Change search
Refine search result
123 51 - 100 of 139
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 51.
    Haag, Isabelle
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Halldin, Pernilla
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Äldre fastighetsindelningsbestämmelser i konflikt med stadsutveckling och förtätning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many people consider the best way to get rid of the housing shortages is to densify the city in existing neighborhoods, as there is already some operational service and infrastructure available. An obstacle to this densification may be existing plans with property division provisions which lock the cadastral and require extensive plan work to be removed. Many municipalities chose to actively remove property division provisions just before the amendment of the law that took effect with new Planning and Building Act in 2011, which made the repeal more complicated. The municipality of Gothenburg did not actively remove these and now they have about 5000 old and new plans with property division provisions.

    The purpose of this study has been to get a picture of the factors and motives that make it possible to rethink plans with property division provisions. To achieve this, we needed to analyze legislation with preliminary work and the considerations made in Gothenburg on plan requests for cancellation of such provisions. It has also resulted in a survey of areas in Gothenburg. The study is legal-judged and implemented with interactive induction.

    As there have been frequent changes in legislation in attempting to simplify the planning process for the cancellations of property division provisions, to take less time and demand less resources, the study has determined to what extent simplification of the planning process results in a more efficient process. Resource efficiency for municipalities and shorter process time for individuals are the result of a more effective planning process but may also jeopardize legal certainty as neighbors' right to conduct their action is restricted. These aspects have been studied in parallel with the Case Study in Gothenburg and result in more legislative simplifications should be introduced with great caution in order not to jeopardize legal certainty.

    The outcome of the Case Study in Gothenburg, where plan requests were studied, will include a survey of priority areas. They are considered to be a priority as a result of the cancellation of the property division provisions would lead to several new residential lots. These areas consist of properties divided into three categories, where category one is areas that should primarily be a priority for removing the property division provisions in and then categories with areas that constitute second and third priority. The lots are subject to property division provisions, are placed within priority development area and are not affected by cultural programs. These criteria proved to be decisive for the outcome of the plan requests. In addition to this, the residential lots have high values and are of such size that there is possible to make it into two lots.

  • 52.
    Hadenius, Amanda
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Planering av grönytor och bostäder i turiststarka kommuner2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today we are planning and developing a lot in cities and villages. Due to Sweden's increasing population our needs for housings is increasing and the counties planning befall thereafter. But we do have a need of green areas as well, both seen to health in several perspectives but also for our well-wellbeing. Both green areas and housings are common interest that needs to accommodate in every planning, but how do you plan for those? The purpose for this thesis is to analyse and compare two counties with a lot of tourists in their planning of green areas and housings. The comparing counties are west coastal Tanum and the mountain filled Malung-Sälen. To answer the questions in the thesis the counties overview plans, detailed plans and public prints that was relevant to the subject was studied. Also interviews in a semi structured qualitative method was held with the plan managers in both counties. These was held to gather knowledge and understanding. In the thesis the environmental quality goals is also up-to-date specially the goal good built environment since it has similar grounds as the thesis has focused on.

    The conclusion is that the counties that has been reviewed have different issues in planning. They both have different prerequisites which could contribute to the varied results. Since both counties already have bigger green areas outside the planning side, they do not believe that the question regarding green spaces disappearing in the conurbation is a problem. The fact that housings is utilized as secondary residences instead of permanent is nearby nonexistent in Malung-Sälen while it is a challenge in Tanum. The environmental quality goal is not intentional processed on local level which is necessary in order to slow the loss of biodiversity that we have today, however they have both methods that works in environmental advantage but is not mentioned as environmental quality goal in specific. If the differences in the counties planning are due to their different prerequisites and their structure or if the counties in general have different planning methods cannot with absolute certainty be determined from without only two counties. But it can be determined that these do differ.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 53.
    Hansson Carlberg, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    En utforskande studie om prestanda i utvinning av kryptovalutan Burstcoin2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Talks about cryptocurrencies in society today keeps increasing and currently the most wellknown is Bitcoin. One thing that has been criticized is the amount of energy which Bitcoin consumes and that is one of the reasons why new more environmentally friendly alternatives have been developed. One of these is Burstcoin which uses Proof of Capacity instead of Proof of Work, which is used in Bitcoin. Proof of Capacity is a relatively new concept which uses disk storage instead of computing power. The purpose of this thesis is to explore how mining-performance when mining Burstcoin can be affected by hardware and by using plot files in different ways. This is analyzed by measuring read times and total block times in five different tests. The tests used in this thesis are examining how the size of plot files affect read times and total block times, how different type of storage disks performs when mining Burstcoin, how different instruction sets affect performance, how optimized and non-optimized plot files differs and how continuous plot files performs compared to split up plot files. Beyond this a benchmark is performed on the storage drives to get a baseline for how the drives perform when doing sequential and random reads. The results show that SSD drives perform best while mining, but the difference compared to hard disk drives is too small to motivate the price difference to hard disk drives which are cheaper. The most important thing about instruction sets is to not use SSE2 since it performs a lot worse than SSE4, AVX and AVX2, although the difference between the last three is too small to concretely say that the latest (AVX2) is a requirement when mining. Non-optimized and split up plot files perform worse than their counterparts. Though split up plot files can still be used as long as they are not split up in to too many files since every file increases the number of searches performed by the mining software.

