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  • 1.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Studie av nyblivna skogsägares värdering vid köp av sina fastigheter2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensjobb handlar om skogsköparens resonemang och värderingsåsikter om sin köpta skogsfastighet. Jag har tagit reda på hur köparna resonerar med hjälp av intervjuer gjorda via telefon. Utbildningen jag gått är lantmäteriingenjörsprogrammet (120p) på högskolan i Trollhättan. Genom att sammanställa alla intervjuer och dra slutsatser av dessa hoppas jag kunna bidra till förståelse för vad man tycker är viktigt som skogsköpare i västra Götaland. Resultaten hoppas jag ska kunna få en praktisk betydelse för arbetet med värdering och försäljning/köp av rena skogsfastigheter.

  • 2.
    Bernhardsson, Emil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Har den nya fastighetsmäklarlagen inneburit ett ökat förtroende för branschen ?2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under början av 2000-talet framkom uppgifter om att vissa fastighetsmäklare använt sig avfabricerade bud för att trissa upp priserna i en budgivning, något som självklart är mycketallvarligt och direkt olagligt. Branschen har länge fått kämpa med relativt lågt förtroendefrån allmänhetens sida, detta har delvis hängt ihop med att det tidigare inte fanns någotutbildningskrav för yrket. Detta tillsammans med de olägenheter som upptäcktes under2006 bidrog till ett krav både från branschens och allmänhetens sida om att en nyfastighetsmäklarlag skulle arbetas fram, så att de seriösa aktörerna i branschen skulle kunnaverka för kundernas bästa med en yrkesstolthet.Arbetet inriktar sig på de delar i den nya lagen som behandlar budgivningsprocessen,förmedling av sidotjänster samt upprättande av mäklarjournalen.Tillvägagångsättet har varit att intervjua fastighetsmäklare, kunder och enmyndighetsperson inom branschen. Dessa har till viss del haft lika åsikter om att branschenmådde gott av att regleras bättre, och att lagen inneburit ökad transparens. Framgår göräven att en hel del personer har förutfattade meningar om yrket, som ofta bygger påenskilda dåliga erfarenheter av yrket sedan tidigare, som man sedan har svårt att nyansera.Syftet med arbetet har varit att undersöka huruvida den nya lagen har inneburit enförändring i arbetssättet hos fastighetsmäklarna, samt om lagen inneburit ett ökatförtroende för branschen.Arbetet visar att det finns goda förutsättningar för branschen att öka sitt förtroende frånallmänhetens sida i och med den nya fastighetsmäklarlagen. Det krävs dock att branschengör gemensam sak och tillsammans arbetar aktivt med att kommunicera ut innebörden avlagen.

  • 3.
    Bjurström, Peter
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Henriksson, Elin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Sjöbodar på Västkusten och i Bohuslän: användning och förmedling2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjöbodar i Bohuslän och på Västkusten – användning och förmedling

    I arbetet följer en presentation av vad per definition en sjöbod är och hur sådan byggnad bör användas enligt bygglov och kommunbestämmelser samt hur den bör förmedlas. En sjöbod definieras i bygglov som ett kallförråd för fiskeredskap. Användningen av en sådan byggnad har under de senaste åren uppmärksammats genom att användningen ändrats, utan godkännande i varken detaljplan eller bygglovshandlingar. Detta har medfört diskussioner och i vissa fall har det gått så långt att det lett till tvist inför domstol för att lösa konflikter och oklarheter.

    Vad som presenteras här är en summering av information kring denna typ av objekt. Hur användningen av en sådan bör ske och hur en fastighetsmäklare bör gå tillväga vid en förmedling av en sådan byggnad för att minska risken för missförstånd.

    En sjöbod är en bod vid vatten och ett förvaringsutrymme för redskap. En sjöbod ska vara oisolerad av rent praktiskt skäl – så att redskap såsom nät, rep och linor ska torka. En sjöbod är i princip det samma som en redskapsbod/förråd som står på en villatomt var som helst i landet. Det är ett fastighetstillbehör och är inte en så pass betydande byggnad att den tillsammans med tomten tillskrivs en typkod. Typkoden på en fastighet som endast rymmer en bod och som är belägen på en industrimark har typkoden 411.

    Namnet sjöbod har med tiden fått flera innebörder för olika typer av byggnader. Det behöver till namnet inte bara vara en redskapsbod vid vattnet utan kan även vara en hyreshusenhet och fritidsfastighet. Allt eftersom kustsamhället exploateras har byggnader uppförts för att likna sjöbodar men som i själva verket är fritidshus. Att förvirring uppstått kring ordet sjöbod och vad byggnaden ska användas till är inte konstigt med tanke på dessa nyuppförda fritidshus som relativt enkelt kan tas för en sjöbod från utsidan. En marknadsplats som Hemnet visar hur sjöbodar används i flera olika kategorier. Sjöboden nämns under kategorier som fritidshus, tomt och övrigt. Oklart blir det när exempelvis fritidshuset benämns som en inredd sjöbod.

    För att reglera användningen av sjöbodar har vissa kommuner gått ut med restriktioner och rekommendationer, så kallad Sjöbodspolicy. Media har också varit tydliga från sin sida om detta. Tillsammans har rättsfall, media och kommunen börjat få rätsida på vad att ha en sjöbod innebär.

  • 4.
    Ekberg, Mattias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Jansson, David
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Konsekvenser av bristande kvalitet i registerkartans gränsredovisning i skogsmark2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kvalitetsbristerna i registerkartan är ett välkänt problem och Lantmäteriet arbetar ständigt för att uppdatera kartan och hitta en lösning på detta problem som är ekonomiskt försvarbar. Trots detta arbete så är bristerna stora på många håll, speciellt på landsbygden och inom skogsmark.

    Denna rapport behandlar konsekvenserna av registerkartans gränsredovisning i skogsmark. Arbetet har skett genom en fältstudie där två fastigheters utmärkta gränser kontrollmättes mot registerkartans angivna gränser. En beräkning av det teorietiska skogsvärdet som hamnar i gränszonen mellan registerkartans gräns och den på marken utmärkta gränsen.

     En schablonmässig beräkning bedömt på hela Sveriges årliga avverkningsareal som ligger inom den gränszon som påverkas av registerkartans brister har gjorts och värdet av virkesvolymerna inom detta gränsland har beräknats.

    En Litteraturstudie har genomförts på den litteratur som berör ämnet. Enkätundersökningar till sakkunniga inom skogsnäringen och samtal med andra sakkunniga personer har skett för att få en inblick i hur registerkartans brister påverkar.

    Skogsnäringen vill inte se detta som ett stort problem som påverkar deras arbete. Även fast fel uppstår p.g.a. brister i deras kartmaterial och utrustning. De vill hellre peka på att gränserna många gånger är för dåligt underhållna av fastighetsägarna och att lantmäteriets prissättning gör att man hellre riskerar att göra fel än att få gränsen bestämd.

  • 5.
    Eklund, Josefin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Kjörk, Ida
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Rättigheter för ledningar: en studie av upplåtelseformer för ledningar i Göteborgs Stad2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to expand our knowledge of way-leave and other forms of tenures for conduits and to study how they are adopted in practice. By way of introduction the various forms of tenures; easement, way-leave and different types of usufructs are described. Easement and way-leave are forms of tenures not limited in time, whereas usufructs as leaseholds are limited to longer or shorter periods. This part of the thesis is concluded by a short summary describing the advantages and disadvantages of the different forms of tenure seen from the perspective of the landowner and that of the owner of the conduit. This is followed by a part showing which interests are guarded by the different parties and which form of tenure they prefer. This part is based on interviews with nine representatives from different companies and committees in Gothenburg. Some of the agreements that are in use are also described. During the interviews it became clear that the owner of the conduits main interests lie in reaching agreements that guarantee a long term legal protection at a low-cost and thus they see the advantages of way-leave. Despite this, way-leave is seldom used regarding land owned by the City of Gothenburg since the companies prefer to avoid tenure with compulsory elements. Furthermore the municipality is generally negative towards locking land by allowing rights unlimited in time. The municipality offers usufruct agreements as an alternative. How those are worked out in detail is negotiable and differs from case to case. Even though agreements are often reached they are always compromises. In some exceptional cases agreements have not been established as the parties have been too far apart. Therefore we have come to the conclusion that there is a need for new legislation. There is presently no cross between usufructs, wholly based on voluntary agreements, and way-leave which, in its present form, is problematic since it gives advantages to one on the expense of the other.

  • 6.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    The effect of constraints on bi-objective optimization of geodetic networks2014In: Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica, ISSN 1217-8977, E-ISSN 1587-1037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the problems in the single-objective optimisation models (SOOMs) for optimising geodetic networks is the contradiction of the controlling constraints, which may lead to their violation or infeasibility in the optimisation process. One way to solve this problem is to use a bi-objective optimisation model (BOOM) instead of SOOMs. In this paper, we will use the BOOM of precision and reliability and investigate the influence of the controlling constraints in a two-dimensional simulated network. Our studies show that the unconstrained BOOM is a good model, which almost fulfils our precision and reliability demands of the network. This model is also economical as more observables are removed from the plan whilst adding the controlling constraints leads to including more observables, which have no significant role.

