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  • 51.
    Berggren, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Engevik, Hampus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utveckling av en båtstol med stötdämpningsegenskaper2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to develop a concept for a shock absorbing boat seat for power-driven leisure boats. The concept will be presented in the form of a CAD model and proposals for materials and components. The work is a product development project and is carried out on behalf of Segula Technologies. The company believes that there is a great potential for shock absorption seats in the leisure boat market. In order to reach the wide market, an important requirement is that the shock absorption function is integrated into the seat and not in the pedestal. This is because the seat will be able to mount on existing pedestals and still fulfill its function.

    To establish a requirement specification for the seat, a market survey has been conducted. The market survey has included visiting the boat fair in Gothenburg to study the types of seats available on the market and to speak with various experts. Internet searches have also been conducted to identify what types of boat seats are available on the market. A literature search in the field of ergonomics has been made to clarify how a seat should be designed. Laws and requirements regarding boat seats have also been investigated.

    Following the market survey, a specification could be established in consultation with the company. When generating concepts, brainstorming, brainwriting and patent investigation have been the most important methods of inspiration. Brainstorming and brainwriting have been performed a number of occasions with experts in different areas. For example, a former employee at Ullman, a world-leading company in shock absorbing boat seats.

    The definitive concept is a bucket type boat seat. This means that the seat is designed so that the armrests are integrated with the backrest. In this way, the chair also allows lateral support. The chair consists of an injection molded plastic frame with glued on cold foam. Cold foam is a common material uses as a cushion in armchairs to increase comfort. The chair's clothing is made of artificial leather, a material suitable for marine environments as it is both UV-resistant and water resistant. The shock absorption consists of an air bellows, four sliding bearings and two attachment plates in acid-proof steel. To protect the components and eliminate the risk of clamping, the shock absorber is covered with a rubber bellows. The device is mounted between the seat and the boat pedestal.

    The final concept is theoretical only and has not been tested in practice. If the company chooses to proceed with the concept, it is recommended that a prototype be prepared to perform proper tests.

  • 52.
    Bernhardson, Axel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konceptframtagning av produkt för strykning av pärlplattor2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At preschools around the country there is a wide use of pegboards. They are used both to calm kids after a long day of school and to practice finger dexterity for the kids. Most of the kids would like to bring home their creations after they are done, but to be able to do this the beads on the pegboard first has to be ironed so the beads do not just fall apart. In the preschools today there is a problem with a lot of stress for the teachers. A task that takes up a lot of time for the teachers is ironing these pegboards. The kids are not allowed to iron these pegboards themselves because of the risk that they might burn themselves on the hot iron. This study presents a concept development of a product where the user can iron pegboards safely without the risk of burning themselves. The concept development process started out with many different concepts where finally one concept was chosen. To try to keep the decision of what concept to use unbiased the decision was made by doing two different kinds of decision matrixes. The selected concept is similar to an oven in the design, where the pegboards are placed on a tray that slides into the product. By using lights, the product signals to the user when the desired temperature is reached and when the ironing is finished. It also finishes the ironing by itself when the ironing is done. Standards that apply to the product will be investigated. To further explain and develop the concept a 3D-model will be created.

  • 53.
    Berntsson, Pontus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Henrysson, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Livscykelanalys av Universalplåt Imperial 1120H2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ipinium manufactures sustainable kitchen products. The products are intended to be used in professional kitchens within, for example, school canteens, restaurants, on cruise ships, in nursing homes and hospitals. Their range includes oven plates, defrosting cabinets, cooling and heating plates. The products are developed through many years of collaboration between engineers and experts in the food industry.

    Ipinium's vision is, with their products, to simplify and improve the workflow in large kitchens. An improved workflow means that time, space and resources are used more efficiently, without affecting the environment more than necessary. In recent years, Ipinium has also reached out to private customers, thereby expanding their assortment to fulfill the same vision for the private market. Using a life cycle assessment, a theoretical basis for the environmental impact of their universal pan should be produced, where the use of the plate is also compared with the traditional cooking method in large kitchens and restaurants, where cooking tables are used. These are not needed with Ipinium's products. The work may also be used for further sustainability work on Ipinium's products.

    The starting point for collecting data is that the life of the universal plate amounts to 17.5 years since it can be re-coated 6 times. A coating has been found to last about 2-3 years depending on how the usage pattern looks. Since a traditional stainless-steel plate is expected to last about 2-3 years, depending on use, it results in a traditional oven plate having to be manufactured 7 times to reach the life of Ipinium's universal pan. The investigation has been done on school kitchens, as they are the primary customer for the particular universal pan. The number of days of use per year is therefore based on school days. To investigate environmental impact, the EduPack database is used, where energy use and carbon dioxide emissions are available. Since the results showed that use phase had the greatest environmental impact, the oven plate was considered to be a, so called active product. One conclusion that can be drawn is that in this comparing is between the two cooking methods, Ipinium's universal pan is considerably gentler to the environment.

  • 54.
    Besic, Haris
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Elbilsladdning för villaägare2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For several years, the transport sector has been dominated by fossil fuels that have a negative impact on the environment. In recent years, vehicles powered by electricity have increased and this has led to more and more people needing to know more about charging for these electric cars, especially charged hybrids and clean electric cars. The most common in Swedish households today are plug-in hybrids, which is a car that is powered by both an electric motor and a conventional internal combustion engine. As the number of electric cars has increased a lot in recent years, there are many challenges that need to be clarified and the report focuses on one of these areas that is charging for homeowners. Why the report focuses on charging for homeowners is because several electric car owners choose to still charge from the regular wall socket, and this leads to an increased risk of accidents. The report provides an insight into the dangers that arise when charging from a standard wall socket and then the report provides a safer alternative for charging that is via a charging box. The report also deals with different types of standards, rules, and general information about electric car charging. The report also provides an insight into what it might look like in the future for electric car charging. That functions that make charging safer in today's situation that are only available with the help of cable or charging box will instead be present in the car. Functions such as power selection, load balancing and other things will also be available in future electric cars. Furthermore, the report examines the different charging options that exist today for homeowners and draws up two scenarios. The first scenario through the standard wall socket and one with the help of a charging box. Risks and costs are discussed to then make a recommendation of what is to be considered in the various scenarios. Following a market and risk overview, the currently best alternative is to invest in a charging box that is approved for the climate step contribution. If a charging box is approved for the climate step, basic functions that are important will be included.

  • 55.
    Bhaskar, Pavan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Investigation of LPBF built JBK-75 stainless steel: Defect density, grain size, and hardness as a function of process parameters2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The additive manufacturing process has immense possibilities within aero-space, automobile, medical, and many other sectors. Additive manufacturing is the process of building parts layer by layer. There have been numerous experiments conducted on different additive manufacturing processes and materials. Each process has various parameters that influence the product produced. So, it is necessary to select the proper set of parameters to obtain the required output. Austenitic stainless steel has combined properties like corrosion resistance, ductility, strength, and weldability. This kind of material is used within applications such as aerospace components. There are different grades of austenitic stainless steels that have applications in various sectors depending on their properties. For example, 316L, 304L, 21-6-9, JBK-75, are some of them used in aerospace parts. To implement the additive manufacturing process for this grade experiments have been taking place to find suitable process parameters so that the output product will have the required properties. This thesis work is mainly concentrated on finding the suitable process parameters to build JBK-75 stainless steel using the laser powder bed fusion process. JBK-75 stainless steel is our interest because it is a modified version of A-286 stainless steel, it is strengthened by precipitation of gamma prime, which gives it a high strength like nickel-based superalloy. For this experiment the build was mainly divided into two sets based on layer thickness i.e., 30µm and 60µm and laser power (200 ± 50W), laser velocity (750 ± 150mm/sec) and hatch distance (0.12 ± 0.02mm) were varied. The results obtained to optimize the parameters are surface roughness, defect density, melt pool width and depth, grain size, and hardness. The results obtained show that sample build with less energy density has less defect density. The gains were an elongated columnar shape, and they were parallel to build direction. Among the samples built and results analysed sample 9 showed the best results when compared to the remaining samples.

  • 56.
    Bislimi, Agon
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Planering av elbilsladdning för bostadsfastigheten Skördetröskan 1, Trollhättan.2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The climate goal can only be achieved by reducing carbon dioxide emissions. To do this, a transition from fossil-fueled vehicles to electrificiation of vehicles must take place. This has led to vehicles manufactures switching to producing more electric cars or plug-in hybrids, and production of electric cars has increased significantly during the year between 2015 and 2020. The report examines possibilities for installing charging stations in the car park at the residential property Skördetröskan 1, Trollhättan. The car park will have space for six cars to be charged with 3 charging boxes with double sockets of 22 kW. Type-2 connectors with semi-fast charging will be equipped. Load balancing must also be installed and will give a reduced total power of 40 kW instead of 66 kW if it were not included. But with the help of the dynamic load balancer, the entire system is protected from overload. In connection with the installation, a 0.6/1.0 kW low-voltage cable must be used by the NV1VV-R model. Which is fused with a 35 A fuse. 

