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  • 51.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gustafsson, Mariana
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sefyrin, Johanna
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    A digital society for all?: Meanings, practices and policies for digital diversity2019In: Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2019, 2019, p. 3067-3076Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of digital divides has been on the agenda in research and policy making for at least the last 20 years. But it is still, a challenge to grasp this concept that is so elusive and transforming. Inclusion, access and equality are still key values for democratic governance and must be addressed in particular when forming and contributing to a digital government. This paper seeks to intervene in current debates on digital divides and digital inclusion by analyzing two cases of responses among street-level public administration in relation to e-government services in Sweden. The case studies are strategically chosen and conducted in national agencies and in local public libraries. Three lines of contributions are discussed, firstly thei mportance to care for equality secondly the need to seethe non-users, and thirdly to discuss the potential of putting focus on digital diversity.

  • 52.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Collaboration Model for Work-Integrated Learning in Higher Education 3rd Cycle2018In: INTED 2018: Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, 2018, Vol. 1, p. 5509-5515Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Universities need to constantly accommodate new forms of collaboration with society. Interaction with and impacts on society and practice are of crucial importance. University West (UW) in Sweden has a profile area in work-integrated learning (WIL), which generally aims to address issues on integrating theory and practice in a coherent and sustainable way. In this paper we base our arguments on a research education (3rd cycle) in informatics with specialization in work-integrated learning. The aim with the paper is to evaluate UW’s research education and research environment from a WIL perspective. We will adopt an informing science model in order to conduct a current state analysis, in which we identify and visualize collaboration activities within and between the research education/environment and the UWs key stakeholders; society/practices, research community and PhD students. Concrete implications show how collaboration and informing flows are connected and how they can be improved. General reflections are given on the model as a useful means for quality development and assurance beyond learning outcomes, including aspects of collaboration and interaction that can be regarded as paths of societal and practical impacts.

  • 53.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    The Old Town District: Not Just a Scenic Backdrop - Stakeholders' Perspectives in Urban Re-generation2017In: Uddevalla Symposium 2017: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies: Revised papers first presented at the 20th Uddevalla Symposium 15-17 June, 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2017, p. 111-127Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes its point of departure from an urban place innovation study with focus on local stakeholders with particular interest in the Old Town District in a Norwegian community. The aim of this paper is to identify place innovation challenges among local community stakeholders and to discuss approaches to integrate stakeholders in urban regeneration. We have conducted qualitative interviews with 21 different stakeholders representing local entrepreneurs, non-profit organizations, the municipality, elected officials, tourism organization and residents with particular interest in the Old Town District. Additional observations and document studies were conducted. The results reveal stakeholders' views on challenges and opportunities related to how such regeneration collaboration might be conducted. The complex nature is characterized by strong cultural heritage and a mix of opinions and visions. We argue that urban regeneration requires an integrated approach based on stakeholder collaboration and engagement in order to develop the potential of an old town district into something that is more than a scenic backdrop. We discuss several implications as prerequisites for integrated collaborative approaches in place innovation (urban regeneration).

  • 54.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Conceptualizing University-Society Collaboration: A Literature Review Focusing on Drivers of Collaboration2018In: ICERI2018 Proceedings, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaboration and learning are vital for development in all sectors of society and there is a constantneed for new ideas, innovation and development. Previous research addresses several approaches for university-society collaboration, e.g. Work-Integrated Learning (WIL), University-Industry Government (Triple-helix), University Community Partnership (UCP), and Public Private Academic Partnership (PPAP). These are all aiming at planning, performing, compiling and leveraging knowledge exchange and co-creating sustainable results. This conceptual paper draws on an initial literature review on how established frameworks and models in the field of university-society collaboration are related to contemporary drivers of collaboration, such as co-creation, trust and relationship building. The aim of the paper is to gain deeper insights in the complex dynamics of collaboration by exploring relevant research literature and to suggest future directions for research in university-society collaboration. Hence, the research questions to be addressed in this paper are: What are the key drivers that underlie the dynamics of university-society collaboration? How can university-society collaboration be approached in order to facilitate co-creating results? The results suggest that the key driver for university-society collaboration is trust. However, there are several underlying triggers and mechanisms facilitating trust. As trust is context and actor dependent and need to be approached in an open and continuous way in order to co-create sustainable results. Emergent drivers of collaboration and universities roles are also discussed.