  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Rättslig reglering av enskilda vägar med fokus på kostnadsansvarets utformning och tillämpning2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De enskilda vägarna utgör ungefär 75 % av alla vägar i Sverige och 60 % av landets gemensamhetsanläggningarinnehåller vägar. Drift och underhållskostnader för enskilda vägar fördelasgenom att de deltagande fastigheterna har andelstal i gemensamhetsanläggningen.Syftet med rapporten har varit att undersöka hur kostnadsfördelningen i samfällighetsföreningarför vägändamål fungerar i teorin och i praktiken.En litteraturstudie ligger till grund för teoridelen i avsnitt 2 och 3 där tidigare och nuvarandelagstiftning beskrivs. Fokus har lagts på frågor som rör enskilda vägar och kostnader, ersättningarsamt ändrade förhållanden för dessa. Ett antal samfällighetsföreningar för vägändamålhar undersökts och kontaktats för att få reda på hur de ser på systemet för kostnadsfördelningoch hur det fungerar.Resultatet av arbetet visar att de undersökta föreningarna anser att systemet för att fördelakostnader fungerar bra och i allmänhet anses som rättvist. I hälften av föreningarna hadeförutsättningarna ändrats på sätt som gjorde att andelstalen ändrades. Oftast var det pågrund av ändrad användning av fastigheter eller ändrad fastighetsindelning.Endast i ett fåtal fall hade föreningarna haft problem med utebliven betalning från medlemmarna.

  • 8.
    Hassel, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Hasselberg, Sofie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Finansinspektionens bolånetak: påverkan på förstagångsköpare i Göteborg2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Indebtedness in the Swedish market had steadily increased from the mid-1990s until 2008. For this reason, the Swedish Financial Supervisory Authority (Finansinspektionen) in October 2010 introduced a general advice on the restriction in the pawn of your property when applying for a mortgage, the so-called mortgage ceiling. This means that the buyer requires 15 percent in capital for the admission of mortgage. For a first-time buyer to buy a property in Gothenburg, this means that a significant amount of capital should be accumulated beforehand. The alternative, if assets are absent, is to take an unsecured loan, which is more expensive.

    To examine how first-time buyers in Gothenburg have solved the economic situation, a survey among students at University of Chalmers, University of Gothenburg and University West was conducted. It also examined how those who bought their first property respectively before and after October 2010 found a financial solution. Bank employees and real estate agents were interviewed to obtain their opinion on the mortgage ceiling, and how they think the first-time buyers were affected.

    The survey showed that the majority of those who plan to buy their first property are planning to save up for down payment. Half of those surveyed first-time buyers expects to save up for the down payment in 1-3 years.

    Respondent bankers and estate agents have seen that the solution for introduction of the mortgage ceiling was that parents had to help financially. This was done by becoming a creditor, pledging their homes as security or helping with financial assets. First-time buyers have in greater extent needed help from outside to meet the financial demands of the banks. In Gothenburg, where the housing shortage is high, there is not always another choice but to buy a home. The solution is to get financial help from parents. The study also suggests that second-time buyers in Gothenburg find it difficult to buy something bigger, or buying a home that is more expensive than the home they live in.

    There might be a delay in the mortgage ceiling effects, and that savings will increase within the next few years. Hopefully first-time buyers in the future will be able to stand on their own without parental financial assistance.

  • 9.
    Karlsson, Ida
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Fransson, Tina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Intaget - skarpt läge: Fastighetsmäklarens säljteknik från kontakt till påskrivit förmedlingsuppdrag2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen behandlar det första mötet mellan kunden och fastighetsmäklaren som i

    uppsatsen kommer att benämnas intaget. Uppsatsens huvudsakliga mål var att undersöka

    hur fastighetsmäklare använder sig av säljteknik vid ett intag samt vad det finns för olika

    modeller och teorier i ämnet säljteknik. Metoden som använts vid intervjuerna var av

    kvalitativ karaktär. Undersökningarna har utförts med registrerade fastighetsmäklare för att

    få reda på i vilken utsträckning de använder säljteknik vid intaget. Fem kvalitativa intervjuer

    har genomförts med fastighetsmäklare från olika företag, i olika åldrar samt med olika

    erfarenhet. Detta har gjorts för att få en bredd på respondenterna samt undersöka om det

    finns skillnader i deras arbetssätt. Vad som framgått av en sammanställning från

    undersökningen är att alla respondenterna är medvetna om säljteknikens betydelse vid ett

    intag. Resultatet visar att respondenternas användning av säljteknik skiljer sig då de hade

    olika tillvägagångssätt i olika situationer. Respondenterna använde sig av säljteknik både

    medvetet och omedvetet. Slutligen framgick det att det finns bra säljtekniska modeller och

    teorier att utgå från men det viktigaste är förmågan att kunna anpassa sig efter varje specifik

    kund.

  • 10.
    Karlsson, Per Rune
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Reglering av enskilt och gemensamt vid ägarlägenhetsförrättningar: En analys av de två första årens praktiska tillämpning2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since May 2009, during the first two years with the new rules which allows formation of condominiums inSweden, 394 condominiums in 24 separate projects have been formed.

    According to the Swedish law a condominium is a property unit. In approximately 20 % of the projects the property units have been formed before the building was built. This possi­bility is good for financing but can lead to differences between the borders of the property unit and the final building construction. To make a property formation order and not to conclude the cadastral procedure until the building is in place and the final drawings are made is a good way for the cadastral authority to keep control of the final result.

    Usually there is just one party in the condominium cadastral procedure. This means that it will not be any appeals and no precedents will be formed. Therefore there are requirements for a high standard on the recommendations regarding how to form condominiums.

    In some condominium projects the building construction has been adapted to give less need for the condominium owners to cooperate with the joint property association.

    There are recommendations which states that windows, exterior doors and balcony parapets should be a part of the condominium, but they can additionally be a part of the joint facility. Some of the practical solutions in the dossiers regarding joint facilities do not, according to the author, follow the intentions of the legislator. Better recommendations are needed in this area and enhancements are proposed in the thesis.

    The participatory share for each condominium has been set either with the same share per apartment or by some different models in relation to the apartments floor area. It has not been possible to explain the choice with the spread between the apartments floor area.

    According to the law the joint property association in these cases must set aside funds in a reserve. The amount of money that initially is noted in the articles of  the association differs between the condominium projects, and is either based on a proposal from the developer, calculated as 0,3 % of the construction costs or just arbitrary decided.

  • 11.
    Kirk, Jessica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Lundell, Sara
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Studie av olika fastighetsmäklarprogram: och hur väl dessa förbereder studenterna inför fastighetsmäklaryrket2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study about Real Estate University Programmes in Sweden and how the choice of educational institution affects job opportunities. Do potential employees consider where the students have been studying and how long the education has been?

    In Sweden there is a government agency called Fastighetsmäklarnämnden (FMN) (translated: the Estate Agents Board) who has a roll of controlling, educating, informing and register the Estate agents. FMN has some educational-, formal- and practical requirements before someone can be registered as a Real Estate Agent. One of the educational requirements is to obtain at least 120 higher education credits, corresponding to two years at university, at a real estate program which has been approved by FMN.

    In the study, programs with 120- and 180 higher education credits are included. There are a number of educational institutions which offer real estate programs. Delimitation has been done in consideration of the real estate university programmes focusing on real estate and property science. Therefore, the following educational institutions have been chosen to be included; Luleå University of Technology, Malmo University, University of Borås, University of Gävle and University West.

    Furthermore, the study investigated real estate agencies opinions about former students who had applied for jobs and if the companies accepted trainees. Real estate agencies included in the study are; Bjurfors, Fastighetsbyrån, HusmanHagberg, SkandiaMäklarna and SvenskFastighetsförmedling. The selected companies are based in Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmo.                   

             The result is based on a quantitative survey in two parts, one to former students and one to franchisees/office managers at each real estate agency. A literature study based on web-pages, course catalogues from each University, and articles from trade magazines were performed. The results demonstrate that former students choose course because of information from the University and depending on where the students lived at the time of applying. The companies do not evaluate former students differently based on 120- and 180 higher education credits degrees. However, some companies do experience differences in knowledge from students, which studied 120- compared to 180 higher education credits degrees.

  • 12.
    Larén, David
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Hur varierar prisnivå och försäljningstidpunkt under året för fritidshus i Tanums kommun2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    överlåtelse av fritidshus.

    För att utreda detta gjordes en analys i Värderingsdata. Samtliga fritidshusöverlåtelsers

    försäljningstidpunkt och prisnivå i Tanums kommun analyserades under åren 2005, 2008

    och 2011. Fritidshus- jämfördes därefter med permanenthusöverlåtelserna för att ta reda på

    hur fritidshusmarknaden utmärkte sig.

    Analysen visar att fritidshusförsäljningen varierar mer beroende på tidpunkt på året än

    permanenthusförsäljningen. Enligt analysen sker flest antal fritidshusöverlåtelser under

    årets andra kvartal. Det är också under denna period prisnivån är som högst.

