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  • 851.
    Vives Romeo, Maria
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Factors affecting international students’ attitudes toward recycling2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of students leaving their country to complete their secondary studies is increasing. And so, recycling is also an activity with steady growth. The problem we found is why international students recycle or not during their stay in other countries. To answer this, the study purpose is to find the factors that make the intentional students recycle or not to do it. Studies in relation with recycling are abundant, but there are few studies on the factors affecting the population to do it or not. Besides, existing studies highlight situational factors, such as habits and knowledge. Through the theoretical part and following the relevant methodological bases, a qualitative study was carried out through interviews with international students from different countries, in order to know their opinions and points of view regarding recycling. With the interview results, along with the information data draw from theory part, we carried out a division of the data into five major factors: Habit, knowledge, time, difficulties and personal initiative. These five groups could include all aspects that affect the behavior of international students. That is, depending on how the different factors affect the students, they will decide to recycle or not.

  • 852.
    von Sydow, Matilda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kapetz, Philip
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    How Västtrafik can convey an added value through being eco-friendly and change people's attitudes through marketing communication2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming is a fact today. 2016 was the warmest year in history and we need to take actions. 60 % of what is contributing to the global warming is stated to be carbon dioxide emissions, where the majority origins from transports. An action made from this is running public transportation on biogas as Västtrafik does in Sweden. We therefore intended to find out if there is any value for the consumer when a company makes these sustainable changes and how the company in that case should communicate that in the best possible way. This was aimed to answer our research question;How can Västtrafik, running its vehicles on biogas, affect consumers' attitudes and convey an added value through marketing communication? The purpose of the thesis was to find out what added value means to consumers when it comes to environmental issues and be able to use the results to help Västtrafik with this as well as filling an academic gap. The theory said that more people cared about sustainability nowadays but that not all people act as they say. We found out important factors to value and attitudes towards product and services such as perceived value, image and their surrounding. When we had gathered the theory we executed interviews with ten people between the ages 25-45 that suited Västtrafiks target group and our limitations that were time and money. The answers we got were that people care about sustainability and that the buses run on biogas but they do not want to sacrifice more money or time to do so. The answers also showed that Västtrafik has a bad reputation and to affect the consumers the most the message should be emotional and through digital channels. Our conclusion is that there is an added value to be achieved through creating clear and emotional messages that in turn can change people's attitudes and perceived image towards the company.

  • 853.
    Vänesköld, Monica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Forsman, Malin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Konflikter på arbetsplatsen: Yttrande, hantering och positiva effekter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study is based on the conflicts that explore how organizations deal with conflict management in practice and highlight the positive effects that can come from a conscious handling of conflicts.

    The study has a hermeneutic approach with a qualitative research approach where eleven interviews form the basis of empiricism. Most of the respondents working in various management positions. Others are active in professional roles that are considered to have special knowledge of the subject. The choice of the interview is the basis for getting an overall picture of how organizations can work with conflict, because conflict is complex and conflict are rarely ever the same.

    Most of the theory focuses on successfully managing conflict and its effects. It also presents research that shows what a reverse situation can give the outcome. This is to further motivate and give weight to that knowledge in conflict management is an important topic.

    Efforts to reach the research has been developed by three themes, conflicting opinion, conflict and positive effects. These are recurrent through the study and link the empirical down theory.

    Research shows that the conflict is largely about communication, raising problems to the surface and visibility. This can include creating a good working environment through participation, clear guidelines and a permissive environment. Conflict must be aware and managed based on the context. It may include both a smaller call transfer, when the conflict has gone too far.

    Conflicts can help people gain new insights about themselves and others, learn to parry things they encounter and that groups can work better together. It can also contribute to organizational development in problem areas visible

  • 854.
    Wallman, Ellen
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Zainel, Sara
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Organisatoriska problem: en fallstudie med fokus på tre strukturella problem - arbetsbelastning, bemanning och strukturella faktorer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A common studied phenomenon is organizational problems in which this study is based. The study is interdisciplinary, but focus strongly on Business in that it is primarily the organizational structure which is studied. The aim of this study is to explore how an idea from the private sector can influence organizational structural problems within the public sector. In this study we study the idea of New Public Management, NPM.

    The research questions which aims to be answered are as following:

    •  How can the structural problems, workload, staffing and structural factors occur within a public organization?
    •  What consequences of workload, staffing and structural factors does the staff experience, and what are the steps to remedy the problems?

    The methodology of the study, conducted by means of triangulation, where the case study makes its linchpin. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are used, as are primary and secondary data, as well as a theoretical framework. The case study takes place in the public sector, a library. The theoretical framework focuses on facts within the field of organizational structure. The focus is on three specific structural organizational problems; structural factors, staffing and workload, which may have health problems as a result.

    The empiric theory is based on the emerged facts from the case study, which occurred mainly through in-depth interviews. There we found through analysis that the existing amount of staff is not sufficient to achieve the polical goals, that the workload is high, and that the structural factors can be dicerned in different ways. The conclusion of our specifically studied organization is that a librarian is needed for the achievement of the library's political goals, and the general conclusion that when ideas are transferred from one sector to another, an impact assessment is needed.