  • 55.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Degree of Digitalization and Citizen Satisfaction: A Study of the Role of Local e-Government in Sweden2018In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 16, p. 59-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate whether there is a relationship between degree of e-government in Swedish municipalities and perceived satisfaction among citizens generally. This is a large-scale quantitative study based on validand reliable Swedish national surveys. Based on these surveys, a new comprehensive index for measuring "degree of digitalization" was constructed. Citizen satisfaction was measured using established indices covering three dimensions:satisfaction with living in the municipality, satisfaction with performance of government activities (delivered services), and satisfaction with transparency and influence. The results show that there is a relationship between the degree of digitalization in a municipality and the perceived satisfaction among its citizens. The degree of digitalization is related to all three dimensions of citizen satisfaction. Additionally, this study indicates that the strength of this relationship is in parity with or even stronger than the relationship between citizen satisfaction and other crucial factors such as educational level and median income

  • 56.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Network collaboration for local and regional development the case of Swedish women entrepreneurs2019In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore women entrepreneurs participation in networks with focus on local community collaboration. In recent years interest in the importance of women entrepreneurship worldwide has increased, especially from the viewpoint of local and regional development. Previous studies show that local competitors coordinated in networks can gain cross sector knowledge sharing and boost the attractiveness of a region. Using case study methodology with 14 qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews in two phases with business counselors and women entrepreneurs, participatory observations and document studies, this study explores women entrepreneurs in smaller cities and their collaboration in networks with particular reference to a Swedish context. Results state that women entrepreneurs are active and participate in various local community networks and that networks are viewed as valuable assets for business development. Women entrepreneurs strategically choose to join strong networks that have an impact on local community development. Challenges faced by women entrepreneurs are mainly related to the role as entrepreneur and running a business in a smaller city. However, some specific gendered challenges are lack of trust or respect from other business and public actors, especially in contact with authorities. The women entrepreneurs have mixed experiences of local community support hence the main sources for renewal processes and knowledge sharing are co-owners, staff, digital tools, networks partners, families and friends.

  • 57.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Women Entrepreneurs in Local Community Networks: Participation, Challenges and Place Development2017In: Uddevalla Symposium 2017: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies: Revised papers first presented at the 20th Uddevalla Symposium 15-17 June, 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2017, p. 129-147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore women entrepreneurs' participation in local community networks with focus on place development. In recent years interest in the importance of female entrepreneurship worldwide has increased, especially from the viewpoint of local and regional development. Previous studies show that local competitors coordinated in networks can boost the attractiveness of a place and achieve network synergies. This study is a continuation of an earlier study of Swedish municipal business counsellors' support to female entrepreneurs in tourism where findings show that there was a lack of support for women as entrepreneurs. Using a qualitative method approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews and document studies, this study explores women entrepreneurs' participation and collaboration in local community networks, challenges and local support with particular reference to a Swedish context. The study is based on interviews with 11 women entrepreneurs who were selected from three municipalities in Sweden. All respondents are active in the tourism sector and participate in local community networks. Results indicate that cross-sector networks, preferably strong networks that may have an impact on local community development, are important, especially from the perspective of a small entrepreneur. Smaller informal groups of other local entrepreneurs are also vital for inspiration and renewal processes. Furthermore, findings indicate that participating in collaboration in networks (face-to-face and digital), smaller groups or co-ownership is seen as means to develop the business as well as contributing to boost the attractiveness of a place. Challenges faced by women entrepreneurs are mainly related to the role as entrepreneur and running a business in a smaller city. However, some specific gendered challenges are lack of trust or respect from other actors, especially in contact with authorities and the dual roles in combining entrepreneurship and family. Respondents have mixed experiences of local community support. However, several women entrepreneurs stress the importance of local support, stating the importance of family and friends.