    För att ge utredningen ett bredare perspektiv intervjuades fyra fastighetsmäklare om sina

    erfarenheter och uppfattning av fritidshusmarknaden i Tanum.

    3 av 4 fastighetsmäklare menade att fritidshusförsäljningen varierar mer än

    permanenthusförsäljningen beroende på tidpunkt under året.

    Enligt deras erfarenheter är fritidshusmarknaden bättre under perioden mars-september än

    under oktober-februari.

    Huruvida prisnivån på fritidshus varierar beroende på försäljningstidpunkt anser de är

    omöjligt att svara på.

    Slutsatserna i arbetet grundar sig på både resultatet från analysen och fastighetsmäklarnas

    erfarenheter.

    Resultatet av utredningen visar att det är mest gynnsamt att inleda en fritidshusförsäljning i

    mars-maj.

  • 13.
    Lundström, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Hilbert 90 for Rings with ConjugationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We show a version of Hilbert 90 that is valid for a large class ofalgebras many of which are not commutative, distributive orassociative. This class contains the n:th iteration of theConway-Smith doubling procedure. We use our version of Hilbert 90 toparametrize all solutions in ordered fields to the norm one equation for such algebras.

  • 14.
    Lundström, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Hilbert 90 for algebras with conjugation2012In: Algebras and Representation Theory, ISSN 1386-923X, E-ISSN 1572-9079, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 119-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show a version of Hilbert 90 that is valid for a large class ofalgebras many of which are not commutative, distributive orassociative. This class contains the n:th iteration of theConway-Smith doubling procedure. We use our version of Hilbert 90 toparametrize all solutions in ordered fields to the norm one equation for such algebras.

  • 15.
    Lundström, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Pythagoreiska tripplar på sex olika sätt2008In: Normat, ISSN 0801-3500, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 111-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Six different ways of parametrising Pythagorean triplets are presented, from the elementary arguments supplied by the Greek, via trigonometry to Gaussian integers and applications of Hilbers 90th theorem.

  • 16.
    Lundström, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Weak topological functors2008In: Journal of Generalized Lie Theory and Applications, ISSN 1736-5279, E-ISSN 1736-4337, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 211-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce weak topological functors and show that they lift and preserve weak limits and weak colimits. We also show that if then the induced functor of Wyler’s top categories and in particular to functor categories of fuzzy maps, fuzzy relations, fuzzy topological spaces and fuzzy measurable spaces. A ! B is a topological functor and J is a category,AJ ! BJ is topological. These results are applied to a generalization

  • 17.
    Lundström, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Öinert, Johan
    Commutativity and Ideals in Category Crossed Products2010In: Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences: Physics, Mathematics, ISSN 1406-0086, E-ISSN 2228-0685, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 338-346Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Lundström, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Öinert, Johan
    LTH.
    Miyashita Action in Strongly Groupoid Graded RingsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We determine the commutant of homogeneous subringsin strongly groupoid graded rings in terms of an action on the ring induced by the grading. Thereby we generalize a classical result of Miyashita from the groupgraded case to the groupoid graded situation. In the end of the article we exemplify this result. To this end, we show, by an explicit construction,that given a finite groupoid $G$, equipped with a nonidentitymorphism t : d(t) -> c(t), there is a strongly G-graded ring R with the properties that each R_s, for s in G, is nonzero and R_t is a nonfree left R_c(t)-module.

  • 19.
    Lundström, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Öinert, Johan
    LTH.
    The Ideal Intersection Property for Groupoid Graded Rings2012In: Communications in Algebra, ISSN 0092-7872, E-ISSN 1532-4125, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 1860-1871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that if a groupoid graded ring hasa certain nonzero ideal property, then the commutant of the center of the principal component of the ringhas the ideal intersection property, that is it intersects nontrivially every nonzero ideal of the ring. Furthermore, we show that for skew groupoid algebras withcommutative principal component, the principal componentis maximal commutative if and only if it has the ideal intersection property.

  • 20.
    Mark, Sigyn
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Holm, Sture
    Göteborg University, Department of Mathematics.
    Test and prediction in factorial models with independent variance estimates2008In: Journal of Applied Statistics, ISSN 0266-4763, E-ISSN 1360-0532, Vol. 35, no 7, p. 773-782Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Nilsson, Galina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Peer-Assisted Learning in Mathematics in Higher Education. 2010In: LTH:s Pedagogiska Inspirationskonferens: 6:e Pedagogiska inspirationskonferensen, dec 2010. Lund, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores opportunities for implementing a peer-tutoring system in mathematics in two contrasting settings: a traditional classroom environment with a teacher-centred educational process and the higher education environment where a range of student-centred teaching and learning methods has already been introduced. After a series of PAL sessions a questionnaire was distributed and in-depth interviews with the peer tutors were conducted. The analysis of the impact of peer-assisted learning (PAL) on the students' learning experience showed that the majority of students positively evaluated their PAL experience. The students felt that they were more actively engaged with and more in control of the learning process than during a traditional tutorial. This study demonstrated that the size of the groups, timing and the number of PAL sessions are crucial for successful implementation of PAL. The paper concludes with the recommendations for using PAL in a variety of educational settings.The higher education sector has been experiencing a dramatic change during the past decade: it is rapidly expanding both in the number and diversity of students. Student to staff ratio has enormously increased. The students are coming from different ethnic, social, and cultural backgrounds and have different levels of knowledge. The change in higher education from an "elite" to a "mass" system creates new challenges for educators. At the same time, the main features of the modern knowledge-based society, the society we live in, are the fast pace of technological advancements, interdisciplinary work organisation and globalisation of the work market. Educators in Europe are facing new challenges in preparing young people for their social and professional integration, successful career and personal development.

    The appropriate choice of teaching methods which meet the demands of the knowledge-based society, influence the learning process and accommodate the needs of young generation is crucial in achieving these tasks. Implementing student-centred approaches in the educational process creates the learning environment which stimulates students' learning developing their ability of independent and deep learning. 

  • 22.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Luchinskaya, D.
    Provision of maths support for student in higher education institutions2012In: The 40th Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association: March 8-10, 2012, Copenhagen, Aarhus: Department of Eduation, Aarhus University , 2012, p. 283-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European countries including Scandinavian countries are facing a crisis in preparing qualified staff for working in science and engineering. Declining numbers of students pursuing careers in these areas and poor quality of maths education in secondary schools are the principal factors contributing to this problem.

    Students entering universities have a diverse level of maths knowledge which is often below university requirements. University teachers face a challenging and complex task of teaching such a diverse student body. One of the most common ways to tackle this problem and to raise the level of students' maths knowledge to the required standard is to introduce a maths foundation course prior to mainstream teaching. However, this is not always possible because of academic staff availability and/or time and cost constraints.

    Another solution is to provide additional help with maths-related problems by running drop-in sessions, workshops and/or tutorials.

    This study analyses the efficiency of maths support provision in two universities: Leeds Metropolitan University, UK and Högskolan Väst, Sweden. This is an on-going collaboration between two universities and in this paper we present the results of this study focussing on the academic staff prospective, using questionnaires, observations and interviews with tutors.

    Based on the collected data we concluded that often students are not fully engaged during workshops. They prefer a 'solve this for me' approach which they try to achieve during individual sessions and which is not always possible with the course tutor. However, implementing methods which increase students' engagement with the learning process (e.g. problem-based learning andpeer-assisted learning) can be more useful. Running subject-specific workshops (e.g. for nurses, business students or teachers) helps to focus on students' particular needs, and individual tutorials can accommodate other needs.

    The paper concludes with recommendations for improving the efficiency of maths support for students.

