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  • 51.
    Fredriksson, Thorgrim
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Pettersson, Jonas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Elkvalitetspåverkan vid utlokaliserad felbortkoppling i radiella 40 kV distributionsnät2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis investigates the changes in electrical power quality that can arise from relocating switchgear and protection relays, from the power-feeding station, for a power grid with radial operation. The report highlights the potential problems with a prolonged faultclearance time in the power grid. The report uses existing regulations and a previously completed bachelor’s thesis, in which a substantial socioeconomic benefit was concluded, as a starting point for the study. The purpose of this bachelor’s thesis is to determine if unlawful voltage sags can appear in the power grid following a relocation of the switchgear and protection relay. There is also an interest in investigating if the earlier determined socioeconomic benefits remain if the previously unconsidered cost following a voltage sag is included. There is also included in the scope of the bachelor’s thesis to describe a basic method for evaluation of the expected cost of a voltage sag. By observing the nature of occurring voltage sags following simulations in PSS/E for proper power grids several illustrations over the magnitude and disconnection event were produced. The resulting disconnection event was then used in combination with estimated valuation factors to estimate the expected cost following a voltage sag. Which leads to that the socioeconomic benefits can be estimated by contemplating the change in cost following a forced outage in relation to the voltage sag cost. With regards to the occurrence of unlawful voltage sags in the examined power grids the bachelor’s thesis concludes that there is no risk for the appearance of such. The thesis also demonstrates that an overall socioeconomical benefit follows the use of any of the presented relay protection methods. Even though this benefit does not present itself in all the radials for the observed power grids following a relocation. In these cases, a deeper analysis is required to guarantee a positive outcome. The thesis contains an uncertainty with regards to the presented benefits following the use of non-established valuation factors. Following this the thesis should be viewed as a proof of concept and not as a in depth case study for the evaluated power grids. Despite these uncertainties the authors advocates, following the result of the thesis, for the use of relocated current measuring protection relays as a standard method when using relocated switchgear and protection relay. Furthermore, the authors also advocates for the activation of an instantaneous disconnection step, in the power-feeding station, in order to minimize the fault-clearance time of the most critical voltage sags.

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  • 52.
    Gabro, Gabriel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Yasin, Abdulrahman
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Solceller på ett villatak2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the process of procuring a solar cell facility on a typical house located in Gothenburg. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate which methods are best applied for the installation of solar panels on the roof and the management of the production surplus. An installation of a solar cell facility will reduce the electricity consumption costs but increases the fixed costs for a house because the plant must be paid, partly through amortization and partly by interest on the loan. The study analyzes the profitability of such an investment. The study deals with a specific house with known electricity consumption and examines the possibility of reducing the monthly costs. The cost of spent electricity in the house in 2018 was just over 48,000 SEK. The house roof has a total area of 120 m2 which can accommodate 60 solar panels with the total surface area of 102 m2 . This plant is expected to produce 13,100 [kWh / year] with a cost after investment support of 229,000 SEK. This investment results in a revenue of approximately 18,500 SEK compared to the cost before installation. The economic calculations include all costs for the loan with a pay-backtime of just around 12,4 years.

  • 53.
    Glans, Jesper
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av teknisk specifikation för upphandling av kontrollanläggningar för Uddevalla Energi EInät AB2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 54.
    Gohil, Kuldeepsinh
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Verification and Visualization of Safe Human Robot Collaboration for Robotic Cell2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Robotics and Automation field is booming in today´s scenario. Researchers and Technologist comes up with new ideas in the robotics field to achieve a higher productivity, flexibility and efficiency. To achieve the above goals, it shall be required that human and robot share their work space with each other and works in a collaborative nature. Safety is a main concern and in focus. Robot should not injure the operator in any way during working in robotic cell. In this master thesis main focus is to create a various test plans and validate them to ensure the safety level in robotic cell. The test plan should be validated in a real robot environment. The test plans consist of functional and individual verification of safety devices which are being used in a robotic cell at PTC which is known as smart automation lab. Apart from that it includes design simulation of robotic cells with manikins to ensure validation of safety in virtual environment. Design simulation of robotic cell with manikins are created in RobotStudio 6.06. However, smart components, trap routines, SafeMove and offline program in RAPID have been created. Various test results are incorporated in the results section to ensure the verification and validation of safe human robot collaboration of virtual environment in RobotStudio 6.06.

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  • 55.
    Gopinath,, Kiran
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Mimicking of human hand motion on robot arm using point cloud and Machine learning techniques2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative robots may be required to do complex assembly operations during production and programming the Robot to perform such operations can be a challenging task. If the motions of the human palm could be mimicked on the Robot, it would mitigate the com-plexities involved in teaching such skills to the Robot. This mimicking action could also be used in other applications like robot based painting where it is necessary to capture motion generated by a skilled human hand and reproduce it on a robot.

    To achieve this there may be many methods. A point cloud camera could be used to capture and store point cloud data of an object at different positions and orientations inside the Robot work volume. Corresponding Tool centre point positions and orientations read from the Robot controller serve as labelled data necessary for machine learning.

    The task involves generation of Robot programs to synchronize point cloud capture and robot pose capture resulting in generation of data necessary for machine learning. The point cloud data is generated using Kinect point cloud camera by establishing the communication between the robot and the Kinect V2.

    The objective in this paper is concluded by gathering the point cloud data for limited positions using Kinect V2 which is necessary for machine learning. Since machine learning techniques can be applied for further process huge amount of data is required hence this data is generated.

  • 56.
    Gran,, Ludvig
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utveckling av parameter för svetsprocessen Nyckelhål-TIG i titan-6Al-4V för tjocklek 7 mm2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GKN Aerospace Trollhättan produces components for the commercial, military aerospace and space industry. The company belongs to GKN PLC since 2012 which got approximately 58 000 employees and was founded over 250 years ago in Great Britain.

    Keyhole-TIG has gained attention in the aerospace industry for its capability of producing high quality welds in metals such as titanium and nickel-based alloys. The process has shown to complete welds in thickness up to 14 mm, which is a considerable difference in comparison to conventional TIG. Keyhole-TIG appears to be a more robust alternative to plasma arc welding because of fewer influencing factors.

    Today GKN Aerospace is welding a 7,3 mm thick titanium joint using plasma arc welding, but it fails occasionally which leads to quality deficiency costs. It is in the company's interest to investigate how Keyhole-TIG behaves so they can compare it to the existing welding method.

    The purpose of the study it to investigate how the key process parameters of Keyhole-TIG are affecting the welding geometries and to identify a welding parameter for material thickness 7 mm titanium that fulfill the company's requirement specification.

    A literature review was preformed to acquire knowledge about the process Keyhole TIG, control methods and statistical experimental design. A practical way of gathering information was made in the form of welding experiments, measurements and statistical analysis tool, which were made to investigate the parameter association and identify a potential parameter. The main parameters that were investigated were current, electrode distance and advancing speed. Limited areas occurred when creating the design of experiments because the constraints of current and advancing speed was affecting each other. Therefore, the design of experiments was created resembling a D-optimal design.

    The study’s conclusions were that the electrode distance should be short because it contributed to increased penetration, heat input was decreased and underfill was reduced. All key process variables impact on the welding geometries were identified except for underfill. Lastly a parameter was identified with a statistically optimizing tool that generated a valid weld geometry according to the requirements. The parameter was recommended to GKN Aerospace for future use. 

  • 57.
    Granlund, Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av koncept för tryckindikator och informationsöverföring för luftaxel2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the project has been to develop a concept for both indicating the pressure level in the rolling axle hoses and for transferring this information from the rotating shaft to non-rotating machine parts. The report's literature study describes sensor technology and information-transferring-techniques for non-stationary objects. Study visits and interviews have been made to pay attention to the demands and expectations of future stakeholders on the product. During the concept generation phase, several methods have been used, including function trees and investigations of patents. A total of 21 concepts were generated. During the concept screening and concept scoring phase, an independent engineering student has been used for feedback. A cost analysis based on estimates for the sub-concepts has been carried out before the concept selection. The work resulted in a total of four subconcepts. Two sub-concepts for pressure indication and two sub-concepts for information transfer. Prior to final conceptual selection, more assessment steps should be performed, for example, subcontractors should be contacted regarding quotation requests and a FMEA should be created.

  • 58.
    Gröndahl, Sander
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utförande och dimensionering av jordning i inomhusställverk upp till 145 kV2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is written as a system study with the purpose of ensuring, through studies of existing knowledge, that Otera Ratel AB's construction regarding grounding in substations is up to par with today's standards. The challenge is that in-depth knowledge is required to understand and apply existing implementation and design standards for construction of grounding systems. Additionally, the requirements regarding safe voltage levels must be laid down so a standardized workplan based on that can be formed.

    The report processes the overall theories and concepts which are necessary for the contractor’s decisions. Theory is collected from studies of regulations, standards, handbooks, reports and interviews. The theories treat subjects such as: earth fault currents, earthing conductors, earthing electrodes, earth potential rise, and touch voltage. These theories are subsequently applied to an example based on real data.

    Thereafter, a discussion about the importance of a correct executed grounding system follows. The consequence of an incorrect designed system could be fault currents which take the wrong path to ground. The theory section and example case are both also discussed and inserted into a broader context. Despite the extensive knowledge of the standard provided in the report no standardized workplan can be determined. The decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis relying on case specific facts. The validity of the example case can be called in question since data is missing which affects the result of the example.

    The report concludes by presenting the results and recommendations on how to scrutinize the standard and its concepts regarding successful grounding. The voltage requirements are also determined and hence the aim of the report is achieved.

    Proposals for continued work include the themes which this report neglects but which are in some way connected to grounding, like EMC compatibility and lightning conductors. Furthermore, fault current splitting and methods for measurements are areas in which extra insight is needed.