    An estimation of the cost of the project is described in the report with different price and alternatives at repayment period. One repayment period is 8,1 years and the other is 5,4 years. Why there will be different times is due to the fact that in a calculation, the investment support has been included. Which has led to a shorter repayment period. 15 000 SEK per charging box is the investment support from the Swedish government. A total of 45 000 SEK for this project. Revenues vary depending on how long and often the customer charges their electric car.

    An estimated calculation has been performed on this calculation. The feasibility study is based on an estimated assumption and in the case of an efficient and profitable project, according to the author, a deeper insight and analysis as well as evaluation of suppliers is required. 

  • 57.
    Bjernstrand, Carl
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förstudie inför uppförande av laddstationer för elbilar på personalparkering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years electric cars has increased in numbers, this increase is expected to continue in the coming years. With an increasing number of electric cars, more charging stations are required. Arctic paper Munkedals AB intends to construct charging stations for charging electric cars, primarily for visitors to the factory. There are several parking spaces for employees located next to the factory, and one parking space for visitors. Approximately 120 of the parking lots for the employees has access to sockets for block heaters. To reduce the investment cost, it is beneficial to connect the intended charging stations to the existing installation for the block heaters. The pilot study includes a compilation of data for the existing installation of the block heaters. Based on the compiled data the maximum current load for the existing cables has been calculated, the result of the calculations shows that in 2 centrals it is possible to switch to a higher fuse. The report explains generally about how electric cars and charging stations work. Products from a selection of suppliers that are considered relevant for this work, are described. Solutions and costs have been developed based upon 2 scenarios, where either the existing centrals for block heaters is replaced with charging stations or remains according to current version. The solutions are covered by the parking space next to the 40kV switchgear and a charging station on the parking lots for visitors. Essential for both solutions are the load balancing system, which enables a larger number of charging stations that otherwise wouldn’t be possible regarding to the dimensions of the existing installation. Of the 2 reported alternatives for the construction of charging stations, alternative 2 where the existing block heaters are replaced with charging stations are considered most suitable to proceed with. With this alternative 15 charging stations can be installed to a total cost of approx. 525 kkr. Because of the scalability of the solution, it is recommended to make the installation of the charging stations in stages as the need arises. This means that statistics for the charging stations can be compiled and analyzed to provide a good basis for further expansion. By carrying out the expansion in stages, the total cost will be distributed over time. Initially this means the construction of 1 charging station for visitors to a cost of approx. 110 kkr.

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  • 58.
    Björklund, Viktor
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Falk, Jakob
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konceptutveckling av verktyg för PVD i titannitrid2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The company Dentsply Sirona produces tooth related products. One of these products are abutments, which is one of three components for an artificial tooth. The customer can require a gold colored coating on the abutments for aesthetical reasons. This coating is called Goldhue and consists of titanium nitride.

    Varying shapes and forms on the abutments effect the coatings adhesion ability. The engineers at the company suspect that the horizontal surfaces are the cause of the coating problems. Analyzes show that the problems often occur on abutments with flat undersides. The issues of the work questions if abutments with a flat underside affects the coating quality. Can there be other causes that the coating problems occur?

    To establish that the shape of the abutment is the cause for coating problems, problem analysis, Taguchi and regression analysis are performed.

    Experiments with identical abutments were performed, to minimize deviation in results. A test with an angled tool was also performed to analyze the conjunction between the coating particles direction and the abutments surfaces. That resulted in improved coating quality for the abutments underside but at the same time a bad coating on the top. As a conclusion the project members decided that the abutments must get coated from several directions.

    The solution to the problem includes a tool concept with the ability to rock the abutments backwards and forwards so that the abutments will get a better coating. The tool should utilize the rotation movements provided in the coating machine, the reason is to avoid major modification to the machines vacuum chamber, which is costly. To convert the rotation movement into a rocking movement, gears with elevations are used that stepwise elevates the tool. The concept was designed in CAD so they could be printed out with a 3D-printer. The components were assembled and tested. The result was a success, and all parties were satisfied.

    A concluding discussion was made about difficulties during the thesis work, implementations and the ongoing work with improvements on the concept.

  • 59.
    Björnklint Assia, Tony
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Nyman, Alfred
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Elsystemet och dess utmaningar i ett framtida Sverige2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is facing an energy transition in both electricity production and consumption. Based on the Paris Agreement and Agenda 2030, Sweden aims to be climate neutral by 2045. This means major challenges for the electric power industry. Industries want to electrify their operations and the introduction of electric vehicles in the transport sector is fast. Increased electricity use and growing problems with capacity constraints are some of the challenges that the electricity system of the future will have to deal with.

    The report aims to provide an idea of what the electricity system of the future may look like. The aim is also to attract future and new engineers to the electric power industry by maintaining a high readability. It describes national and international climate goals, how the Swedish electricity system works today and a survey of current permit processes for new construction of electrical infrastructure and electricity production facilities. Also what challenges the Swedish electricity system faces with e.g. lack of capacity and the need for expansion.

    In the picture of Sweden's future electricity system that has been produced, three electricity production scenarios are examined which, through different electricity production mixes, can supply Sweden with the forecasted electricity demand of 240 TWh/year. One scenario where nuclear power remains to the same extent as today and two scenarios without nuclear power where electricity production is instead is replaced by solar power and offshore wind power, respectively. In all three scenarios, land-based wind power is expected to be significantly expanded. The Swedish future electricity system will probably not reflect any of these scenarios, but rather a combination of them. The types of power that have the potential to be expanded will need to increase to achieve the goals.

    With highly variable electricity production in the electricity system, new challenges arise. The balance between electricity production and electricity consumption must remain. The balancing will be made by flexible production, energy storage and demand flexibility. 

    The report states that Sweden has good prospects of becoming the world's first fossil - free welfare nation. However, this presupposes that the permit processes are streamlined, and political decisions enable a rapid expansion of the electricity grid and fossil-free electricity production.

  • 60.
    Blad, Adrian
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Olsson, Anton
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Omvärldsanalys för produktsegmentet lastbilspumpar: Parker Hannifin manufacturing Sweden AB2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study on behalf of Parker Hannifin in Trollhättan, which is a production and development unit, aims to assist with the basis for strategic and operational decisions in the truck pump product segment. The goal of establishing an external analysis which includes competitors, trends and marketing channels, has been achieved thru analysis tools which has been studied, modified and utilized to touch on the above-mentioned areas. Parker currently lacks an updated picture of competitors which they require for the basis of the external analysis. The external analysis includes a comparison between product technical and market strategic aspects between Parker and the delimitation of competitors; HAWE, Leduc, Rexroth and Sunfab.

    The result from the selected methods in the study shows that the market segment of hydraulic truck pumps is a homogeneous market with few measurable differences between the companies' truck pumps. Reliability is most significant for truck pumps according to costumers, but since the aspect is not quantifiable the price falls to a significant measurable aspect. Companies within the market segment strive to reduce customers' price sensitivity and raise the reputation of the company's truck pump through relationship marketing. Marketing to customers takes place through trade fairs and by the companies organizing their own fairs for customers. Companies achieve differentiation and creates values for customers through sales channels. Parker and rivals use; direct purchases via their website, distributor programs, various types of service and mobile phone applications.

    The comparison between Parker and the competitors truck pump specifications and the conduct of interviews resulted in the conclusion that Parkers two-flow pumps and variable pumps are more advanced. This reflects a positive reputation for other products and services that Parker offers.

    The study highlights trends such as visualization and impatience. Rexroth markets, via their website, how 5G-network will affect them and what visions they have in the area. HAWE collaborates with STW, enabling complete solutions with connected pumps. Parker and competitors lack similar offers which creates a head start for HAWE. A trend of electrification will affect the truck pump segment which derives from an environmentally conscious society who will provoke new demands for truck pumps.

  • 61.
    Blom, Victor
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kahlin, Jenny
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kortare informationsvägar och tidsbesparing i produktionen2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry is going through a fundamental change, more efficient logistics creates opportunities for global manufacturing chains. The logistics of information is another rapidly evolving process, where standardization is possible, but the end product is far more complex than what it seems at first. The possibility of adaptation in information logistics is endless, but this is a challenge in itself, how can you possibly navigate efficiently and find just the information you need at the correct moment? Industry 4.0 are both driving the changes and addressing these challenges, often the information logistic chains in manufacturing are already set for subprocesses, but the overall connections between them are manually handled, or lacking overall.

    GKN is a manufacturer of details to the flight and space industry, meaning high safety and strong regulations. This means complex challenges for the IT department where information is tied together, everything has to be state-of-the-art secure while highly accessible at all times.

    This thesis is a pre-study with information from interviews, focusing on the overall perspective from the employees using the system. They were given the question "How would digital applications facilitate your daily working routine? This was followed by a summary and another meeting where the suggestions were rated with 3-2-1 points.