  • 23.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics. University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Luchinskaya, E
    Developing generic and subject specific competences through non-traditional teaching methods2009In: European Educational Research Association conference: ECER 2009, 25-30 september, Vienna, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Luchinskaya, E
    Enhancing student employability prospects through competence development: using non-traditional methods in teaching mathematics in higher education2010In: NERA ‘ s 38 th Congress: Malmö, 11-13 March 2010, Malmö University School of Teacher Education, Malmö: Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA) , 2010, p. 144-144Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic/aim: This paper analyses student and academic experience in generic and subject specific competence development to evaluate the potential of using problem-based learning (PBL) and peer-assisted learning (PAL) in raising student employability prospects. The fast pace of technological advancements, interdisciplinary work organisation and globalisation of the work market are the main features of the modern knowledge-based society. Equipping students with competences that are required for their social and professional integration, successful career and personal development is becoming a key mission of the higher education sector. Fostering effective teaching and learning methods facilitates the acquisition of professional skills and competences. This paper explores the opportunities for implementing PBL and PAL in delivering mathematics on a range of programmes at the University Väst in Sweden focusing on the development of generic and subject specific competences. Theoretical framework: This study is underpinned by the socio-cultural theory of the learning processes which was originally formulated by Vygotsky and is currently experiences a tremendous peak of its popularity. PBL encourages deeper learning via meaning construction and connecting ideas. It stimulates collaborative knowledge building process among participants and develops self-directed learning. PAL is an example of a student-to student support scheme grounded in collaborative learning. PAL is aimed to improve student performance and develop a range of study skills through creating an informal environment for learning. The introduction of both methods into the educational process independently and at the same has a broad potential. Methodology/research design: Our study was carried out in the University Väst, Sweden in 2005-2009. The first year students on the ‘Land Surveyors’ and ‘Computer Science’ undergraduate programme participated in this study. Two pedagogical methods — PBL and a combination of PBL and PAL were incorporated into the mathematics modules delivery. The lectures were delivered in a traditional way; PBL and PAL were used throughout tutorials. The students were solving applied mathematical problems working in small groups. The problems selected were aimed to acquire a set of competences relevant to their future career. To evaluate the outcomes of this study, a questionnaire consisted of multiple choice and openended questions was designed where the students could comment on their learning experience. The interviews with tutors were conducted. The study has drawn a comparison between the development of particular competences and the use of PBL, PAL and traditional methods. Expected conclusions/findings: The results showed that the students evaluated PAL and PBL methods as useful and valuable. The students indicated that have developed problem solving skills, advanced their analytical skills and ability to apply mathematical tools. These competences are important for their future employment. The students highly rated collaboration with peers. It was noted that the selection of the problems, the number of students enrolled on the course, the choice of peer tutors, the way how training sessions are organised, the number and timing of the sessions are crucial for the successful implementation of PAL and PBL. Relevance for Nordic Educational research: Higher education systems in Europe including Scandinavia are facing new challenges in raising employability of students. The appropriate choice of teaching methods is instrumental to a successful implementation of this task. The paper concludes with recommendations for fostering PAL and PBL as they represent a useful educational tool which encourages the development of generic and subject specific competences.

  • 25.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Luchinskaya, E.
    Nilsson, R.
    Using peer-assisted learning in mathematics and physics in higher education in Sweden and Russia2010In: British Educational Research Association conference 2010: BERA 2010, 1-4 Sept, University of Warwick, Warwick, 2010, p. 0581-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores students' experience of peer tutor system in Mathematics and Physics education in two contrasting settings. The first one is a traditional classroom environment with a teacher centred educational process, the other is tutorials in the higher education where a range of student-centred teaching and learning methods has already been introduced [1-3].

    The education systems in Europe are facing new challenges in preparing young people for their social and professional integration, successful career and personal development in the modern knowledge-based society. The implementation of this task influences approaches to teaching and learning in so far as greater emphasis is placed on learner, learning outcomes and student competence. As a consequence, the old educational paradigm and didactical approaches which stress knowledge acquisition are being replaced by new pedagogical approaches with a focus on students and their learning process, particular on meeting learning outcomes and students' competence development.

    The appropriate choice of teaching methods is instrumental to a successful implementation this task. Fostering effective teaching and learning methods such as discussions, group work, case studies, problem-based learning, peer-assisted learning and critical thinking facilitates the acquisition of professional skills and competences.

    This paper explores the opportunities for fostering peer assisted learning (PAL) in teaching Physics at A-level and in delivering Mathematics at the university level. The study was carried out at University Väst, Sweden and School No 99 (with profound mathematics and physics education, in association with Moscow State Institute of Radio-engineering, Electronics and Automation), Moscow, Russia. The Physics education curriculum in this school corresponds to the first year curriculum in the UK and Swedish universities.

    There is a substantial body of literature on the PAL methodology. [e.g. 4, 5]. PAL is an example of a student-to student support scheme grounded in collaborative learning. PAL is aimed to improve student performance and to develop a range of study skills through creating an informal environment for learning. This method has been applied across a range of disciplines and is becoming an important part in programmes' delivery.

    The carried out research had the following objectives:

    to explore opportunities for fostering PAL in traditional classroom and in university practice to enhance students' performance.to evaluate and compare the quality of students' experience of using PAL in both settings;to analyse the challenges teachers face in implementing innovative approaches to teaching and learning in two different settings.

     

    Methodology

    Our study was carried out in 2008. 31 A-level student studying Physics and 42 first year students on the 'Land Surveyors' undergraduate programme participated in this study. PAL sessions have been incorporated into the Physics subject and 'Core  Mathematics' module delivery. The lectures were delivered in a traditional way; several PAL sessions were introduced during tutorials.

    The students worked in groups of five. A-level students were grouped according to their performance. The university students were randomly divided into groups.

    A peer tutor from the same student cohort was assigned to each group and trained. Peer tutors were selected from the more advanced students. The tutors decided themselves which teaching method they were going to use.

    The questionnaire was designed to evaluate the students' learning experience. In addition, the peer tutors were interviewed. The results of the survey were statistically analysed and compared with the previous test results.

    Findings

    Our findings showed that all A-level students and over 60% of the students at University Vast evaluated PAL method as useful and valuable. The students highly rated collaboration with peers and commented that it was easier to ask questions, get support and explanation. Over 80% of A-level students and over 50% of university students felt that PAL stimulated their activity. They felt that they were more in control of their learning and found it more enjoyable. However, the university students, having experienced the use of problem based learning (PBL), rated PBL higher than PAL.

    Both student samples positively evaluated the peer tutors' performance.

    Our study showed that the number of students enrolled on the course, the choice of peer tutors and timing of the sessions are crucial for the successful implementation of PAL. The test results showed an improvement in student grades.

    The paper concludes with recommendations for fostering PAL.

    References

    Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E. "Problem-based Learning and competence development: a Case Study of Teaching Mathematics to Computer Science Students", Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 2007, No 3. p 13-21.Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E, "Developing students' competences through problem based learning: a case study of delivering 'Decision Mathematics' module on Computer Science programme". Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Conference BERA 2008, Edinburgh, September, 2008Luchinskaya E., Nilsson G. and Williams C., "Developing students' competences in the light of Bologna process: the responses from Sweden and Russia". Paper presented at the European Educational Research Conference, ECER 2008, Gothenburg, Sweden, September 2008.Peer Assisted Learning, Topping, K. and Ehly, S. (Eds.), Lawrence Erlbaum, 1998 Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, Volume 12, Issue 2 June 2001 , pages 113 - 132Peer Learning in Higher Education. Learning from & with each other. Boud D., Cohen R. and Sampson J.(Eds.) Kogan Page, 2001. 

  • 26.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Luchinskaya, E
    Ratbil, E
    Using peer-assisted learning in Sweden and Russia: preparing active citizens for their future professional life2010In: NERA’s 38th Congress.: 11-13 March 2010, Malmö University School of Teacher Education, Malmö: Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA) , 2010, p. 129-130Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic/aim: This paper evaluates and compares students’ and academics’ experience of peer tutor system in Mathematics and Physics education in two contrasting settings. The first one is a traditional classroom environment with a teacher centred educational process (Russia), the other is tutorials in the higher education where a range of student-centred teaching and learning methods has already been introduced (Sweden). The education systems in Europe including Scandinavia are facing new challenges in preparingyoung people for their social and professional integration, successful career and personal development in the modern knowledge-based society. The implementation of this task influences approaches to teaching and learning in so far as greater emphasis is placed on learner, learning outcomes and student competence. The appropriate choice of teaching methods is instrumental to a successful implementation this task. Theoretical framework: This study is underpinned by the socio-cultural theory of the learning processes which was originally formulated by Vygotsky and is based on the idea that knowledge is socially and culturally constructed. The research has also demonstrated that the teaching practices that teachers adopt affect students’ learning process. Our study adopted teaching methods based on the learning-focused conception. PAL is an example of a student-to student support scheme grounded in collaborative learning. PAL is aimed to improve student performance and to develop a range of study skills through creating an informal environment for learning. This method has been applied across a range of disciplines and is becoming an important part in programmes’ delivery. Methodology/research design: Our study was carried out in 2008. 31 A-level student studying Physics and 42 first year students on the ‘Land Surveyors’ undergraduate programme participated in this study. PAL sessions have been incorporated into the Physics subject and Core Mathematics’ module delivery. The lectures were delivered in a traditional way; several PAL sessions were introduced during tutorials. A-level students were grouped according to their performance. The university students were randomly divided into groups. A peer tutor from the same student cohort was assigned to each group and trained. Peer tutors were selected from the more advanced students. The tutors decided themselves which teaching method they were going to use. The questionnaire was designed to evaluate the students’ learning experience with the focus on competence development. In addition, the peer tutors and both lecturers were interviewed.Expected conclusions/findings: Our findings showed that all A-level students and over 60% of the students at University Vast evaluated PAL method as useful and valuable. The students highly rated collaboration with peers and commented that it was easier to ask questions, get support and explanation. Both groups of students felt that PAL stimulated their activity, that they were more in control of their learning and found it more enjoyable. The evaluation of students’ level of generic and subject specific competences prior to the study and after the study was analysed. The analysis shows that students developed such competences as critical thinking, problem solving, decision making etc which are importance for becoming active members of the society. Our study showed that the number of students enrolled on the course, the choice of peer tutors and timing of the sessions are crucial for the successful implementation of PAL. Relevance for Nordic Educational research: The results of this study enable to identify the ways to further develop student competences which are necessary for their active participation in a democratic society through the use of best practice and knowledge transfer.