  • 54.
    Hansson, Linda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Singmo, Anna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Krav i markanvisningstävlingar2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Land allocations can only be performed by the Swedish municipalities on the land they themselves own. When the municipalities design a land allocation, they have different types of procedures to choose from. One of these is called land allocation competition, when chosen its often for an area which the municipality already have formed a vision regarding what it should become. A competition program is created with certain demands set by the municipality, following the developers create a design for the area and present this. Subsequently the municipality consider the designs and choses the one which falls best in line with the competition program.

    The aim of the study is to investigate how the Swedish municipalities frame the land allocation competitions, and which types of demands they outline in the competition programs.

    All 290 Swedish municipalities were contacted and 200 of them responded on whether they use land allocation competitions, in total 43 municipalities use such.

    The study only contains land allocation competitions that have been completed after January 1st, 2015. A total of 57 land allocation competitions have been examined.The result of the study shows that the Swedish municipalities requires different types of demands, some more specified than others. It can also be shown that demands are outlined which extends beyond such defined in the Swedish constitutional law and the planning and building act.

    In conclusion, municipalities strive to reach goals of sustainable development in the process of building a city. Municipalities demands that exploitation contribute to a sustainable urban planning and design.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 55.
    Helgesson, Jens
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Kulturbevarande planbestämmelser i detaljplanering: Hur väl stämmer dessa och vilka kunskaper har kommunens tjänstemän?2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the middle ages, Sweden has had rules on how to relate to building and land use. Today, municipalities have planned monopoly according to the Planning and Building Act. This means that they have the excluisive right to decide how to use the municipality´s land and water areas. They also have the opportunity to protect valuable cultural environment. What is protected is governed by the Planning and Building Act, but not how rulse are designed to protect cultural historical values, with the exception of the clarity claim. When municipalities are to establish such a provishion, they can use the General Council of Boverket, as many do.

    The purpose of the study has been to map the erors and ambiguities of cultural conservation provisions in municipal plans, as well as to investigate the skills of municipal officials regarding cultural conservation in a detailed plan.

    The result shows that 57 % of the surveyed municipalities´cultural conservation plans contain something wrong or are unclearly formulated. Other studies that have been reviewed also show similar results. The majority of municipal officials know that there is a general requirement in the Planning and Building act to take into account cultural historical value. However, many consider themselves to have insufficient knowledge of the subject and often employ expert expertise from outside and trust that they comply applicable laws and regulations.

  • 56.
    Herrman, Madeleine
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Ovårdade tomter och förfallna byggnader2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In May 2011, a new planning and building act (PBL) entered into force. It meant that the supervisory responsibility for municipalities was clarified and limited to focusing primarily on post-screening. In connection with this, the intervention possibilities were strengthened and clarified compared to previous legislation. The new law also meant that a property's condition and maintenance no longer relate only to the external parts of the construction works, but now also to its interior. According to PBL 8 chap. 14 § is the property owner's duty to keep his buildings in a nurtured condition and requirements for maintenance. Similar requirements are found in PBL 8 chap. 15 § that plots shall be kept in a well-kept condition and managed so that the risk of accidents is limited.

    Management of supervisory matters regarding PBL 8 chap. 14 and 15 § is a relatively timeconsuming and resource-intensive work for construction committees. A report from länsstyrelsen, from 2017, shows that supervisory matters are not prioritized in relation to other cases and that it is largely lacking in competence and experience with the administrators.

    The purpose of the study is to investigate how municipalities within the county of Västra Götaland have stated that they handle the problem of untidy plots and dilapidated buildings. The review was conducted via a questionnaire survey sent to ten municipalities in county of Västra Götaland. The results were compiled and then compared.

