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  • 701.
    Tumkur Sampathu, Shashishekar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production System.
    Offline programming for 3D printing using ABB robot: Automatic path generation2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    3D printing is one of the additive manufacturing process in which product is created layer by layer. In almost all 3D printing first computer aided drawing (CAD) model is generated then it is coveted into Standard Tessellation language (STL) file format after that it is sliced to generate the toolpath for printer. In the thesis process planning for 3D printing using industrial robot is identified and verified. 3D printing is performed by industrial robot using feeder tool which feeds the plastic through the nozzle. The wire which is fed for 3D printing is controlled by Arduino Uno. For generating the path for 3D printing an add-in called RMD is used in process simulate. Add-in RMD is developed by University west.

    First goal of thesis is to find process planning steps for the robotics 3D printing which involves all the process starting from CAD to final product and verify all the steps. The other goal is to find the process parameter which affects final products. Process planning steps from CAD to final product is identified and verified. The process planning step involves modelling, layer and manufacturing all these steps are verified and final product is produced. In modelling step the part that is to be manufactured is modelled. In layer step the pre-processing like converting 3D solid CAD model into layers that in turn is converted to robot code is done. In manufacturing step the downloaded robot code is loaded to real robot and the part is manufactured. Next is to find the process parameters which affects the final product. The process parameter which affects the final products are found. Since there are many parameters which affects the final product so only three process parameter like layer thickness, speed of robot and path to path width is selected based on literature. In order to verify this parameter experiment was designed according to Taguchi method at three levels then the surface roughness of 3D printed sample are measured using surface measuring instrument. According to analysis of S/N ratio and analysis of variance layer thickness was found to affect the final product more than the other two parameter. After layer thickness speed deposition has more effect on final product.

  • 702.
    Turan, Kaan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Process Data: Application For Production Support System2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing and production capacities are expanding exponentially in today’s world. Automatization of production lines is an essential part of manufacturing. As production lines are getting expanded, it is crucial to have a production monitoring and support system. Spectra Premium AB needed such support systems to keep track of production lines. The main aim of the support systems is to establish fast communication within production teams, providing a general overview of production and reporting the production data automatically. Therefore, it is planned to establish a desktop application that can handle multiple tasks such as, live production data monitoring, andon system implementation, report generations, and automatic e-mailing. Production, maintenance, and quality departments were involved in the project. Required production data is generated with unique function blocks in PLCs. Generated data is collected with C# based Sharp7 from PLCs data blocks. Collected data is stored in the Postgre SQL server. Moreover, collected data is processed within the application and used for reporting functions. HMIs are also programmed in order to establish the andon system. As a result of the work, the application, Process Data, is created.

  • 703.
    Turk, Abdulaziz
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Al Maani, Bassel
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Development of application software for a "Smart City": Anmäla mera2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Anmäla mera applikationen är föremål för diskussion i den här artikeln eftersom den handlar om möjligheten till en mer effektiv implementering av smarta städer. Informations- och kommunikationsteknik förändrar successivt hur stadsförvaltningar och stadsinvånare organiserar och agerar som svar på urban expansion. Denna förändring sker itakt med framväxten av konceptet smarta städer. I detta examensarbete utformar vi ett generiskt utvecklingsramverk som kan hjälpa till med skapandet och spridningen av smarta statstjänster. Detta ramverk kan hjälpa till med båda dessa uppgifter. Som en demonstration av genomförbarheten av vårt föreslagna system genomförde vi det i en viss stad och med en viss kommunal service. Vårt måldistrikt är Trollhättan och vår måltjänst rapporterar om de frågor som finns i kvarteret. Systemet som byggdes är inriktat på att stödja och optimera rapporteringen, och det förlitar sig till största delen på ett enda mätvärde för data som samlats in från den lokala kommunen. 

  • 704.
    Tuzla, Marinko
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Analys av total felbortkopplingstid för 20-10/0,4 kV nätstationer med reläskydd2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In pace with moving towards underground cables and adapting to new technological solutions the structure and properties of substations in the electric distribution network are changed. They shift from traditional substations that are protected on the high voltage side with fuses and disconnector to new designed constructions that are protected with relay-protection and circuit-breaker. An important variable that changes with implementing new technology is fault clearance time when fault current occur.The report's main task is to find the new total fault clearance time for relay protection and circuit-breaker. Using the result, it becomes possible to update the setting table and determine the selectivity. To find out the fault clearance time relevant theory of the related equipment and short-circuit current were obtained. In order to better understand the new substations, studies were made on the substation concept of type Xiria with belonged relay protection of type WIC1-2P. In the report analyses only Fr-fuse which is one of relay protections function that simulate General-purpose fuse were studied. MV switchboards have relatively fixed circuit breaker break-time while relay protectors reaction time varies depending on the strength of short-circuit current. To find out the reaction time a theoretical calculation of the time that is expected according to the manufacturer´s manual was performed. This was followed by a LAB-test in a usual way for relay protections test. The comparison of these two tests resulted in that they were not consistent. As a result of the differences an additional test was performed in order to analyze correlations between the different parameter settings for relay protection. By conventional testing we do not obtain the expected clearance time according to parameters set in the relay protection. This implies among other things that the protection can not be set for overload. The question of what the appropriate test for current relay protection is, remains.

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  • 705.
    Upper, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Wilson, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Beredningsarbete av landsbygdsnät för områdena Fän, Suttene och Hermanseröd2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about the approach how the preparation work is done at TROLK El & Tele AB. The preparation work includes three areas, Hermanseröd, Fän and Suttene in Munkedal municipality. This preparation is the basis for the implementation of the project from Fortum Distribution AB. The project has come when Fortum decided to invest to ensure power quality and weather secure the network in the areas that was earlier mentioned. The preparation includes landowner contact, field work, permits and contract applications. Laying of cables and placement of the substations will also be established for the network owner. The voltage level of the network that is affected is up to 12kV to be transformed down to 0.4kV for subscribers. The project includes three substations, about 2.7 kilometers medium voltage cable, approximately 0.5 kilometers low voltage cable, 1 pc, cable box and about 1.7 kilometers demolition of the overhead line.

    The summary of the field work carried out is that the planner proposals of cable will be pursued for the most part, except for certain problematic locations where the cable placement will be changed.

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  • 706.
    Vaern, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    En jämförelse av hybridapplikationer utvecklade i Intel XDK2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, when accessing information and services on the Internet on desktop computers it has become the norm to use web browsers. In mobile devices the situation is different, where the users prefer dedicated applications. The market for mobile devices is fragmented with many different operating systems and manufacturers. Because of this fragmentation each application needs to be developed in different versions Lately, methods have been introduced for developing applications with a shared code base; this technology makes it possible to run an application on any type of operating system. This type of application is often called a hybrid application, and uses web technologies such as HTML5, JavaScript and CSS3. To be able to access the native features of the device it is necessary to use API libraries.

