014, p. 413-437Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Swedish Perspectives on creative cities2014In: International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, ISSN 1466-6650, E-ISSN 1741-5136, Vol. 13, no 2-4, p. 100-117Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Warda, Peter
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Spatial knowledge spillovers in Europe: A Meta-Analysis2013In: The Innovation Union in Europe: A Socio-Economic Perspective on EU Integration / [ed] Elias Carayannis E. & G. Korres, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, p. 144-175Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Hammarén, Anna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Teaterregi och upphovsrätt: Särskilt om skillnaden mellan upphovsmän och utövande konstnärer1997Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Hammarén, Anna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Upphovsrättslagens inskränkning till förmån för användning i rättsvårdens intresse2014In: Juridisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1100-7761, Vol. 2014-2015, no 2, p. 347-368Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Höglund, Mats
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Handelsbolag: Bolagsbildning, vinstfördelning, reavinstbeskattning, justeratingångsvärde, byte av företagsform, reserveringsmöjligheter2003 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Höglund, Mats
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Är effektivare skattekontroll nödvändig?2006In: Skattenytt, ISSN 0346-1254, Vol. 56, no 12, p. 704-713Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Ishak, Guorgis
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Kidane, Danay
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gender patterns in the ambassadorial appointments of the United States2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to describe the gender patterns in the ambassadorial appointments of the United States. The choice of the United States as the critical case is highly relevant, not only because they have placed emphasis on gender equality in foreign service, but also due to their dominant position in the international arena, their unique ability to spread norms and influence the world politics on a larger scale. Based on two institutional theories about gender, co-variance between sex of the ambassadors and characteristics of the countries of placement is made. The result from the quantitative analysis shows that men and women are placed differently. Men are often placed in relatively powerful states, while women on the other hand are placed in relatively weak states. The results indicates that even though the field of foreign policy have developed and gone to a more gender equal direction, there is still long way to go. Gender equality can only develop by examining the situation of women and men in different fields, and emphasizing its importance

  • 49.
    Jarl, Maria
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet, Statsvetenskapliga instutitionen.
    Kjellgren, Hanna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Quennerstedt, Ann
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Förändringar i skolans organisation och styrning2007In: Skolan som politisk organisation / [ed] Pierre, Jon, Malmö: Gleerup , 2007, p. 23-48Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Kani, Papula
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Safari.K, Ariana Shaghayegh
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Depopulation and local development?: A comparative study of small rural oriented municipalities on the west coast of Sweden2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate municipal development activities of rural oriented areas of the west coast of Sweden. The chosen municipalities for this study are Tanum, Munkedal, Sotenäs and Orust where the aim is to give an understanding to the different municipalities work towards achieving local development and opposing depopulation. The nature of this study is primarily qualitative with a lightly deductive orientation since the presented concept of push and pulls factors of migration and the concept of governance with top down and bottom up approaches is used to understand and analyze the empirics. The empirics of this study give answer to the population situation of the municipalities, the prioritized factors for local development and methods adopted to oppose depopulation. The primary conclusion is that the problem of depopulation is handled by promoting local development through economical means in most municipalities.

     

     

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