    The initial interviews were showing recurrent problematic areas among the different groups, and, as expected, these areas also got the most points in the individual scoring. Non-Conformance handling scored the highest with 19 points, followed by QSYS at 9 points. An application was prototyped with suggestions on layout, navigation and information. According to the calculations, an optimized system for non-conformance handling will reduce the cost by 1,62 MSEK.

  • 62.
    Blomqvist, Pontus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Gundhammar, Kalle
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Customer value in leak detection of blow-fill-seal products2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor's thesis is conducted at University West in Trollhättan, Sweden. The purpose of the study is to explore the customer value in using automated leak detection for blow-fill-seal products so that suppliers of such equipment can design a value proposition that supports the users' process of value-creation.

    The theoretical framework of this study has its foundation in the service logic perspective of value and the value proposition canvas. A simple combined model of the two theories has been developed to answer our research questions of what creates value for the user of automated leak detection for blow-fill-seal products and how suppliers of automated leak testing solutions can support the customers' process of value creation. The customers' value creating activities are their jobs and gains they want to achieve. The suppliers' activities to potentially co-create value is eliminating customers' pains and support them in achieving gains. Data collection has been performed through semi-structured interviews with manufacturers and suppliers in the blow-fill-seal industry.

    The empirical findings show that there are different technologies for leak testing sterile plastic containers. Regardless of which technology is used, the primary purpose and the value-creating activities of leak-testing is to ensure a sterile product to the end-user and comply with regulations, guidelines, and end-user demands. They also show that properly functioning equipment can be used to validate the manufacturing for improvement and prevent continuous production of damaged products. The relationship between suppliers and manufacturers proves to be of great value for both parties, as the manufacturers especially value the supply of spare parts, technical service, and high supplier presence. Some of the identified customer pains are verifying the size of the leaking hole, complex solutions, failures in machinery, poor product handling, and issues with facility space.

    The essence of marketing in the blow-fill-seal industry with automated leak detection is understanding complex customer processes and interpreting each customer's specific needs to facilitate their value-creating activities and co-create value. Co-creation of value in a collaborative process appears to be possible if suppliers can establish long-term relationships with a high presence to support their customers. In addition, the suppliers can develop devices for hole-size verification along with the users, aim for simplicity to flatten the learning curve, reduce the risk of breakdowns, and develop solutions for visual inspection integrated with leak testing.

  • 63.
    Bloom, Sean
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Olofsson, Jakob
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förbättring av en provsändningsprocess för kemikalier2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nouryon Stenungsund belongs to a global chemistry group that produces important everyday chemistry for industrial customers worldwide. In most cases, the products that are produced need to be tested within each customer's production before an order for the product can be made. The sample transmission process must work effectively for customers to receive samples to test the products within their respective production. This study examines the sample transmission process between the company's tolling facilities and the sample transmission within the production facility in Stenungsund. A tolling facility is a standalone production facility that produces products that Nouryon Stenungsund does not have the capacity, technology or knowledge of. The process is described by following customer orders from registration in the CSR department, until the sample transmission receives the order. Contact the planning department of the independent production facilities regarding the material availability and send the order to the customer.

    According to the company, the sample transmission process between the tolling sites and the sample transmission sites is inefficient, and thus needs to be streamlined. At present, these types of orders can have a lead time of up to 16 weeks, which is not an acceptable lead time. To prevent the long lead time, a change is needed regarding the company's sample order management. The purpose of the study is to streamline the sample transmission process by eliminating any waste or inefficiency. The goal is to design concrete and realistic improvement proposals. For the study to be conducted a literature study was performed, in which relevant topics linked to the study area were studied. The subjects studied were quality, organizational structures, logistics and Lean.

    To enable improvement proposals, a current situation assessment was needed to map the sample transmission process. The survey was carried out by conducting interviews and observations with the involved departments CSR, tolling and sample transmission.

    Based on the situation assessment and the literature study, problem areas linked to the sample transmission process could be identified as the basis for improvement proposals. The conclusion was drawn from the problem areas of waiting and inventory, which had the greatest impact on the sample transmission process. A product-specific safety stock was suggested to prevent a shortage of material in the sample transmission. The product-specific safety stock streamlines the sample transmission process by eliminating 95 percent of lead time for products that previously had a general lead time of four weeks.

  • 64.
    Boman Ivarsson, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ragnarsson, Sebastian
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av installationshandlingar till flerbostadshus i Trollhättan2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is the final assignment of the education Electric Power Technology at University West. The purpose of the thesis was to create drawings of the electrical and communication system for the construction of a new apartment building in Trollhättan. 

    The work has been done in programs such as MagiCAD for the construction of the drawings, El-Vis to help with the choice of cables, DIA-Lux to do a study of what lights to choose and Bluebeam Revu to review the drawings. The project has followed the customers description and the Swedish standards SS 437 01 02, SS 436 40 00 and Bygghandlingar 90. This means that the project fulfills the requirement of good electrical safety practice.

    The work resulted in drawings for twenty apartments, outdoor corridors, basement with garage, the technical room, the garden environment and miscellaneous buildings. The drawings contain information about ducting, lighting, power, communication, access control, fire alarms, list of light fixtures, list of distribution circuits in the whole building, list of the network in the whole building and a single-line diagram. The building has a calculated power draw of 102 kW and is connected with a AXQJ 4x95/29mm2cable and is secured by a 160A fuse. The apartments are connected with a FQQ 5G6 cable, and so is the elevator in the building. The electric car chargers and other miscellaneous equipment in the building are connected with EQLQ cable. The garage is illuminated by eight light fixtures that are 1200 mm long, a rated power of 35 W and a color temperature of 4000 Kelvin.

    Results in projects like this can vary depending on how a person interprets the standards and the customers description and needs. The project was completed within the timeframe, approved for use and is considered to fulfill the requirement of good electrical safety practice. 

  • 65.
    Bonilla Hernández, Ana Esther
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. GKN Aerospace Engine Systems AB, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Fredriksson, Claes
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Energy and Cost Estimation of a Feature-based Machining Operation on HRSA2017In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 61, no Supplement C, p. 511-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forward-looking manufacturing companies aim for sustainable production with low environmental footprint. This is true also for aerospace engine-makers, although their environmental impact mostly occurs during the use-phase of their products. Materials, such as Nickel alloys, are used for special applications where other materials will not withstand tough working conditions in terms of pressure and temperature. Heat Resistant Super Alloys are, however, considered difficult to machine and cutting tools will wear off rapidly. In this paper, a simple way to estimate the energy required, the cost and environmental footprint to produce a work piece using standard engineering software is presented. The results show that for a hypothetical 3 tonne work piece, Inconel 718 will be considerably cheaper and require less water but will require more energy, and has considerably larger CO2 footprint than Waspaloy.

  • 66.
    Boonnak Jacobsen, Linnfaa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Nord, Linda
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ett konfigurationsverktyg för Plug & Produce2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for fast and flexible production is increasing every year. Today's automated systems are not effective enough and do not meet the demands. University West is trying to develop a system to increase the level of automation and the efficiency of a production system. University West's framework for Plug & Produce is based on MAS (multi-agent system). One problem with systems based on MAS is the complexity of the configuration. The purpose of this work is to develop a user interface for a configuration tool to Plug & Produce. The user interface should simplify the configuration process of the system which is currently configured by programming in C#.

    Guidelines for how the user interface should be designed and which semantics to use have been reviewed through literature studies. Since the Plug & Produce system should be able to be applied in different industries, has semantics been an important part of the work. This is because generality is a requirement for the user interface.

    The result presents the design of the user interface and the semantic words that have been studied. The design is a proposal for University West to how they can develop the user interface for the configuration tool.

    Discussion of the methods and the validity of the results generated by these methods are presented in section for discussion. Problems encountered are also presented here.

    What the authors believe that the thesis has contributed to is described in the conclusion. The authors also provide recommendations for further work in that section.

  • 67.
    Borgljung, Karl
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konceptframtagning av fixtur för mekanisk provning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a time frame of 10 weeks a bachelor’s thesis, by the institution of engineer by University West, has been made with the task of designing and dimensioning a concept proposal for a fixture to be used in mechanical testing for PTC, Production technical centrum. The guidelines for this project are that the fixture shall work with two different machines that are at PTC: s disposal. The fixture is supposed to be able to do tensile-, flexureand compact tension tests For this, a requirement specification has been set up, were interviews with two research groups have been done to assess their needs. Based on the requirements, different concept proposals have been sketched and compared against each other to find an optimal solution. This has resulted in a fixture that meets the given requirements from the reserachsgroups, relevant standards and directives for mechanical testing.

  • 68.
    Bratt, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Selektivitet i mindre nätstationer2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Uddevalla Energi Elnät AB (UEE) is a distribution system operator which is a subsidiary of Uddevalla Energi AB. UEE has the right to build and operate distribution systems within its concession limit. Within the grid there are more than 500 secondary substations. The grid is about 170 km long from Ljungskile in the south to Uddevalla in the north and Öresjö in the east. 

    UEE has a governing document for the use of high-power fuses in relation to the rated power of the transformer. The document describes and clarifies the operations and maintenance department's requirements and wishes for electrical installations for both new and remodeling.