  • 59.
    Göransson, Oskar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Tessin, Tobias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utredning och projektering av smarta elbilsladdstationer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An expansive use of electric vehicles and therefore charging stations will eventually lead to a much greater load on the electrical grid. One way to avoid overloads is to fit charging stations with load balancing systems that can adjust every charging station’s power output in relation to the rest of the local substations load. Since cars usually remain parked for long periods of time the load balancer can ensure that the cars only charge with a high amount of power when the general load is low, and thereby the local electrical grid doesn’t risk overloading in consequence of the increased total energy consumption.  This paper includes a market review of the three largest load balancing system suppliers on the Swedish market to clarify what separates the different systems and whether they are applicable in different areas. There will also be a design, carried out through ÅF, of a scenario of 50 charging stations controlled by load balancing systems in the parking lot of a company. In conjunction with this there will be an investigation of the ability to charge 50 of the employee's electric cars during an 8-hour working day with an assumed average commute of 50 km. Which charging stations and load balancing systems that are to be used in the design are determined by those which are best suited to the circumstances of the company. The design has been done in accordance with Swedish standards and with the help of information and software provided by ÅF. The companies that participated in the market investigation were found through Power Circle. According to the customer's requirements, the charging stations needed a power output of 22 kW, and since variations of the power consumption of the plant are present, the load balancing system must be able to measure the load of a transformer to adjust all charging stations power output accordingly. The charging stations and systems that were considered most suitable for the situation were Eldon's. The design included cable sizing, cable layout maps, cost calculations and transformer calculations. Each car needed only about 10 kWh to reach a fully charged state, and the available power of the transformer was sufficient to complete the charging of up to 182 electric cars during the workday. Thus, the cost of both cables and charging stations could have been much lower if the requirement of 22 kW power output was not set.

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  • 60.
    Hadzic, Mirella
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Stridsberg, Louise
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Tejp som kraftöverförande fogmetod: en kartläggning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis is a survey of adhesive tape as a force-transmitting bonding method in partnership with TechROi Engineering, Trollhättan, Sweden. TechROi Engineering is a consulting company that works with design solutions frequently for the automotive industry and the manufacturing industry. The company wishes to implement taping as a bonding method but wants to evaluate the strength of the adhesive joint. A matrix that consists of characteristics of the tapes and established requirements are conducted with the purpose to enable an obtainment of correlations. The identified requirements are of surface preparation prior application of adhesives and its effects on the durability and the strength of the joint. Two methods for surface preparation is degreasing and abrasion. Further, factors and thus requirements are identified that are necessary whilst conducting an analysis and experiments of the strength of the adhesive joints. The identification of requirements for strength tests are done so with the benefit of a number of selected standards as well as previously conducted tests by researchers. The test methods are primarily intended to evaluate the mechanical properties such as fracture toughness and are sorted in the report depending on the fracture modes. Mode I, mode II and mixed-mode are studied in this thesis. The standardized test methods contain guidelines regarding how the tests shall be conducted. There is an importance to execute the tests, preparations and calibration according to the same circumstances. There is a need to rank the requirements although this may prove difficult since it depends on the application in which the adhesive joint shall be. Additionally, the occurrence of conflicting requirements is dependent on the application. Difficulties with obtaining test methods for mixed-mode arise, particularly due to the absence of standardized tests.

  • 61.
    Hallqvist, Alexandra
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Effektivisering av genomloppstid inom termisk sprutning2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis was to investigate possible ways to increase the throughput efficiency for a part that is thermally sprayed at GKN Aerospace in Trollhättan.

    The goal of the project was to identify technical solutions that can reduce the lead time for the part by at least 40 % and to investigate improvements that could increase the efficiency for all the products that are coated at the department. The project was carried out because the part had one of the longest process times at the department due to a lot of handwork, masking, low-power spray gun and multiple machine stops during the spray operation. The process has been observed and employees have been interviewed to map the current state. Process documentation and part drawings have also been investigated to understand the requirements and ensure that the solutions are useful for the department. The time each activity took were mapped during the observations. Based on the recorded times histograms were made to investigate which moments are most time consuming and therefore needs to be improved. Through the interviews, observations and the benchmarking, solutions were found and further investigated and assessed to identify which ones are the most effective and implementable. Together with operators and technicians, the possible solutions were discussed for in terms of feasibility and improvements. The technicians also discussed the possible time reductions per activity that the proposed solutions are expected to entail when implemented. To achieve the goal, the masking needs to be changed as the masking tools cause the bouncing of coating on the tools and back on the gun, which makes necessary to stop the spraying process after each stroke. If the masking tools are redesigned, a five-hour deburring operation that is performed at another department can be eliminated.

    The conclusion from this work is that it is possible to increase the process efficiency by 49.5% if the existing spray gun is used. If a higher-powered gun can be employed, it enables further efficiency improvement. The increased efficiency of the process makes it possible that the lead time can be shortened from seven days to four days as the part can be completed in the department.

  • 62.
    Hansen, Björn
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Underlag för ombyggnation av reservskydd2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This problem-solving system study has highlighted what problems a power distribution network can have with the combination of large transformers and long cables and wirings. This means that the short-circuit currents become too small for the transformer or busbar protection to function as backup protection if the outgoing 10 kV lines regular relay protection fails.

    With the requirements that exist in the safety of a plant and power distribution network, it is important to have relevant protection that meets the requirements contained in laws and regulations. The protection that exists in a power distribution network must be fast and safe. There can always be a failure in the equipment that exists and then some form of reserve must be available to ensure that the safety requirements are met.

    The goals that have been met with this study, are that it has been possible to clarify the problems that exists with back-up protection and to present solutions that are able to disconnect all faulty parts as quickly as possible in order to protect persons and animals, property and facilities from damage. The study shows some solutions that are simple and economical, the costs are realistic estimates from experienced competent personnel from different manufacturers. The various solutions have been discussed and weighed against each other with the pros and cons that form the basis for a decision making about which solution is best.

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  • 63.
    Hansson, Hedvig
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Review of stable gas and its safety applications2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been performed at Autoliv Sverige AB in Vårgårda. The purpose of the thesis was to increase Autoliv’s knowledge regarding stable gas and its safety applications. To achieve this, a literature study, eight interviews and patent searches has been performed. To broader the understanding further, a concept study of an inflatable life buoy has been made. This idea was presented during a brainstorming session with nine employees at Autoliv. There are some certain characteristics that differentiates gas from solid and liquid substances. The first characteristic is that gases does not have a specific shape or volume. The volume is determined by the size of the container. Another property of gas is that it could be compressed to decrease its volume. The last characteristic is that a contained gas obtain pressure against all walls in the container. If the temperature increases, the pressure will increase as well. In this thesis, stable gas is defined as gases that not react with other gases when it is let out in the air. An unreactive gas means that the valence shell is full and that no electrons are missing or needs to be bound to another molecule. This corresponds to stable gases, for example the noble gases that is presented to the far right in the periodic table of elements. There are several safety products on today’s market that uses stable gas. This thesis includes a screening of three variants of inflatable vests, a bicycle helmet and a lifeboat. These products activate in different ways, both automatically and manually. The purpose of the life buoy was to do design a product that is easier to throw and takes less space than a traditional life buoy. Thus, demonstrate how stable gas can be applied in a real-world scenario. A complete solution has not been developed in this thesis due to the limiting time factor. Basic constraints, such as pressure and volume were calculated to show the necessary requirements on the buoy and the cylinder. The concept study of the inflatable life buoy resulted in a buoy of 35 litres with a cross section diameter of 1.6 dm. To be able to inflate this volume, a cylinder containing 90 ml is required. The dimensions of the cylinder have been calculated to minimize the use of material which resulted in a height and diameter of 50 mm. One of the conclusion of this thesis is that stable gas is useable for safety applications. The choice of gas depends on the specific product and its conditions and requirements. Therefore, a specific gas cannot be considered as the most optimal.

  • 64.
    Hansson, Niklas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Nyberg, Eleonore
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Prestandajämförelse av ABBs EGM och Permanova Lasersystems externaxel för fogföljning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to compare solutions for seam tracking with a welding robot. At the moment the used solution is an external seventh axis made by Permanova which is going to be compared to software made by ABB called EGM. The primary comparisons shall be done regarding the dead time and the time constant of the two processes. A primary problem with this was the uncertainty that comes with ocular inspection of the graphs in order to extract relevant values. Another problem, that also made construing the curves harder, was that there were some disturbances that caused distorted curves. Experiments were done on a model of the actual process, meaning that no welding equipment was connected to the robot in this model process. Instead a laser sensor was mounted onto the robot that measured against a parallel metal block. The seventh axis was connected for all tests to make sure that the results were comparable when it comes to the weight that the robot arm is burdened with. Each experiment had different parameters, such as speed and distance from the robot's base. Several tests were made with the same parameters to make sure that good results were had.

    One method used for analysis of gathered data was comparing a similar first order system to the step response of different experiments. The values of this approximate step response were tweaked until both step responses were fairly similar, however, the human factor is very relevant in this analysis.

    The results showed a clear advantage towards Permanova's seventh axis in both decreased dead time and time constant. For example, the filtered mean value for the dead time with EGM was 266 ms and a standard deviation of 20,8 ms, while Permanova clocked in at 11,5 ms with a standard deviation of 2,0 ms. The filtered time constants followed the same trend and were at 68 ms, standard deviation of 13,5 ms, for EGM and 33 ms, standard deviation of 4,8 ms, for Permanova. It was quite surprising how big the difference was between EGM and Permanova's seventh axis, but the seventh axis was without a doubt the solution best suited to this kind of process. Due to the lacking performance from EGM it is determined to be unfit for laser welding applications at PTW.

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  • 65.
    Hardan, Salem
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    AL-Rumaiss, Hussain
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Simulering av produktionsflöde före produktionsökning i Volvo Penta, Varafabriken2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Volvo Penta, Varafabriken has planned to close by the end of 2019, another engine variant under the name Compact Engine will begin to be produced in the factory. According to the plan, the number of engines to be produced is estimated at seven hundred engines. This means that the plant will produce three to four engines daily of this variant. The new engine will use the same flow as three other engines already produced in the factory. The new Compact Engine variant has undergone a major change before production, which means that more than 80 percent of the included parts were changed for the purpose of achieving higher performance, reducing emissions and increasing reliability in maneuvering. The motors manufactured in the current production flow are used almost entirely in boats and the new variant has sailboats as a target group.

    The engineering department responsible for the planning and implementation of the production wanted the project work, which is reported in this paper, to analyze the flow and carry out a simulation project to map the maximum capacity of the system in the form of manufactured engines and to predefine batch sizes for the plant if the production pattern for upcoming engine variants into the flow can affect production capacity. The latter goal for batch sizes has been a secondary target that is desired if the time is enough and it did. The project team has never used the software, FACTS ANALYSER, which the factory uses as a simulation system.