  • 855.
    Waltermann, Bartho
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Linhoff, Nils
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Cash Management in a mutual savings bank: Local response to global challenges2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research project furthers the research in one of the core businesses of banks, cash management. This business involves a lot of customer contacts, yet it is often not profit-able and lacks optimization. Cost-saving attempts and rationalization in cash management have often led to reduced customer satisfaction. This thesis investigates international ap-proaches towards cash management optimization and answers the question whether they are applicable for a local German bank. For this purpose, SparkasseWestmünsterland, an ideal-typical mutual savings bank, serves as a case. The method chosen for this project is a deductive research approach. Starting from the theory about cash management, the the-ory constitutes a predictor for the empirical data. The data collected is of quantitative nature and the empirical findings combine customer questionnaire and statistical data. There are several ways to optimize cash management, reduce costs and retain customer satisfaction. The most important factors in terms of customer satisfaction – both in Ger-many and from a global point of view – are convenience, ease of use and reliability. Thus an increased automation network, which is in alignment with the needs and wants of bank customers, is the most applicable mean for improvement. In order to optimize cash man-agement operations, banks should make their customers use ATMs, self-service devices, internet and mobile banking more often. To achieve this, target specific communication and marketing along with incentives can improve the willingness of customers to use automation in their day-to-day cash business. In this area there is room left for local German banks such as Sparkasse Westmünsterland. That is why the authors recommend the banks to extend the influence on customers and direct their behavior towards automation and online banking. The implications for further research are focused on the usability of self-service devices, factors of customer satisfaction and the consequences of an increas-ing cashless society

  • 856.
    Wennberg, Caroline
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Gustafsson, Emma
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    "Stämpelurets tid är ännu inte passé": En studie kring tidssystem i relation till styrning och kontroll, ledarskap och prestationsmätning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether time systems can be used in companies to control and whether it can be part of a management package, and investigate how leadership can differ in the selected organizations and study whether the time system information provides support for future planning within the company. In companies, there is a problem that employees feel controlled by companies using different control theories, which leads to unmotivated employees. There is some uncertainty regarding the registration of working hours and whether it is possible to take advantage of the working hours to benefit themselves and to receive more salary etcetera. Leadership is an important factor in avoiding the employee's sense of feeling insecure and the willingness to utilize time systems for obtaining benefits. We have openly interviewed several retail companies to obtain qualitative information in the form of primary data, which we objectively analyzed and interpreted to compile our observations. We promised anonymity to all respondents and their companies because it did not had any relevance to the reader and to reduce possible prejudices of the selected companies.

    There are different control theories that companies use, even though they do not name it as control theories because all companies have their own idea of how they want to control their business. Research believes that it is beneficial for companies to use multi-component control packages that are important in managing their businesses, in order to achieve efficient company. Leadership in an organization affects how each company chooses to work with control. With the help of performance measurement, companies can achieve data to calculate various results, such as personnel costs, that can be used in planning. The results of the interviews showed that companies use control theories and time systems are a way to control their employees when it comes to working hours. The biggest difference we noted was that the larger companies had more necessity of using time systems than smaller companies, as the smaller ones build their relationships in trust between each other. We found out that the time system is a tool to see which employees who arrives in time and doing their working hours, and they who do not. With the help of this information, managers can get the basis for actual working hours compare to the scheduled working hours. Based on what the interviews showed and what we interpreted, time systems can be part of the control package we had studied and thus a tool that companies can use in their activities. Research means that control theories are something that is a major part of control in companies, which also the companies surveyed confirmed in their response. The time system can be used as a control tool that provides information about who has been in the workplace and when and thus reduces the uncertainty about working hours from both employer and employees.

  • 857.
    Wessbergh, Amanda
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hur fungerar den hälsofrämjande arbetsplatsen?: en kvalitativ fallstudie om medarbetare och ledares uppfattningar om den hälsofrämjande arbetsplatsen.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several reports show that health promotion efforts within organizations can lead to positive results in health, efficiency and quality. Employers are seen as key players in the prevention of health through health promotion. Previous research has indicated that the activities should include both the individuals and the organization, and both employees and managers need to be involved. This shows that it is relevant to examine which conditions that are essential to achieve a workplace health promotion. The purpose of the study was to contribute to the knowledge about how the workplace health promotion is perceived and how it works, both from employees and leaders' perspective. Thereby, the study aimed to contribute to organizations that want to create effective and sustainable workplaces. A qualitative case study was conducted and semi-structured interviews were carried out to collect empirical data on participants' perceptions. Additionally, some secondary data was collected in the form of information about the studied organization. Furthermore, a literature research was conducted to examine previous research in the field. It showed that an investment in a workplace health promotion creates conditions for increased productivity and efficiency. Previous research has also focused a lot on leadership as it is considered as an important factor. The results of this study showed that workplace health promotion involves many different elements within both health and working environment. Both the employees and the leaders argued that efforts benefited both the individual and the organization on several levels. Integrating the workplace health promotion in the organization's existing systems was considered an important factor. It was further argued that time, resources, positive leadership and involvement of the whole organization was the most important conditions for achieving a workplace health promotion. The study's results were analyzed and showed that an investment in human capital in the form of health promotion creates the conditions for a positive chain of results within the organization, which in the end finally should result in an effective and sustainable workplace. Further analysis showed that the leaders have an important role in preventing risk factors and promoting health factors, which the Swedish Work Environment Authority also made clear in the new provisions about organizational and social work environment.

  • 858.
    Wetterwik, Alicia A.
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kavleskog, Sebastian
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Framgång i ett belöningssystem och dess relation till motivation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med denna studie var att bidra med empiriskt material om hur relationen mellan individers framgång i ett monetärt belöningssystem och motivation påverkas av individers stewardship-grad.