  • 27.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Luchinskaya, Elena
    Leeds Metropolitan University.
    Do We Deliver Effective Maths Support for Students?2012In: The European Conference on Educational Research 2012: Cadiz, 18-21 september 2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    European countries are facing a crisis in preparing qualified staff for working in science and engineering. Declining numbers of students pursuing careers in these areas and poor quality of maths education in secondary schools are the principal factors contributing to this problem.

    Students entering universities have a diverse level of maths knowledge which is often below university requirements. University teachers often face a challenging and complex task of teaching such a diverse student body. One of the most common ways to tackle this problem and to raise the level of students' maths knowledge to the required standard is to introduce a maths foundation course before to mainstream teaching begins. However, this is not always possible because of academic staff availability and/or time and cost constraints. Another solution is to provide additional help with maths-related problems by running drop-in sessions, workshops and/or tutorials.

    This study analyses the efficiency of maths support provision in two universities: Leeds Metropolitan University, UK and University West, Sweden and is part of an ongoing research collaboration between the two universities. The present work reflects the first stage of this research and is focused on evaluating the efficiency of the maths support in these two institutions from the perspectives of academic staff. The next stage of our research will include the analysis of this provision from the students' perspectives.

    The literature on this topic is growing but limited and is mainly focussed either on quantitative indicators: the numbers of maths support centres and staff employed, hours when this support is available, numbers of students attending etc. [e.g.1, 2] or at the correlation between maths support session attendance and students' test or exam results [3].

    However, there has been little research about how the tutors who deliver this maths support evaluate the effectiveness of their work and what they think can be done to provide maths support which can successfully meet students' needs.

    In both universities the main part of maths support provision consists of drop-in workshops which are available throughout the week. Leeds Metropolitan University does not offer very maths intensive courses, however, maths elements are incorporated into a number of subject areas such as  nursing, business, sports science psychology, education etc. There are specific workshops for maths and statistics. Two dedicated members of staff from the maths support centre run these one hour sessions. University West offers both maths intensive courses such as engineering and computer science, and less maths intensive courses such as education and nursing. Its maths workshops are open to all students and cover all subject areas. Selected academic staff from the Maths department are appointed to run three-to-four hour sessions three times a week as part of their teaching load.

    One tutor from Leeds Metropolitan University and three tutors from University West participated in the study.

    MethodOur study is conducted in two stages and uses mixed methods for data collection: questionnaires for students, interviews with tutors and observations during the sessions. The combination of these methods will give us a fuller picture of the effectiveness of maths support in these two universities. At this stage of our research we collected information about which students used the sessions – their departments, year and course of study, why they attended and what problems they needed help with – which we then analysed. We also observed how tutors were coping with a wide range of maths topics and teaching methods. We conducted interviews with the tutors to understand in more detail how they work, the difficulties they face, the types of problems that arise and the ways students expect help to be provided as well as tutors' ideas about more effective ways of providing maths support. At the next stage of our research we will be analysing the feedback from students and their suggestions on how maths support provision can be improved. The two-stage approach will provide us with a better understanding of the students' real needs and will facilitate the deployment of more effective student support.

    Expected OutcomesThe academic staff from both universities noticed a broad variation in students' maths abilities. The majority of workshop attendees were first year students struggling with their assignments as well as undergraduates who failed their exams and wanted help as part of their resit preparation. High performing students sometimes came to perfect their knowledge. In Leeds, postgraduate students often attended the workshops, particularly on statistical data analysis. The students came from a wide range of subject areas and tutors found that sometimes it took extra time to answer the students' subject-specific questions. The number of attendees increased before exams or project submission deadlines. Based on the interviews and observations we concluded that students are often not fully engaged during the workshops, instead preferring a 'solve this for me' approach. However, implementing student-centred methods which increase students' engagement with the learning process (e.g. problem-based learning and peer-assisted learning [4-6]) can help.  Subject-specific workshops (e.g. for nurses, business students or teachers) help to focus on students' particular needs, and individual tutorials can accommodate other needs. The paper concludes with recommendations for improving the effectiveness of maths support for students and discusses the next stage of the research.

    References1. Perkin G. and Croft T. (2004), "Mathematics Support Centres – the extent of current provision", MSOR Connections, May 2004, Vol. 6 No 2 p 14-18. 2. Lawson, D.A. and Reed J. (2002), "University mathematics support centres: help for struggling students". In Ivanchev, D. and Todorov, M.D (eds.), Applications of Mathematics in Engineering and Economics. Heron Press, Sofia, pp.686-692 3. Pell G. and Croft T., (2008), "Mathematics Support – Support for all?" Teaching Mathematics and its Applications, 27 (4), pp. 167-173. 4. Anari M., (2006) An analysis of a maths workshop – students with mathematical difficulties. (in Swedish). Thesis. Mälardalen University, the Library of the Institute for Mathematics and  Physics. 5. Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E. (2007), "Problem-based Learning and competence development: a Case Study of Teaching Mathematics to Computer Science Students", Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 2007, No 3. p 13-21. 6. Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E. (2009), " Using Problem-based and Peer-assisted Learning in Teaching Mathematics to University Students: Focus on Competence Development." Paper presented at the European Educational Research Conference, ECER 2009, Vienna, Austria, September 2009.

  • 28.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Luchinskaya, Elena
    Kristiansson, Lilia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Process and Product Development.
    Luchinskaya, Daria
    Competence Development and Employability Prospects: Using Non-traditional teaching Methods in a Changing Higher Education Environment 2010In: European Conference on educational research: ECER 2010, 23-27 August, Helsinki, 2010, p. 451-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The cultural changes in the modern society create new challenges for educators in Europe. The higher education curriculum has changed from factual knowledge acquisition to developing students' competences and skills in response to a changing professional environment. This paper analyses student experience and academic results in generic and subject-specific competence development in order to evaluate the potential of using problem-based learning (PBL) and project-based (PrBL) learning to increase the  students´ prospects of employment. The fast pace of technological advancements, interdisciplinary work, changing organisations and globalisation of the workplace characterize the modern knowledge-based society. Equipping students with competences required for their social and professional integration, successful career and personal development is a key mission of the higher education sector. Promoting effective teaching and learning methods facilitates the acquisition of professional skills and competence, and at the same time addresses the needs of a diverse student body in higher education. 

    This paper explores the opportunities for implementing PBL and PrBL in a range of programmes at the University West, Sweden and Lancaster University, UK focusing on the development of generic and subject specific competences. This is an on-going collaboration between two universities [1-3]. 

    PBL and PrBL are the examples of collaborative student-focused learning and are supported by constructivist theory [4-6]. These methods encourage deeper learning via meaning construction, connecting ideas as well as creating meaningful artifacts. They stimulate a collaborative process of building among participants, develop self-directed learning, improve student performance and develop a range of study skills through creating an informal environment for learning. 

    Our study was carried out at the University West, Sweden and Lancaster University, UK in 2009. The objectives of the study were: 

    • To assess the level of student-acquired competences, generic and subject-specific (mathematics, engineering)

    • To evaluate the quality of student experience by assessing the impact of PBL and PrBL on students' competence development;

    • To identify the best practice and opportunities for promoting effective teaching and learning methods to enhance student employability prospects. 

    Method

    In Sweden, the first-year students in the ' Surveyors' and the second-year students on 'Basic Principles of Turbomachinery and Hydraulics' undergraduate programmes participated in this study. The lectures were delivered in a traditional way; PBL was used throughout tutorials. The students solved applied mathematical problems aimed at acquiring a set of competences working in small groups. To evaluate the outcomes of this study, each group had to reflect on what they learned during each PBL session, how the session affected their learning process and their competence development. At Lancaster University the first-year mechanical engineering students reflected on their experience of project-based learning. The students had to design, build and test a lifting device working in groups of four. The lectures and tutorials in the programme were conducted in a traditional way. By the end of the project the students responded to a questionnaire consisted of open-ended questions.

    Expected Outcomes

    The results showed that the Swedish students evaluated PBL method highly, finding it useful, activating and valuable. The students indicated they developed problem-solving skills, advanced their analytical skills and ability to apply mathematical tools. These competences are important for their future employment. The students rated collaboration with peers highly. The students at Lancaster University pointed out the necessity of developing time management, communication with peers in the groups and organisational skills. The students stressed that problem-solving and decision-making were very important as they had to choose the right design concept to work with. Assigning tasks and requiring completion by a required date were the skills that the students had to learn while working as a team. The paper concludes with recommendations for promoting PBL and PrBL as they represent useful educational tools which encourage the development of generic and subject-specific competences. They also provide the opportunities to accommodate a diverse range of student learning-styles and academic backgrounds.

     

    References

    1. Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E. "Problem-based Learning and competence development: a Case Study of Teaching Mathematics to Computer Science Students", Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 2007, No 3. p 13-21.

    2. Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E. Using Problem-based and Peer-assisted Learning in Teaching Mathematics to University Students: Focus on Competence Development. Paper presented at the European Educational Research Conference, ECER 2009, Vienna, Austria, September 2009.