    The project resulted in the production inflow two being able to increase the number of engines produced by as much as 35.29 percent. The simulation showed that the number of motors produced would increase from 34 to 44 engines per shift, which is an increase of 12 engines per shift. The simulation also showed that the bottleneck would occur at Station 835, but that the painting with its components, robots, and the furnace had the highest utilization rate of 90.3 percent.

    After analysis of the result, one could draw a conclusion that the painting can appear as a future bottleneck if Volvo Penta decides to reduce the processing time at Station 835 which is assumed to be the bottleneck by, for example, that more operators can be supplied to reduce the processing time. A simulation with changed batch sizes was run and showed no differences in the TH value.

  • 66.
    Hendberg, Jessica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Lundgren, Emma
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Planerade arbetens påverkan på SAIDI: analys baserad på Vattenfall Eldistribution AB:s nät2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is made on behalf of Vattenfall Eldistribution AB and was conducted at their office in Trollhättan. The purpose of the project was initially to reveal that the way to the 2025‘s SAIDI-goal, probably will deviate from the original goal. This because of the many investments that are made in the power grid. These investments often lead to many switching schedules which often, for the customers, mean a planned interruption of the power supply. What is to be investigated is if there are any disturbances which are related to a planned interruption. Namely, if there was a secondary fault caused by the planned work, that caused a customer interruption that lasted longer than three minutes aside from the planned interruption time. According to Swedish Energy Markets Inspectorate, the concept of power quality divides into two different parameters; continuity of supply and voltage quality. This work will only focus on the continuity of supply, more particularly the interruptions which last more than three minutes. To enable comparison between electrical companies there are a few interruption indicators which for example are SAIDI and SAIFI. SAIDI is the quota of the total customer interruption time and the total customer quantity. The result that has been shown is not comparable to the historical SAIDI-results which Vattenfall Eldistribution AB presents, since different variations of SAIDI is being used. The result shows that a meaningful impact is to be received because of secondary faults occurring with some of the switching done in the grid, due to planned work. These faults could for example be rooted in a disconnector failing, flaws in the documentation that lead to manoeuvres of the wrong device, or simply because of the human factor.

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  • 67.
    Hermansson, Alexander
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beräkningsmodell i Vision Network Analysis för Preemraff Lysekils VGO-anläggning2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Preemraff Lysekil has requested an update for their model in Vision Network Analysis, which has been outdated due to an additional processing unit – the VGO plant. The model can be used to analyze, calculate and control the industrial network. Before expanding the existing electrical distribution system simulations can be done for the expected demand and addition in power.

    The functions requested by Preemraff Lysekil for the updated model are calculation of short-circuit currents, voltage drops, motor starts, control of selectivity and simulation of load flows as well as different operating situations. In coordination with Preem's mentor a selection has been made on parameters that shall be gathered to update the model. The collection of data was made by studying the consumer list made for the VGO-project. In addition to that field visits, reading of motor plates and calculation of values were made. The company's digital database also served as a source of information. The gathered data was compiled in an excel-list and used as a core to update the model.

    When the model was completed a verification was done in consultation with the mentor. Simulations and calculations were executed and the presented values from the model discussed and evaluated. With the help of previous experience and a mentor with expertise in the area the model was considered adequate. Examples of usage with the model was done and presented for voltage drops, motor starts, short-circuit currents, selectivity and load flows.

    As a last step of the assignment a validation of the model was made by manually calculating the short-circuit currents. For comparison of the currents calculated by hand to the model's they were set into tables. The manual calculations were made for a radial selection in the electrical grid. This was done for two different situations: mesh and radial operation of the grid. The manual calculation was done by using a simplified method which does not take the electrical resistivity into account, for example from cables.

    Comparison of the hand calculated short-circuit currents to the model's showed a small difference in the values. An assumption is being made that the usage of the simplified method is contributing to this. The model is considered adequate to its requested functions by Preem and the assignment's purpose and main goal is there for carried out.

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  • 68.
    Hermansson, Alexander
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Palmqvist, Christoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ett prioriteringssystem för frekvent snabbladdning av el- och laddhybridbussar2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government has set a goal to reach a fossil-free vehicle fleet by year 2030. The way against the target has already begun by replacing the fossil-driven vehicles against electric vehicles, including buses in public transport.

    In conjunction with the introduction of electric buses there are a number of different aspects to be considered, where one of them is the time for charging. With the Opportunity Charge fast-loading method you´ll be able to quickly and efficiently load buses at bus stops. A problem with Opportunity Charge is that queues can occur at charging stations. This problem can occur because the buses delays can´t be foreseen in the timetable, but also because only one bus can be served at a time per charging station. This can in turn lead to uncertainties about who will be charge first. There is therefore a need to create a prioritization system that tells in which order each buss should be charge.

    In order to create a priorization system that describes in which order the buses should be loaded, a survey of queue theory and priority systems for rail traffic, air traffic and healthcare was made. With this information the basis of the priority model was made. To the priority model identified and weighted the parameters that was considered to be important for the buses priorities. Two of the most important parameters to observe were battery status and time according to timetable. Based on these to parameters, it was then created a flowchart and also a priority list of remaining parameters. The flow chart together with the priority list then came to be the final priority model that was presented at the end of the report. In the priority model it shows in which order each bus will be charged.

    In the priority model there is a risk that important parameters are missing, which may be due to delimitations and information shortages. The reliability of the prioritization allocation can also be increased by letting traffic companies weighting the parameters against each other.

  • 69.
    Hodzic, Irma
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Karlsson, Elin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kartläggning och effektivisering av Oriolas inleveransflöde i centrallagret i Mölnlycke2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Oriola KD Corporation is a Finnish-owned group positioned in the pharmaceutical and distribution industries. The group consists of Oriola AB and has subsidiaries such as Kronan's drug store and Medstop. Oriola AB is active in Finland, Sweden, Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania. In Sweden, the company is established in Stockholm, Mölnlycke and Enköping, where the central logistics business for wholesale trade is located in Mölnlycke and Enköping The purpose of the study is to map and analyse the supply flow at the central warehouse in Mölnlycke, to identify waste and non-value-creating activities. Lastly, proposals for improvement will be presented. Earlier mapping of the supply flow has been done, but since then, some changes been done and an updated analysis and mapping of the flow is required. The students have chosen, in consultation with the supervisor of Oriola AB, to define the mapping and analyze to "Product Type 1" and "Outsourcer 1".  From literature studies for instance in logistics and lean production, interviews with staff at Oriola AB, mapping of the delivery flow, measurement performed and benchmarking done on Volvo Cars in Skövde, good knowledge of the delivery flow was obtained. The focus was on identifying each waste and non-value creation time during the various process steps in the flow. This was evaluated and a potential future position was created through a future detailed process map. The future process map shows the wastages and non-value creation time which is eliminated by implementing the improvement proposals. An important conclusion is that commitment is required from both parts and it is also important to motivate the outsourcer that the changes are necessary. Lastly, this can help Oriola AB to increase the value creation time and short lead times to improve flow efficiency.

  • 70.
    Holmberg, Gustav
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Karlsson, Henrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beredning av distributionsnätet Sätet, Herrenäs i området Torrskog2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis concerns a preparation work for Rejlers Sverige AB, commissioned by Vattenfall Eldistribution AB. The assignment includes a complete preparation work for a part of a distribution grid, from start to finish. The resulting work of the assignment will be realized and therefore Rejlers has helped throughout the entire project with close guidance and direction.

    The purpose of this work is to weatherproof and secure part of an existing distribution grid in Torrskog, located in Bengtsfors municipality. The part of the grid this project concerns is Sätet, Herrenäs, and is in urgent need of reconstruction. The main reason for reconstruction is that existing distribution grid consists of overhead cable and is 30 years old. The reason why this part is a priority is not only because the age, but also because the existing grid lacks any sort of selectivity.

    The weatherproofing is done by isolating the part of the existing high voltage overhead line TT7715_157. Overhead line will be deconstructed and changed to ground cable. The new high voltage cable will connect to a new network station that all the subscribers will connect to as well, from which 2 goes by the cable cabinet. The project affects 4 subscribers and 12 landowners.

    Discussion if the planers suggestion on reconstruction was in need for adjustment have been significant part in this project. Clarity in this matter where obtained under the second field visit, where dialogue with one of the landowners and understanding of the area and obstacles became clear. The information required a necessary adjustment of the original proposal. Among other things have the original placement of ground station and high voltage underground cable been replaced.

    The project will include reconstruction of 1.5 km high voltage overhead cable, 345 m low voltage overhead cable and 1 pole station. This will be replaced with 1.9 km high voltage cable, 0.41 km low voltage cable and 1 ground station type ELIT 2. A total cost for the project has been compiled, and the total amount is calculated to 1.1 million SEK.

  • 71.
    Hultgren, Jessica
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Undersökning av procentuell belastningsnivå på servisledningar anslutna till kundkategorierna flerbostadshus, skolor och förskolor2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis has been carried out on behalf of Göteborg Energi Nät AB. The work has a descriptive first part about how new customers are connected to the existing electric grid and the main part of the essay is a survey about power consumption for the customer categories apartment buildings, schools and pre-schools. When customers want to connect a property to the electricity grid, they often request an electric output that the network company perceive to be higher than necessary/what is required. If this is the case, the supply service line connection should have lower load and not be optimally dimensioned from a network company’s perspective. There is no data available that shows what level of load the supply service line connection have, which makes it difficult to start a dialogue with the customer or the electrician regarding requested power. The network companies do not want to take the responsibility to dimension the customer’s facility. The responsibility for this lies with an electrician. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate whether the power demand requested by the customer in advance is higher or lower than the actual maximum consumption. The report examines the level of load that the supply service line connection have and based on that information it gives an estimation of whether the supply service line connection are over or under dimensioned. By obtaining measured values from selected connection points and comparing the actual power consumption with the requested power, calculations can show the load rate of the supply service line connection. In this report, connection points were investigated on 87 apartment buildings, 7 schools, 18 pre-schools and 3 units with school and pre-school under the same connection point. The result of the study shows that the load rates for most electric supply service line connections. For apartment buildings the load rates were 25-34 percent and for schools and pre-schools 20-29 percent. This strengthens the hypothesis that the supply service line connections are over dimensioned. One step in the effort to reduce over dimensioning of the supply service line connections is to try to have a dialogue with the customers or electricians. It is then important to explain that the load can be aggregated and that all loads will not consume maximum power at the same time.