  • 58.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Stakeholder Collaboration for Place Innovation: Challenges and Visions in Local Regeneration2018In: Uddevalla Symposium 2018: Diversity, Innovation, Entrepreneurship – Regional, Urban, National and International Perspectives: Revised papers presented at the 21st Uddevalla Symposium, 14–16 June, 2018, Luleå, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2018, p. 127-145Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes its point of departure from urban place innovation studies with focus on stakeholders' interests and involvement in developing local communities in smaller cities. The aim of the present paper is to identify place innovation challenges among local community stakeholders and to discuss approaches to involve stakeholders in local regeneration through case studies in Norway and Sweden.

    In-depth qualitative interviews have been conducted during the years 2016-2018. In total 40 different stakeholders representing local entrepreneurs, non-profit organizations, municipalities, elected officials and residents with particular interests in regeneration of the local communities have been interviewed. Additional participatory observations and document studies were conducted. The results reveal stakeholders' views on challenges and opportunities related to collaborative approaches for place innovation. The complex nature of the two cases is characterized by cultural heritage, authenticity, indistinct place identity, insufficient communication and inclusion together with a mix of nostalgia and resignation. Findings indicate that place innovation requires an integrated approach based on stakeholder collaboration and engagement in order to develop the potential of city centers.

  • 59.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration. Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Women Entrepreneurs' Participation in Local Tourism Networks in Sweden: a Pilot Study2016In: Uddevalla Symposium 2016: Geography, Open Innovation,Diversity and Entrepreneurship. Revised papers presented at the 19th Uddevalla Symposium, 30 June- 2 July, 2016, London, UK / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2016, p. 257-267Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In tourism contexts entrepreneurship contributes to the ongoing transformation and development of places and regions. In recent decades interest in the importance of women entrepreneurship in the perspective of local and regional development has increased worldwide. The tourism industry is characterized by a high degree of women entrepreneurs in small enterprises, innovation capacity and also a high growth of benefits from networking. The aim of this study is to explore women entrepreneurs' participation in local tourism networks in Sweden. Using a qualitative method approach, this pilot study on women entrepreneurs' participation in local tourism networks explores local support and collaboration in networks with particular reference to a Swedish context. Findings indicate that there is no special focus on or support for women entrepreneurs in any of the three cases. Furthermore there is limited knowledge ofthe local distribution of male and female entrepreneurs. There are contextual characteristics of the Swedish tourism sector that may affect women entrepreneursand their participation in tourism networks.

  • 60.
    Flensburg, Per
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Nåfors, Annika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    IT-Supported Work Processes for Contact Services in Swedish Municipalities: The Initial Design Steps2009In: Proceedings of ECIME 2009. The 3rd European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation held at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden on 17-18 September 2009 / [ed] Jan Ljungberg & Kerstin Grundén, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet , 2009, p. 497-503Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A contact service in a municipality is a place where the citizens can apply for processing of their claims concerning municipal jurisdiction. Examples could be application for a place at pre-school, planning permission or change of dustbin etc. The clerks at the contact centre should be able to provide immediate service in most of the matters. This requires the work-process for each matter to be known. Before starting of a contact service this knowledge existed in the administration for the actual claim. In many cases it was tacit and not described. This paper discusses the problem of making this knowledge explicit and described in order to be used at the contact service. Issues concerning work organisation, personnel and job satisfaction are recognised, but not in focus. Instead our focus lies on the work content, processing of the claims, which the clerks are dealing with. It is a qualitative study, based upon three existing contact services and one, which is in the design phase. We start with a brief discussion of different types of knowledge, related to classical epistemologies within the organisation area (Nonaka & Takeuchi, Brown & Duguid, Cook & Brown, Polyani, etc). Based upon empirical material from the cases we identify some typical knowledge categories. It might be general knowledge about rules, procedures and such things; it might be experience-based knowledge from previous claims, typical claims and work praxis developed over time. It might also be knowledge about the specific citizen and about the specific application. But it can also be totally new categories. Two categories we are pretty sure to identify are matter-oriented knowledge, concerning the actual matter and procedural knowledge, concerning the processing of the matter-oriented knowledge. In our previous research about work-flow four levels have been identified and we suspect the same basic reasoning might apply here.