    3. Luchinskaya E., Nilsson G. and Williams C., "Developing students' competences in the light of Bologna process: the responses from Sweden and Russia". Paper presented at the European Educational Research Conference, ECER 2008, Gothenburg, Sweden, September 2008.

    4. Vygotsky, L. S. Mind in society. The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1978

    5. Phillips, D. Constructivism in education: Opinions and second opinions on controversial issues. Chicago, IL University of Chicago Press, 2000

    6. Light, G., Cox, R., & Calkins, S. (2009) Teaching and learning in higher education: The reflective professional. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2009. 

  • 29.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Luchinskaya, Elena
    Nilsson, Rimma
    Higher Education in Change: Peer-assisted Learning Applied to Mathematics and Physical Science for Engineers in Sweden and Russia 2010In: European Conference on educational research: ECER 2010, 23-27 August, Helsinki, 2010, p. 1581-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates and compares the students' and academics' experience of peer tutoring system in mathematics and physics for engineers in higher education. The higher education sector has been experiencing a dramatic change during the past decade: it is rapidly expanding both in the number and diversity of students. Student to staff ratio has enormously increased. The students are coming from different ethnic, social, and cultural backgrounds and have different levels of knowledge. The change in higher education from an "elite" to a "mass" system creates new challenges for educators. At the same time, the main features of the modern knowledge-based society, the society we live in, are the fast pace of technological advancements, interdisciplinary work organisation and globalisation of the work market. Educators in Europe are facing new challenges in preparing young people for their social and professional integration, successful career and personal development.

     The appropriate choice of teaching methods which meet the demands of the knowledge-based society, influence the learning process and accommodate the needs of young generation is crucial in achieving these tasks. Implementing student-centred approaches in the educational process creates the learning environment which stimulates students' learning and develops their ability of independent and deep learning [1].

    This study is underpinned by the socio-cultural theory of the learning processes which was originally formulated by Vygotsky and is based on the idea that knowledge is socially and culturally constructed [2-4]. On the other hand, the research has also demonstrated that the teaching practices that teachers adopt affect students' learning process. Our study adopted teaching methods based on the learning-focused conception.  PAL is an example of a student-to student support scheme grounded in collaborative learning. PAL is aimed to improve student performance and to develop a range of study skills through creating an informal environment for learning. This method has been applied across a range of disciplines and is becoming an important part in programmes' delivery.

    This study is an on-going collaboration between University West, Sweden, Lancaster University, UK and School No. 99, Moscow Russia [5-7]. Our study was carried out in 2008-2009. The Russian educational environment can be characterised as traditional classroom environment with a teacher centred educational process. In the case of Sweden, a range of student-centred teaching and learning methods has already been introduced.

     The research carried out had the following objectives:  

    ·       To explore opportunities for implementing PAL in traditional classroom and in university settings to enhance students' performance.

    ·       To evaluate and compare the quality of students' experience of using PAL in both settings and at different levels  (AS, A levels) in the case of Russian students.

    ·       To analyse the challenges teachers face in implementing innovative approaches to teaching and learning in two different settings.

    AS and A-level students studying Physics at the School No. 99 (which specialises in mathematics and physics education), Moscow took part in this research. First year students on the 'Land Surveyors' and 'Mechanical Engineering' undergraduate programmes from the University West (Sweden) participated in this study.

     

    MethodPAL sessions have been incorporated into the Physics subject and 'Mathematics' module delivery. The lectures were delivered in a traditional way; several PAL sessions were introduced during tutorials. AS-level students were grouped according to their performance. A-level students formed the groups according to their choice. The university students were randomly divided into groups. A peer tutor from the same student cohort was assigned to each group and trained. Peer tutors were selected from the more advanced students. The questionnaire was designed to evaluate the students' learning experience. Group interviews and the interviews with group leaders and both lecturers were carried out.

    Expected OutcomesOur findings showed that all AS and A-level students and the majority of the students at University Vast evaluated PAL method as useful and valuable. The students highly rated collaboration with peers and commented that it was easier to ask questions, get support and explanation although the AS students did not feel confident at the beginning. Both groups of students felt that PAL stimulated their activity, that they were more in control of their learning and found it more enjoyable. The Russian students felt more relaxed and were not afraid of getting a low mark as they normally would be in a traditional classroom. Our study showed that the number of students enrolled on the course, the choice of peer tutors and timing of the sessions are crucial for the successful implementation of PAL. During the interviews both lecturers stressed that they could use their time more efficiently. This activity gave an opportunity to a Russian tutor to prepare the additional material. The Russian students were so taken by this experience that they recommended the other tutors to introduce this method. The paper concludes with the suggestions for further development in using PAL in a variety of settings. 

  • 30.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Luchinskaya, G
    Ratbil, E
    Comparative case study of using non-traditional methods in two contrasting educational environments: implementing peer-assisted learning in Sweden and Russia2009In: The European Conference on Educational Research. ECER 2009: Vienna, Austria from  25 - 26 September 2009, 2009, p. 1105-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores students' experience of peer tutor system in Mathematics and Physics education in two contrasting settings. The first one is a traditional classroom environment with a teacher centred educational process, the other is tutorials in the higher education where a range of student-centred teaching and learning methods has already been introduced [1-3]. The education systems in Europe are facing new challenges in preparing young people for their social and professional integration, successful career and personal development in the modern knowledge-based society. The implementation of this task influences approaches to teaching and learning in so far as greater emphasis is placed on learner, learning outcomes and student competence. As a consequence, the old educational paradigm and didactical approaches which stress knowledge acquisition are being replaced by new pedagogical approaches with a focus on students and their learning process, particular on meeting learning outcomes and students' competence development. The appropriate choice of teaching methods is instrumental to a successful implementation this task. Fostering effective teaching and learning methods such as discussions, group work, case studies, problem-based learning, peer-assisted learning and critical thinking facilitates the acquisition of professional skills and competences. This paper explores the opportunities for fostering peer assisted learning (PAL) in teaching Physics at A-level and in delivering Mathematics at the university level. The study was carried out at University Väst, Sweden and School No 99 (with profound mathematics and physics education, in association with Moscow State Institute of Radio-engineering, Electronics and Automation), Moscow, Russia. The Physics education curriculum in this school corresponds to the first year curriculum in the UK and Swedish universities. There is a substantial body of literature on the PAL methodology. [e.g. 4, 5]. PAL is an example of a student-to student support scheme grounded in collaborative learning. PAL is aimed to improve student performance and to develop a range of study skills through creating an informal environment for learning. This method has been applied across a range of disciplines and is becoming an important part in programmes' delivery. The carried out research had the following objectives: • to explore opportunities for fostering PAL in traditional classroom and in university practice to enhance students' performance. • to evaluate and compare the quality of students' experience of using PAL in both settings; • to analyse the challenges teachers face in implementing innovative approaches to teaching and learning in two different settings.

    MethodOur study was carried out in 2008. 31 A-level student studying Physics and 42 first year students on the 'Land Surveyors' undergraduate programme participated in this study. PAL sessions have been incorporated into the Physics subject and 'Core Mathematics' module delivery. The lectures were delivered in a traditional way; several PAL sessions were introduced during tutorials. The students worked in groups of five. A-level students were grouped according to their performance. The university students were randomly divided into groups. A peer tutor from the same student cohort was assigned to each group and trained. Peer tutors were selected from the more advanced students. The tutors decided themselves which teaching method they were going to use. The questionnaire was designed to evaluate the students' learning experience. In addition, the peer tutors were interviewed. The results of the survey were statistically analysed and compared with the previous test results.

    Expected OutcomesOur findings showed that all A-level students and over 60% of the students at University Vast evaluated PAL method as useful and valuable. The students highly rated collaboration with peers and commented that it was easier to ask questions, get support and explanation. Over 80% of A-level students and over 50% of university students felt that PAL stimulated their activity. They felt that they were more in control of their learning and found it more enjoyable. However, the university students, having experienced the use of problem based learning (PBL), rated PBL higher than PAL. Both student samples positively evaluated the peer tutors' performance. Our study showed that the number of students enrolled on the course, the choice of peer tutors and timing of the sessions are crucial for the successful implementation of PAL. The test results showed an improvement in student grades. The paper concludes with recommendations for fostering PAL.

    References1. Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E. "Problem-based Learning and competence development: a Case Study of Teaching Mathematics to Computer Science Students", Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 2007, No 3. p 13-21. 2. Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E, "Developing students' competences through problem based learning: a case study of delivering 'Decision Mathematics' module on Computer Science programme". Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Conference BERA 2008, Edinburgh, September, 2008 3. Luchinskaya E., Nilsson G. and Williams C., "Developing students' competences in the light of Bologna process: the responses from Sweden and Russia". Paper presented at the European Educational Research Conference, ECER 2008, Gothenburg, Sweden, September 2008. 4. Peer Assisted Learning, Topping, K. and Ehly, S. (Eds.), Lawrence Erlbaum, 1998 Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, Volume 12, Issue 2 June 2001 , pages 113 - 132 5. Peer Learning in Higher Education. Learning from & with each other. Boud D., Cohen R. and Sampson J.(Eds.) Kogan Page, 2001. 