    En stor del av tidigare forskning på motivation och monetära belöningssystem har fokuserat på det traditionella sambandet mellan motivation och prestation; att monetära belöningssystem är motivationsskapande. Vi valde istället att fokusera på det faktiska utfallet av ett monetärt belöningssystem, genom att analysera utbetald rörlig ersättning och dess relation till motivation med hänsyn till stewardship-teori. Vi utvidgade befintlig forskning och teori genom att separera effekten på motivation från en individs framgång i ett monetärt belöningssystem, och studerade effekten i samverkan med stewardship-grad. Det empiriska materialet inhämtades från två separata företag inom samma Skandinaviska koncern. I överensstämmelse med vår hypotes är ett monetärt belöningssystems utfall på motivation i allra högsta grad beroende av stewardship-graden.

    Vårt resultat indikerar att individer med en låg stewardship-grad blir mer motiverade när framgången i ett monetärt belöningssystem är högre. Vidare tyder vårt resultat att individer med en hög stewardship-grad blir demotiverade när framgång i ett monetärt belöningssystem ökar. Vårt resultat bidrar till befintlig forskning om monetära belöningssystem och motivationshämmande effekter.

  • 859.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Davidsson, Per
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Audretsch, David B.
    Indiana University, WHU Otto Beisheim School of Management, King Saud University.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The Future of Entrepreneurship Research2011In: Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, ISSN 1042-2587, E-ISSN 1540-6520, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 860.
    Wiklund, Rebecka
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Håkansson, Paulina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Personalekonomiska beräkningar kopplade till pågående hälsosatsning: Är det en investering eller endast en kostnad?2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att ge fler människor insikt i sambandet mellan personalens hälsa och företagens ekonomiska situation. Detta på grund av att en hög sjukfrånvaro kan leda till ekonomiska förluster, som går dock att undvika med hjälp av en fysisk aktiv vardag. Vi har undersökt detta genom att studera en pågående hälsosatsning som en kommun i Sverige infört som bland annat innebär en betald timmas träning per vecka på arbetstid. Utifrån intervjuer med ansvariga för hälsosatsningen, personalekonomiska kalkyler kopplat till projektet samt tidigare forskning kom vi fram till att en stor del av verksamhetens sjukfrånvarokostnader kan reduceras med hjälp av regelbunden träning.

  • 861.
    Wiklund, Rebecka
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Håkansson, Paulina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Vad avgör beslutet mellan K2 och K3?: en kvalitativ studie av revisions- och redovisningsbyråernas påverkan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A company´s accounting is not just important for their own leaders or shareholders but for several of the company´s stakeholders. Therefor, the annual report must contain necessary information for the existing and potential investors and lenders. Companies cannot decide how to erect the accounting themselves. They have to face an accounting choice, and this study aim to analyze such a choice – K2 and K3. Small companies in Sweden can choose between K2 or K3, which are two regulations containing rules about accounting and financial statements.

    The choice between K2 and K3 is a current and important topic because most of the companies in Sweden are smaller companies. Therefor it is also interesting to analyze what determines this choice. Previous science is usually based on the assumption that the management of the company makes the decision about K2 and K3. Our study will examine the accounting choice based on the assumption that the management makes the decision, but based on auditors and accountant consultants' recommendations about K2 and K3. We have interviewed four accountant consultants and auditors to find out why they choose a specific regulation.One of the conclusions is that accountant consultants and auditors recommendations have the biggest influences on the management's accounting choice. Another conclusion is that the management of the company requires an accounting choice that will give them as high revenue as possible and as low tax rates as possible. We have also used different accounting theories to create a better understanding about the accountant consultants' and auditors' thought about K2 and K3.

  • 862.
    Wikman, Sara
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Österberg, Frida
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Förstelärarreformen – Vägen till motivation?: En kvalitativ studie om effektiviteten av monetära motivationsverktyg inom skolverksamheten2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation among employees are very important for all organizations. Previous research shows that motivation is inadequate among public service employees. In 2013 Swedish schools reformed and implemented a new post called first teacher with the intention to make the profession more attractive. The new post entails a greater responsibility and therefore a salary increase of 5000 SEK a month. The intention was to improve the collaboration between teachers and result in increased motivation throughout the organization. Rewards seem to be an important tool to promote motivation in organizations and previous research shows both pros and cons with monetary rewards at workplaces. Non-monetary rewards seem to be the most useful tool in the public sector based on the fact that monetary rewards can screen out the inherent motivation researchers believe that employee´s in the public sector have. It also appears that clear, concrete goals are important for an employee´s motivation. The purpose with this paper is to analyze what motivates teachers. We want to investigate whether the first teacher reform can motivate an entire organization and promote each individual teachers' performance. To investigate this a qualitative method with semi structured interviews has been used. Seven teachers from various elementary schools was interviewed in two municipalities. We have described five different motivational theories in the theory section. These theories were used in the discussion section where they were analyzed in relation to the empirical data. The theory together with the empirical data was thus the basis for the discussion, which resulted in conclusions that answer the study´s research questions. After completing the study, we conclude that teachers get motivated by non-financial motivation factors primarily but also that financial motivation factors are effective if the teacher already has an inherent motivation.

  • 863.
    Willbo, Adam
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ibishi, Emran
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Produktkalkylering som beslutsunderlag2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of product costing is to compile costs for a product throughout the refinement process which is later to be a foundation for decision making in many different areas within a company. The calculation base must therefore correctly reflect the spreadsheet object's costs so that management is able to make the decisions necessary to achieve higher profitability and growth. The direct costs can easily be derived from the financial statements for the product, whereas to allocate the indirect costs is a much more difficult task. The distribution of material and manufacturing overheads is calculated by using diverse allocation keys which creates an estimate of the product cost. Because the over-head rate is the same on all products regardless of if the intensity in the refinement process varies greatly, this leads to a product cost which does not reflect the true cost of the actual product.