    The purpose of this report has been to produce a proposal for an update of the governing documents. A solution proposal has been developed regarding the errors identified by the UEE regarding non-selective triggering of total and sub-area fuses depending on the type of error in the underlying network. In addition, recommendations regarding the selection of the largest group fuse for outgoing groups in scenarios with and without overload protection of the transformer. The report provides UEE with basis for future projects for new and rebuilding of substations.

    The study has been designed as a system study where modeling has been done of three type secondary substations with transformer sizes 100 kVA, 200 kVA and 315 kVA respectively. Dimensioning currents have been calculated to produce suitable fuses. The conditions for the three models have been calculated manually and have been retrieved from the UEE's NIS program Digpro. This has contributed to the possibility of being able to compare manual calculations with calculations made in the NIS program.

    The results of each model station show that the use of sub-area fuses is the best alternative as short-circuit protection in all models. The result also gives a recommendation of size choice for fuses as overload protection for the transformer and the largest group fuse for outgoing lines

  • 69.
    Brattberg, Anton
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Dirfors, Leo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Implementering av Manufacturing Execution System: Kartläggning av funktioner och behov av ett MES för VBG2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis has been carried out in VBG Group's machine workshop in Vänersborg, where the communication between machines and business systems is done manually. A proposal has been made on how a Manufacturing Execution System will be implemented in the machine workshop. MES is a system that communicates automatically between machines and business systems.

    Interviews have been conducted along with a visit to a company that has an MES installed in its production. A survey has been sent out to employees that will use the system in the future to get their opinion. The results from the survey provided a better understanding of which data is most important to have access to, in order to ease the daily work for the employees. The survey and the company visit to VBG h§as made it possible to determine the needs, on which the final proposal has been based on. The proposal is to implement Siemens Mindsphere together with Prevas eLIPS. By using both Mindsphere and eLIPS, all current needs can be fulfilled, with the ability to meet future needs, thanks to the modularity of the systems.

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  • 70.
    Bräck Nordman, Natalie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utredning av Uddevalla Energis elnätskapacitet med avseende på Uddevalla kommuns framtida utbyggnadsplaner i centrum2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This preliminary study has been carried out at the department for operation and maintenance at Uddevalla Energi. The purpose has been to investigate the capacity of the powerlines with regards to Uddevalla Council's future development plans in the port and to identify strong and weak points.

    During a future 25-year period, Uddevalla Council plans to gradually expand the city center towards the harbor area, which today consists of industries and business facilities. The council estimates that the new district will be able to provide 3000 new homes and various types of businesses. The time frame for the exploitation plans are 5-15 years for the southern side of Bäveån and 20-25 years for the northern side. In order to investigate whether there is available power for the additional district, a load forecast is made of the future power requirement. A survey and analysis is made of the lines in central Uddevalla and the transformers of the substations M1, M2 and M5. This is made in order to be able to investigate whether any reinforcement is needed. Reference the values used in the calculations are based on measured values from the peak of load on February 28, 2018.

    The expected power requirement for the planned residential areas is estimated at 4.9 MVA for the south side and 5.1 MVA for the north side.  The cable network in the port has a total capacity of 7 MVA and will be almost saturated after the southern area’s construction is completed. With regard to redundancy, all substations are able to supply an additional residential area on the south side alone, while only M1 has the capacity for the entire forecasted load. The transformers in M2 and M5 will be overloaded only during the development of the residential area on the north side. To the future expansion of the city center, suggestions for placement of three new lines from M1 are made. In connection with the installation, most of M1-L206 can be replaced, which consists of undersized oil cables. The cost for this amounts to 10,3 million (SEK).

    Another future option that would have to be investigated more closely is how the possibilities are to place a new substation in central or southern Uddevalla. The existing ones are located in the northern, western and eastern parts of the city.

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  • 71.
    Byseke, David
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Thunell, Alexander
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Automatic monitoring and control of Laser Metal Deposition Process2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Laser metal deposition is an additive manufacturing technique that enables the manufacturing or repair of high-quality metal parts by building fine layers one at a time. To get a stable process with a low number of flaws and irregularities the process needs a fully operational and functioning control system. At PTC in Trollhättan, a production research facility that is a department of University West, several experiments have previously been conducted with an LMD machine. 

    The main objective of this thesis is to deliver input from available methods for automatic control and monitoring of the LMD process. The available methods are explained in the report and previous experiments that have been conducted have been documented in this thesis. Another objective of the thesis is to develop a prototype for monitoring and control of the process.

    Previous work has mainly used a visual-based control system that has used CMOS-, CCD-, or an infrared camera. Pyrometers and structured light scanning have also been used. Non-optical methods such as acoustical sensors and thermocouples have also been used for monitoring and control. 

    With the gathered information about the available control methods, a prototype has been developed to automatically control the LMD machine located at PTC. The control uses a CMOS camera to gather live imaging from the machine in order to adjust machine parameters, in real-time, to automatically control the process. The different parameters have a strong correlation to the final machine output and are also explained in the thesis. 

    The prototype and the gathering of data from the process have been made using Labview as an image-processing software. An evaluation of the developed prototype has been made and the different control methods have been discussed. The developed prototype measures the melt pool by using an algorithm that counts the number of pixels in the melt pool. However, further research needs to be made to determine if the measured width correlates with the actual width of the cladded string.

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  • 72.
    Börjesson, Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beredning av landsbygdsnät i Hassle, Mariestad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis deals with how preparation work is accomplished in rural networks, by field work, landowner contact, contracts and permit applications. The described preparation work is the basis for the implementation of the project from Ellevio AB.  The reconstruction is performed in order to secure the voltage and get a more weatherproofed network, but also to get rejuvenation of the network. The preparation work is done for PSN Kraftkonsult Eldistribution AB in Vedum and performed using their working methods. The preparation work is performed in the area of Hassle north of the town Mariestad. The project is divided into two interim stages. Stage one is called Hassle sub-station – Källtorp and the second one is Fåleberg – Nolhassle. These two stages are parts of one large reconstruction of the distribution network in the area by Ellevio AB in the near time. Due to the fact that a major rebuilding project of the E20 in the affected area the projector’s intended rout for the cable had to be changed. And it became 1100 m further. The result of the preparation work includes two new 10/04 kV substations, one new cable cabinet, 5850 meters of high-voltage cable and 500 meters low-voltage cable. All the cables will be placed in the ground and for the most they will be plowed down. Substations and cable cabinets will be placed strategically to create the strongest network as possible and for good availability for future maintenance.

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  • 73.
    Calles, Linn
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Hjort, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Projektkalkylering: En projektkalkyl för prototypverkstad och designcenter2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    TechRoi Engineering AB, TechRoi, is a technology company within engineering services that offers technology consultants, IT and design solutions as well as prototype manufacturing. In order to supervise the different areas an inhouse created excel template is being used for project cost calculations. The aim of the study was to create a tool in Excel that will increase TechRoi's knowledge about how working time and costs is divided between projects connected to the prototype workshop and the design center. Additional to the first goal a tool to manage proposals for new projects, manage the evaluate projects in terms of working time and costs was created. The quotation calculation is the page in the template that is used to fill in how many hours a project is estimated to the design center and prototype workshop as well as externally calculated costs. The summary page is created with the aim of creating an overview of the project and enabling a comparison between projects calculated costs and the price to the customer. The project calculus is created as a complement for the quotation calculation and summary page. The purpose of the project was to create a project calculation tool that is used throughout the project life cycle. The project calculation can be used as early as when the project quotation is created as a sensitivity analysis. This means that it is possible to know before the project starts how much costs can increase before the project shows an economically negative result. During the implementation of the project, it is possible to continuously update hours and costs in order to control the project. If the project calculation has been continuously completed during the project, all values will be filled, and the project calculation will then act as a project costing.

  • 74.
    Capriles, Claudia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kartläggning av kommunala utvecklingsplaner gällande laddinfrastruktur för elbilar2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden aims to be completely fossil free by 2030. Politicians want to reduce fossil fuel cars while expanding the charging infrastructure for electric cars. The ownership of electric cars has increased by 73% in the last year. The charging infrastructure is increasing and now there are over 3,500 charging points in Sweden. It's possible to apply for investment support through State owned Klimatklivet, which offers financial support up to 50% of the cost of building new charging stations.

    The purpose is to investigate and compare different municipalities' plans regarding the development of charging stations for electric cars, and to compare their methods, strategies and infrastructure. The purpose is also to see which municipalities cooperate with each other and in what way.

    In order to investigate and compare the charging infrastructure in Stockholm, Gothenburg, Malmö, Borås and Trollhättan, interviews were conducted with those in charge of these selected municipalities.

    The result shows that the larger municipalities such as Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö have come quite a long way with the charging infrastructure issue, while the smaller municipalities haven't come as far in their development. The larger municipalities have staff who work with the issue and they have major projects in progress, which will be completed by 2018. Stockholm is moving ahead and is expanding their charging infrastructure onto city street buildings and residential neighborhood areas, while Malmö and Gothenburg are more careful and want to prioritize residential neighborhood areas over city streets as they want to continue giving precedence to bicycle- and bus lanes. The laws are the same but are interpreted differently. Common to all is that they often see legislation as an obstacle. Besides Stockholm, the other municipalities don't really know how to proceed. They don't know how to plan for- or who is responsible for developing the charging infrastructure.