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  • 72.
    Håkansson, Petter
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Wadstedt, Lisa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Calculation model for actuators2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the development of a calculation model for estimating costs of actuators in the company SKF Motions Technologies. The aim with the calculation model is to show costs that are not apparent today, e.g. Costs that occur when establishing a new supplier or creating new manuals.  SKF has a standard assortment, including and many variants of these due to special orders. The calculation model being used today does not include the total costs, which results in uncertainties in whether the price is correct or not.   The method used in this thesis includes a theoretical study, to attain understanding of cost calculation and different methods to use.  The theoretical study also included studying other projects with comparable developments. The thesis continued with a research that started with a qualitative approach where semistructured interviews were performed to map the current situation. The information from these interviews were compiled in flow charts to achieve understanding of the processes involved, and to see what generates costs in those processes. Furthermore, it continued with a quantitative research when analyzing orders, customer requirements and costs. Meetings with the company´s finance system expert aimed at understanding the current model, and the factors included. The current model has also been the basis for verifying the new calculation model. After the data collection and the current state analysis, it was clear that the company's costs are scattered and that there is more cost than manufacturing and material, which can be attributed to activities. Such costs are difficult to show in a traditional calculation, and can easily be unnoticed. The thesis resulted in a new calculation model. The model was created to handle more variables than its predecessor, to achieve an insight in how different variables affect the pricing

  • 73.
    Ibrahim, Khaled
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Rahani, Ramin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utveckling av belysningspanelskoncept med AC-LED kompabilitet2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor's thesis has, on behalf of a company in Gothenburg, been carried out with the aim of developing two LED panel lights with AC LED compatibility. In today's market, LED units with 60 x 60 cm sizing lack integrated AC LED drivers that are flicker-free. To integrate an AC LED ballast, design requirements in terms of encapsulation of components that are under voltage and thermal management of LEDs and AC LED drivers are set.

    For developing LED panel light concepts, this project follows a distinctive product development process. In early phases, various methods were used to gather requirements, criteria and needs from stakeholders. Subsequently, target specifications were set, using QFD and benchmarking. Based on prerequisites from earlier stages, a concept generation process was initiated. With the use of external and internal search methods, concepts were generated. Afterwards, decision matrices were used to evaluate and select the final concepts. After finalizing the concept selection process, the target specifications were revisited and as a result could the final specifications be set. Finally, the concepts were evaluated using FEM analyzes, FMEA and thermal imaging analysis.

    The final concepts consist of two LED panel light concepts, "concept V" and "concept VI". The concepts are made up of an aluminium housing and a frame of polycarbonate. The panels differ in design and assembly. However, the assembling principle is similar. Both concepts use a snap-fit to attach housing to the frame.

    The product development process has been carried out in a correct and trustworthy way. The methods proved to lead in reliable results. Meanwhile, there have been occasions when the validity of the methods and the reliability of the results have been doubted.

    The criterion for keeping the transistor junction temperature below 70 ° C was validated by measuring the temperature of concept V to circa 51 ° C, and about 66 ° C for concept VI. By following directives and technical standards legislated by EU, safety and manufacturing requirements covering LED panel light stood ensured.

  • 74.
    Ivarsson,, Christoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konstruktion av avfyrningsmekanism: från koncept till prototyp2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is performed at Consat Engineering AB in Partille, Sweden. The thesis is about developing a concept and a physical prototype of a firing mechanism to a miniature pool table. The firing mechanism will make shots with a built-in cue. The cue should be able to get positioned in the x-, y- and z-axis and be able to have an adjustable angle horizontally and vertically. The force generated should be adjustable and fired manually. The shot should also be able to be repeated.

    The product development process started with a problem breakdown structure, then solutions were identified. Afterwards solutions were eliminated, and the remaining solutions were combined to concepts. The concepts were then put through a couple of different concept elimination matrixes that ended in one final concept.

    A prototype of the concept was the constructed, that included driving servo motors through an Arduino. The prototype and concept were then presented to the company

    The result in the thesis describes the final concept and the developed prototype.

    Further development of the prototype will be performed by Consat Engineering AB.

  • 75.
    Jacobsson, Filip
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Standardiserad manuell hantering av fel- och omärkta lådor på Varner DC2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Varner distribution center in Vänersborg, Sweden, is a part of Varner Retail, which contains brands as Dressman, Cubus, Bik Bok and Volt. The distribution center in Vänersborg was opened in 2016 and will distribute goods to all of the shops included in the group spread across northern parts Europe. The purpose of the newly built distribution center is to make distribution of goods more efficient and lower costs connected to warehouse management and distribution. When the distribution center was built, processes standards was being developed. The tool used to create and manage the standards are called Standard Operating Procedures (SOP). The SOP is presented in a document including determined risks of the process, and a work instruction. Continuous development of the SOP is important to ensure that the documents are up to date and relevant for the process. This project was initiated in response to the demand of a standardized work instruction in managing one of the common failure with handling incoming boxes containing goods. If boxes do not have a bar code or has an incorrect barcode, they have to be managed separately. The automated system will not be able to determine what kind of goods the box contains otherwise. Before this report and its result was presented to Varner Distribution Center no standardized work instruction was available in the existing SOP. This report describes the work progression in developing a work instruction which will be in addition to existing SOP's. It contains description of the methodology used, existing theory, prior scientific work in the subject developing and working with a standardized working instruction. Ending the report will be recommendations for continuous improvement through implementing more standards and educating operating personnel.

  • 76.
    Jannborg, Fredrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Pettersson, Mike
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beredning av nytt distributionsnät i området Långekärrs skola2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns a preparatory work for a distribution power grid 0,4 kV/12 kV in the area Långekärrs school on the island of Tjörn. The preparation is made by TROLKs El & Tele AB at the request from the network owner Ellevio AB and consists of a reconstruction. The project affects 34 subscribers and includes demolition of 3,1 km overhead power lines, construction of 6,4 km underground cable grid and replacement of 4 substations and 8 cable cabinets. This because Ellevio shall maintain their delivery reliability of 99,98 %. In this preparation, there is one field visit to get a better understanding about the project and the conditions. During the field visit photos are taken which are helpful for the placement of the substations, cable grids and cables. Permissions from the County Administrative Board, the municipality and the Swedish Transport Administration are sought, but are done by TROLKs project leader since this preparatory work is done parallel with TROLK. However, the procedure is described in the rapport. In the preparation two options are considered for cabling on a mountain that is a conservation area between Toröd–Vik. One option is to do as it was before and put up new composite poles and overhead cable. But the preparers instead are choosing a second option which means that the cable will be placed in a protection pipe and then attach it to the mountain. Advantages and disadvantages about which side of the road 727 the cable shall be placed at is being considered. Which side of the road is decided by where it will be the least amount of work and intrusion on the subscribers properties. The cost of the project is calculated with the help of Ellevios internal pricelist that is buildt upon the cost index of EBR. The total cost is estimated to 1,4 million SEK.

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  • 77.
    Jansson, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Byte till LED-armaturer i gatubelysningen i Kärna, Kungälvs kommun2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kungälv Energi AB köpte belysningsnätet från Kungälvs kommun år 2017, nätet består av drygt 7200 ljuspunkter över hela kommunen. Detta arbete berör förbrukningen för tre belysningscentraler och 142 av de 7200 ljuspunkterna i Kungälvs kommun, i området Kärna tio kilometer väst om centrala Kungälv. I Kärna är belysningen gammal och kostsam, förbrukningen är hög på grund av att det nuvarande belysningsnätet består av ljuskällor i högtrycksnatrium och metallhalogen. Kungälv Energi ersätter redan idag trasiga armaturer med LED.

    Rapporten analyserar förbrukningen i det befintliga nätet med avseende att beräkna hur stora energibesparingar som är möjligt att åstadkomma i ett armaturbyte till LED, med utgångspunkt att behålla samma belysningskvalité i anläggningen som tidigare. En närmare halvering av förbrukning kan ske vid utbyte till LED-armaturer i Kärna, 49 procent minskad förbrukning.

    Vidare tar författaren upp möjligheterna att sänka säkringsstorlekarna för ytterligare minskad fast avgift för elnätsabonnemangen i belysningscentralerna, med hjälp av att beräkna utlösningsvillkor för belysningsgrupperna. Dessvärre är nuvarande dokumentation över Kärnas belysning otillräcklig, för att på ett noggrant sätt kunna beräkna det verkliga utlösningsvillkoret i belysningsnätet. Detta gör det därmed omöjligt att kunna veta säkert om det är möjligt att sänka abonnemangen, varvid möjligheten försvinner att kunna sänka de fasta avgifterna i belysningsnätet.

    Utifrån montering och inköpspris är ett inköp av LED-armatur inte en vinstgivande investering om man enbart ser till kontrasterna mellan energibesparingen och kostnader för inköp och montering. Energibesparingen är satt utifrån en 25 års period som är livslängden för LED-armaturerna. Skillnaden i livslängd på nuvarande belysningsnät och LED-armaturerna skiljer sig med en faktor tio och underhållet av nätet kommer bli nästintill inaktuellt vid ett utbyte av armaturer i belysningsnätet. Slutsatsen blir att en investering i LED kommer att löna sig på sikt, då drift och underhåll av belysningsnätet kommer att minska.

  • 78.
    Johansson, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utformning och omläggning av last till ett mobilt ställverk2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the electric power industry, complex requirements are often set to minimize disturbances during construction or service work. A similar requirement is set by ST1 when they during a production stop intend to replace a switchgear in a station that feeds large parts of the plant. The requirement is that the switchgear should be replaced, but the plant must remain in operation. The purpose of the thesis work has then been to design a functional mobile switchgear for the voltage level of 10 kV. This mobile switchgear will then be placed outside the station that shall be renovated. Subsequently, several changes of cabling will take place and the feed from the switchgear that is to be replaced is moved to the temporary switchgear which distributes to the remaining part of the plant during the construction period.