    The purpose of this paper was to study how a different distribution of overhead cost within the traditional cost calculation model can create a more accurate estimation of a product cost. We have also studied how this model are used in decision making and developed alternative models for the redistribution of material- and manufacturing overhead costs for the company we have studied, which is Starke Arvid AB. The company has sought a different allocation of indirect costs in order to get a better foundation for business deci-sions. To get an idea about the problem for allocation of overhead costs we have investi-gated previous research by collecting and studying scientific papers in that specific area. We have also interviewed the current CFO of Starke Arvid AB, who is the creator of the product cost model that is now applied within the company.

    The theory in this study shows that the traditional method of allocating overhead creates a skewed product cost where products can either be allocated a too high or a too low share of the total overhead costs, therefore many researchers recommend that companies should move to an activity based product costing model for a more equitable distribution. The company who we are studying has chosen a traditional method of calculating the self-cost of a product.

    Our conclusion is that the reallocation of overhead cost should be based on the cause– and effect relationship. The precision of the efforts to create a fair cost allocation is con-trolled by the balance between benefit and cost. To create a more just allocation products can be grouped and have different rate of overhead cost depending on the group’s share of the allocation base. This provides a greater benefit from the product cost model without a significant cost increase

  • 864.
    Winberg, Suzanne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Daryazadeh, Petra
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Det ostoppbara flödet: vilka aktiviteter skapar kommunikationsflödet och hur påverkar det restauranger?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media is an increasingly important part of people's lives and has become a platform used for marketing since it is both cheap and easy and it is possible to reach a large number of people. But how well does it actually work from a marketing point of view? There is an obvious risk that the businesses that choose to be available on social media lose control over what is written about them, and that a negative rumor can start. This may be difficult to meet for the simple reason that the company cannot take part in everything that concern it because there is an ongoing flow of communication between consumers, in their private sphere on social media, where the company has no insight.

    We conducted a survey with 159 respondents where we explored what activities users on the social media Facebook and Instagram engaged and what impact the content that is generated can give on their perception of the restaurants. With perception we mean if the consumer is willing to visit a restaurant or not, based on the information the person has taken part of the social media. The results showed that people generally are more active in their private network than they are on commercial pages. It also showed that the more active a user is, the more influenced the person becomes of content on social media. The content that is perceived positively and touches restaurants often generate visits to the physical restaurant from these users.

    We have also noted that the development of features on social media is fast and therefore accepted notions are no longer fully valid and further research in this area is needed.

  • 865.
    Wärngård,, Catharina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Val av regelverk för redovisning i mindre företag: Redovisningsprofessionens erfarenhet kring vilka faktorer som var avgörande för mindre företag vid valet mellan K2 och K32019Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On February 13, 2004, Bokföringsnämnden (BFN) decided on a modified direction on the work on norming. One of the reasons for this was that the regulatory framework was extensive due to previous ways of producing norms. Another reason for the decision was that since there was an opportunity for companies to choose recommendations from different norm providers, it was given the opportunity to choose which result they would like to report, which meant that information presented by the unlisted companies could be difficult to interpret. This resulted in the development of BFN's category rules, which divide Sweden's companies into four categories based on the size of the company, where each individual category has its own regulations that contain comprehensive general advice. With the introduction of these K-regulations, smaller companies can choose between the regulations K2 and K3.

    The purpose of this study is to show the accounting profession's experiences of which factors were decisive for smaller companies when choosing between these two K-regulations and to gain an understanding of how companies' accounting choices go. The study also shows the respondents' views on BFN's category rules and its impact on the reporting in smaller companies, the respondents' views on principle-based regulations and rule-based regulations as well as their views on K2 and K3, respectively.

    An interpretivist approach has been used with the intention of presenting the accounting profession's own opinions and experiences. Furthermore, a qualitative method in the form of semi-structured interviews has been used. The primary data of the study has been collected through the interviews, while the secondary data has been obtained through scientific articles, non-fiction literature and websites. The theory that has been linked to the problem area of the study, i.e. the way in which corporate account-ing choices go, are Positive Accounting Theory (PAT), Institutional Theory (IT) and research on choices between rule-based and principle-based theories.

    The study has shown that smaller companies often rely on the accounting profession's expertise and advice when it comes to accounting choices. In addition, it can be stated that many companies focus on simplicity and that they themselves need to make as small an effort as possible. The business sector and special conditions at the companies are important for how they choose. For example, certain specific accounting rules are crucial, mainly for companies with slightly more complicated conditions, such as component depreciation for real estate companies, the possibility in K3 to value financial assets at fair value and the activation ban for self-generated intangible assets that affect innovation companies.

    Generally, the accounting profession needs to be better at conveying the meaning of the different regulations to the companies, but also on informing that there actually is an opportunity to choose regulations.

  • 866.
    Xiang, Li
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Factors of consuming perception on Chinese e-commerce: A quantitative study of Swedish consuming perception research on Alibaba2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With prosperous development of internet and e-commerce, tremendous people engage the interactive activities in internet. Whereas the occurrence of obstacle and barriers could arise in consumer’s underlying concept and cognition to prevent them from entering e-commerce world. The purpose of this dissertation is to discuss the factors that impact people’s perception at online shopping and try to provide some inspiration for retailers to observe the consumer perception and conduct corresponding action.