    This is a new area which means that most municipalities are still trying to find their model. Better cooperation between municipalities could mean faster and more cost-effective development.

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  • 75.
    Carlson, Joakim
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ny generatorbrytare och styrsystem till kontrollerande avbördningsskydd vid Strömmens vattenkraftstation2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is divided into two separate parts where implementation of new electrical equipment at Strömmens hydro power plant is presented. The first part is about how to implement a new generator circuit breaker into the existing low voltage switchgear. The second part is about the control system for the dam overtopping protection system (DOPS). The powerplant needs a new control system for DOPS that will fulfill the demands of a secure and reliable installation.

    After 35 years of operation some of the electrical equipment has reached its physical lifetime expectancy. Employees at Vattenfall has noticed abnormal heat temperatures radiating from the current generator circuit breaker. The conclusion is that a retrofit solution can be installed into the existing circuit breaker compartment. This will provide a cost effective alternative and ensure continued operation of existing control and protection systems. A detailed presentation of the installation is presented in section Results of the report.

    The report will present the concept of a new control system for DOPS. Due to several reasons the decision has been made to base the new control system on electromagnetic relays. The thesis presents a circuit diagram describing the connections and the implementation of the new control system. Appendix D shows how the new control system can be added to the starter circuit of the hydraulic motor, controlling the spillway gate.

  • 76.
    Chatzigiannakou, Maria Angeliki
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Potapenko, Tatiana
    Uppsala University, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ekergård, Boel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Temiz, Irina
    Uppsala University, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Numerical analysis of an Uppsala University WEC deployment by a barge for different sea states2020In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 205, article id 107287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wave energy converters (WECs) have been deployed onshore, nearshore, and offshore to convert ocean wave movement into electricity. The exploitation of renewable energy sources has restrictions; in the case of wave energy, high installation, maintenance, and decommissioning costs have limited their commercial use. Moreover, these offshore operations can be compromised by safety issues. This paper draws attention to offshore operation safety of a WEC developed by Uppsala University. Specifically, this paper investigates what sea states are suitable for the safe deployment of a WEC from a barge. This study follows recommendations in DNV-RP-H103 for analysis of offshore operations, namely lifting through the wave zone. ANSYS Aqwa is used to find hydrodynamic forces acting on a typical barge, using frequency domain analysis. Based on these hydrodynamic simulation results and methodology given in DNV-RP-H103, tables are created to show the sea states that would allow for the safe installation of a WEC using a typical barge. Considered sea states have significant wave heights varying between 0 m and 3 m and the wave zero crossing periods varying between 3 s and 13 s. The WEC submersions are considered between 0 m and 7 m, i.e. when the WEC is in the air until it is fully submerged. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd

  • 77.
    Chavez Andersson, Carina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Jacobsen, Sofie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Effektivisering av ärenden för anslutning av solcellsanläggningar2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The department of grid connections at Vattenfall Eldistribution AB currently has a large number of cases regarding connection of solar panels to the power grid. These cases may require rebuilding on the power grid, this process has a delay today due to, for example, a high influx of cases, time-consuming customer contact and that the case may need to be reviewed by several departments. This delay creates dissatisfied customers and puts pressure on the administrators. 

    The intention of this master thesis is to develop a working method that the administrators can use for inquiries regarding connection of solar panels before the rebuilding is concluded.This is to shorten the time that it takes for a case to go from a request to a connected solar panel. The results show suggestions about improvements of the current working method. During the interviews in the thesis, obstacles were found in the current work process that provided inspiration for further solution proposals in the processing process.

    A proposal to achieve a more unitary way of working in case management is to introduce a strict interval for the result of dimensioning calculation. This also entails a reduction in departments that are involved in the case process as not as large rebuilds may need to be made and at best avoided completely.

    The administrators today have a close customer contact which takes up much of their working time when customers demand an update in their case. A proposal to reduce the time-consuming customer contact is to create a page under My page on Vattenfall Eldistribution´s website. The update page shall inform the customer about the case process with a time aspect and present the stage in which customer’s case is.

    In order to avoid rebuilds because of additional power in the power grid, a solution may be to procure batteries as a substation. However, Vattenfall Eldistribution does not present anything about this on their website. One proposal is to set up an information page aboutsubstations and how customers should proceed to arrange it

  • 78.
    Christensson, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Jönsson, Tobias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beredningshandling för nytt bostadsområde i Sunningebergen2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis includes a project planning for the power grid distribution 0,4 / 10 kV in Sunningebergen, Uddevalla Kommun. Sunningebergen is an area outside the center of Uddevalla in Herrestad.

    The preparation in this report is a planning before finalizing the detailed plan for the area Sunningebergen. The preparation will be done by Uddevalla Kommun Elnät AB. The project includes a detailed plan developed by Uddevalla Kommun which contain facts about households and community services that will be in the area.

    The thesis gives an insight in power grid preparation and how the preparation of the area Sunningebergen will be. To fulfill the requirements, rules, and guidelines set by the electricity grid companies to maintain a good power quality to the costumers, a secure and stable electricity grid are in need

    In the report there is 0,4 / 10 kV maps over the area and it also includes a costing table. Sunningebergen will have a max capacity of 2040 kVA. The total capacity of the three transformer substations will be on 2400 kVA. This means that the area will have a load on 85% of max capacity. The high voltage grid has before the connection of Sunningebergen a peak load of 20 000 kVA as compared to the total capacity 36 000 kVA. There will be 2.2 km of transmission line. In the low voltage system, there will be fifty-two cabinets from ABB's CDC-series, 5,5 km feeder and 5,2 km of supply service line connection. The calculation for the preparation has been done with EBR's P1 calculation catalog. The total cost is estimated to be 6,1 million SEK.

  • 79.
    Cirkic, Aldin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Qaljaee, Ali
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utveckling av motoriserad vertikal linjärenhet för kontinuerlig drift2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work has been carried out with the purpose of developing and defining a motorized vertical linear actuator for continuous operation. In the present situation, the company does not haves a linear actuator that is capable of 1600 millimeters stroke with a load of 100 kilograms. The goal of the thesis is to present a final conceptual solution through a product development process. Software programming or electronics development is available within the company to define the function, which has been considered as a demarcation.

    The project's method is a general product development process. The first step was to establish a project plan. By identifying the client's requirements the specification could be developed which has transferred into a QFD. The next step was to develop different solutions using external and internal search methods and choose a final concept. To ensure that the final concept is safe, two different risk analyzes have been created. The concept was demonstrated in a CAD software and then different calculations and FEM analyzes were performed. The final conceptual solution turned out to be a motorized linear actuator. To make the load weightless, a pneumatic cylinder has been introduced into the system. The positioning of the weight is carried by a ball screw which is driven by a belt and a stepper motor.

    The result of calculations and analyzes of machine elements showed that the device has a theoretical service life of at least 10,000 hours. The developed conceptual solution meets the goal of establishing a final concept for a linear actuator that can handle a stroke of 1600 millimeters with a load of 100 kilograms.

  • 80.
    Dahlberg, Vincent
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utvidga försäljning till marknader2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The company for which the work is done is Swedish and has about 50 employees in two locations. They offer safe transport solutions for pets in cars which are meant to protect pet, human and the vehicle in a collision. Among the products that they produce are dog transport carriers with a patent solution related to safety. This makes the dog transport carriers unique on the market and therefore compared to competitors, a fairly high price is set by the company. The company does not sell the carriers directly to consumers, sales go through retailers. Sales are mostly done in Scandinavia but there are small sales to Europe, Australia and North America. Managers within the company express a wish to expand the sales and in this case to the European markets of France, Italy and Spain. There is low knowledge so far about these markets due to language difficulties and low priority.

    Managers gave a student from University West the job to plot the markets France, Italy and Spain.

    Through collected theories about company's dog transport carriers and way of doing business, a number of questions where formulated to plot the markets. The questions were answered mostly through online research and resulted in a sheet of information about each market. Result was overall information about each market:

    • Culture

    • Competitors

    • Economy

    • Consumers

    • Channels

    Result showed that the highest purchase power in France is located to big cities, along the coastline and eastern part of the country. Highest purchase power in Italy and Spain are located to the northern parts of the countries. The result generated the customer areas within each country that might be interested in purchasing a dog transport carrier.

    The information about the markets were analyzed between themselves and in some cases with Sweden as a reference. The analyze showed pros and cons with the markets according to the company's dog transport carriers and way of doing business.