    Intel XDK was introduced in 2013 and is a development environment for hybrid applications, it gives developers several opportunities to choose from different runtime environments, API-libraries and frameworks for design of user interfaces. With the help of benchmark tests this report compares the performance of the different options available.

    The report also presents recommendations on which options to use for development of applications targeting the Android OS using Intel XDK 

  • 707.
    Vallet, Benjamin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Robot automation of laser texturing2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following document presents the work performed over the course of this degree project. It first includes background research performed to solve the objectives of the degree project, namely, a review of thermal spraying, abrasive blasting, laser texturing, and the safety concerns raised by their respective use. It then mentions a preliminary exploration of possible safety features of the final cell, at multiple levels: hardware, software, maintenance, and visual warnings, as well as the international regulations and standards they must comply with. The second part of this report draws guidelines for the choice of external components with constraints imposed by the context of the LaTex project in mind. An exploration of algorithmic tools applicable is proposed and a snippet of simulation code is provided. Finally, the document discusses limitations of the findings and future work to be performed.

  • 708.
    Vallo Hult, Helena
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics. NU Hospital Group, Trollhättan (SWE).
    Gustavsson, Linn
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Urban Planing and Development.
    Walter, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Towards effective flexibility: learning through co-work with robots in healthcare2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 709.
    Valtanen Hernvall, Oscar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Undersökning av is- och snörelaterade strömavbrott2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis deals with an investigation of ice and snow related outages in Vattenfall's network. The purpose is to investigate how big the scope of the challenges in Vattenfall's network are and what can potentially be done about them. Ice- and snow-related outages account for a large part of all interruptions in the Norrland region. These interruptions lead to large interruption periods for customers and damage to the equipment in the network, which contributes to greater costs.

    The report is based on previous investigations of ice- and snowrelated interruptions to create foundations for the theory. The report goes through the theory behind the ice structure on power lines by explaining the different ways they can form on power lines as well as what shapes the ice can take when it is formed on a power line. This information is important to be able to know where the outages are most likely to occur as well as under which weather conditions. The theory behind ice formation was paired together with ice formation models for calculations of ice accretion. These models should be able to be used in calculations of ice accretion on the network.

    The illustration of outages on Vattenfall's network is intended to show where most interruptions occur and the reasons most interruptions occur. A breakdown of where in the network most problems occur is presented to show where the focus should be placed. This data is compared with other weather-related outages to show the scale of the outages. The types of lines that are most likely to be affected are also discussed to develop further and show the theory and provide possible explanations for trends in the period examined.

    The comparison between different forms of monitoring and de-icing systems is made to create a picture of the options available to deal with the challenges that ice and snow bring. Different systems take different efforts to implement, and detail has been given to the systems that are considered most suitable for handling the respective monitoring and de-icing. The results of reports show where in Vattenfall's network they should aim to be more prepared to minimize ice and snow related interruptions. Three different methods for ice monitoring are presented, which are recommended for their effective monitoring of ice. Finally further work is recommended on a thermal method for de-icing on their grids for more efficient de-icing of their power grids.  

  • 710.
    Vasilev, Viacheslav
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Automated masking of components: Case study in VBG Group Truck Equipment AB2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this Thesis is to investigate how to automate a process of masking details before painting. Masking is one of the most important phases in paint preparation and can be executed in various ways, depending mostly on type of product and on demands to parts which should be masked. This work addresses the certain process of masking lifting arms at VBG GroupTruck Equipment AB. This masking process basically represents a coupling of two parts together (lifting arm and rubber mask) and is simple to be executed manually. However,a large amount of repetitive work goes against ergonomics and effective utilization of human resources. Some of renowned benefits of automating process by means of robots are those considering, among others, elimination of monotonous work and process performance improvement. On the other hand, often it appears that operations which seem simple to execute by human become complicated for machines, and some level of human participation in a process still might be needed. Summing up, the solution for automating the masking of lifting arms should cut toa minimum (if not eliminate) all manual operations, and to be applicable for similar typeof work wherever possible.

  • 711.
    Venugopal Reddy, Dhanush
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    A Genetic algorithm with shuffle to solve the job shop scheduling problem2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Job shop scheduling problems are computationally complex combinatorial optimization problems. Genetic algorithms have been used in various forms and in combination with other algorithms to solve job shop scheduling problems. A partially flexible job shop with precedence constraints increases this complex behaviour. There are two main parts to optimizing a job shop, the routing and the scheduling. The objective here is to get consistent optimal makespan using a genetic algorithm. This paper firstly, presents a representation of the considered partially flexible job shop scheduling problem, which helps take into account the precedence constraints and reduce situations of deadlock. It starts with the genetic crossovers for routing and then a random shuffle technique is used for scheduling the problem. The computational results have shown that the algorithm performs well in terms of finding a consistent optimal schedule for the given problem.

  • 712.
    Vijayachandra, Manish Chandra
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Optimizing Flow and Improving Robot Performance through Strategy: "Exploring Innovative Approaches to Enhance Industrial Automation Efficiency”2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    "Optimizing Flow and Improving Robot Performance through Strategy" is a specific goal that targets the improvement of the efficiency of the connecting rod manufacturing flow in Sansera Sweden AB plant. The production line has bottlenecks and manual inspection processes that caused delays and reduced productivity. To address these issues, the thesis proposed three solutions: implementing two automated torque wrenches in the assembly station, using a camera inspection system instead of manual inspection, and utilizing layout and robot motion optimization in the packing station.

    The results of the implemented solutions showed a significant reduction in cycle time. The use of two automated torque wrenches reduced the machining time by half of the actual time, resulting in a reduction of 14 seconds. Implementing the camera system reduced the manual inspection time by at least 10 seconds, and the use of layout and robot motion optimization reduced the cycle time by 2 to 3 seconds. On average, the total cycle time was reduced by 25 seconds. The simulation results showed the potential of these solutions to increase productivity and reduce delays in the conrod manufacturing flow. The findings of this thesis can be generalized to other manufacturing plants, and the proposed solutions can be used to improve productivity and efficiency. 

    The research analysis conducted for this thesis suggests that a centralized control is appropriate to implement, and the proposed solutions have the potential to increase productivity and reduce delays in the conrod manufacturing flow. The findings of this thesis can be generalized to other manufacturing plants, and the proposed solutions can be used to improve productivity and efficiency. 

    In conclusion, this thesis successfully addressed the bottlenecks and manual inspection issues in the conrod manufacturing flow by proposing and implementing effective solutions. The results showed a significant reduction in cycle time, which will lead to increased productivity and efficiency. The proposed solutions can be implemented in other manufacturing plants to address similar issues and improve overall productivity.