    Combining with consumer perception and TAM model, a research of Swedish consumer perception toward Chinese e-commerce could be conducted in quantitative method whose data is collected by questionnaire. Totally, 40 Swedish engaged and 32 of them are valid which extracted from 35 received questionnaires. In the process of data analysis, questionnaire has been conducted from Swedish and carried out One-way ANOVA and path analysis through SPSS and AMOS software.

    The conclusion could be triggered by as following: age and related internet experience factors significantly impact consumer’s perception and attitude of online shopping; additionally, the attitude of consumer’s perception factor impacted significantly by perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived risk and website characteristic. According to the conclusions above, some suggestions towards the retailer and Alibaba could be mediated.

  • 867.
    Xiao, Shuyuan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    He, Wei
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    A study of Chinese consumers’ attitudes toward Volvo cars2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Zhejiang Geely holding Co. succeeded in purchasing Ford Motor Co’s Volvo unit, which was the hottest news in the world in 2010. Volvo needs the Chinese potential car market; Geely needs Volvo cars’ advanced technology. Such purchase arouses our interesting to conduct a research study on Chinese consumers’ attitude and intentions toward Volvo cars.

     

    Our aim with this study was to identify the most important attributes of Volvo for Chinese consumers; to analyse how Chinese consumers were influenced by other people’s opinions and to explore how Chinese culture factors such as face concern and group conformity influence consumers’ attitudes  towards Volvo.

     

    In order to find the result, we used online self-completion questionnaires and choose customers from a life insurance company in Shanghai as our sample group. From the survey result we found that Volvo is the second most favourable brand that Chinese consumers want to own in the near future. The top three car attributes for the Chinese consumers when they were going to choose a car were quality, safety and fuel economy. But they had less knowledge or beliefs that Volvo car has an advantage with those attributes. Besides that, we find that Chinese consumers’ behavioural intention of buying Volvo is influenced by family, friends, perceived behaviour control and group conformity, but there is no relationship between face concern and buying behaviour.

  • 868.
    Xie, Mengting
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Establishing Effective Communication with Chinese Vendors: when outsourcing production to China cross Chinese intermediary2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis dedicates to explore establishing effective communication with Chinese vendors for Western companies who outsourcing production to China. An effective communication with Chinese vendors refers to gain the true understanding, right decision and expected reaction from Chinese vendors, after they receive the managerial or communicational messages (e.g. contract or piecemeal instructions) sent by Western buyers/clients. Establishing effective communication with Chinese vendors is not just about communication any more, it is about the outsourcing management from a micromanagement to self-management level. Creating intercultural competence is also the core. The study has not only built up a multiple-categorised structure for analysing outsourcing management and communication, also generated three new attributes for effective communication with Chinese vendors i.e. ―cooperativeness‖, ―competency‖, ―specialisation‖, the other six are ―effective medium‖, ―timeliness‖, ―accuracy‖, ―consistency‖, ―credibility‖, and ―completeness‖. The quintessence of the research is that a New Model of ―effective communication with Chinese vendors‖ has been formed through the research. By following the model, a company can easily identify its development stage of effective communication establishment with Chinese vendors and predict its future communication and management orientation. Also the study is desirable for those entrepreneurs and academic researchers who are interested in outsourcing production or have the intent to really carry out an outsourcing strategy and project to China. Moreover the conclusions can inspire companies within similar environment to create their own effective method when outsourcing production to China.

  • 869.
    Yüksel, Claudia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ayewubo, Leandre
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    En studie om hur Reko har påverkat branschen för redovisningskonsulter: en undersökning kring den institutionella effekten Reko har fått2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The audit requirement was abolished in Sweden on the first of november 2010. As a result of the abolition approximately 70 percent of Swedish companies choosed voluntary audit. With this, accountants have become more important and the auditors would now have to compete with the accountants in order to offer the accounting services that would be demanded. As the responsibility and involvement of the accountants increased in the industry, Reko was introduced. Reko is a framework aim at authorized accountants and is developed by professional organizations such as SRF and FAR in order to provide a high quality of accounting services. The question we ask in our study is "do accountants work in accordance with Reko". The purpose of this study is to determine by Reko the institutional impact of the framework on accountants that are not authorized and aslo those who do not havet o follow Reko. We have chosen to work according to a qualitative method in order to achieve our purpose. We have interviewed four authorized accountants and four accountants who are not authorized. These interviewes have been conducted on respondents who work at different agencies, from small to medium ones. Theories that have been used in the essay are institutional theory, that explains people´s adaptation to groups and organizations as well as isomorphism that describes why groups tend to resemble each other and what contributes to the similarities. Our empirical evidence suggests that accountants find that they work in accordance with Reko and that it is not only authorized accountants who work according to Reko. Our empirical evidence also indicates that the industry has a homogeneous mindset about Reko and that the framework is associated with legitimacy and acceptance in the industry. The result suggests that accountants find that they work in accordance with Reko and that they seem to be isomorph in the industry. Based on this finding, it is concluded that Reko has had an institutional impact on accountants who are not authorized because they are those who do not havet o follow Reko.