  • 81.
    Dahlin, Jonathan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Widström, Maria
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utveckling av hydrauliskt lås till lastväxlare2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The bachelor’s thesis was carried out in collaboration with the design department at JOAB in Dals-Rostock. JOAB develops, manufactures, and assembles accessories for trucks with a focus on the European market. Hooklifts are a product that the company manufactures and are used to shift loads that are collected in different types of load carriers. The load carriers are usually containers, silos, or flatbeds of various kinds. Hooklifts are equipped with a hydraulic lock, which secures the load carrier from falling out of position after it has been lifted onto the truck.At present, compatibility problems arise between different load carriers, and the hydraulic lock on the company's hooklift model Hookmaster. To increase compatibility, JOAB therefore wants to develop the hydraulic lock on the Hookmaster model. The work began by reviewing previous development work, standards, and current constructions. To identify the main problem, cases were investigated where compatibility problems had arisen and what caused this. The work was limited to the components of the hydraulic lock, as well as its adjacent components. To solve the problem, a well-defined product development process with structured methods was used. Several concepts were generated using brainstorming methods performed together with JOAB. The final concept selection was performed through the application of concept selection matrices. The work resulted in CAD-models with associated manufacturing drawings of a hydraulic lock that was attached to the hooklift frame in the same way as JOAB's previous hydraulic locks. The work is considered successful as the goal have been achieved and customer requirements have been satisfied. The report concludes with recommendations for continued work, on the points that have fallen outside the boundaries of the work. 

  • 82.
    Dahlqvist, Filip
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Svantesson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konceptframställning av utrustning för medicindistribution på sjukhusavdelning för slutenvård2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's stressful working environment makes high demands of the personnel in the health care sector worldwide. A literature study has thus been performed to be able to establish how nurses experience stress and other sources of psychosocial illnesses as well as to point out what the main sources of primarily stress are. This information is then used to analyze if the automation of medicine distribution could help in the fight against psychosocial illnesses including stress.

    A status analysis is performed at a ward on Uddevalla hospital, after establishing that the automation can help, to learn how they solve their tasks today, if there is something special the project group needs to think about at the development of an automatic solution and what preferences they have on an automatic solution.

    A concept development is performed with information from the status analysis up until a concept has been chosen.

    When a concept has been chosen, an analysis is performed on products that resemble the concept. With this analysis the final target specifications to the product characteristics from the concept development are chosen.

    The results from the aforementioned methods gave the conclusions that an AGV solution that is loaded by a robotic arm, transports the medicine in locked boxes and unloads the medicine by reading a code or a tag was the best concept according to the chosen selection criteria.

    The chosen concept contributes to a reduction in the lack of time buy being, at least, 143% faster than for the nurses to get the medicine on their own.

    The final target specifications are presented in a QFD to get an overview on what the most important product characteristics are.

    Because of the human factor in the distribution of points uncertainties in the selection matrices can exist, even though the members of the project group have tried to be as objective as possible.

  • 83.
    Damgaard, Kajsa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Söderling, Daniella
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Visuell förmedling av information: Hur en verksamhet kan förbättra och uppnå en effektiv och pedagogisk visualisering2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Flows of information and communication in an organization is significant, although the complexity and structure may vary. Trough visualization the transmission and clarification of information is facilitated. It is significant to mediate information, concerning the business performance indicators, pedagogical and efficiently to enhance the understanding and commitment in order to pursuit a company's vision. Purpose: Visualize determined performance indicators to mediate information efficiently and pedagogical. In order to fulfill the purpose, two questions have been formulated: - How can information be communicated visually in a pedagogical and efficient way? - How can the continuous work regarding follow-up and visualization improve? Method: A case study have been performed at Preem AB in Lysekil, and five companies have been used in order to perform benchmarking with the purpose of collecting empirical data for the study. Furthermore, the theoretical data have been collected by a conducted litterateur study based on relevant books, articles and previously written student thesis. Both empirical and theoretical data has been compiled and analyzed. Conclusions and recommendations: Based on conducted interviews and the analysis, conclusions and recommendations have been obtained which are intended for the case company. The recommendations may be generalized given that the existing needs and conditions at a different company show a resemblance. Following recommendations have been made: - Introduce more figures, tables, charts and colors. - Introduce more standardized methods. - Complement work methods and tools with explanatory text and guidelines. - Break down and adapt information to respective level. - Work more with feedback. - Map the chain of how information and communication flows. - Allocate resources regarding time and peoplo for continuous improvement. .

  • 84.
    Danyang, Cui
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering. Department of Electrical Engineering Uppsala University Uppsala; Department of Engineering Science, University West, Trollhättan (SWE).
    Max, Lena
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Boström, Cecilia
    Department of Electrical Engineering Uppsala University Uppsala (SWE).
    Ekergård, Boel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Design of Spoke Type Traction Motor with Ferrite Material for EV Application2022In: 2022 International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM): Proceedings 5-8 Sept. 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022, p. 315-320Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motor design for electric vehicle application using non-rare-earth permanent magnetic materials has become a research hotspot due to cost reduction and environmental issues. Among different motor topologies, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with spoke-type ferrite magnets has great potential because of its competitive performance. In this paper, a novel design of a spoke-type synchronous motor using ferrite Y40 and non-magnetic steel material is presented, with optimizations on the overall structure and considerations on the effects of pole numbers. The performance of the designed motor verified with magnetic simulations shows that it has a high probability to be a candidate for replacing the conventional PMSM with rare-earth materials in Electric Vehicles (EV) application. © 2022 IEEE.

  • 85.
    Darefelt, Kristina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Vidén, Filip
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Projekthantering hos Vattenfall Eldistribution AB jämfört med andra nätbolag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work has been carried out on behalf of Vattenfall Eldistribution AB. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the improvement potential of the design process in the optimization department, with the aim of being able to provide suggestions for improvement of the process which ultimately can lead to a more efficient project flow. It is perceived in the department that there are non-value-creating activities at work that should be reviewed. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the process, the group has performed a network design according to the working process. The purpose of the work was to increase the electrical quality of the abonnee fields. Upon completion of the project, electricity quality could be increased for all customers in the area. For all subscribers except for one were the agreed limit values was within Vattenfall's guidelines. To make a comparison with other ways of working, a study inspired by benchmarking has been conducted at different network companies. Based on the analysis, data has been collected through qualitative interviews. The interviews have been recorded and transcribed. The material has since been sorted and analyzed using a qualitative data matrix. Following the interviews conducted, it was found that the working methods of the various companies largely resemble each other. However, some differences in the performance and view of economic calculations and key ratios could be observed. Differences can also be seen in the size of initiated projects. All participants in the benchmarking study stated that they overall are satisfied with the work process. Analysis of the collected material showed that for some aspects of the work process there is an improvement potential. After completion of work, the conclusion could be drawn that there are some elements in the process that contribute to non-value creation. This has been shown in the form of activities in which any form of forced interruption occurs in the process. Improving or eliminating these steps should provide a more efficient workflow. The management of calculations and key ratios is one of these factors. Proposals were made to clarify the information about the purpose and use of these for employees. Even the shortcomings found in the design tools can contribute to a slower process flow. For these, no proposals for improvement could have been provided, but it was still considered important to emphasize these inadequacies.  

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  • 86.
    Davidsson, Veronica
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Hållbar avfallshantering vid tillverkning av surfaktanter2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The global company Nouryon is a business that has roots from 1646, when it was founded under the name Bofors. The company's vision is still today to be a world-leading player at the market in the specialty chemicals industry in terms of economic development, sustainability, security, and innovation.

    The study was carried out to identify the STF factory's waste fractions and then examine whether the waste fractions are economically and environmentally sustainable. The aim of the study that was carried out was to reduce the costs for the waste fractions where possible.

    Data has been collected through interviews, observations, telephone conversations, collection of documents and review of these. A literature study was established, linked to theory, to create a detailed basis for the investigated problem area. The current situation analysis that has been prepared is based on the information that has emerged from the data collection and existing theory. To find a potential supplier, which meets the requirements presented in the report, a competitor analysis was performed where potential suppliers were compared with each other.

    The study concluded that there is potential for improvement for two of the waste fractions identified with results based on estimated values. The remaining waste fractions are already managed today in a sustainable manner, but with a deeper investigation, there is the possibility of future alternative solutions that go even further. A handover of the presented findings and improvement proposals will be made to an employee of the company for further investigation.

  • 87.
    Dawid, Michael
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Tidseffektivisering av materialflöden och materialhantering inför produktion2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As competition increases in markets, it is important to use resources efficiently. Santa Maria, which is currently Northern Europe's largest flavoring company, has identified a need to review the material handling and material flow before production at Spice Factory in Mölndal.

    The study conducted at Spice Factory, is a qualitative study made by Michael Dawid from University West. The aim of the study is to present improvement proposals that lead to a material flow before production, which is 20% more time-efficient than the material flow before production at present. The approach is based on the steps taken during a change work. A state analysis is established to get a clear picture of how the flow looks like today. Data collection methods in the study consisted of interviews, benchmarking, observations and literature studies. Then, improvement proposals is presented.

    The improvement proposals presented are zone storage as well as orderly storage at the production buffer. With the help of key figures in the form of throughput times, a time study have been made, to compare the flow times for the material flow at present and with implemented improvement proposals. The time study showed that the material flow with implemented improvement proposals had a shorter throughput time. When implementing the improvement proposals in the material flow, the goal of the study to create a material flow before process that is 20% more efficient, is reached according to the time study.