  • 713.
    Vijayan, Nivin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Designing and Implementing a Human-Machine Interface in Safe Plug and Produce Systems2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis introduces a Human-Machine Interface (HMI) developed to enhance safety and efficiency in Configurable Multiagent Systems (CMAS) operating in Plug-and-Produce robot cells. The HMI addresses challenges related to flexible CMAS configurations, specifically addressing collision detection difficulties. Through runtime Configuration and coding of CMAS, the HMI identifies safer robot paths to prevent collisions during real-world CMAS operations. The experimental phase involves a virtual environment, demonstrating the HMI's effectiveness in collision prevention during CMAS operations. This research represents a notable advancement in collision-free motion planning for flexible CMAS configurations, offering a valuable tool for operators to operate CMAS in dynamic production settings, fostering safer and more efficient robotic automation across industries

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  • 714.
    Vivo, Maria Vicenta
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Using Discrete Event Simulation as an Environment for a Reinforcement Learning Energy Optimizer2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many of the planning and control problems can be modelled as sequential decision making processes. Reinforcement learning is considered as a reliable framework for solving such problems at the presence of uncertainties. In this regard, having an environment replicating the characteristics of the real system has been a major challenge. In this master thesis, the idea of employing a discrete event simulated model of a production cell in order to train a reinforcement learning scheduler is investigated. The focus is on energy optimization while meeting production rate as a demand. The thesis is conducted as part of a joint project be-tween University West, Chalmers University of Technology, and Volvo Group Trucks Op-erations.

  • 715.
    Wahl, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kärrå, Michael
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ö-drift med mobil reservkraft i nät med småskalig elproduktion2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis is carried out on behalf of Jönköping Energi. Their general idea is to provide an uninterrupted power supply also when maintenance is done in substations. They have diesel generators that are responsible for the power supply while service is being carried out and island operation occurs. In recent years, there has been an increase in installed solar PV systems in Sweden and thus also in the grid that is supplied by Jönköping Energi. This may cause complication in conjunction with the island operation with the diesel generator as the main power source.

    The problem that might occur in steady state is if the PV plants would produce more power than the diesel generator, then a reverse power situation occurs. This would trip the reverse protection of the generator and disconnect the power supply. Through a case study with data collected from a substation at Jönköping Energi it is shown how the production from the PV plants varies. The consumption of power from the substation is significantly higher than that produced power from the PV plants. Considering the ongoing increase of installed PV plants, however, it is not possible to ignore the fact that problems may arise within a number of years. It is also important to consider that diesel generators should not be under loaded as the diesel engine will have a carbon buildup and the operation will deteriorate while also reducing the life time of the engine. Dimensioning of diesel generators for island operation will therefore become considerable more important and a guide has been made.

    To investigate the dynamic limitations of the diesel generators step responses are investigated from the load tests carried out by the manufacturer. The step responses are compared to what theoretically can happen in the grid. That of most importance is large PV systems or if a disturbance causes all plants to turn off or on at the same time. The change in production from the solar cell plants can be seen from the diesel generator as a change in load.

    The two different diesel generators that Jönköping Energi owns have a rated power of 100 and 550 kVA. Step responses indicates that the diesel generators would be able to handle very large fluctuations in the grid. The step response of the 100 kVA unit shows that a load of 0-70 % would not trip any protection on the generator. For the 550 kVA unit, the step response indicates that a load of 0-60 % would not cause any problems. Negative load steps on the other hand, both units will be able handle up to brand effect, this is seen on step responses made from a load of 110 and 108 percent down to zero percent, with no bigger impact on either frequency or voltage.

  • 716.
    Wakim, Majed
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Flexible Solution for an Automatic Assembly Cell2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is being carried out in collaboration with Parker Hannifin. The main objective of this project is to achieve a simulation of an automatic assembly cell for the assembly of the CRVs in the P70 hydraulic valve assembly line. The robotic cell uses the line layout to perform the assembly. It consists of a robot, an automatic feeder system, a conveyor system, an assembly table, and an aligner stand. The tool used to perform the assembly is a combination of two tools mounted on a multi-tool. The first tool is a vacuum gripper, and the second tool is a drill driver. The time taken by the robot to complete one assembly of a P70 module of three sections, with a size of six CRVs on each side, A and B, is eighty-eight seconds which is faster than the speed of a manual operator. The throughput rate of the assembly cell is forty-one complete assemblies per hour, which equals one hundred and twenty-three sections per hour. This result shows clear improvement comparing it to the manual assembly throughput rate. The minimum time for the automatic feeder system to request a refill is approximately twenty-two and a half minutes. A minimal change is required when a new specification is added to the assembly line. 

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  • 717.
    Wejnermark, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Bäversjö, Jonathan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Energiförbrukningsundersökning av hårddiskar i ett lagringssystem2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Optimization of energy consumption is a popular and important subject in today's society, especially in IT. Being able to reduce the energy consumption in a system, even in small amounts, can in a larger perspective affect society's energy consumption in a significant way.

    This thesis investigates the energy consumption of a storage system with several different RAID 5-configurations. Tests are conducted to determine the relationship between energy consumption and amount of disks, how much different read/write speeds affects this rela-tion, expected energy consumption over a year and optimal disk configuration with regards to storage capacity.

    The results show that the energy consumption increases non-linearly when additional disks are added to the configuration, and that the increased read/write speeds doesn't compen-sate for the increased base energy consumption.

  • 718.
    Werner, Josefine
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Guide för projektering med parallella kablar2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten är skriven i samband med framställandet av en guide för projektering medparallella kablar som är konstruerad av författaren. Syftet med detta examensarbete har varit att underlätta arbetet för såväl nyanställda som nuvarande medarbetare på Vattenfall Eldistribution AB genom att skapa denna guide. Guiden fungerar som ett komplement till tidigare guider på Vattenfall då ingen tidigare guide innehåller olika förhållningssätt till förläggning av parallella kablar. En förutsättning för att guiden ska vara behjälplig är att medarbetarna har vidtagit övriga guider innan användning av denna guide för projektering med parallella kablar. Syftet med rapporten är att läsaren ska få förståelse för arbetet i så stor omfattning som möjligt även efter att nödvändig hänsyn för Vattenfall Eldistributions sekretess och säkerhetsklassade information vidtagits. För att möjliggöra framställandet av detta arbete har författaren fördjupat sig i hur de olika programmen som används för projektering, samt undersökt vad de olika beräkningarna baseras på som används vid projektering. Relevant litteratur har även sökts och använts för framställningen av guiden och rapporten. För att arbetet skulle nå önskade resultat krävdes att ansvariga författare av Vattenfalls planeringshandbok fastslog ett beslut som berör rutinerna för beräkning av parallella kablar. Beslutet togs efter att författaren lyckats få till ett möte med samtliga författare vilket gjorde att arbetet kunde avslutas med önskade resultat. Detta innebär att examensarbetet har resulterat i att Vattenfall slutligen bestämt vilket arbetssätt som ska följas vid projektering av parallella kablar, något som tidigare har hanterats på olika sätt frånmedarbetare till medarbetare.