  • 870.
    Zaia, Dani
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Rask, Jonatan
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Sponsring på lokal nivå: Företags syften med idrottssponsring2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sponsorship has long been involved and supported the sport in Sweden, and has over the years developed from pure donations to be more professional. Today turnover of sport sponsorship in Sweden 6.5 billion crowns. Unions, both large and small, are more or less dependent on revenues from the sponsoring company. In some sports, this income is absolutely critical that the association continued to operate its business. A useful tool in the sponsorship is the ERK model, a model designed to provide an overview of the concept of sponsorship and what effects it may cause. The purpose of the study is to analyze the motives behind the company's decision to sponsor the local sport, and if the ERK model can be applied at this level. The study is based on a qualitative approach with a hermeneutic view. Data collections have been performed by personal semi structure interviews with respondents from different companies with positions which imply a sponsorship responsibility. In the study have data been collected by using help of four participating companies. In our theoretical rame of reference we present our approach in the literature collection, with motivation for the selected theory and problems in literature collection. Furthermore, it defines the concept of sponsorship, followed by theories on the spon-sorship purposes in sport and the smaller companies perspective. The theoretical rame of refer-ence ends with the study's interpretation model. Study results show that companies purposes with their sponsorship in some parts differ, while even some common patterns can be seen. It shows that the motives for sponsorship in earlier research raises, even to some extent, can be applied to the study's participating companies. The ERK model appears to miss some parts to be a complete tool. Finally we can determine that the motive for sponsorship varies from com-pany to company. By taking this into consideration in sponsorship work both the companies and the associations can get more in exchange of each other. The study's main contribution is to give an overview on which motives companies in Trollhättan and Vänersborg have with their local sports sponsorship. An interesting suggestion for future research is to continue to investi-gate the sports sponsorship at the local level, in the way of union's perspective

  • 871.
    Zhang, Xiaofang
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Customer engagement in tourism and hospitality company’s social media channels / marketing2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to provide empirical evidence of customer participation within tourism company's social media channels/marketing. It has explored what can be done to motivate their engagement intention and engagement behavior. Another purpose of the research is to find out factors which influence customer engagement behavior. Using a qualitative method and subsequent with the semi-structured interview, data were collected from 12 people who are social media user tourist in past year. Findings employ attitude and perceived behavior control from TPB model, self-centered motivation and altruism as the guide to understand motives and its influence factors leading to examine what drives customer engagement behavior. Empirical data shows that customer satisfaction with company and customer trust towards content from company social media channels/marketing is influence their attitude. Both self-centered motivation and altruism motivation are motives behind travel customer engagement when they engage with company social media in tourism & hospitality industry. Future researchers, they may can from a management point of view to investigate how to drive customer engagement with their social media channels/marketing.

  • 872.
    Zhuang, Aofeng
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Huang, Kai
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Exchange Rate Risk Management at Chinese Small- and Medium-Size Enterprises2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this thesis concerns how Chinese SMEs manage foreign exchange risk. Since the financial reform in 2005, China has adopted the managed floating foreign exchange system and Chinese companies have to face the risk bought by exchange rate. Chinese companies have realized the damage and loss, which is caused by foreign exchange exposure and it, is more essential for Chinese companies to build risk management for identifying, assessing and responding to foreign exchange risk. In general, there are financial hedging tools when companies respond to foreign exchange risk, such as forward hedging, option hedging and so on, and operating hedging tools can be potential options for Chinese SMEs to use. Compared to the large companies, Chinese SMEs have few resource and ability to build their risk management and few channels and tools to deal with foreign exchange risk and diminish the loss. There are researches that have been done on how SMEs deal with foreign exchange and the hedging tools these SMEs use. But only few research relates to Chinese companies and even few research talks about Chinese SMEs and how they conduct risk management and what tools they have. The purpose is to fill in this blank.

    This research adopts qualitative research strategy and is based on the interview with owner or financial managers of Chinese SMEs. Authors adopt a qualitative case study to collect empirical evidence and invite five interviewees for data collection. These Interviewees are CEO or financial managers of Chinese SMEs.

    Through the research, authors find the appreciation of Chinese Yuan (CNY) is the main threat to Chinese SMEs. Although most of Chinese SMEs have realized the foreign exchange exposure, only part of Chinese SMEs has risk management towards the risk. Most Chinese SMEs use operating hedging tools to deal with transaction exposure and economic exposure. But only part of Chinese SMEs can use financial hedging tools to handle transaction exposure because they have resources and ability to use these tools. In the other hand, forward hedging is chosen by most Chinese SMEs and the banks which have permission from government to offer forward service are the only channel for Chinese SMEs to use forward hedging tool. Lack of knowledge, resources and capability is main challenge for Chinese SMEs in forecasting future exchange rate, building risk management and conducting risk response to foreign exchange exposure.

  • 873.
    Zivanovic, Nikola
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Tran, Sara
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ledarstilar: en studie om vilken ledarstil som är mest optimal enligt medarbetarna2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study's purpose was to examine which leadership style that is the most optimal according to the employees, and examine if any of the existing line managers in the investigated company possesses the characteristics that the most optimal leadership style is based on. The study is important, in particular for the investigated company, but also for other companies and their executives for the reason that the results from the study could help and pay attention to employees needs and to listen to what they want out of their line managers. This can counteract conflicts and reduce the number of employees that are unhappy with their line managers.

    Our empirical data is based on a qualitative study where we have held interviews with the three line managers and five employees in order to get opinion and thoughts about the line managers and their leadership styles. We have also done an observation of the line managers before the interviews to pick up important information and create a reasonably image of the situation for when the respondents answered our questions.

    The study has resulted in one line managers having the characteristics of a transactional leadership style while the other two had the characteristics of a transformational leadership style which also was the most optimal leadership style according to the employees.