  • 61.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Work-integrated Learning: Increasing societal impact by decreasing the gap between research and practice2018In: ICERI2018 Proceedings, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we outline models for conducting work-integrated learning research. Our experiences from two decades of doing research in close collaboration with practitioners are presented and discussed. Our main message is that by engaging practitioners in all steps of the research project there is a potential for research outcomes to have high societal impact, and theoretical contribution

  • 62.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gellerstedt, Victoria
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Vallo Hult, Helena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Work-Integrated Learning: Impact of Individual and organizational Digitalization on Knowledge management and Expertise Sharing2019In: INTED2019 Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, 2019, p. 3601-3609Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim with this study was to examine the impact of digitalization and the use of ICT for knowledge sharing in an organization. A secondary aim was to further develop knowledge management models to also include collaborative knowledge production and expertise sharing. Based on such a model, we developed a questionnaire answered by 265 respondents. We found that the relationship between using ICT for knowledge sharing was correlated to knowledge sharing also when adjusted for established factors like organisational climate and social norms. We conclude that digitalization, both individually and on an organisational level is an important asset for knowledge management, and that the use of ICT could support knowledge sharing beyond known and established important factors.

  • 63.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Implementation of a Contact Centre: a Local eGovernment Initiative2012In: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference of e-Government: ESADE Ramo Llull University Barcelona, Spain 14-15 June 2012 / [ed] Dr. Mila Gascó, Reading, UK: Academic Publishing International, 2012, p. 329-335Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: A case study of the implementation of a contact centre (CC) in a Swedish municipality was described and discussed. The implementation was an example of a local e-Government initiative. Seventeen employees at the municipality were interviewed. The initial implementation of the CC was done quickly, with a top-down approach. There were initial problems with negative attitudes towards the CC from the employees at the municipal departments. The new technology systems contributed to increased efficiency and to a more process-oriented organization. The CC was largely well-functioning, and many handling officers were relieved of work tasks related to the implementation of CC. There was a need for further competence development among the service handling officers at the CC. The number of incoming matters increased, related to the increased availability to citizens of municipal services.

  • 64.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, CharlieUniversity West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics. Professor Emeritus of the Economics of Technological Change, Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University and Professor Emeritus, Blekinge Institute of Technology.Bernhard, IréneUniversity West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Geography, Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship: New Horizons in Regional Science series2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developed countries must be incredibly innovative to secure incomes and welfare so that they may successfully compete against international rivals. This book focuses on two specific but interrelated aspects of innovation by incumbent firms and entrepreneurs, the role of geography and of open innovation.

  • 65.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Introduction: Geography, Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship2018In: Geography, Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship: New Horizons in Regional Science series / [ed] Gråsjö, U., Karlsson, C. och Bernhard, I., Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 1-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Johansson, Iréne
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media Production.
    Uddevalla Symposium - Summary and a Historical Review2007In: Uddevalla Symposium tenth anniversary 2007: Institutions for Knowledge Generation and Knowledge Flows - Buildning Innovative Capabilities for Regions: Revised papers presented at the 10th Uddevalla Symposium, 14-16 June, 2007, University West, Uddevalla, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Johansson, Trollhättan: University West , 2007, p. 9-12Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Norström, Livia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Boundaries of Logics in Municipality Communicators' Facebook Practice: Towards a New Public Service Competence2019In: Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2019, 2019, p. 3097-3106Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With an increased use of external online platforms, digital government logics are gradually intertwined with external, algorithmic, crowd-influenced value logics of social media platforms. This new scene especially affects administration, which can no longer neutrally deliver public service, but becomes involved in processes of consideration and judging what rules and traditions seem most appropriate in the situation.Through deep interviews and workshops with municipal communicators, we examine this balancing act when communicators use social media for external communication. We use a practice perspective to characterize and conceptualize an emerging approach to public service.

  • 68.
    Norström, Livia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Assmo, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Transgressions and Transformations at Work: Towards a Social Media Practice among Swedish Municipality Communicators2017In: Transitions, Transformations and Transgressions in Work and Learning & Work and Learning Research: Book of Abstracts, Grahamstown: Rhodes University , 2017, p. 81-, article id ID071Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses how communicators at the municipality, in their work, negotiate the tension between a traditional role of an 'informative administrator' and a 'promoting, engaging social media profile'. The work is learned by carefully transgressing municipality social media and IT policy and by transforming social media practice from private and commercial use of Facebook, towards a new practice founded in democratic values.