    Guiden är framställd som en presentation i Power Point för att användaren enkelt ska kunna följa de olika projekteringsfaserna. I rapporten presenteras olika teoriavsnitt för att läsaren skall få en förståelse av viktiga delar i förläggning av parallella kablar. Därefter redovisasguiden för att sedan presenteras i det följande avsnittet. Med hjälp av en fiktiv anslutning redovisas guiden i de olika projekteringsfaserna för att se att den uppfyller sitt ändamål för anställda på Vattenfall Eldistribution AB. 

  • 719.
    Westerdahl, Kristian
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utredning gällande utförande av lågspänningsställverk2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been done on behalf of Bema Elautomatik AB and has been carried out at the Department of Engineering Sciences at University West. The client has expanded its business with assembly, design and planning of low voltage switchgears. An investigation regarding the choice of electric equipment, standards and a new routine verification protocol is thus desired.

    In order to determine the scope of what should be included in the final proposal for a solution, lists are made that show how typical low voltage switchgears should be designed and which electrical equipment and standards that should be included. In addition to this, a routine verification protocol is made based on the information found in standards and a checklist that presently used by the client. The main standards that are investigated in the thesis are IEC 61439-1, IEC 61439-2 and the Swedish electrical installation regulations SS 436 40 00.

    Interviews with relevant personnel are performed to investigate checklists in the client's existing routine verification protocol and to find out what was the basis for the present choice of electric equipment. Based on the interviews, it is clear, among other things, which low voltage switchgear manufacturers the client has worked with before and the experience of different switchgear the staff possess and also wishes from the staff on which manufacturers they should consider to work with.

    A proposal for the routine verification protocol is developed and should be seen as the basis for what is the minimum amount of verification points that must be included in a checklist. More points can be added if deemed necessary by the employer.

    When choosing electric equipment, the main factor is not cost, instead functioning and quality play a greater role. Previously, the client has worked with the switchgear manufacturers Schneider Electric and Eldon, but also Lögstrup and components from Eaton should also be considered for future projects.

    The results from the interviews with staff also showed that work methods that are indirectly affected by the new routine verification protocol must be considered and more staff at the company must be included in these discussions.

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  • 720.
    Westerlund, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Knutsson, Karl
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    A comparison between two Open-Source WIDS implementations2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A Wireless Intrusion Detection System (WIDS) passively monitors a radio spectrum for threats and unauthorized access points, when a threat is detected the WIDS produces an alert detailing information which can be used by an administrator to mitigate it. An important aspect of these systems is the ability to detect various threats, before deploying a WIDS in a production network its capabilities should be evaluated.   This thesis describes the evaluation of two open-source WIDS in regards to their functionalities and detection capabilities, using predefined benchmarking requirements. This thesis contains general information about threats and technological explanations about wireless networking, it also explains the software and hardware used.   The systems are evaluated in four different scenarios where each scenario is based on a set of requirements. The first three scenarios cover detection of commonly implemented attacks and the last scenario tests the WIDS for miscellaneous functionalities, including monitoring and collection of statistics. Our results showcase that the WIDS conforms differently to the requirements each scenario tested.

  • 721.
    Westher, Lena
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Framtagning av mall för funktionskontroll av reläskydd ABB REL670 med hjälp av provapparat Omicron CMC 3562017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the functions of the ABB REL670 protection relay are tested mostly with the Omicron CMC 356 test device. Before executing the test the test values are manually installed in each test module. Considering the complexity of both the protection relay and the test device there has to be ways of simplifying this procedure. With a correct programmed software only transfer of test values would be needed from the protection relay to all the test modules. Then the continuous test sequence including all test modules that are needed to test the protection relay could be executed.

    This batchelor´s thesis is a study of description and problem solving nature. The purpose of it is to make the testing of ABB REL670 protection relay with the Omicron CMC 356 test device easier to handle. The goal of the study is to start a development of a continuous test sequence to be used with Omicron CMC 356 test device when testing ABB REL670 protection relay.

    The modules for testing was chosen and programmed, the test environment was built up and tests of the modules were performed simultaneously with the adjustments of them. The result was six modules for testing ground fault protection and one module for testing auto reclosure. The modules have been programmed to transfer information from the protection relay into their right positions in the software without any manually performed actions. The modules also have the ability to be put together to form a continuous test sequence. The modules are suitable for further developing towards a test sequence including all test modules that are needed to test the ABB REL670 protection relay.

    Further development of this work is recommended. The results of this work shows that it is possible to accomplish the complete continuous test sequence. A continuous test sequence will save time and money for the company when testing ABB REL670 protection relay with Omicron CMC 356 test device.

  • 722.
    Widengård, Simon
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Cogelja, Tony
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Live migrering av en virtuell brandvägg under last2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Virtualisation is becoming more and more popular to use. VMware is a service that offers virtualisation of hardware. This means that it's possible to virtualize multiple machines on one server, this to save on cost, space and ease of management. Tests are made by sending Iperf data through a client to an Iperf server. Between these two virtual machines lies a software firewall that's using pfSense. Meanwhile the Iperf client is sending data to the server, a vMotion migration is executed to another ESXi. This investigation is about seeing how vMotion can handle a software firewall, that handles traffic at the same time it's about to migrate the virtual machine to another ESXI.

    The results showed that when utilizing the 1000 Mbit/s link to the max, the transfer speed of the Iperf client is lowered to make room for vMotion traffic. You can see depending on the bandwidth that it is affecting the migration times. The migration is going through but the time it takes is longer.