    In future work, Santa Maria is recommended to apply the improvement proposals among the other process flows at Spice Factory, to create more standardized processes, which creates the basis to work actively with improving all process flows at Spice Factory.

  • 88.
    de Haan, Lennart
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Automated Defect Detection and Decision-support for internal hole inspection of critical aerospace parts: Feasibility study2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project was tasked with answering the question: “Can inner wall surfaces of a critical aerospace part be inspected by placing a camera on the outside and making use of an active positioning system, such that images can be acquired and defects can be detected on the image?” The reason why inspection is important is to ensure that the predetermined quality is achieved and no defects are present.

    The inspection system is set up by using a lens, camera, and robotic arm. Which was mounted to the side of the GKN inspection module, that is used to rotate the part. To ensure all wall surfaces are clearly visible and in focus, the lens must be centered infront of the hole. To accomplish this the camera is fixed on the robot which allows it to be positioned precisely. The camera was calibrated at a specific distance from the part. In the image, the distance between the center of the hole and the center of the image is measured. This measurement is sent to the robotic arm to move those distances and position the lens accurately in front of the hole. 

    Defect detection was performed by using the built-in surface defect-detection function in the Cognex software. A quantitative method was evaluated where the number of detected flaws returned by the software was used as a basis for determining the compliance of the hole. During the experimental phase, images were taken of 144 different holes present in the parts. The diameter and depth of each hole was around 5 and 10 mm respectively. All interior surfaces of holes were clearly visible and in focus. Then in 12 of the holes defects were introduced. These defects could be clearly seen in the images. However, the flaw detection algorithm was unable to correctly differentiate between the holes with defects and those without. This was due to the high level of noise present in the clean images. However, this visual inspection system allows for easier access to the tiny holes by displaying the image on a screen, greatly assisting the operator in determining if a defect is present in the hole or not

  • 89.
    Degermosse, Christoffer
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Persson, Emil
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Upprätta en standard för vibrationsmätning i provrum2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Volvo Penta is a manufacturer of complete propulsion systems used in yachts and larger ships, besides the propulsion systems they also produce so-called gensets. A genset combines a combustion engine with an electric generator to induce electricity. Volvo have gotten indications of that their gensets in some cases might produce too much vibrations during full loads, therefore they want to investigate the possibility to include vibrational tests of gensets when they are produced. This thesis aims to define a standard which Volvo can use to measure vibrations on the gensets. Within this thesis it should also be assigned how Volvo should align the test equipment, define the tolerances of vibrations for the gensets, define a test routine for each vibration test, create job descriptions to the equipment and evaluate which risks that is involved during vibrational measurements. Several vibrational measurements were made during this project to acquire knowledge about vibrations, their measurement and the equipment. All data that was recorded during these measurements were later saved to an Excel datasheet as a beginning to database for their continued work, these have also been programmed to switch between different colors depending on what value enters a specific cell, the color depends on whether the value exceed the tolerances or not. Vibration measurements have been made upon three different engine sizes, D5, D13 and D16 which depends on that those were the most frequency produced within period of this project. The vibration measurements gave quite different results from one to another which could be backtracked to depend on them being of different specifications. The measurements did also fail to be accurate in some cases because of the gensets being places in different way upon the concrete floor. Every data value that followed from the vibration measurements have been checked to follow the tolerances given by ISO 8528-9. The thesis brings up several bullets with instructions regarding how to install the measure equipment and how to use the software Dewesoft X1. The bullets have been tested by personnel at Volvo to reduce the risk of them including steps that could be misunderstood. The standards have been defined with the help of the people who are going to use them, which is important according to the Lean methodology. During this project, there have been some mistakes done with the vibrations measurements and other problems that have occurred, those have been declared within the thesis. This is done to help Volvo Penta from doing the same errors and thereby eliminate waste of time and money. There is also included one chapter which declares some of the authors thought of what Volvo should do in their further work with vibrational measurements. The thesis includes a chapter for analysis whether Volvo should investigate if the vibration measurements is affected by the gensets being tested within a controlled environment. At Vara the gensets are placed upon a concrete floor while they usually are placed with some vibration dampening material in between the genset and its placement when it has reached the client. The final conclusions are based on two methods where Volvo themselves need to decide over which one to pick. The first one is that Volvo could do single samples at some gensets and thereby doesn’t need to make any further investments regarding measure equipment. The other method is to start measure every genset that’s is produces and save the data to be able to backtrack if the client makes a complaint regarding vibrations. The data could then also be used as support for new product development or quality control, the second method however is associated with large investments. Regardless of which one Volvo is going to choose, it is recommended that Volvo makes a larger amount of vibrational measurements before doing the final choice. This is recommended since Volvo needs a larger statistical basis, they could then rely on the average values and standard deviation to make up their own tolerances.

  • 90.
    Dittmer, Christian
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ruponen, Felix
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Modellering av existerande elanläggning i programmet Febdok på Borealis AB i Stenungsund2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Borealis in Stenungsund is Sweden's only polyethylene manufacturer and their cracker plant is one of the most flexible in Europe. As the plant is in constant development, new tools are needed to model the electrical systems that can provide an overall picture. The purpose of the report is to investigate how well it works to implement Borealis existing low voltage substation in the Febdok program, which is used to dimension cables and protection devices in electrical installations according to Swedish standards. To investigate this, models are produced for two different low-voltage substations at Borealis facility in order to evaluate the program. The report produces three general modelling examples in Febdok and performs manual calculations to validate the results in the program. The examples describe different operating modes for a simple low-voltage network in normal operation, operation with UPS and operation with a backup generator. Results of the manual calculations performed are close to the corresponding values given by Febdok. Calculation methods and resulting accuracy are discussed in each example based on sources of error and the simplifications made. Based on the general modelling examples, the modeling of the selected low-voltage substations is performed in Febdok. Details have been omitted for reasons of confidentiality and parts that are difficult to model have been described in detail. Problems with the modeling are discussed based on the specific switchgear but also from a general perspective. The report shows that it is possible to create a model of an existing low-voltage substation in Febdok if certain methods are used to circumvent safety functions and control functions in the program. In addition, it is described how values of currents and voltages in Febdok can be reproduced using manual calculations. The examples used describe which parameters have been used to calculate load currents, voltage drop, fault currents and a discussion of deviations is also made when the results are compared. Finally, several proposals for improvements are described that simplify modeling of existing facilities.

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  • 91.
    Doski, Rojin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Processhantering och effektivisering av kassationer med hjälp av automatisering: En fallstudie utförd på Adient Sweden AB2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis aims to examine how process management in the form of scrap outcomes can be streamlined and handled in production. The study also intends to account for how deviations can be reported in process flows in a more efficient way. Using empirical data from Adient in parallel with relevant literature study, the theory has been presented how this can be implemented in production.

    In the process mapping of the current situation, a current situation analysis has been applied to Adient Sweden AB's local process flows in production Subsequently, observations and interviews have been applied to identify improvement proposals. Through continuous interviews with management, the author has been able to focus on only what the company were in flows. Adient strives to have standardized workflows on the management of scrap outcomes so that all departments in the company follow the same concept. To achieve the company's vision, it is important to ensure that flows are newly conceived and that new module proposals in the business systems are evaluated. As the scrap outcomes lack an organized and structural process flow, the focus has been on presenting a more standardized workflow with digital improvement proposals.

    The work results in Adient implementing a new scrap module in its business system for continuous improvement and to counteract ruthlessness about scrap outcomes that are not tracked and controlled.

  • 92.
    Dubravina Svensson, Polina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Livscykelstudie av cykelramar tillverkade av kolfiberkomposit, aluminium och stål2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Borås Cykelfabrik builds, develops and sells bicycles. They offer mountainbikes, gravel/cross and touring bikes made of carbon fiber composite and aluminum alloy.

    The Corona pandemic has contributed to increased bicycle sales by 30% during 2019-2020. Borås Cykelfabrik therefore sees a great potential for expanded sales of bicycles. Society's environmental awareness also contributes to increased customer demand for sustainably produced bicycles. Therefore, there is an interest from the company to compare carbon fiber composite, aluminum and steel materials in bicycle frames in terms of environmental impact.

    This life cycle study aims to provide a theoretical basis for the environmental impact of the bicycle framework. The study can also be used for further LCA on the complete bicycle.The starting point of the study is the weight of the bicycle frame of each material. Material-, manufacturing-, transport- and recycling data were collected for analysis of environmental impact. The Granta EduPack 2020 database was used for information about energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions.

    The results show that steel alloy bicycle frames have the least environmental impact, compared to carbon fiber composite and aluminum alloy. The greatest relative energy use and carbon dioxide emissions occur during the material production phase.