    Borås Hospital has a 10 kV switchgear that is not in operation. This switchgear has been bought and can be used as a cost-effective solution if it is built up in a container and constitutes a mobile switchgear.

    Visits have been carried out at ST1's facility in Gothenburg and at Borås hospital for information gathering and identification of requirements and opportunities for the project. By processing the information retrieved during the two visits, an investigation could start. The investigation formed the basis for the design of the switchgear with protection functions, relay protection settings, dimensioning of cabling and redistribution of load to the mobile switchgear.

    Appropriate calculations have been made to ensure that the equipment that will be used in the project is sufficient from a thermal- and mechanical point of view. The calculations include short-circuit calculations, earth-closing calculations and loading.

    In addition to protective functions in a relay protection, safety for the design of the mobile switchgear has been investigated. This is done by using appropriate rules and requirements set by national and international standards. 

    The final result includes a physical placement of the switchgear inside the container with holes for cables, proposals for relay protection settings and a proposal for the redistribution of the load into the mobile switchgear. In addition, the thesis proposes appropriate safety measures issued by laws and regulations and technical descriptions.

  • 79.
    Johansson, Dahniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Automated inspection of defects onmetal surfaces2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aerospace industry is today manufacturing a large variety of parts. Some which are classifiedas critical, these parts are today manually inspected and validated according to proceduresand standards. The Aero space industry is interested in a product that can aid in the process of inspection and validation to reduce the manual work.

    The identification of the needs is done by a study visit at GKN Aerospace Sweden, in Trollhättan, and through questions and discussions with the staff from GKN. The main need is identified as an automated visual inspection of defects on metal surfaces. The automated inspection is divided into sub-functions, which in turn allows identification of potential robot tool modules.

    Modular design is a method which enables variations and updates of a product's features without being locked into a singular solution. Modular design also allows sustainability due to the ease of upgrading and recycling a product.

    The robot tool modules are developed into several concepts. The concepts are 3D modelled in CAD software and in parallel with the concept development, a simulation of an inspection procedure, including the 3D models, is developed in ABBs simulation environment RobotStudio. The development of the solution for the automated inspection is an iterative process. When the simulated solution is satisfying functionality and customer needs, construction drawings are created for the modules of the robot tool.

    The simulation and the manufactured tools are implemented in a real robot cell and as a result, the objective the project is met, an automated inspection of defects on metal surfaces.

  • 80.
    Johansson, Dahniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Modulbaserad arkitektur av lyftutrustning med tillbehör2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The battery pack that supplies the cars’ electric motor with energy is, on a regular basis, assembled and disassembled to the cars chassis. A product that can aid this procedure is required. The current practice does not satisfy all the customer needs that exist when the battery pack is handled. The identification of such needs and requirements are done by study visits at NEVS (National Electric Vehicle Sweden), study visits and benchmarking at competitors’, market research and questionnaires targeted to NEVS’ staff. During the initial identification of customer needs, more potential customers are discovered, both in the production department and in the aftermarket. As a result, customer needs increase and, in some cases, they are conflicting. Modularization is a method that enables update and variation to a product’s features without being locked into a singular product solution. The main identified customer need is positioning of a battery pack. The positioning is divided into sub-functions, which enables identification of potential modules. From these modules several concept ideas are generated. Parallel with the concept generation, European standards for machines are used to mitigate risks that invariably arise during product operation. Employing matrices, the concept suggestions for the various modules are screened according to a wide array of criteria. The conditions for combining module concepts with each other are analyzed. To minimize the risk of patent infringement, an investigation is performed with the help of the Swedish patent database. Based on the selected concepts, CAD (Computer Aided Design) models are created using Siemens NX 9. Models with critical functions are structurally analyzed by FEA (Finite Element Analysis) in ANSYS Workbench 17.2. The design work is an iterative process and when the models finally are optimized, prototype drawings are created. The drawings are sent to mechanical workshops for cost estimates. As a result, the objective of the project is met; a prototype to facilitate management of a 500 kg battery pack has been realized.

  • 81.
    Johansson, Joar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Lidell, Anton
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av manuell mätprocedur för flygmotordetalj 30k IMC2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The bachelor's thesis work has been situated at one of the workshops at GKN Aerospace Engine Systems site in Trollhättan which produces a specific product, jet engine component 30k IMC. The product is produced in large volumes and the company faces increased volumes in the forthcoming years. The increased volumes mean that the company must re-evaluate their use of resources to secure the capacity to produce according to the demand. They have realized that an existing coordinate measuring machine will bottleneck the production flow and therefor some of its operations have to be relieved.

    The purpose of the thesis work was to free up time in the coordinate measuring machine by removing one of the current operations to enable an increased production rate. A manual measuring procedure was required to remove or eliminate the operation. Therefor an examination had to be done of how the character numbers measured in the measuring machine operation to decide how they could be measured with manual measuring tools. The goal was to achieve the most efficient manual measuring procedure as possible by reducing the number of measuring tools and designing measuring tools that are easy to use and work with.

    The development of the measuring procedure required an analysis of the design drawings to form an understanding of how the character numbers could be verified. Multiple tests of the developed solutions were also required. All proposed solutions of measuring methods were shown and discussed with the concerning detail technician to achieve a good measuring operation. The result is a complete manual measuring procedure for all character numbers currently measured in the coordinate measuring machine. Some of the manual measuring tools are pending manufacturing while others are still only sketches. The proposed solution has been delivered to the concerning technicians and the next step is for a tool designer to model the measuring tools and then order their manufacturing. When the suggestions for the manual measuring procedure was completed, a study regarding the possibilities of three-dimensional optical scanning in the future was performed. When all measuring tools are manufactured a production-qualification is required to then be able to implement the complete solution in the production. Lastly the validity of the chosen methods, choices during the work and estimated economical and productivity effects of the work are discussed.

  • 82.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kvarnström, Josef
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konceptutveckling av en komfortabel skyddssko2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Attention has been payed to the fact that incorrectly dimensioned safety shoes might result in injuries caused to the back area, feet and hips. From the recognized problem a goal where established to develop a concept of a new safety shoe with purpose to reduce these injuries. The shoes are intended to be used indoors in settings such as factories. Safety shoes are divided into different standards depending on their functions and this work discusses only the S1P standard. S1P means that the product is equipped with a toecap, closed heel region, antistatic qualities, shock-absorption and penetration resistant together with oil- and petrol resistant sole. The design is intended to be a low shoe model and the development process will end with a final concept that will not be field tested or manufactured. The basis for this work is the product development process presented by Ulrich and Eppinger in their work, Produktutveckling: konstruktion och design. The process consists of following steps: planning, identification of costumer needs, establishing of product specifications, generating of concepts and a selection of one final concept. Recommended by the authors, Ulrich and Eppinger, the method has been modified in order to suit the needs of this work. In the last step, selection of a final concept, two extra steps where added: designand material selection. The method that was chosen to collect the customer needs was a qualitative interview study. The first step was followed by the establishment of a demandslist including their relative importance. With the demands as basis a first product specification was formed including attributes for the futured product. The attributes where assigned values based on a benchmarking process. Followed by the specification was a process where ideas for the final construction where generated and chosen. That step resulted in a variety of concepts which were screened to the final concepts functions. The design was chosen through a voting of among sketches and was followed by the selection of material that were made in the software CES EduPack. The development process resulted in a safety shoe with low weight, satisfying comfort due to its shock-absorbing soles and good ventilation. The BOA®-technique is used as tightening function for simplicity and flexibility. The toecap is perforated in order to reduce weight while increasing ventilation. To ensure that the purpose of this work is being achieved, the product has to reach the market but the goal which was set is achieved due to the concept that was developed. If continued work is of interest the authors recommend fabrication of a prototype in order to enable further analysis of the materials behavior, the constructions strength and the quality of the functions.

  • 83.
    Johansson, Kristina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Sandström, Kristina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    ISO- WACE – ett samtal om hur vi kan utveckla AIL internationellt tillsammans2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 84.
    Jönsson, Joel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Westerlund, Isak
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Besluts- och informationsunderlag för lagerhantering: "Plan For Every Part"2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The bachelor thesis was carried out at Parker Hannifin Manufacturing Sweden AB. Parker Hannifin manufactures hydraulic pumps and motors. The assignment was provided by the Supply chain department.

    Parker Hannifin currently has a system for purchased items which contains information about each item. Information obtained from the system is, among other things, batch sizes, delivery times, safety stock, inventory and variance in consumption. The system is called "Plan For Every Part", which is shortened to PFEP. PFEP is a supplementary document to the business system to be used as a decision-making and information base. The purpose of the thesis was to develop and produce an information and decision-making basis which the company should be able to implement. The goal was to design a PFEP for inhouse produced items that should be used for planning, as a decision-making and information base. The PFEP should contain basic information and relevant parameters for each item. If time allows, study material would be created for the relevant staff.

    The research design used was action research, which meant that the problem was solved while the topic was being studied. The course of action was plan, do, study and learn. The thesis includes the first three steps, the fourth step which means learn lessons from the result, will be done afterwards by the company. The methods used in information gathering were literature studies, benchmarking and observation of internal documents. The PFEP was divided into three categories, basic data, parameters and analysis function. The categorization was carried out to distinguish the purpose of the content, but also to get a clearer structure. The design of the PFEP for purchased items was used as inspiration to maintain a uniform appearance. This decision was made because Parker Hannifin works actively with Lean, where standardized working methods are an important part. The PFEP shows, using a comparison of the standard template, that the new calculations increase the stock levels.

    Data used in simulations was taken from three different sources: data obtained from the business system, data retrieved from an old PFEP and estimated values. This affects the reliability because real-value tests would produce a different result. Continued work that Parker Hannifin should carry on, for the PFEP to become a reliable tool, is to insert missing data into the business system. Finally, the goal is assessed to be achieved. However, study material was not created due to lack of time.

    The company is satisfied with the PFEP that has been developed and there will be continued work to make the tool complete.

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  • 85.
    Jönsson, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Zaric, Alexandar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Undersökning av användningsområden för drönare i elkrafttekniska sammanhang2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The presented report has been prepared on behalf of Vattenfall Services Nordic. At present time, large resources are being spent on inspections of among other things long power lines and electric power installations. In many cases expensive helicopters with expensive equipment are being used for inspection of power line and plant statuses. However there may be another solution, The drone.