  • 723.
    Wiemerö, Pär
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Koldioxidblästring vidarbete med spänning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Årligen uppstår stora kostnader för både samhälle och nätbolag på grund av haverier i den elektriska överföringen. En stor del av dessa haverier orsakas av överslag i elektrisk apparatur exempelvis isolatorer, ändavslut och brytare. En väsentlig orsak till att överslag uppstår är att smuts fastnar och beläggningar bildas på apparaturers ytor. För att kunna rengöra elektrisk apparatur utan avbrott måste arbete kunna utföras med spänning på (AMS). Vattenfall startade år 2005 ett projekt som handlade om att använda koldioxidblästring som rengöringsmetod vid arbete utan spänning (AUS) och nu vill Vattenfall utveckla metoden inom AMS. Syftet med studien har varit att ta reda på hur metoden koldioxidblästring fungerar och om den kan användas under AMS? Vilken blästringsutrustning behövs för metoden och vilka lagar och standarder är tillämpliga för att metod och utrustning skall bli godkänd i Sverige. En empirisk-holistisk (kvalitativ) metod har använts för att besvara denna frågeställning. Av resultatet framgår att rengöringsmetoden koldioxidblästring används bland annat inom tillverkningsindustrin och ett exempel är rengöring av varma gummiformar. Temperaturskillnaden mellan dessa och det ca -80°C blästringsmediet koldioxid påverkar inte gummiformarnas hållfasthet. Det är lämpligt att använda koldioxid vid rengöring av elektrisk apparatur vid AMS på grund av att koldioxid har ett högt elektriskt isolationsvärde. Vidare redogörs för vilken blästringsutrustning som behövs (blästringsmaskin, slang, pistol, hotstick, munstycke och kompressor med lämpliga tillbehör) samt redovisas en sammanställning av denna utrustning som rekommenderats av respektive bransch utifrån Vattenfalls behov. Koldioxidblästring vid AMS är en ny metod i Sverige. Därför bör den testas och utvärderas innan den börjar användas i praktiken. Med anledning av att detta är en ny metod inom elbranschen, finns den inte beskriven i gällande standarder. Därför måste standarder, tillämpningsanvisningar och kurser utarbetas för metoden. Det är viktigt att den blästringsutrustning som inhandlas är typgodkänd och uppfyller EU-standarder. Även de komponenter som skall blästras bör testas, för att ta reda på om de påverkas av rengöringsmetoden koldioxidblästring. Koldioxidblästring är en miljövänlig rengöringsmetod på grund av att den koldioxid som används är en restprodukt inom tillverkningsindustrin. Därför bidrar inte koldioxiden lika mycket till växthuseffekten som nyproducerad koldioxid.

  • 724.
    Wigerfelt, Jon
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Vision system concept design for 3-D imaging: System integration in NDT thermographic tool for crack detection in welded components2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Thermographic inspection has raised attention as a suitable Non Destructive Testing technique to detect cracks in welded components. In this work, complementary vision systems are designed to be implemented into an existing thermographic inspection tool, with the objective of improving the Probability Of Detection and general performance of the tool by detecting common welding features and defects. An analysis of the thermographic tool and a bibliographic review of contemporary 3-D vision systems deems the laser triangulation technique as the most suitable for the intended purpose. Thus, two drafts for incorporating laser triangulation systems in the thermographic tool are designed. In the first one, a laser line beam source is rotated to scan the surface, while in the second one the scanning is performed by a linearly displaced mirror with an static light source. Detailed schemes, design parameter equations and measurement triangulation equations are formulated for each method. With a justified selection of values for the design parameters, a theoretical achievable measurement accuracy of 12.5 µm and 0.14 mm can be obtained for the first and second designs, respectively. Considerations and possible real accuracies are indicated for each method. Finally, CAD models for each method are constructed following the design parameters and component dimensions. The models show that prototypes and real implementations of the designs are possible. As future work, prototypes and testing of the designs is suggested, to study the validity of the designs and implementation challenges. 

  • 725.
    Wikström, Martin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Energilagring med vätgas i Off-Grid-system för en besöksanläggning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is carried out as a continuation of a pilot study that ÅF in Gothenburg started in 2018. The client is Chalmersfastigheter AB, who plans to construct a visitor facility in Kungsbacka Municipality, in the same area as the existing space observatory. After the building's shape and area were determined, the energy consultancy firm Bengt Dahlgren performed an energy analysis. As a continuation of ÅF's pilot study, an Off-Grid solution to the building will be examined in this thesis. The building should be operated 365 days a year with renewable energy and without being connected to the grid. Solutions with solar cells and short-term storage of battery already exist, but to operate the building during the winter when there is minus degrees (C°) and low solar irridation is the big challenge.

    This thesis intends to dimension a hydrogen system depending on surplus energy from solar cells. The surplus in the summer months is sufficient to generate hydrogen gas via a electrolysis. The hydrogen will be stored in pressure thanks in its own building a safe distance from the visitor facility. The advantage of hydrogen is that there is no loss of energy during storage. The piping system also has a neglectable loss in drop of pressure depending on the length of the pipes.

    After a visit to an existing Off-Grid building in Gothenburg, calculations began. With the help of the PV SOL simulation software, information was produced about solar cell production and the building's consumption every month. After this the operating time of the electrolysis was determined. An excess of sunelectricity of 12 371 kWh/year is sufficient to generate 3 711 kWh of electricity during winter. The efficiency on both the electrolyser and fuelcell is about 50-60 %, which gives a total efficiency of electricty of roughly 30%. The rest is mostly losses in the form of waste heatwater. As it follows, the fuelcell also produce as many kWh in hot water as the number of kWh electricty it generates during operation. This is a major fact that was taken into account when calculations of the buildings yearly electricty consumption where to be determined.

    It is technically possible to operate the planned building of 500 m2 Off-Grid 365 days a year. The fact that both the electrolyser and fuelcell produce excessiv waste heat helps to save electricity on the yearly consumption. A disadvantage with the electrolyser and the fuel cell is the short technical lifespann of approximate ten years.

  • 726.
    Windfäll, Åsa
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Principles of robust and accurate computational 3D positioning from 2D image2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 727.
    Wolnievik, Niklas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Projektering och beredning av ett distributionsnät i ett exploateringsområde2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about how a preparatory works from start to finish. The project comprises a power distribution network in a new residential area with 33 villas, a preschool and an industry property. Parts that power consumption of houses, preschool and an industry has been based on their main fuse. Load current and dimensioning of low voltage cables as high-voltage cables have been developed for the different sections available cable is located. Voltage drop of the various sections for service cables and the supply cables and the voltage dips to subscribers are treated in this report, with the goal of keeping this voltage drop below 4 %. The trigger condition for the different connection routes have been checked to keep the mains as safe as possible. The economic area has been considered, for the selection of the various cables that has been used during the operation. The work also deals with the selection of materials from the cable distribution cabinets to fuses. Several different agreements have been treated, map types from the excavation map to high voltage map has been developed. In a project there are several costs which are essential to obtain the final cost. Some of these costs have been treated as: P2-calculation is made and valuation protocol for the various land owners has been developed. A presentation of the different applications used within a preparation has been included, which can help and facilitate the work of processors. The result of the preparatory works comprises a new 12/0.4 kV grid station, nine new cable distribution cabinets and 155 meters 12 kV HV cable and 4 087 meters 0.4 kV low voltage cable. Excavation distance will be 1 980 meters long, which excavate up to the property line, where the property owner is responsible for the excavation. The Grid Station has been placed strategically so that the excavation routes are minimized, and the voltage dips is held. Cable distribution cabinets have also been placed strategically to provide all subscribers with power and with the voltage dip in mind, the length of the service lines has been kept down. The cost of the project is estimated at SEK 2.1 million

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  • 728.
    Wu, Ronghua
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Virtual Robotized NDT: Simulation in Robot Studio2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human and machine cooperation has been developed for a long time to improve the productivity and because of advantages of the machine work, machine will play a more and more important role in the industrial production. To some extent, machine has already changed the world. This master thesis project was to use several robots build an automatic inspection line to inspect the wheel hub using the thermography with induction method. Three different methods are created in robot studio and the method with rotation tool was implemented as a demonstrator at PTC (production technology center).