  • 93.
    Einarsson, Linus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Fixtur till 30k TEC: Konceptframtagning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report regards the manufacturing process of 30K TEC, an ingoing part to the PW1000 engine from Pratt & Whitney. The complexity of the parts geometry and the material makes for a problematic manufacturing process. The part is strapped down into a milling fixture which holds the part in place. The part is then machined with a cutting process to it final geometry. The process produces a high temperature on both the tool and part which leads to a geometry change in the part. Due to the geometry changes vibrations occur and affects the result on the part with poor surface and shortened tool life. In this report a concept is established for a milling fixture that accounts for the manufacturing aspects named above. The report and work follow the general concept development process from establishing the customer´s needs to generating concepts and selecting the final concept.

    The work resulted in a concept for a fixture witch in theory meets the customer´s needs and favors the process. The fixture holds the part down with help of pneumatics and controls the geometry changes with vacuum to prevent vibrations. To evaluate if the fixture achieves the established target specifications further work is needed. The fixture or parts of it needs testing in practice before the result can be fully evaluated.

  • 94.
    Ek, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Frisk, Kasper
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förbättringsarbete för lagerhantering2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, material transfer and inventory management have had a greater impact on the profitability of manufacturing companies. By optimizing inventory- and material handling as well as implementing logistics lift within flow optimization, the conditions for companies to be sustainable and competitive are created. As companies reorganize or invest in material management, extensive information gathering and careful analysis of current operations are required to identify the optimal solution. The company on which the case study is conducted is Norautron AB, a global electronics company based in Vänersborg. The case company intends to invest in a new warehousing system during an upcoming reorganization and therefore needs to identify what improvement opportunities exist in the current material flow and what requirements need to be set for a new warehousing system.The survey design for this study is a case study where interviews, observations and measurements along with a theoretical frame of reference based on scientific articles and student literature form the basis of the study's results. The empirical data showed that there are two major improvement opportunities for the company; long delivery, picking and closing times and low volume and surface utilization. A cost computation was created for these improvement opportunities and they were broken down into root cause using quality tools.The study resulted in the aforementioned improvement possibilities and root causes based on the empirical material, but also a requirements specification consisting of system- and improvement requirements. The system requirements are aimed at numerical factors that affect or limit a new inventory system while the improvement requirements are aimed at improvements that a new inventory system needs to solve or partially solve in order for the investment to be economically justifiable.The conclusion that emerged is that there are currently two main improvement possibilities in Norautron's material flow that are in line with the previously described theory in the logistics field. The study also shows that a new inventory system must be adapted to many different factors without the system generating annual total costs in excess of SEK 300 000, unless these costs are economically justifiable for other reasons that the company considers to be of great importance. The company's next step should therefore not be a new investment, but rather a further development of the existing inventory system.

  • 95.
    Ekergård, Boel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Leijon, Mats
    Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eddy Current Losses in Solid Pole Shoes in a Two-Pole Permanent Magnet Motor2021In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 536-543Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to present the eddy current losses in solid pole shoes in a permanent magnet two-pole electric motor. In the presented paper, the authors have chosen to work with three different analytical models, Carter’s theory, Gibb’s theory and Lawrenson’s theory, each with different degree of accuracy and simplifications. The results from the analytical models all present relatively low eddy current losses, giving the designer valuable arguments to utilize solid pole shoes, as a rotor with solid poles is from a construction point of view a more suitable choice, increasing the mechanical stability and reducing the production cost, compared to the laminated design.

  • 96.
    Ekergård, Boel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Department on Engineering Sciences, Uppsala, 751 21, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Gothenburg, 412 96, Sweden .
    Longitudinal end effects in a linear wave power generator2020In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, no 2, article id 327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though the magnetic circuit of a linear electric machine is very similar to a rotating electric machine, they diverge in one fundamental property. The linear generator is open in both ends, i.e., the magnetic circuit is non-symmetric. This paper investigates and discusses the drawbacks of this non-symmetric design in a linear permanent magnet generator, installed in a wave energy conversion system. A two-dimensional geometry has been utilized for the numerical calculations in a finite element method simulation tool. The results present an increased cogging force and significant core losses in the translator as consequences of the longitudinal ends in the machine. © 2020 by the authors.

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  • 97.
    Eklund, Sebastian
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Strömberg, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beredning av lokalnät i Bäckefors2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project describes the procedure how preparation work is executed both for high voltage and low voltage power grid. The preparatory work concerns a power grid in Bäckefors. Today’s high- and low voltage power grid consist of overhead power lines and will be demolished. The overhead power lines will be replaced by underground cables. An underground cable power grid secures a higher reliability which means less interference and fewer disruptions in the power grid. During the project, map studies have been performed to give an overview over the area. After the map studies have been performed, a field visit has been conducted to give a better view of the area and see the eventual problems that can occur during the cable laying. Major obstacles and problems have been avoided. One guided drilling will be performed to pass a railway track in combination with a road. The project will include the demolition of 5 427 meters of high voltage power line and 3 799 meters of low voltage power line. 5 pole-mounted stations including transformers will be replaced by new substations and transformers, all of them 100 kVA each. 5300 meters of high voltage cable and 3500 meters of low voltage cable will be placed. 10 new cable distribution cabinets will be placed in the area. In total the project will affect 20 subscribers. A P2 cost calculation has been carried out and the total cost for the reconstruction in the power grid will be 3,37 million SEK.

  • 98.
    Ekman, Viktor
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utveckling av koncept till premium skärmväggssystem2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor's thesis has been carried out with AH Productions AB in Åmål. The report presents the work developing a final concept, cost analysis and life cycle analysis for a premium screen wall system. The company's existing screen wall system consists of doors and walls in an environmentally friendly homogeneous compact laminate which if fitted with profiles in natural anodized aluminum, together with support legs and optional components. The purpose of the bachelor's thesis is to increase the company's competitiveness by development of a premium version of their existing screen wall system that satisfy new customer requirements and requests.

    With customer requirements and requests given from the company a requirements specification was compiled. Based on requirements specification a concept development was preformed where solutions were generated to fulfill customer requirements. The solutions were then combined into concepts. The concepts were screened first through a coarse screening and then a concept screening where they were evaluated against the current screening wall and select criteria. Remaining concept was evaluated in a concept matrix to get the winning concept. The winning concept was further developed with hand calculations, drawings, 3D modeling and material choice to a final concept.

    Each component in the final concept a manufacturing choice was performed. With material and manufacturing choices a production cost could be calculated with the program CES Edupack, and then a productions cost for the complete screen wall system. Finally, lifecycle analysis was preformed to calculate the environmental impact from producing the final concept with the chosen manufacturing process and material choice.

  • 99.
    El Aoud, James-Dean
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Melin, Josef
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Affärsmodell för Fyrstads flygplats vid omställning till elflyg2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to identify parts and lessons learned through a survey of the automotive industry, which can form part of a development of a business model for Fyrstad Airport. The problem that is intended to be investigated is based on the fact that the airport does not have a business model for charging electric aircrafts. A qualitative method has been used for the work, where a literature study has been carried out. For the study, literature and articles have been examined with a focus on businessmodels, electrification, electricity networks and infrastructure. To supplement the data obtained from the literature study, semi-structured interviews were conducted. Respondents have consisted of airport managements at regional airports in Sweden together with other professionals with knowledge in electricity networks and infrastructure. To produce a final business model, primary and secondary data together with tools for external analysis, SWOT analysis and a business model canvas have been used. The study has resulted in a business model where Fyrstad Airport will act as an intermediary for the electricity used by airlines when charging electric aircraft. The big difference arises around the aircraft-related revenues where commission per refueled liter of aviation fuel is instead exchanged for a commission per charged kWh. The business model is expected to be implemented during 2025-2026, when electric aircraft probably will be used at a commercial level. Fyrstad Airport should review collaboration opportunities with Trollhättan Energy as an expansion of electricity network capacity and power will probably be required. Furthermore, collaborations with municipalities and organizations should be strengthened, as a standard for charging infrastructure may soon be forthcoming, for which Fyrstad Airport will probably need financial assistance. 

  • 100.
    Elfwing, Jonny
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Thersthol, Alexander
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konceptutveckling av provriggsutrustning för framdrivningssystem2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To carry out different tests on an electric car’s driveline, it often necessary to produce different unique test rigs, which may become costly in terms of both time and money. Thus, in the development of vehicle propulsion systems, there is a need for new modular rigging equipment that can allow shorter set times for switching between different test missions and more tests could be performed at the same time. The purpose of the thesis work is to produce one or more theoretical concepts of a test rig module. In the method section, a theoretical frame of reference is presented, describing the theories and assumptions that were considered relevant for solving the task. The approach to achieving the results includes, among other things, the tools TRIZ, idea generation, literature study and concept screening and weighting matrices. The result includes a proposal for a module-based concept and its characteristics and possibilities are described. The concept consists of three different types of functional elements which are objects that are used to hold and linearize the different components of an electric cars driveline, a module used to position and stabilize the objects and fasteners to attach components to each other and to the T-slots. The final part discusses the implementation and outcome of the thesis work, but there are also suggestions for further studies. The conclusion is that it seems possible to carry out tests with different drivelines using the module-based concept.

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