    The report includes a survey into what technical solutions are available today within drone systems, how they are used in the power industry, which actors are currently developing the technology and how the future development looks.

    In order to be able to carry out inspections of electric power installations it is required that certain laws, regulations and instructions are followed. These are among other The National Electrical Safety Board's regulation ELSÄK-FS 2008:3, the Power Current Act SFS 2009:22 and the Electrical Safety Instructions ESA. In order to be able to fly with drones and carry out missions such as inspections, certain laws and regulations related to the flight and surveillance have to be complied with, including among others The Aviation Act SFS 2010:500 and The Camera Surveillance Act SFS 2018:1200

    The drone's potential for private but also industrial use is immense, especially so in the context of the electro industry, but it is not very practical to use for anything besides hobby flying without the connected equipment needed for inspection. In the report a survey of interesting platforms and equipment for the electric power industry is presented. The survey is largely based on information taken from the internet, but also from the interviews conducted with various manufacturers and operators of drone systems.

    The work culminates in a discussion on how the regulations affect the application of drones, how drones are used today, which opportunities there are for the future as well as what can be expected of the technological development in the near future. Finally recommendations are made on appropriate platforms and possible future use.

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  • 86.
    Jönsson,, Jonathan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Persson, Tobias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Research for a Replacement of the Lube Oil Centrifuge Separation System at Borealis AB2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor's thesis has been carried out at Borealis AB in Stenungsund, Sweden. The report presents a research for a replacement of two centrifuge separators. The separators is purifying the oil that lubricates machinery bearings and regulate the hydraulic control system on the steam powered turbines. These turbines drive the compressors C-1701 and C-1951. The separators installed at Borealis need to be changed because they are end-of-life. They require a lot of maintenance and spare parts are hard to find. An oil separator's task is to separate water from the oil and therefore maintain the quality of the oil. The water can enter the lubricating system from the steam turbines if a seal fails.

    The research started with collecting information about centrifuge separators to understand the principle of the separating method. Other methods for separation of oil and water were investigated to find the most effective, reliable, and most suitable product for the lubricating system. A requirement specification was made to make sure that the final recommended product fulfils all the necessary requirements. The place where the separators are going to be installed is an area where an explosive atmosphere can occur, and therefore there are higher demands on the products.

    A market survey was done, which included benchmarking and contacting suppliers for oil separators. The benchmark was done to see how similar industries with steam turbines solve the problem with water in the lube oil. The turbine manufacture, Thermodyn, was contacted to see what kind of oil separators they recommend for their turbines. Potential products were surveyed based on the benchmarking and the requirement specification. The product selection was made based on a concept screening method that is used in product development.

    The final recommendation was a vacuum dehydration separator from Pall called HXP022. The main benefit with a vacuum dehydrator is that it can remove the dissolved water from the oil, which increases the quality of the oil and therefore decreases the wear on the components. A centrifuge separator only removes the free water from the oil. An alternative recommendation was presented; a centrifuge separator from Alfa Laval, which uses the same method as the old separator at Borealis. The benefit with centrifuge separators is that they can separate water more rapidly than vacuum dehydrators. The final choice should be done by Borealis based on what is more important; separating the water from the oil quickly in case of a large water leakage or increasing the quality of the oil.

  • 87.
    Kalmertun, Filip
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Tallheden, Henric
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    G R&R-studier på manuella och optiska kontrollmetoder2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been performed at GKN Aerospace Sweden AB (GAS) in Trollhättan. The purpose with the study was to perform G R&R-studies on manual and optical control methods to examine the methods capability, reproducibility and repeatability. The result from the G R&R studies were used to identify improvement suggestions in metrology. The thesis has been delimited to ignore variation from various parts from a batch for manual control methods. Operator variation have been ignored from the optical control method.

    The project was performed as a mapping of seven manual control methods and one optical control method. The data collection was performed through several types of measurements. The supervisor at GAS decided what control methods to examine. It was decided what measurements to analyse with consultation from the supervisor and a GOM technician at GAS.

    To analyse the distribution of measurement results through G R&R-studies all measurement results were transmitted to Excel. Nine different measurement devices were used in the study. Ten G R&R studies were performed on manual control methods and 30 on the optical control method. The studies were categorised by what geometry was measured and by what measuring device that were being used. For each category a minimum acceptable tolerance width has been calculated to identify what capability each measuring device has on a specific geometry. The minimum acceptable tolerance width was calculated by multiplying the standard deviation with six and five. The standard deviation multiplied by five gives the area with 99,7 percent of the measurement deviation. The new value is then multiplied by five to get the acceptable deviation of the tolerance width of 20 percent that GAS use. Which gives the minimum acceptable tolerance width.

    All manual control methods have a minimum acceptable tolerance width of under 1 mm while the optical control method has certain measurement results where the deviation was to big to give a reliable result. The reliable results had a minimum acceptable tolerance width of up to 7,46 mm. For the general tolerance widths that was created for manual control methods it is assumed that they can be used in the factory. That assumes that there are good conditions when the measurements are taken and that no factors that was not included in the studies affect the measurements.

    The tolerance widths for the optical control method are different depending on what geometry that is being measured. Thus it cannot be said with confidence that optical measurements can be used on all kinds of geometries. To be able to use optical measurements on more geometries there need to be more studies made with changed conditions.

    For manual control methods the deviation of the measurement results depended mostly on reproducibility. For optical control methods it is not possible to define a specific factor that affects the deviation the most. The factors that have affected the deviation off the optical control method is alignment, how shiny the part is, high concavity and camera access.

    An improvement area that was detected after analysing the G R&R results was the alignment of the part against the nominal CAD drawing. It was revealed that the alignment varied on each scan. The alignment was examined with two tests that revealed that the measurement results deviated with changed alignments.

    It is recommended to ensure that the alignment of the parts that is being evaluated with optical control methods is the same while being used for evaluation of parts or similar studies to avoid a potential source of errors. The calculated tolerance widths might be useful anyways considering that the source of error only slightly affected the measurements.

    The result from the project shows that manual control methods are more accurate than the optical control method on most of the surfaces. As mentioned earlier there are many sources of error that can affect the results from optical measurements. Thus there are potential for improvements of the accuracy for optical measurements in the future to increase the capability.

  • 88.
    Karlsson, Casper
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Analysis of harmonic cross-modulation in HVDC line-commutated converters for practical design purposes2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of HVDC has many benefits over HVAC for some specific power transmission purposes. However, two major problems with HVDC links are that the converters produce harmonics and consume reactive power. Electrical filters are used to compensate for this and are a major cost driver of HVDC links. An accurate analysis of the modulation makes it possible to design an optimal filter solution in order to make the link financial viable. This report investigates how the complex cross-modulation phenomenon affects the harmonics. The investigation is limited to line-commutated converter technology (LCC) and excludes the newer voltage-source converter technology (VSC) for which the crossmodulation behavior is very different and requires completely different analysis techniques. This report refers to several MATLAB programs. All of these have been developed by the author as part of this thesis work. The report starts by explaining analytically, with the help of switching functions, how harmonics are cross-modulated across line-commutated converters. It is then explained and shown how a MATLAB program, BOWSER, in the time-domain can be used to calculate accurate switching functions when the converter is supplied with a general voltage source and when the DC current contains ripple. After that it is explained and shown how a second MATLAB program, DONKEYKONG, can be created to model an HVDC link in the frequency domain by iterating BOWSER. The cross-modulation phenomena is then finally analyzed in the frequency domain with the help of DONKEYKONG. The result is that the cross-modulation phenomenon can be divided into two groups, affected by grid and DC-side impedance as well as the overlap angle variation. Which will affect the characteristic and non-characteristic harmonics in different ways. It was found that the characteristic harmonics are affected by the cross-modulation due to grid and DC-side impedance by up to 12 % and that low order non-characteristic harmonics can diverge up to 900 % when the converter was supplied with 1 % fundamental unbalance. It also showed that the non-characteristic harmonics have almost the same amplitude for all power transmission levels of the HVDC link. The report shows that the cross-modulation caused by the grid and DC-side impedance, which is sometimes ignored or treated in a simplified way, can affect the practical filter design a lot. It also shows step by step how the MATLAB programs are created

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  • 89.
    Karlsson, Victor
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Product Design for Safer Trampolines in Domestic Use2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The trampoline has become popular among children and adolescences during the recent years which is good because it endorses psychical activity. However, around 100 000 persons are injured every year only in the United States, study shows. Because of the amount of people and because the young age group can obtain long term injuries, there are reasons to find new ways to improve trampoline safety.

    Firstly, the problem was identified by doing data analysis with NEISS which is a database that contains consumer product-related injuries. The data provided information regarding the most critical types of injuries which is caused by trampoline use. With an FMEA the three most critical injuries were identified and those were: lower leg-, lower arm- and internal head injury. Secondly, to understand the cause of the selected injuries, further data analysis and literature studies were done to find connections between the injury mechanism and the anatomy.

    The results show that internal head injuries often occur after fall from the trampoline, lower leg injuries were the result of an incorrect landing, and lower arm fractures were caused by landing on an outstretched arm. In every injury case, the most vulnerable age group was children between 0-6 years of age. An explanation for this is that young children have not had their growth-plates hardened and are therefore more exposed to fractures.

    Lastly, with the help of the information about the injuries and the accidents, product developing process was initiated to create a product that can improve trampoline safety. The process included: identifying customer needs, product specification, conceptualization, system leveled design, and assessments for intellectual properties and patents, regulations, and product safety.

    This resulted in the development of a harness, specifically for backyard trampolines with the purpose to provide the user with stability, dampened landings and from falling off the trampoline. The harness can be used by young children for casual jumping and by older children for doing tricks.

  • 90.
    Kjellsson, Henrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Concept development of re-assemblable eductor tube in Turbine Rear Frame2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the possibilities to design a re-assemblable eductor tube in the GEnx Turbine Rear Frame (TRF). The eductor tube is mounted inside one of the struts of the TRF and provides pressurized air from the compressor to the center vent tube to support positive pressure differential over bearing seals in the engine. The goal was to develop a basic concept for an eductor tube which can be assembled without welding and disassembled without destructive processing.