    Social media has become an important strategy for municipalities to disclose a massive amount of information with relatively low cost and to create engagement with citizens. However, fostering participation and citizen engagement on social media platforms is still a great challenge for municipality administration as well as for research. Despite a widespread diffusion of platforms such as Facebook in municipalities, interaction level is relatively low compared to private organisations. We know from previous research that citizens' engagement with municipalities on Facebook is related to the municipalities' tradition of openness and transparency and their local administration style. Municipalities with a tradition of transparency are to a greater extent using features in Facebook that enable citizen engagement.Hence the organisational context where the engagement takes place is a crucial factor.However, what is often forgotten when trying to understand how engagement emerges on municipality social media platforms is the intentions of the platform providers and the emerging social logic of the platforms in use. A digital platform such as Facebook cannot be regarded as one overall technology choice, but as a platform provider that promotes services and tools along with a considerable amount of conditions and regulations. As social platforms are being adopted and matured, the huge amount of data concerning user behaviour and interaction patterns has changed from being side business to core business for the platform providers. This is applied,for instance, in the possibility to harvest and sell data. Overtime, the logic of such platforms has become more advanced and its ability to shape and transform the communication patterns has grown stronger and become critical. So, what implications do such a platform logic have on municipality administrations' use of Facebook? A content analysis of online interaction on four municipalities' Facebook pages during a period of two years was conducted. Approximately 6000 posts and comments were categorised by content, media type and tone. Engagement such as likes, shares and comments were then measured for the different categories.Empirical findings indicate that municipality communicators have problems both to reach out with information and to create engagement on Facebook. It is important for the communicators to be politically neutral, correct and speak with the voice of the whole municipality (i.e. not too personal). This way of being, however, does not work so well on Facebook.They report having gradually adjusted their work (content, tone, media type and timing) to what is spreadable, sharable and commentable according to a Facebook logic. The communicators say they feel forced to post pictures of blossomtrees and check-ins from the lunch restaurant in order to get likes and shares. They know that if they don't do this they will lose citizens' attention and they will not reach out with more important posts. They are aware that posts that are interesting to see and read are not sufficient; posts also need to trigger people to like, share and comment. The socialmedia work needs to be designed in accordance with a unique Facebook platform logic.

    This paper aims to contribute to the body of knowledge on IT and learning at work with a special focus on new competence in the public sector. It also extends an existing framework of e-government transparency and citizen engagement by taking into account the role of Facebook as a platform with highly structured strategies for how to foster a special kind of sociality and engagement. The practical contribution implies new knowledge for staff and management in the public sector to develop competence to manage transparency and engagement through social media.

  • 69.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bachelor students in research projects: boosting WIL and University-Society Collaboration2019In: INTED2019 Proceedings / [ed] , L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, 2019, p. 3015-3021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing from the experiences of student projects organized and developed in accordance with work integrated learning, this paper contributes to the understanding of conditions necessary for successful implementation and sharing of knowledge in such projects as well as perceived benefits of university society collaboration. A case study was carried out focusing on student research projects on two parallelbusiness administration courses on Bachelor level. Students applied their skills in information literacy searching for and critically interpreting current research as well use of digital tools and social media platforms for data collection in their studies. The projects were initiated and presented by an external organization, which both supported the students in various ways during their work and received the completed results by the end of the courses. Students focused on themes such as the challenges of internal and external organizational communication, digital divides, inter-organizational collaboration,youth perspectives and sustainability. The empirical material of this study was collected from sourcess uch as course syllabi and instructions, observations, student reports and reflections, presentations,meetings, conversations and interviews members of the principal organization. The results show that the students perceived their tasks as stimulating and important due to the interaction and feedback received from the external principal, utilization of their course assignments as well as the opportunity to relate theory to practice. The external organization in turn received reports that may be used for decision-making purposes at a low cost, however what was perceived as most rewarding was the interaction and dialogue with students to get their perspectives on contemporary issues. Furthermore, collaboration with students was also viewed as means for future recruitment. In can thus be concluded that students, if allowed to interact and work with external organizations, play an important part in disseminating both results from and understanding for academic research in society. However, to realize successful student research projects this paper also discusses the need of legitimacy, access to external networks and organizations willing and able to deliver relevant topics for student research as well asstudent support along the way.

