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  • 51.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    Teachers’ grade assignment and the predictive validity of criterion-referenced grades.2012In: Educational Research and Evaluation, ISSN 1380-3611, E-ISSN 1744-4187, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 153-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has found that grades are the most valid instruments for predicting educational success. Why grades have better predictive validity than, for example, standardized tests is not yet fully understood. One possible explanation is that grades reflect not only subject-specific knowledge and skills but also individual differences in other aspects. The purpose was to investigate the relative importance of knowledge and skills and other aspects encapsulated in grades for the predictive validity of compulsory school grades for educational success in upper secondary school. Structural equation modelling was used. Participants were 9th-grade students from 3 birth cohorts, each comprising full populations of approximately 100,000 students. The results showed that the subject-specific factors and an additional common grade factor contributed to the predictive validity. Effects of gender and parents' education were found in the common grade factor, with girls and students with a lower educational background being advantaged.

  • 52.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Teachers' Grading Assignment and the Predictive Validity of Norm-Referenced Grades2011In: The European Conference on Educational Research (ECER), Berlin, 12-16 September 2011: Urban Education, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    The Importance of cognitive and non-cognitive factors for the predictive validity of grades.2010In: Education and Cultural Change 2010, 23 August - 27 August, Helsinki, Finland, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Gustafsson, Jan-Eric
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Effects of Gf and Gc on the development of knowledge and skills2013In: The 15th Biennial Conference, European Association for Research and Learning and Instruction (EARLI), Munich, 27-31 August, 2013: Book of Abstracts, 2013, p. 968-969Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Investment theory (Cattell, 1987) states that learning in different fields is dependent on a general ability to reason in novel situations (Gf), and that development of knowledge and skill therefore is influenced by Gf, among other things. The Encapsulation theory (Gustafsson & Carlstedt,2006) makes the inference that Gf is encapsulated in measures of General Crystallized intelligence(Gc) and that information about Gf therefore does not add to prediction of further learning. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of Gf and Gc on knowledge acquisition indifferent subjects in school. In all 9002 individuals from the Evaluation Through Follow-up longitudinal database were included. A path model was fitted to measures of Gf and Gc. Results showed that Gf had influence on measures of early and late Gc. However, there were no additional effects of Gf on subject grades, which was interpreted as providing partial support for the Encapsulation theory.

  • 55.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Gustafsson, Jan-Eric
    University of Gothenburg.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    The influence of fluid and crystallized intelligence on the development of knowledge and skills2014In: British Journal of Educational Psychology, ISSN 0007-0998, E-ISSN 2044-8279, Vol. 84, no 4, p. 556-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Cattell’s Gf–Gc distinction is quite generally recognized. However, the developmental part of the Gf–Gc theory of intelligence has not gained the same recognition. Results are inconsistent, but recent discussions emphasize the importance of homogeneity of samples with regard to education and language when investigating the developmental Investment theory. Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of Gf and Gc on the development of knowledge and skills in a sample of children in compulsory school who are homogenous with regard to level of education, age, and cultural background. Sample Totally, 9,002 individuals from the evaluation through follow-up database born in 1972 and who left compulsory school in 1988 were included. These individuals were followed up in Grades 3, 6, and 9. Methods Structural equation modelling was used, and autoregressive path models were fitted. All modelling was performed using Mplus version 6.1. Results In the first step, a path model with a simplex structure was defined. However, a second model with direct relations of Gf on Gc in Grades 6 and 9 had better model fit, suggesting a continuous influence of Gf on Gc. However, no direct influence of Gf was found for the subject grades. Conclusion Due to the continuous influence of Gf on the measures of Gc throughout compulsory school, support for Cattell’s (1987) Investment theory was found.

  • 56.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    The case of a missing person? The current L2 self and the L2Motivational Self System2017In: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Dörnyei's (2009a) theorizing, motivation is conceptualized to be generated by discomfort associated with the learner's experience of a discrepancy between their current L2 self, and their ideal L2 self. However, in the L2 Motivational Self System, this discrepancy is not operationalized. A questionnaire containing measures of current L2 selves was administered to two cohorts of students learning English in Sweden, one in grade 7, and one in grade 9. Using structural equation modelling, results revealed that the discrepancy between the ideal L2 self and the current L2 selfwas greater for the grade 7 cohort. So too was the impact on a criterion variable measuring intended effort. Arguments for the operationalization of the selfdiscrepancy process in research designs are put forward. In studies tracking changes over time, it is suggested that the inclusion of a variable measuring the current L2self could provide important insights into self-discrepancy trajectories, facilitate the investigation of motivational dynamics, and bring greater sensitivity to intervention design.

  • 57.
    Yang Hansen, Kajsa
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Gustafsson, Jan-Eric
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Changes in the variances of school marks and SES and ethnic background effect between schools and individuals: a multi-level multi-group analysis.2010In: Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research (25-27, August, 2010), Helsinki, Finland, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
12 51 - 57 of 57
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