    Two concepts were selected from the product development process for possible implementation in future TRF models.

    • Concept 1, which is designed with a bolt joint that provides a reliable and recognized fastening method.

    • Concept 2, which contains a strut tube with flange and retaining plates between the TRF and cast fitting for fixing of the tube.

    The project has been executed through a structured product development process through identifying customer needs, product specification, concept generation and concept selection. The goal through the process had been to generate concepts based on customer needs. The concepts have been generated through observations, TRIZ methodology, consulting experts, brainstorming and a concept combination table. To ensure that the concepts were based on customer needs, methods such as House of quality, focus group sessions and a scoring matrix was utilized in the project.

    Furthermore, analytical prototypes of the two concepts were created. The prototypes were utilized in order to illustrate the concepts and to determine the geometric boundaries of the concept by detect interference between other components. Hand calculations of concept DG were also performed using a joint diagram in order to determent the concepts mechanical properties for axial loadings.

  • 91.
    Koca, Serhat
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Uca, Rodem
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kartläggning av problemområden i godshanteringen vid införande av en digital truckapplikation: Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB i Trollhättan2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the spring term of 2019 a thesis was carried out. The aim and goal were to identify possible problem areas on goods handling before introducing a digital truck application at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB in Trollhättan. The thesis will not address the implementation process of Ubertruck. No recommendations on digital design for eventual adjustments of Ubertruck throughout the thesis was suggested.

    In order to identify possible problem areas when introducing Ubertruck, the goods handling at both SIT-Trollhättan and SIT-Finspång was surveyed with the help of interviews and observation, five interviews was carried throughout this project.

    With the help of the results from the surveys, two problem areas were identified at SIT Trollhättan, lacking traceability and unnecessary transports. It was established that these problem areas occur in inventory and production. The lacking traceability in inventory is because use of a system which only indicates which inventory the goods is placed, however it does not indicate were in inventory (which shelf) it is placed. The lacking traceability in production is because there is no system for tracing the goods to the operations, therefore it is only the goods deliverer and operator who receives the goods that knows where in production the goods is located. Because of that the goods deliverer must look for goods that have undergone an operation and leads to unnecessary transport. The unnecessary transports are also due to the fact that the inventories are spread out throughout the production facility.

    Based on the result, it is considered that the aim and goal of the thesis is fulfilled to the level possible. The drawn conclusion is that the problem areas at the introduction of Ubertruck are lacking traceability and unnecessary transport, which are located in inventory and production at SIT-Trollhättan.

  • 92.
    Kockgård, Rasmus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konceptstudie av generering och uppsamlingsnät för förnyelsebar elproduktion från vågkraft2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete visar på olika metoder att hantera den el som genereras i vågkraftverket av företaget Waves4Power. Denna rapport är baserad på Waves4Powers punktabsorberande vågkraftverk som är uppbyggt i form av en boj. Det finns flera möjliga strategier över hur generering och uppsamlingsnät kan se ut och därför är det av intresse att presentera olika alternativ och undersöka det mest lämpliga. Olika typer av generatorer samt omriktare presenteras. Vindkraftsparker offshore har flertalet likheter och liknande förutsättningar som vågkraftsparker, därför sammanförs information om vindkraft för att bidra med kunskap för valet av generator och omriktare. Valet av generator och omriktare är en central del för att leveransen av el ska vara pålitlig och för att relevanta beräkningar ska kunna genomföras. Uppsamlingsnätets design baseras på den tänkta vågkraftsparkens avstånd till land. Tre olika avstånd presenteras; kustnära, medellångt och avstånd långt ute till havs. Kustnära avstånd är aktuellt vid ett litet antal bojar och ett avstånd till land på några få kilometer. Om placering av vågkraftsparken sker långt ute till havs, med ett avstånd över ~50 km måste högspänd likström användas och blir relevant först vid ett stort antal bojar (ca 250 st.). En medellång överföring definieras som 20 – 40 km och detta fall är mest relevant för gällande förutsättningar. Uppsamlingsnätets föreslagna design består av maximalt tio bojar med en total maximal effekt på 2 MW sammankopplade till en gemensam transformator. Överföringen undersöks med tre nominella standardiserade överföringsspänningar som är baserade på den effekt som ska överföras; 11, 22 samt 33 kV. Vid 33 kV överföringsspänning, 2 MW producerad aktiv effekt och en överföringslängd på 40 km är spänningsfallet 0,013 p.u, vid 22 kV överföringsspänning är spänningsfallet 0,024 p.u och vid 11 kV överföringsspänning är spänningsfallet 0,073 p.u. Vid samma förutsättningar är de aktiva effektförlusterna vid 33 kV 37 kW, vid 22 kV 72 kW samt vid 11 kV är förlusterna 215 kW. Även olika variationer på överföringseffekter och kablar undersöks och resultat presenteras. För 11 kV överföringsspänning visar sig ha oacceptabla nivåer på spänningsfall för de flesta undersökta förutsättningarna, därför bör 22 eller 33 kV överföringsspänning väljas. Valet av spänningsnivå och kabel baseras till stor del på ekonomiska faktorer, vilket denna rapport inte omfattar. Däremot visas skillnader mellan olika designer relativt varandra och underlättar därmed valet avsevärt.

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  • 93.
    Korkmaz, Imdat
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Sundström, Marcus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Solceller och batterilagring i Off-Grid-system för en besöksanläggning2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a pilot study that has been made with the purpose to make a new facility in Onsala operating Off-Grid by using solar cells, short-term storage based on batteries and a long-term storage with hydrogen combined with fuel cells. This report focuses only on the solar panels and the short-term storage.

    An Off-Grid-system is a system that is self-supported and isn't connected to the electrical grid. In this case the facility will be able to be electrically self-supported 365 days a year. The facility will mostly have visitors from schools and it has a footprint area of 431 m2 and a total area of 498 m2. An earlier pilot study of the facility regarding the power consumption has been produced by Bengt Dahlgren AB and it has provided the estimated energy consumption that is the basis for this study. The annual electricity consumption has been estimated to 14 700 kWh where the heat production for the facility is based on a geothermal heat pump. By counting on a best-case-scenario, that's used throughout all three scenarios, the surplus heat as water from producing hydrogen is used to heat up the facility, leading to less operational time for the geothermal heat pump. A more efficient geothermal heat pump has also been used in this study when counting on this best-case-scenario. With less hours running time the annual electricity consumption is lowered by almost half to 6 749 kWh.

    For dimensioning of the solar panels, the simulating-program PV-SOL has been used. The program is taking weather, roof-angles, shading, insolation, the angle against the sun and losses in cables and components into account when calculating the annual electricity produced during a year. Scenario 1 gave the result of 16 621 kWh as annual electricity produced. After reduction for direct consumption in the facility and the energy demanded by the batteries, 12 371 kWh goes to production of hydrogen. This results in an over production of 759 kWh that's not used. In scenario 2 the same types of solar panels used on the roof are also placed on the outer south wall. The annual electricity produced now increases to 22 001 kWh. The excess energy after the facility and the battery consumption now increases to 17 248 kWh that is used for hydrogen production. This gives an increased surplus of 2 635 kWh. In this last scenario, scenario 3, a new solar panel was used and placed on the ground with an angle of 15˚ from the horizontal plane, directed to the south, i.e. a perfect condition. The total annual electricity produced then reached 26 573 kWh and the excess energy after the facility and the battery consumption is now increased to 21 743 kWh that is used for hydrogen production. This results in an over production of 3 909 kWh as surplus electricity for the facility. With this amount of electrical surplus energy, the facility can operate with a 58 % power increase. That's 47 % more than in scenario 1 and 19 % more than in scenario 2.

  • 94.
    Krantz, Linus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utveckling av offertkalkyleringsmall för installation av laddningsstationer för elbilar2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the last years there has been a growth in the use of electric vehicles and it is expected for the growth to continue. This means that there is also a growth in the demand for the infrastructure for charging. Electric installation corporations will get more offer requests for charging stations. Thus, the project has simulated a numerous of imaginary projects. This is made to develop a template which could be used by the planners from the corporation to calculate the costs when an offer request is received by the company.

    This project sees everything from below in the grid and has no consideration of how the grid looks further up. The project has only a consideration up to the main fuse of said customer. This assumption is made due to the fact that when a private person has bought an electric car, he or she won't bother how the grid looks further up, he/she just assumes that the charging station will work.

    In the project there is also a discussion whether or not a car salesman can offer a charging station with installation from a registered electrical installation corporation to the customer.

    In the report results from the project will be shown in charts which later on will be used by the planners when calculating an offer. The results were expected by the corporation. The corporation did not know where the results would end up in the chart, but now when they have the results they have a better understanding of where the results ended up. The planner should be able to use the template even if the request expands the limits that the imaginary projects were calculated in.

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  • 95.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ståhl, Carl-Oscar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Informationsbehov vid användning av maskindata för beslutsfattande2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The supporters of Industry 4.0 promise large advantages for companies who implement it, but it does not come all that easily. This thesis investigates what challenges and demands industry personnel experience with introducing connected machines and also what user needs exists for the different functions within a value stream at GKN.

    A qualitative case study was carried out in order to answer these questions. The case study consisted of ten interviews with respondents who serve different roles within the same value stream. Two of the respondents are developing the systems required between the machines and an acquired tool for visualization. The remaining respondents were personnel from four different functions, CAM, PME, operators and management.

    The result was analyzed and compiled with the use of tree maps in order to show the end-users needs. The analysis also showed that the information needed differed between functions, though two themes were recurring amongst all users. The relationship of temperature i.e. the temperature inside the machine, of the cooling liquid and ambient temperature and also machine status i.e. if, for how long and why a machine has stopped. It is these user needs that should be prioritized and a focus on the Deckel Maho, multiple operation-machines, is needed since the respondents discloses that the toughest tolerances are set in these. In order for the system developers to be able to develop the system is such a way that it is used and therefore is able to be of value they need to procure what type of information is of use to the users. They also need to collaborate with the IT-department to ensure smooth implementation. Moreover, the knowledge needs to be documentated which is lacking today.