  • 31.
    Parianos, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Dahlqvist, Tobias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    En utredning av tekniken "mobile mapping" i kommunal verksamhet2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work is intended to analyze whether the municipalities has a need for the new technology of mobile mapping.

    Mobile mapping consists of the technologies of laser scanning, photographing and positioning of streets and roads in city environment and in the countryside. When these technologies are operating together a georeferenced three-dimensional image model is created, which has specific coordinates that states its position on the surface of the earth. Thanks to the laser scanning process even measuring can be performed in this model.

    The municipal sector consists of many different departments which use visual spatial information. These departments are an interesting target group for this system. Specific departments within the municipal sector, which we considered were the most suitable, have been selected. Individuals within these departments have replied to a questionnaire where several statements were given. The statements are constructed so that the replies that are received as much as possible describe the need for this new technology. In addition to the questionnaire a number of telephone- and in-depth interviews have been done in purpose of creating a basis which is as solid as possible.

    The results that have been obtained indicate that there is a rather considerable demand for the technology. The majority of the asked professions have given replies which hint that they would appreciate visual measurable spatial information in accurate and detailed 3D-models. The telephone interviews have pointed in this direction as well.

    Since a municipality is organized of a large number of departments which each have a need for the technology, a reference can be made to the expression “many a little makes a mickle”. In other words, the municipal need for the technology is considerable since many different units find their own uses for mobile mapping.

    We have after this investigation obtained a result which implies that mobile mapping would be a good investment for the municipal sector.

  • 32.
    Qvillby, Sofia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Högberg, Sandra
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Ägarlägenhet i forhållande till bostadsrätt: Vad är den juridiska skillnaden ?2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att klargöra de juridiska skillnaderna som finns mellan en bostadsrätt och en ägarlägenhet. Arbetet är främst en litteraturstudie där information från böcker, Internet samt lagtext redovisats. En undersökning har gjorts via Hemnet.se för att få en geografisk överblick om vart i Sverige som ägarlägenheter är till salu. Två kvalitativa  intervjuer har gjorts, dels med en bankman från Länsförsäkringar Göteborg och Bohuslän, där han bland annat har berättat hur utlåning för respektive boendeform går till. I den andra intervjun har en fastighetsmäklare intervjuats, som förmedlat både ägarlägenheter och bostadsrätter. Innehavaren av en bostadsrätt är medlem i en bostadsrättsförening, vilket är en ekonomisk förening. En bostadsrättsförening äger en fastighet och upplåter bostadsrätter till sina medlemmar. Den 1:a maj 2009 infördes ägarlägenheter i Sverige, vilket var en ny boendeform i vårt land. Med ägarlägenheter infördes möjligheten att äga sin egen lägenhet i ett flerbostadshus. En ägarlägenhet är en tredimensionell fastighet som i sin helhet är avgränsad både horisontellt och vertikalt. Skillnaderna mellan dessa två boendeformer är markant. Den största skillnaden är förfogandet över boendet. Ägaren till en ägarlägenhet får fritt sälja och hyra ut sin ägarlägenhet. Detta till skillnad från en bostadsrätt där bostadsrättsinnehavaren måste få ett samtycke från bostadsrättsföreningen vid en andrahandsuthyrning samt att vid en försäljning krävs för köparen ett godkänt medlemskap i bostadsrättsföreningen.

  • 33.
    Romeshkani, Mohsen
    et al.
    Islamic Azad University, Qazvin branch, Qazvin, Iran .
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Deterministically-modified integral estimators of tensor of gravitation2015In: Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas, ISSN 1413-4853, E-ISSN 1982-2170, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 189-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Earth's global gravity field modelling is an important subject in Physical Geodesy. For this purpose different satellite gravimetry missions have been designed and launched. Satellite gravity gradiometry (SGG) is a technique to measure the second-order derivatives of the gravity field. The gravity field and steady state ocean circulation explorer (GOCE) is the first satellite mission which uses this technique and is dedicated to recover Earth's gravity models (EGMs) up to medium wavelengths. The existing terrestrial gravimetric data and EGM scan be used for validation of the GOCE data prior to their use. In this research, the tensor of gravitation in the local north-oriented frame is generated using deterministically-modified integral estimators involving terrestrial data and EGMs. The paper presents that the SGG data is assessable with an accuracy of 1-2 mE in Fennoscandia using a modified integral estimatorby the Molodensky method. A degree of modification of 100 and an integration cap size of for integrating terrestrial data are proper parameters for the estimator.

  • 34.
    Ryberg, Anders
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Ericsson, Mikael
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Eriksson, Kenneth
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Nilsson, Jim
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Larsson, Matthias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Stereo vision for path correction in off-line programmed robot welding2010In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, 2010, p. 1700-1705Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes a versatile machine vision system for correcting off-line programmed nominal robot trajectories for advanced welding. Weld trajectory corrections are needed due to slight variations in weld joints. Such variations occur naturally because of varying tolerances in parts and to heat induced deformations during earlier weld sequences. The developed system uses one camera and a weld tool mounted on the robot hand. As a first step, the whole system, including the camera, is calibrated. Then the system takes images of the weld joint from different positions and orientations, and determines the weld joint geometry in 3D using a stereo vision algorithm and a novel camera model. The weld trajectory is then updated in the robot control system, and weld operation is performed. These steps are repeated for all weld sequences of the work piece. The strategy has successfully been demonstrated for a standard industrial welding robot and a standard FireWire CMOS camera. The maximum deviation of the trajectory found by the system compared to a reference (coordinate measuring machine) is 0.7 mm and the mean deviation is 0.23 mm. Thus, the system shows high potential for industrial implementation. ©2010 IEEE.

  • 35.
    Subasic, Anita
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Ägarlägenheter: En studie om varför etableringen inte slår igenom i Sverige2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska befolkningen har pratat om att äga sin lägenhet i över 150 år, något som kom att bli verkliget i Sverige den 1 maj 2009 då ägarlägenheter inrättades som boendeform. Boendeformen finns redan i andra Europeiska länder så som Belgien, Norge och Holland och har etablerats i Sverige. På tre år har media övervakat upprättad byggnation av ägarlägenheter där skilda åsikter framkommit av intressenter, byggherrar och banker. Det är dessa åsikter som undersökts och ligger till grund för antalet ägarlägenheter som byggts i landet. Det är viktigt att titta på vilka boendeformer som finns i landet idag och hur dessa förhåller sig till varandra. Då bostadsrätter är den boendeform som mest liknar garlägenheter har juridiska skillnader presenterats mellan dessa. Den största skillnaden utgör nyttjanderätt till en lägenhet som ägas utav en bostadsrättsförening och äganderätt i ägarlägenheter. Det finns således inte en förening i ägarlägenheter som bestämmer, utan det gör ägaren fritt. En ägarlägenhet är en fastighet som kan lagfaras, pantsättas och överlåtas fritt utan inskränkningsanspråk. Studien visar att det som påverkar etableringen av ägarlägenheter i Sverige är befolkningens samt bankernas intresse. Eftersom boendeformen inte funnits länge i landet finns oro bland intressenter och banker om finansieringen av en sådan lägenhet. En ägarlägenhet är svår att värdera då det inte finns någon marknad att jämföra med. Lånelöften är svåra för köpare och byggherrar att få beviljade, något som bromsar utvecklingen av att ägarlägenheter byggs och säljs. Byggföretag ser potential i att bygga nya ägarlägenheter, även om det är tufft att övertala banker och försäkringsbolag med finansieringen. Vid nyproduktion kommer den färdiga lägenheterna att kosta mer än en bostadsrätt, både att bygga och att köpa. För att byggföretaget skall gå med vinst blir ägarlägenheten dyrare att köpa än en bostadsrätt

  • 36.
    Svensson, Sebastian
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Antal varnade fastighetsmäklare under 2011: en studie och granskning av varningar2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen utgör en studie av de anmälningar av fastighetsmäklare som inkommit till den statliga tillsynsmyndigheten, Fastighetsmäklarnämnden. Av de anmälningar som inkommit har i uppsatsen fokuserats på de som resulterade i någon form av påföljd, antingen varning eller återkallelse av registreringen. Vid granskningen av de 87 varnade mäklarna och de 2 avregistrerade har en geografisk fördelning gjorts för att kunna urskilja vissa tendenser. Samtidigt har det även gjorts en jämförelse om det är flest män eller kvinnor som blir varnade. Efter den sammanställningen så delades de olika förseelserna in i tio kategorier. Samma indelning som i tidigare arbeten för att kunna jämföra de olika grupperna om det skett någon förändring gentemot tidigare år. Slutligen förs en diskussion / analys om varför situationer uppstår som genererar olika typer av påföljder.. Om det beror på slarv, nonchalans, glömska eller ren okunskap.