    Compare the methods with each other and consider the limitations and productivity, the method with the rotation tool is the best choice for the company. The automation line includes several robots. In another words, the designed automation line can be considered to be several robot cells. Most sensors and calibration methods are set up due to the rules to build a robot cell. All signal analysis and processing are solved in the robot studio during the simulation process. Some needed robot cell components, equipment and different tools are used from the standard ABB robot studio library. Several special tools and equipment are designed and modelled in the NX and then converted to robot studio.

  • 729.
    Xu, Fenglei
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Performance evaluation and comparison of Dual-NIC computer Optiplex 780 with Cisco 2901 router2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of the dual-NIC computer Dell Optiplex 780 (henceforth referred to as PCR1) compared with Cisco 2901 router regarding performance.

    Both devices are tested to show maximum throughput with increasing numbers of parallel links. A Cisco Catalyst 2960G switch is used to provide more access ports. The software Iperf is used throughout the tests as both traffic generator and throughput measuring tool, meanwhile the software Dstat on PCR1 is used for CPU usage measuring. PCR1 and Cisco 2901 are tested separately. A few basic tests are performed in phase 1 to discover the maximum throughput between the devices' interfaces. In phase 2, additional client computers are added on one side of the router device, one pair at a time. All these clients receive max-load traffic simultaneously from a single server computer, which reside on the other side of the router. Phase 2 tests are meant to investigate how well the router devices handle max-load traffic in a situation where there are multiple clients, whether they prioritize any traffic or function abnormally.

    After both phases are done, an analysis of the collected data is presented, both devices's performance and differences between them will be analysed.

  • 730.
    Yazdizadehalborz, Hamidreza
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    A Machine Learning Approach for PAPI Lights: Detection, Tracking, and classification2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Object detection and classification is an indispensable technology for interacting with the environment. In this way, the main problem is finding a robust algorithm to decrease time and computation. However, finding the object in all partsof the image, is time consuming with increment on computation and the probability of false detection. In addition, for fast moving agents, time and computational capacities on detection and classification are limited. The substitution one of the human's power with a machine, require to be mentioned that any ability of humans' uses prior knowledge to learn how can detect and classify the huge amount of information. For instance, although with new technology, machines reach the humans' visual capacity in accuracy and precision, finding the less computational and time-consuming algorithm would need more efforts by humans both in hardware and software.Utilising of deep learning, especially, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for automated object detection systems, has robust performance but required also high inference speed and memory. In the presented master thesis, an algorithm has been proposed that recognizes Path Precision Approach Indicator (PAPI) lights by image processing using camera geometry that uses the precise of aircraft and lights poses. The use of light position allows us to determine of a Region-Of-Interest (ROI) in an image to reduce the computational cost and false detection. In addition, by using the proper classic algorithm followed by deep learning precision of the prediction will be surveyed on class of lights. In this thesis valuation and selection of many algorithms based on the papers or experiments that have been considered on traffic lights detection and classification in autonomous vehicle driving.

  • 731.
    Ysofzay, Siawash
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Rajpar, Ali-Reza
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Data Collection and Visualization of Influencersposts2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to understand the factors that turn Instagram users into influencers by analyzing data from various influencers, focusing on aspects that attract young people. The findings will be applied to the "Life of A.R.T'' project, which aims to create an artificial influencer to inspire youth interest in technology. This research examines six Instagram influencer profiles with similar follower demographics, using Art-Scraper and Instascrape to collect data on Upload Date, Likes, Comments, Hashtags, and Tagged Users. The results indicate that influencers rarely use hashtags, and when they do, it has minimal impact on likes. Instead, tagging generates more engagement. Posts are primarily uploaded on Sundays and Thursdays, typically between 2 p.m. and 8 p.m. This analysis will inform the development of an AI-based influencer's behavior. 

  • 732.
    Yu, Huanyu
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    3D Scanning and Modeling with the use of a Mobile Robot2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the number of mobile robot has increased rapidly. They can not only be used for carrying out tasks in hostile work environment, but also make people's daily life convenient. In the meantime, the rise of 3D technology has changed people's life with its applications in the fields of industrial life and daily life. Therefore, the combination of 3D technology and mobile robot has enormous potentials.

    The objective of this project is to create a model of an object or indoor environment with the help of a mobile robot. A 3D scanner which can be attached on a mobile robot will be used for scanning. With the depth information collected, the point clouds can be gotten. The basic way of reconstructing the model is called Kinect Fusion, it uses Kinect camera to scan the area and creates a model with help of Iterative Closest Point algorithm and Truncated signed distance function which will be introduced in section 2.5. The registration of the point clouds and the localization of the camera can be realized by using ICP algorithm. The software which is used to implement these methods is Visual Studio 2012 with OpenCV and KinectFusion library.

    As the camera should be able to be used on any kind of robot, the aim of these tests is to find a better way to get a high quality model of the area. In this paper, two main experiments have been done. One of them is about scanning a target object from different distances. There will be errors between object actual size and its model size. And the relationship between the errors and the distances will be found out. The other one is focused on the movement of the camera. There are two scenarios in this experiment. The first one is to move the camera with different speed and the other scenario is to scan an object by moving the camera around the object. The result shows that the robot attached with the camera should move slowly so that the camera can capture enough frame images for the model. And keep scanning one object by moving the camera around it can't make the model looks better but worse.

  • 733.
    Yu, Liang
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Automatic obstacles avoidance pickup and placement path generation achievement with scanning of environment for an industrial robot2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial robots are widely used in modern industry fields because of the development of robot technology. In robot palletizing or bin-picking application, robot needs to automatically generate path for achieving robot picking and placing operation even if there exist obstacles. This project is to design and test a robot system that can move without collisions in a changeable environment. And communication is realized between two computers through an industrial communication protocol.