    In order to succeed in taking the step into the future, it is important that the entire organization supports the future work and engages in the development. If one is to be able to make the quick decisions that connected machines make possible and the future requires, then all parts of the organization must be capable of doing so.

  • 96.
    Kristiansson, Lilia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Competence development through Project-based learning in higher education i Sweden and England2012In: 40th annual congress of the Nordic Educational Research association, NPFP/NERA: 8-10 mars, 2012, Copenhagen, Aarhus: Department of Eduation, Aarhus University , 2012, p. 286-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of higher education curricula has been changing from factual knowledge acquisition to developing students competences in response to a changing professional environment in the context of a knowledge economy and labour market globalisation.

    Despite these social changes, existing teaching and learning strategies in Engineering are still mainly lecture-based.

    We investigate competence development using a Project- Based Learning (PrBL) environment on a range of Engineering programmes at Lancaster University, UK and Högskolan Väst, Sweden. We evaluate the PrBL potential to enhance student employability prospects.

    PrBL is an example of collaborative student-focussed learning underpinned by constructivist theory which encourages deeper learning via construction of meaning, connection of ideas and creation of meaningful artefacts. PrBL stimulates collaborative knowledge building among participants and develops a range of skills through creating an informal learning environment. First and second-year students on undergraduate programmes in Engineering departments in both universities with projects as part of their course participated in this study. In the UK the students had to design, build and test two types of robots. The Swedish students were given a project to make calculations for a pump with preset parameters. The projects were designed to help the students acquire competences relevant to their future career. All students worked in small groups. After finishing their projects, the students completed an open-ended questionnaire about their experiences.

    The students evaluated PrBL positively, stating that they developed problem solving and analytical skills and the ability to apply mathematical tools. They highly rated collaboration with peers and emphasised the necessity of developing time management, communication and organisational skills.

    Higher education systems in Europe including Scandinavia are facing new challenges in developing students' employability. We conclude with recommendations for promoting PrBL in university courses as it contributes to competence development and is an efficient tool when administrative resources are limited and when academic staff are faced with large student numbers.

  • 97.
    Kristiansson, Lilia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    The impact of Industry Placements on Motivation and Competence Development of Engineering Students in Sweden2013In: The 41st Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association: Disruptions and eruptions as opportunities for transforming education. Abstract book., Reykjavik: Northeastern Educational Research Association, NERA , 2013, p. 333-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current economic climate increasing pressure is put on universities to provide opportunities

    for students to develop skills necessary for their future employment. Courses which offer a

    placement in industry are becoming more appealing to students. We investigate the impact of

    undertaking an industry placement on engineering students’ motivation for learning and

    competence development.

    Research demonstrates that industry experience increases students’ interest and makes them

    more aware of how theoretical course knowledge is applied to practical situations. This increases

    their interest in the subject because they are more aware of its relevance to their future work. In

    this study we looked at students’ experiences from their work placements and the competences

    they developed. On the basis on this knowledge we investigated the opportunities to introduce

    new elements in course delivery to increase the motivation of non-placement students and

    compared the competences developed by the students who undertook placements and those who

    did not.

    The study was carried out at the University West, Sweden in 2010-2012 among the mechanical

    engineering undergraduates. The students were asked to complete a questionnaire. The students

    who went on placements had to answer an extended set of questions about their placement

    experience and competence development. The non-placement students answered questions about

    competence development only.

    The collected data showed that the placement students gave very positive feedback about their

    practice and the analysis demonstrated that this practical experience supports and inspires their

    further study. The students’ evaluation has encouraged tutors to introduce new practice-based

    problems in relevant courses, conduct mixed group tutorials and share placement students’

    experience with all of their peers. We believe that these new practices will improve motivation

    among non-placement students and enhance their learning process. We also anticipate that

    placement and non-placement students will have developed different sets of competences, which

    will inform our teaching practices. This study will be important for other tutors who have students

    on courses with an industry experience option who are interested in using the placement

    students’ experiences and competence development to enhance motivation in the class as a

    whole.

  • 98.
    Kristiansson, Lilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, Daria
    Is co-op education a source of increased motivation for learning?2012In: The European Conference on Educational Research, ECER 2012: 18-21 sept, 2012, Cádiz, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many universities across the world offer a model for course delivery which combines academic study with a placement in industry. This educational model originated in the U.S., where the automobile industry wanted to ensure a supply of skilled engineers. This educational process has been described in different ways, for example in America it is known as 'cooperative education', or co-op, while in the UK it adopted the name of 'sandwich courses'.

    There is a vast amount of literature which assesses the role of work practice in the development of competences and skills of future professionals, the effect it has on the transition of graduates into the work environment, how it shapes their career aspirations etc. At the same time there are studies which look into the effect of placements on students' motivation in their academic performance.  The research results demonstrate that students who have chosen a co-op model are more motivated in their studies than those students who have chosen not to go on placements [e.g. 1, 2]. The main reasons for the increased motivation of students who chose the co-op route were that their work experience provided them with evidence that the theoretical knowledge they learn at the university is relevant to their work.

    Despite of the benefits that co-op model can bring into students' learning experience, the success of this model across different countries varies. For example, in Sweden the co-op model is very popular among students. However, in the UK the number of students entering this route is decreasing [3].

    In this paper we address the success of the co-op model, especially in relation to students' motivation for their academic study using the co-op programme offered by the Engineering department, University West, Sweden as an example. The aim of this study is to investigate which aspects of academic knowledge students find useful for their practical placements and how their experience of applying this knowledge can be put into practice to increase to motivation for learning of the other students who choose the traditional educational route.

    The main two objectives of educators are: first, to contribute to students' subject knowledge; second, to motivate students to learn. We assume that students coming into higher education have a so-called intrinsic motivation when they begin their studies although it is not always the case in practice. Our task as educators is to stimulate individuals, offer them external motivation to improve their skills and to ensure that they do not lose interest in their selected topics [4].

    To achieve this goal a university teacher can build on positive students' attitudes by creating an open and imaginative atmosphere at lectures and tutorials, for example through the use of alternative teaching methods, such as problem-based learning or project-based learning.

    The study was carried out at the University West in 2010/11. The students who participated in the study opted for the co-op model and the participating tutor taught a module on Solid Mechanics on both co-op and traditional routes.

    MethodFor this study, a mixed-methods approach was used comprising open-ended questionnaires and observations. The students who went on placements were asked to complete a questionnaire at the end of each placement period. The questionnaire was designed to capture the students' experience during their practice focusing on the effect of the placements on their motivation in their further academic study. As part of the existing curriculum the students who went on placements had also to give a presentation to their peers at the end of each placement period where they summarised their work, the responsibilities they had, the engineering problems they were solving, and reflected on their experience. These presentations were observed by the tutor. The data from the questionnaires and presentations were later analysed for students' opinions about the opportunities that they received during their placements for deepening their academic knowledge. Based on the results of this analysis, new engineering problems adapted from the students' practice were introduced into the Solid Mechanics course delivery together with new teaching methods, such as problem-based learning and project-based learning, to achieve higher motivation in students who have not opted for a co-op model [5, 6].

    Expected OutcomesThe collected data showed that the students gave very positive feedback about their practice and the analysis demonstrated that this practical experience supports and inspires further study. In their reports students suggested using new practical-based problems in relevant courses. Using real-life problems can make learning richer and more rewarding for all students.The co-op students can share their work experience with their non-co-op peers by giving presentations regarding the relevance of the academic course content to their job, the problems they were solving while on the placements, the opportunities for challenging future jobs as well as increased confidence and self-esteem. The tutor observed that problem-based learning and project-based learning based on working in groups as well as the use of the real-life problems increased motivation in non-co-op students. They became more responsible, active, and knowledge-seeking and improved their communication with peers. The tutor also observed that having a mix of students who had placements and those who did not in the groups formed a stimulating learning environment. In conclusion, suggestions were made in relation to what can be incorporated into a range of engineering programmes to increase students' motivation and enhance their engagement with the learning process.

  • 99.
    Kyrk, Ellinor
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    An analysis of the logistic elements needed to successfully introduce a new product2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The market is constantly growing for E-commerce companies and it is expanding globally. The world is more united than ever before and can easily reach out to import or export. For E-commerce companies it is crucial to create a structure within the warehouse that is beneficial both in terms of material handling and worker efficiency. A company's efficiency is perhaps its most valued quality – giving logistics an extremely important role to play. For smaller companies it can become problematic with an increase in sales if it means they need to expand their inventory in order to complete larger orders and purchases. The workflow also needs to be able to handle the increase in material handling and orders.

    The purpose with the thesis was to evaluate the current structure in a small warehouse and present ideas to increase efficiency and eliminate waste. With unnecessary waste eliminated, the objective was to optimize the work space and provide ideal conditions for further growth.

    The analyzed company was Ecodi AB. An e-commerce company founded in 2010, the main product is Snus and the company has four suppliers located around Sweden. To expand further they are looking into the possibility of implementing a new product to the current collection.

    To evaluate the structure, the workflow within the warehouse was mapped out and analyzed. Using theories from Lean production and Supply Chain Management, wastes and inefficiencies were highlighted. To gain insight and knowledge of the company, information was gathered using interviews, observations, brainstorming and general research. Connections could then be made using Quality tools (such as the seven quality management tools and the seven quality control tools).

    The results show that implementing the lean production system, along with systems from the supply chain management, increases the efficiency within the warehouse and eliminates waste. The efficiency results in a chain reaction and improves communication which therefore relieves stress from workers. Potential improvements are presented and further research highlighted.

  • 100.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    The Quality Café: developing the World-Café method for organizational learning by including quality management tools2019In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 30, no 13-14, p. 1515-1527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the possibility of integrating the World Café method with the affinity diagram tool from quality management. The proposed combination is called the Quality Café. Quality Cafés were carried out at seven spa hotels, one municipality and two student organisations. The cafés were assessed with feedback seminars and questionnaires. The findings show that the method was appreciated by the participants. It contributed to profound dialogues with deepening insights, which stimulated creativity, increased understanding for quality issues and allowed a more holistic view. In addition, the method was experienced as enjoyable and in itself creating coherence. The findings were related to organisational learning theory and several connections were found. The Quality Café should be a useful method for researchers in social science as well as for practitioners. A limitation is that determining the specific effects of the Quality Café method compared to the original World Café is difficult.

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