  • 874.
    Åberg, Ulf
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Är gammal alltid äldst?: En jämförelse mellan yngre och äldre ledares ledarstil2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har i denna rapport studerat om det finns några skillnader mellan olika ledare beroende på deras ålder. Jag delade in respondenterna i tre olika ålderskategorier (unga, mellangamla, och gamla) och har sedan jämfört dessa kategorier med varandra. Som utgångspunkt beskrev jag hur vetenskaplig litteratur redogör för olika ledaregenskaper och olika ledarstilar. Som inledning förklarade jag skillnaden mellan chefskap och ledarskap, detta eftersom dessa begrepp lätt kan förväxlas. Chefskap innebär att man har fokus på att lösa uppgiften, och med ledarskap så har man även fokus på att utveckla medarbetarna, samt att dessa skall må bra och trivas på jobbet. I den valda litteratur redogjordes det för olika definitioner om vad ledarskap egentligen är, jag fann dock en tydlig röd tråd i de olika definitionerna och det var att ledarskap är en kombination av hur man löser uppgiften och vilken relation man som ledare har till sina anställda. Min utgångspunkt var att olika ledarstilar innebär hur kombinationen uppgiftsfokusering och relationen till anställda hanteras. Utifrån detta definierade jag fem olika huvudstilar som hanterar kombinationen uppgift/relation på olika sätt. När jag jämförde de olika ledarstilarna kom jag fram till att unga ledarna har mindre fokus på uppgiften jämfört med gamla ledarna, hos de mellangamla ledarna fanns det inget tydligt mönster. De unga ledarna hade någorlunda liknande ledarstil, en ledarstil med spår av en osäkerhet på vad man skall lägga fokus på. De mellangamla ledarna skiljde sig åt väldigt mycket, men hade till skillnad från de unga ledarna fokus på något område. De gamla ledarna liknade varandra och hade en fokusering som låg mest på uppgiften. När jag studerade olika ledaregenskaper var det tydligt att de unga ledarna jämfört med de gamla ledarna litade mer på sina anställda och lät dem agera mer fritt. Detta samtidigt som de utgick ifrån att medarbetarna skulle säga ifrån om de fick problem. Detta ligger i linje med att unga ledare har mindre fokus på uppgiften. Ytterligare skillnader var att unga ledare agerar mer kortsiktigt. De kommer också att lyssna mer på sina anställda innan de fattar beslut.

  • 875.
    Åkerström, Erik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hjerling, Sanna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Att skapa ett attraktivt köpcenter: En studie av Tanum köpcenter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014, Tanumshede in Sweden will open a new shopping center in form of Tanum Shoppingcenter. The center will have more than 65 stores and a business idea about being a new and modern shopping centre that offers customers a pleasurable shopping. However, establishing a new shopping center on the market is a rough challenge, a trial that has caused the downfall for several shopping centers. Due to this issue, the aim of the study and the research question has been to examine which factors are important for Tanum Shoppingcenter if they want to be an attractive place for the customers.

    To achieve the aim of the study and respond the research question, we have chosen to make a qualitative interview with Magne Andersen, project manager and future center manager for Tanum Shoppingcenter. A quantitative survey with ten questions has also been done to achieve the aim of the study. In this study has also theories been presented by a variety of authors to answer the research question and the aim of the study.

    The study revealed that key factors for Tanum Shoppingcenter to be considered as an attractive place will be to have an attractive location with a lot of attractive stores, restaurants and events. Tanum Shoppingcenter also has to understand their customers' needs and their competitors' strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities if they want to be considered as an attractive place for the customer to visit. Finally, Tanum Shoppingcenter needs to create a good partnership with other interested actors and be ready for future challenges to be considered as an attractive place on the market

  • 876.
    Åkesson, Ingela
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Organisatoriskt lärande i ett privat utbildningsföretag: En fallstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational learning or knowledge transfers in organizations is a large and wide subject, where there is much to read and acquire theory from. Many studies are also being carried out in this area to find keys to how knowledge transfer occurs. The concept of learning organization has grown in popularity over the years, owing to Peter Senge's theories in the book 'The fifth discipline - the art of the Learning Organization', which is considered to be a pillar of the subject.   The purpose of this paper is to see how the learning processes express themselves in an organization linked to five themes from the theory of learning organizations. These are; leadership, communication, reflection, teamwork, and organizational culture. Thus, the case study examines the organization's method of transfer of knowledge linked to selected themes.   The organization being investigated is a jointly-owned small education company in Stockholm. It has a flat organizational structure. The company proves to work with knowledge transfer in many different ways without directly saying that there is something that is an end of purpose or an end in itself. In the way that the company is organized and operated, a transfer of knowledge largely results in the work being done in small teams that are assembled based on the task. These teams are constantly changing. When a project is completed, the grouping is dissolved where its participants form new groupings based on the next project. The study also identifies that organizational culture has "high ceilings" and "freedom under responsibility" as paroles. The conclusion of the essay is, among other things, that the transfer of knowledge takes place in the daily work of the various factors that build a process and where people interact to achieve the best possible results to make the process efficient and create value. Working together as closely as possible and organizing work in teams that look different depending on the task for the moment, facilitates the dissemination of skills and knowledge transfer.

  • 877.
    Årvik, Carin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Gig-ekonomi och gig-arbete: Digitalisering förändrar och utvecklar arbetsmarknaden2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to create knowledge and understanding of what the gigeconomy means and what it has for the consequences for both those who do work (gigworkers) and those who need manpower (hiring companies/clients).

    The background to what Called gig-economy or platform economy is the technology development that led to the work today can be performed by anyone, anywhere, provided that access exists to digital tools. It creates the conditions for working digitally in a completely different way than before and the work is conveyed via platform companies, which in turn does not take any active part in the assignments that are conveyed.