  • 70.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Challenges of collaboration in old townscapes2017In: 26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research, October 4-6 2017, Falun, Sweden. Book of Abstract: Tourism in a Hyper-Connected World: Challenges of Interactivity and Connectedness / [ed] Dalarna University, Falun, 2017, Vol. 1, p. 30-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Challenges of collaboration in old townscapes

    Contemporary cities are increasingly viewing cultural/heritage tourism as an area of tourism with great potential in city development, building city brands as well a local community. The relationship between heritage and tourism is complex since preservation and commercialization often are viewed as contrasts .Heritage tourism is among the most significant types of tourism and includes visits to sites of historical importance.  The concept of heritage is wide hence in this paper focus is on old town areas and the development of old townscapes. A townscape is here to be viewed as a holistic entity although there may be differences regarding the preservation, spatially and social objectives of the area. . An old townscape is sometimes a site for visitors (a destination), as well as a site for business (a workplace) and residents (a home). There are stakeholders from public, private and nonprofit sectors involved in the development of old townscapes. Hence there is a need for dialogue and cross-sector collaboration among stakeholders in order to develop heritage tourism that is beneficial to all. Existing research show that the inclusion of stakeholders in planning and implementation is crucial.  There are calls for further research to understand how collaboration work in different heritage sites. The purpose of this paper is to study the stakeholders’ challenges and views of collaboration and co-shaping of cultural heritage, here an old town in a fortress city. The data collection includes interviews with stakeholders and observations. Findings point out the importance of inclusion, communication, shared visions and strategies in order to balance the attractiveness of the old townscape for visitors, business and residents.

  • 71.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Friedrichs, Yvonne von
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund, Sverige.
    Approaches to inclusive networking in place development: an illustration from six smaller Scandinavian cities2018In: International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development, ISSN 1753-0660, E-ISSN 1753-0679, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 259-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to further explore and deepen research in place development with focus on inclusive networking related to renewal processes in smaller harbour cities in Scandinavia. The results are based on a multiple case study comprising in-depth interviews with driving network actors, document studies and observations from six different harbour cities in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The research questions focus on the characteristics of networks and inclusiveness, knowledge sharing and renewal processes related to networking. This study illustrates different inclusive network approaches for place development. Smaller harbour cities are dynamic places for cross-sector collaboration and networking, although driving network actors struggle with underlying mechanisms related to network characteristics, inclusiveness and governance. Furthermore, findings stress that communication, a sharing culture, transparency and democratic values are vital to enable trust, knowledge sharing and legitimacy for inclusive networking in place development.

  • 72.
    Bernhard, Iréne (Editor)
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin (Editor)
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    A Nordic Perspective on Co‐Operation for Sustainable Destination and Regional Development2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research report contributes to a Nordic perspective on co-operation for sustainable destination- and regional development based on studies conducted within a Swedish-Danish Interreg project 2012-2014 (MARIFUS). An introduction chapter with major themes initiates this report followed by five chapters1 written by researchers from Aalborg University, Denmark (Incevida) and University West, Sweden (School of Business, Economics and IT). The purpose of this report is to give deeper nsights in Nordic destination and regional development by empirical case studies. These studies have been presented and discussed at seminars during international scientific conferences within regional science (the 16th Uddevalla Symposium 2013 in Kansas City, USA and the 17th Uddevalla Symposium 2014 in Uddevalla, Sweden) organized by University West. The contributions are nterdisciplinary in that sense that they are written by scholars from different scientific disciplines such as business administration, informatics, planning and culture studies. However, all scholars have a destination and/or regional perspective as a point of departure in the case studies conducted. The three-year project offered great opportunities to cross-border learning and applied research in close co-operation (Work integrated learning) with project partners and students.The studies are partly supported by the project MARIFUS “Maritime Inlands – past, present and future strengths” financed by the European Union Regional Development Fund (Interreg IV A). The editors express sincere gratitude to all authors and all partners of the MARIFUS project. 

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