    ROS has been chosen as a simulation platform for the robot path planning simulation as it has some independent advantages, like open-source, supporting multiple programming languages, integrating a lot of open source tools and advanced algorithms. ROS MoveIt! software is used for motion planning, operation control, 3D perception, kinematic solution, collision detection, and so on. Through RRT method, robot path planning is achieved and through Flexible Collision Library, collision detection is achieved. For robot system test experiments and results, taking ABB IRB 2600 robot as a test industrial robot, a robot simulation system in ROS is designed and set up to realize obstacles free picking and placing path planning task of the robot.

    Firstly, for obtaining external obstacles information, Kinect V1 camera is used and calibrated for eliminating distortion and obtains colour image and depth image. Secondly, by using Point Cloud Library, the images are transformed to point cloud images with filtering for eliminating noise. Thirdly, by using OctoMap library, the scene including obstacles are created to 3D occupancy map. Furtherly, according to the map, robot obstacles avoidance pickup and placement operation is achieved in ROS.

    Finally, for testing and evaluating the system, the robot model, a pickup object and an obstacle model are created in ABB RobotStudio software which is the same as ROS's and further achieves co-simulation motion in ROS and ABB RobotStudio by ROS TCP/IP socket program. By running path planning in ROS, the robot achieves obstacle avoidance path planning and pickup and placement operation in ABB RobotStudio.

  • 734.
    Yusuf, Abdisalam
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Natural Sciences and Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Effektivare bagagehantering vid Mogadishu´s flygplats2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the main objective was to access improvement suggestions that will allow the SKA International Group to produce smoothed throughput at Mogadishu's airport. SKA International Group is a logistics company which took over responsibility at the airport three years ago. The company’s mission was to build the airport, and make it one of the best in the region. After three years, air traffic at the airport has increased significantly, which meant that the baggage handling became a major problem. The company has not applied for a newer and more modern equipment to cope with the pressure of the baggage that increases in number with each passing day. The work consisted of a theoretical part with a literature study based on contemporary research and also a qualitative study by interviewing a number of people at the company. There is also a survey of the company's process flow using a tool called value stream mapping. With the help of the analysis, it identified what is value-adding and non-value adding time for baggage handling. The analysis identified also areas for improvement that were critical in order to reduce the lead time. At the end of this project, it mentions a number of suggestions for improvement that can create the conditions for a successful change for the better. One of the main improvement suggestions there is how the company can achieve lead time reduction at the airport

  • 735.
    Yücel, Baris
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Christiansson, Anna Karin
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Electrical Engineering and Land Surveying.
    Ring, Dan
    Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhättan.
    Automatic Generation of Multivariable Sampled-data Controllers for Jet-engines2006In: Proceedings of Reglermöte 2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this contribution, it is shown how multivariable sampled-data controllers can be generated for a set of linearized models. The size of this set makes an automatic generation of controllers more practical and less time consuming. The control strategy is robust loopshaping according to Glover/McFarlane. The generated controllers are to be used for the military turbofan engine F404-RM12 which is currently used in the Swedish air fighter JAS39 Gripen.

  • 736.
    Zakeriharandi, Mohammadali
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Energy optimal scheduling by reinforcement learning2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    While scheduling is extensively studied by operations research and heuristic methods, both paradigms face challenges to include uncertainties into the problem and to be used on a realtime basis. Reinforcement learning is a well-documented approach for solving various planning and control problems. In this thesis, application of reinforcement learning for production scheduling is studied. Inverse scheduling is defined as the problem of finding the number of jobs and duration times to meet an input capacity demand. A reinforcement learning framework is proposed for solving inverse scheduling while optimizing energy consumption. Discrete event simulation is used to model the environment while involving uncertainties. Due to the inherent characteristics of the problem in hand, deep neural networks are applied for approximating the policy. The trained agent can be used both for scheduling (production planning) and rescheduling (production control). A production cell is studied as a testbed, and using the trained agent, a six percent reduction in the energy level is observed in simulation following a proposed energy signature. Strengths and weaknesses of the suggested framework are presented, and essential features identifying its success are discussed. To generalize the approach to large scale problems, further modifications are needed both at the side of modelling and implementation. The thesis is conducted as part of a joint project between University West, Chalmers University of Technology, and Volvo Group Trucks Operations, named SmoothIT.

  • 737.
    Zetterström, Jesper
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Wiklund, Mikael
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Hur överbelastningsattacker påverkar funktioner inom en router2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report the reader will be informed on what denial-of-service is and how it affects the three different planes of operation in a router. These three are as follows, management plane, control plane and data plane.

  • 738.
    Zhang, Cheng
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Influence of surface roughness on thermography measurement2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This university Bachelor's Thesis was performed to explore the influence of surface roughness on the thermography measurement.

    Thermography is a non-destructive testing method which can be used to detect cracks. However, it is hard to define how the surface roughness influences the emissivity and the result of a thermography measurement, as well as how the angle of the excitation source influences the result. Therefore, this work aims to define how the heating angle and surface roughness influence the thermography measurement, define the relationship between surface roughness and emissivity for the same crack, and define the influence of the angles which composed of the heating source, the direction of crack and the direction of surface roughness on thermography measurement.

    In this report, the theories of radiation and Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were explained, clearly. Also, two kinds of experiments were set up. One is focus on how the heating angle influence the thermography measurement, the other is focus on how the angle of the heating source, in relation to the crack direction and the direction of surface roughness, influence the SNR value.

    The conclusions of these experiments are that the heating of a crack increases as the angle decreases (from wide side to narrow side) and the angle ofincreases (from horizontal to vertical). Moreover, the SNR value decreases as the surface roughness increases. For the same surface roughness, the SNR value increases with increased crack angle (0°, 45° or 90°) and with decreased sample position angle (horizontal, 45°or vertical). What is more, the higher surface roughness, the larger the influence of the crack angle and the sample position angle. Finally, when the surface is polish, the crack angle and the sample position angle does not have any influence.

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  • 739.
    Zhang, Ye
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Simulation of a production line in Robot Studio: Modelling and simulation2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of science and technology, production system in modern factories is more complex than it used to be. In order to cut unnecessary loss and protect operators from failure, simulation plays an essential role on testing production lines. In this thesis work, the model of production lines, located in Production Technology Centre (PTC) of University West were built with NX, Autodesk Inventor and simulated with Robot studio. And the production line includes three robot cells (milling machine work cell, turning machine work cell and conveyance work cell, respectively), a gantry robot and some auxiliary equipment, i.e. tables, computers, human task console. Signals were added to make sure the model could work as reality.

    Different measurement methods were used in order to locate production line components at right positions due to their importance to the accuracy of simulation. Measurement methods were also compared with each other to show the error. For instance, the error of CAD models, measurement, and the distance error among equipment, etc.