    After an initial review of the legal prerequisites and the regulation relating to gig-work, a review of the consequences of current research in the field follows the effects of the gig economy. This mapping concerns the impact on a general plan for those who take gig work but also for the companies, clients, who take the help of gig-workers.

    The subject of the empirical study carried out via Semi structured qualitative interviews has been to hear the various actors, a total of ten, who act in the Swedish labour market, which includes employee organisations, Employers ' organizations, those who take gig missions, those who hire gig-workers, a platform company and a couple of other close stakeholders.

    The purpose of interviewing these has been to capture their experiences and experiences to highlight the consequences that previous research has shown in a Swedish perspective. The study mainly gives the perspective of the gig-workers with specialist expertise, although the issues in general are about consequences generally for gig-workers.

    The study has partly confirmed both the advantages and disadvantages of gig work, but also highlighted the issues from a Swedish perspective which, depending on the community structure and regulation, can differ significantly from other countries with other conditions in Labour market. What the gig-workers mainly appreciate with gig-work is the flexibility and the main disadvantage is the uncertainty of the influx of upcoming assignments. For clients, cost control is a prominent factor in choosing to hire a gig worker instead of hiring permanent staff. To the disadvantages of the clients is that they risk losing competence internally and possible challenges for the leadership.

    Overall, one of the conclusions is that gig-work is generally positive for both gig-workers, for those with specialist skills, and for the clients. The big losers are consultancy and consultancy brokers who risk becoming redundant in a market where platform companies can convey assignments in a more transparent way, which is beneficial for both gig-workers and clients.

  • 878.
    Österberg, Nicole
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Framgångsrika ledarskapsstrategier i en organisationsförändring: Påverkan ur ett hälsoperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational changes today are unavoidable and a must for organizations to follow competitors, the outside world, globalization and increased demand international. Organizations need to evolve and follow the changes that take place in the market, in from of economic, technological and to changing business conditions. When it comes to organizationalchange processes, there is a negative mark on the definition. Of the results, it has been shown that lack of planning, analysis and communication to some extent are decisive factors if an organizational change is considered successful or not. When choosing whether a certain leadership or leadership strategy affects organizational change, significant factors have emerged, there is not only one leadershipstyle that is successful. Instead, it is important that leaders and managers find their unique ability and adapt it to their own leadership. It's about showing direction, vision and goals. To inspire and motivate their employees to both find and develop their potential and trust in the organization. The fact that there is a functioning work environment that results in the entire organization experiencing meaningfulness and a sense of context brings positive health aspects to the staff and a possible successful path towards a successful change process.

  • 879.
    Öz, Rojin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Joffrey, Monika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Balanserat styrkort: En fallstudie om vilka problem som kan uppstå vid implementeringen av Balanserat styrkort i ett sjukhus.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish healthcare systems have over the past decades experienced a major reorganization that involves reduction of costs and cuts due to the financial problems that the public health system faced. Healthcare was criticized because it was considered to be bureaucratic and inefficient (Funck, 2007). The solution to this problem was to focus on other measures rather than the economic measures, such as modernizing the healthcare instead of cutting down. Implementing a balanced scorecard in a public sector as a hospital, perceived as failures. This is due to several factors such as communication, knowledge and expected time are not taken into consideration when implementing the scorecard. The purpose of this study is to analyze how the balanced scorecard serves as an approach for controlling the hospital. The purpose of the study is to increase our knowledge and get better insight by examining the problems that may arise during the implementation of a balanced scorecard. The chosen method to this study is qualitative research with the influence of the inductive approach. Eight interviews were carried out at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital to get an overview about the selected topic. The chosen theory to the study is based on Kaplan and Norton's theories and other scientists as Funck, Assiri, Johnson and Atkinson. The study also applied research articles and literature in the theoretical framework. The study's research question is clarified as what types of problems can arise during the design and implementation of a balanced scorecard in hospitals. We have found that the balanced scorecard requires success factors such as communication, knowledge and learning, motivation, commitment, time management, a relevant and easy used scorecard and a clear vision, strategy and results for a successful implementation.

  • 880.
    Bernhard, Iréne (Editor)
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin (Editor)
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    A Nordic Perspective on Co‐Operation for Sustainable Destination and Regional Development2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research report contributes to a Nordic perspective on co-operation for sustainable destination- and regional development based on studies conducted within a Swedish-Danish Interreg project 2012-2014 (MARIFUS). An introduction chapter with major themes initiates this report followed by five chapters1 written by researchers from Aalborg University, Denmark (Incevida) and University West, Sweden (School of Business, Economics and IT). The purpose of this report is to give deeper nsights in Nordic destination and regional development by empirical case studies. These studies have been presented and discussed at seminars during international scientific conferences within regional science (the 16th Uddevalla Symposium 2013 in Kansas City, USA and the 17th Uddevalla Symposium 2014 in Uddevalla, Sweden) organized by University West. The contributions are nterdisciplinary in that sense that they are written by scholars from different scientific disciplines such as business administration, informatics, planning and culture studies. However, all scholars have a destination and/or regional perspective as a point of departure in the case studies conducted. The three-year project offered great opportunities to cross-border learning and applied research in close co-operation (Work integrated learning) with project partners and students.The studies are partly supported by the project MARIFUS “Maritime Inlands – past, present and future strengths” financed by the European Union Regional Development Fund (Interreg IV A). The editors express sincere gratitude to all authors and all partners of the MARIFUS project. 

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