  • 37.
    Tannerfalk, Jakob
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Landsbygdsprogrammet 2007-2013: en jämförelsestudie av genomförandet under åren 2007-2009 avseende infrastruktur (åtgärdskod 125)2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this comparison study regarding infrastructure (action code 125) the focus of the analysis has above all been on the County administrations implementation of the Rural Development Programme 2007-2013. Special emphasis has been made against the County administrations strategies of implementation and priorities, processing, the granted cases and their amounts, budget and its utilization rate, limitations on the support per case and rejected cases. In the comparison there has been made interviews with all of the County administrations, except for Uppsala County. The Rural Development Programme is equally funded by the EU and Sweden and enables, through action code 125, financial support to a number of different activities. Activities where there for example is a lack of knowledge, cooperation, or money. The aim for the support is to improve the competitiveness of the agricultural-, reindeer- and forestry sectors. Support is given to a maximum of 50 percent of the eligible costs of a project. The activities in action code 125 are, in spite of high potential of diversity, relatively simplistic. Of a total of 456 granted cases (2007-2009) and 16 327 000 million kronor basically all, with a few exceptions, are related to new and review of road associations and joint facilities (cadastral procedures). A review can, through updated share index and new statutes, contribute to an easier future cooperation of the associations that manage Sweden's private roads. Given that Sweden's private roads are a complement to the public roads, there should be a strong interest in keeping these roads and the associations that manage them in a good condition. Nevertheless the benefits, of both the action code and new and review of road associations and joint facilities, are in various ways challenged.

  • 38.
    Tano, Ingrid
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Vännman, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet & Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Multivariate process capability analysis applied on a thermal spraying process2011In: 25th International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies, SMT25, University West in Trollhättan, Sweden, on June 20-22, 2011., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Our interest in multivariate capability indices (MPCI) is based on a case from a thermal spray­ing process at Volvo Aero Corporation, Sweden, where they wanted to determine the process capability of a three-dimensional variable. The process can be characterized as a high temperature “spray paint­ing” to protect the sprayed surface against, e.g. heat, corrosion and erosion. Different porosity is desirable depending on what the thermally sprayed coating should protect against. There is a relation be­tween the porosity and the in-flame variables and it would be preferable to se­cure the porosity during spraying instead as of today, afterwards. Since the three-dimensional, in-flame, variables are correlated one way to do this could be to calculate a MPCI of the in-flame variables. There are a number of different MPCIs described in the literature, but for only a hand­ful of these confidence intervals have been derived. In practise the conclusion about process capability must be drawn from a random sample. Hence, confidence or tests for MPCIs are important. Four different available methods for calcu­lating confidence intervals of MPCIs are being reviewed and compared. Current investigation shows issues that need to be solved before the studied methods can be applied more generally in practice.

  • 39.
    Tano, Ingrid
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Vännman, Kerstin
    Umeå Universitet & Luleå tekniska universitet & Högskolan Väst.
    Multivariate Process Capability Indices—A New Principal Component Analysis Approach2011In: ENBIS1- Coimbra, Portogal, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Often the quality of a process is determined by several correlated quality characteristics. In such cases the quality characteristic should be treated as a vector and a number of different multivariate process capability indices (MPCI:s) have been developed for such a situation. One of the existing MPCIs described in the literature is based on principal component analysis (PCA). The idea behind this MPCI is to do a PCA and consider only the first few principle components that explain the main part of the variability. Then one of the well-known univariate process capability indices is applied to each selected principle component and thereafter the univariate process capability indices for the selected principle components are combined to one MPCI. In order define this MPCI the tolerance region for the quality characteristic vector is transformed to a separate specification interval for each principal component. Recently it was shown that this transformation of the tolerance region into separate specification intervals is done in an improper way. And it is far from obvious how to obtain the individual specification limits for each selected principal component when the transformation is properly made. This problem gets complicated for 2 principal components and even worse for more than 2 principal components. We propose a new method based on PCA that circumvent these difficulties for the case when the tolerance region is a hyper-rectangular. This method first transforms the original data in a suitable way. Then PCA is done on the transformed data and it is shown that only the first principal component is needed to deem a process as capable or not at a stated significance level. Hence, a multivariate situation is transferred into a univariate situation and well-known theory for univariate process capability indices can be used to draw conclusions about the process capability. The properties of this method are investigated through a simulation study.

  • 40.
    Tentak, Filip
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Litos, Alexander
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Säljteknik: metoder och tekniker för bäst resultat2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet är att ta reda på hur en fastighetsmäklare ska agera, vilka tänkbara metoder och tekniker som ska användas för att uppnå höga resultat inom fastighetsförmedling. Uppsatsen har tillämpat den kvalitativa och den kvantitativa metoden för att få en bred kunskap om ämnet. Intervjuer har genomförts med fastighetsmäklare och kunder. Uppsatsen tar hänsyn till vilka teorier, metoder och tekniker en fastighetsmäklare ska använda sig av för att kunden ska välja denne till uppdraget. Försäljningssamtalet byggs upp i fyra olika delar i form av inledning, behovsanalys, presentation och avslut. Det första mötet med kunden är viktigt då den större delen av kundens uppfattning av fastighetsmäklaren görs. Det är också viktigt att tänka på kroppsspråket som utgör åttio procent av all mänsklig kommunikation. Efter en god genomförd inledning börjar behovsanalysen, som går ut på att ta reda på information om kunden. "Vart står ni i livet idag? Vart vill ni bo? Varför vill ni flytta? Berätta om er bostad? " Med informationen från behovsanalysen, använder fastighetsmäklaren sina tjänster och säljtekniker för att möta kundens förväntningar. I presentationen lägger fastighetsmäklaren upp vem denne representerar och vad som kan erbjudas till kund. När fastighetsmäklaren anser sig ha presenterat sin tjänst väl och börjat uppfatta olika köpsignaler från kund går fastighetsmäklaren på avslut. När fastighetsmäklaren går på avslut möter denne eventuella invändningar hos kund och försöker gå på avslut igen. Det är viktigt att följa upp kunden efter en avslutad affär och det bästa sättet att göra det är att ringa upp kunden.

  • 41.
    Yücel, GIzem
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Sjöobodsupplåtelser: kartläggning och reflektioner2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I uppdrag av Kungälvs kommun har en kartläggning gjorts mellan olika kommuner inom Bohuslän samt Göteborg som senare ska fungera som planeringsunderlag för kommunen. Kartläggningen bygger på ett frågeformulär som har skickats till kommunerna Göteborg, Tanum, Öckerö, Tjörn, Orust, Strömstad, Lysekil, Sotenäs och Kungälv. Innan frågeformuläret skickades in gjordes en omfattande litteraturstudie om kommunernas hantering av sjöbodar.

    Utgångspunkten med kartläggningen har varit att ta reda på hur kommunerna hanterar sina sjöbodar, med avseende på exempelvis deras upplåtelseformer, upplåtelsetider, avgifter, avtalsvillkor, användning och styrning med hjälp av detaljplan, bygglov och tillsyn, kommunens egna reflektioner på hur deras hantering fungerar m.m.

    Teoridelen består av allmän information om:

    - Sjöbodar, definitioner och användning.

    - Arrende, då den är en utav de vanligaste upplåtelseformerna för sjöbodar, med avseende på anläggningsarrende och lägenhetsarrende.

    - Hyra, är en annan form av upplåtelse som används i ett par kommuner.

    - Hur det kan fungera när kommunen äger marken som ska arrenderas

    - En gemensam sjöbodspolicy som tillämpas i ett fåtal kommuner.

    Resultatet är en sammanställning av den information som har tagits reda på genom frågeformulärens svar. Svaren från frågeformulären informerade bland annat om att det finns mellan 25 stycken till 1200 stycken sjöbodar i kommunerna och att upplåtelse av sjöbodar sker vanligtvis genom arrende men också till viss del genom hyra. Upplåtelsetiden brukar vara på ett år med automatiskt förlängning. Avgifterna ligger på mellan 887 kr upp till 2800 kr. De flesta kommunerna försöker också styra sjöbodarnas utformning och användning genom avtalsvillkor, regler och bygglov.

    Den generella uppfattningen som kartläggningen resulterar i är att de flesta kommunerna vill uppdatera sina sjöbodshanteringar. Resultatet tydliggör att det finns likheter och skillnader i tillämpningen av sjöbodsupplåtelser mellan kommunerna. Vissa kommuner har exempelvis inga fördelningsregler för vem som ska ha rätt till en sjöbod i kommunen. I dessa fall får arrendatorn själv hitta en lämplig köpare av boden och detta leder till minskad tillsyn och kontroll från kommunen över vem som tillträder arrendet.

    Det finns inte så många kommuner som använder en detaljplan för att styra användning och utformning av en sjöbod, vilket skulle kunna styras bättre om kommunerna ökade användningen av detaljplaner för sjöbodar.

    EXAMENSARBETE

    Efter genomförd kartläggning blir slutsatsen att en kommun kan ha en bra hantering av sjöbodar om det finns en sjöbodspolicy som upplyser om vad en sjöbod är och hur den ska användas, tillämpningsregler från kommunerna som kan vara lättillgängligt för allmänheten, ett arrendeavtal som har sjöbodspolicyn och tillämpningsreglerna som komplement och en detaljplan med planbestämmelser för hur sjöbodarna och marken kring sjöbodarna ska hanteras.

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