  • 740.
    Åberg, Pontus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Isaksson, Adam
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    ASA 5506-X & 5510 comparisons during a DDoS attack2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to compare the two Cisco firewalls ASA 5506-X and 5510 performances during two different DDoS attacks with out of the box settings. The thesis was done in a Cisco controlled environment at University West.

    Botnets were created with the computers in this environment to carry out TCP and UDP flood attacks on both ASA devices and see which one would perform best under these circumstances. A total of eight figures are used to show the results of the tests, each containing averages compiled from ten measurements for each parameter.

    ASA 5506-X has one core for the ASA itself with three additional cores using the Fire-power module, this however is not used out of the box for the ASA 5506-X, leaving it with as a single-core device. ASA 5510 does not have a Firepower module and runs a single-core. The single-core of the ASA 5506-X is not as fast as the ASA 5510 single-core.The results of this showed that the ASA 5510 outperformed the ASA 5506-X in all categories.

  • 741.
    Österberg, Per
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Engineering.
    A comparison between NS-2 and reality utilizing on queuing disciplines2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Eftersom dagens olika datornätverk växer sig större och mer komplexa har möjligheten att testa ny nätverksfunktionalitet försvårats. Detta har gjort att simulation har blivit populärt ibland utvecklare och forskare inom nätverksområdet. Nätverkssimulatorn NS-2 är en populär simulator som används flitigt av forskare och utvecklare runt om i världen. Men kan vi lita på att NS-2 simulatorns funktionalitet stämmer överens med verklighetens?Denna studie undersöker hur väl ett scenario i NS-2 simulatorn stämmer överens med ett verkligt scenario av samma typ. Vi har använt oss av ett topologi med en flaskhals där vi har testat tre olika kösystem på den strypta länken: Fair queuing, Random early detection och First in first out med Drop Tail. Genom flaskhalsen har vi skickat en UDP ström tillsammans med olika typer av trafik och mätt påverkan på UDP strömmen i form av tappade paket och genomströmning. Resultatet ifrån NS-2 simulatorn är sedan jämnfört med resultat ifrån samma scenario uppsatt i verkligheten.

  • 742.
    Östergren, Axel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Albinsson, Arvid
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Utvärdering av inmatningsmetoder i Augmented Reality ur ett användbarhetsperspektiv2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med industri 4.0 ställs högre krav av kunden på industrier, detta eftersom det blir vanligare med skräddarsydda produkter. Detta medför att industrin behöver ställa om och vara mer flexibla och effektiva, samtidigt som deras mål är att hålla nere omställningstiden och kostnaderna. Lösningen på utmaningen har visat sig vara att industrin tenderar att investera i ny och innovativ teknik, där Augmented Reality (AR)-lösningar har blivit ett vanligt alternativ, då de i fallet av Head Mounted Device (HMD) ökar mobiliteten och är ett effektivt sätt att uppnå de krav som ställs. Trots att studier visar att det fortfarande finns begränsningar med tekniken, till exempel hårdvarubegränsningar och Human Computer Interaction (HCI), så finns stor potential i framtida system. Ett område inom vilket det forskas flitigt gällande HCI och AR är inmatningsmetoder, alltså de verktyg som användaren har för att styra ett givet system. Trots detta fanns knapphändig forskning som jämförde flera metoder med varandra för att undersöka om det fanns någon metod som presterade bättre än de andra. Denna lucka i forskningen ledde till detta projekt i vilket flera metoder användes för att med hjälp av 12 deltagare kunna utvärdera effektiviteten av olika inmatningsmetoder. Metoderna som analyserades i denna studie är alla del av Microsoft Hololens 2 systemet, en specifik HMD, de tre metoderna är det virtuella systemtangentbordet, skroll och taligenkänning.Ett experimentupplägg togs fram under vilket varje deltagare fick testa tre metoder, virtuellt tangentbord, skroll och taligenkänning, med vilka denne skulle leta upp en fil i en prototypmjukvara. Data samlades in under experimentsessionerna med hjälp av upplevd användbarhets-enkäter och tid, efter experimentsessionen utfördes även en intervju med deltagaren. Med den insamlade datan utfördes senare en statistisk analys med hjälp av flera statistiska metoder och modeller som Shapiro-Wilks-test, Tukey-HSD-test, chi-två-test samt grafiska analysmetoder, resultaten av de statistiska analyserna tydde på att majoriteten av resultaten saknade statistisk signifikans.Trots att det saknades statistisk signifikans mellan skillnaderna skapade en av frågorna under intervjun ett tydligt resultat, inmatningsmetoderna i AR behöver bli bättre för att ARlösningar ska få större spridning i industriella miljöer. Detta resultat stöds även av slutsatser av flera rapporter som används i detta arbete

  • 743.
    Överengen, Anders
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lundgren, Axel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Trafikpåverkan av konvergens i OSPFv2 och EIGRP2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis has explored what type of traffic flow between FTP, video and voice that was most affected by link failure. Measurements of the traffic flows have been carried out using the routing protocols OSPF and EIGRP. The results have been compared to measure what routing protocol that affected the traffic flows the most. The results focus on break timesin the traffic flows, lost packets due to link failures, and how long it took the applications to reestablish their traffic flows after full convergence in the routing protocols. The tests have been performed using three Cisco routers, two layer-3 switches and two Windows 10 computers. The topology consists of five network devices to create three redundant paths from the client LAN to the server LAN. The results have shown that EIGRP was the better protocol with the lowest impact on the applications.

  • 744.
    Öztürk, Mehmet Cihan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Virtual Commissioning: A Tool for Control System Validation2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The on-site commissioning is a vital milestone for the project lifecycle of a manufacturing system. This process also plays a crucial role in the future financial accomplishment of the manufacturing system. From the point of view of control systems associated with the manufacturing system, the most common problems encountered during the commissioning process are related to the software. However, early detection of these software-related problems is possible by enabling virtual commissioning technology.

    The control system of the manufacturing system investigated within the scope of this thesis is developed by Midroc Automation AB. In the thesis, simulation and simulation model creation approaches, further benefits of the simulation model along the life cycle of the manufacturing system and PLC code validation possibilities with virtual commissioning are analysed by considering qualitative and quantitative advantages of virtual commissioning. The work is performed using SIMIT for the development of the virtual plant model, PLC-SIM Advanced for simulation of PLC controller and TIA Portal for validation of the control system.

    The experiment attempts to develop a virtual commissioning environment by applying the model-based virtual commissioning approach. Furthermore, software in the loop configuration is used to simulate the real PLC controller. This attempts demonstrates whether it is possible to validate the control system. The results are that the validation of the control system is possible considering the objectives, technical and commercial limits of the automation project. Ultimately, efficient use of time-saving tools in the preparation of the necessary environment for virtual commissioning is provided.

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