    Based on the result, the conclusion is that there are relatively few notifications of untidy plots or dilapidated buildings, and that there is a large number of darkness's of properties that are characterized by mismanagement. Few cases are initiated by the municipalities quarreling and the municipalities that can be considered larger, in terms of the number of citizens and area, usually have better resources for conducting supervisory matters that are affected by PBL 8 chap. 14 and 15 §. Many municipalities almost exclusively prioritize the supervisory matters that concern real estate where there is a risk of general danger or traffic hazards. However, the study is so small that it cannot be considered to constitute scientific statistics. In order to increase reliability, a larger study within the same subject should be performed.

  • 57.
    Hiort, Alexander
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Bandbreddmätning och paketanalys via Raspberry Pi2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report will consist of a presentation, an installation and a setup of a network analyser. It can measure the speed usage of devices and analyse its traffic and is managed via its own Wi-Fi. It is made using a raspberry pi 3 with a touch screen and an external ethernet adapter as well a battery for not having to plug it into an electrical outlet.

    There will be tests to see if the prototype is useful in a home network or if it is possible to use it in a corporate network. The report will give results and conclusion that the prototype can be used in a home network but has some limitations for being used in company networks.

  • 58.
    Hjärtinge, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Nordebo, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Anläggningsarrenden för idrottsändamål2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The right to use real estate is an important part of the Swedish history. Leasehold is such a form of right of use and has existed in Swedish law since the introduction of the 1907 nyttjanderättslag (NJL). Since 1970, NJL is a part of the jordabalk (JB). One of the four leaseforms is commercial ground lease, which is a legal institution that has existed since the 1968 reform of NJL. In order to be able to grant land through commercial ground lease, a number of terms are required. The terms "acquisition activity", "building" and "building's importance for the operation of the business" are all unclear formulated in the preparatory works for the NJL. In the preparatory works, sports facilities are excluded from the commercial groundlease and are instead referred to apartment lease. Apartment lease is a form of lease that does not have indirect possession protection and thus the right to replacement compensation when the lease ceases. Reasons for why sports facilities are excluded do not appear from the prepartory work. The legal situation within the commercial ground lease for sports purposes is therefore uncertain. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate to what extent it is possible to grant land for sports purposes through commercial ground lease. This thesis describes, through a legal doctrinal examination, the terms that must be fulfilled in order for a commercial ground lease to exist. How land has been granted for sports purposes is investigated through a sociological investigation of 228 agreements. The result of the thesis shows that land can be granted for sports purposes through commercial groundlease if the operator has an objective profit objective with his business. The fact that it is the tenant who conducts the business on the lease is not decisive. The result also shows that land for sports purposes in the investigated agreements is only granted in exceptional cases through commercial ground lease. Of the 228 agreements, six were granted through commercial ground lease, which corresponds to 3 %. The number of leases through apartment lease was the dominant form with 207 or 91 %. In 81 % of cases, the indirect protection of possession has been agreed away. The conclusion of the thesis is that land can be granted for sports purposes through commercial ground lease to all operations except the non-profit, but that in practice it is no tused. Instead, the agreements are classified as apartment lease. In the thesis's discussion, a resumption is conducted about what is really the main issue for a sport club in need of land.The title of the agreement should not be the most interesting, but whether the tenant is given the right to replacement compensation or not when the lease ceases.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 59.
    Ingelsson, Maja
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Johannisson, Sofie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Nya regler om markanvisning och deras tillämpning i kommunerna2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there is a shortage of housing in 240 municipalities in Sweden. It is their responsibility to provide housing for Sweden's citizens by creating conditions for construction. An initial stage of the housing supply process can be land allocation. Land allocation means that a developer has the exclusive right to negotiate with the municipality about a future sale and exploitation on the municipality's land. The land allocation is an important tool for residence supplies.

    On January 1, 2015, the Act (2014: 899) on guidelines for municipal land allocation came into force. The law means that the municipalities that carry out land allocation must adopt guidelines that show the municipality's positions on land allocation. The Act aims to create good competition among builders and a transparency in the land allocation process.

    The aim of the study is to examine the views of twelve selected municipalities concerning the introduction of the Act on guidelines for municipal land allocation and to map their working methods on land allocations. The survey was conducted via interviews of employees at the municipalities' land and exploitation departments and through examination of guidelines, land allocation agreements, legislation, public investigations, proposition and other reports.

    Based on the result, it can be concluded that land allocations are complex and that it is therefore difficult to produce a universal model for allocating land. All municipalities have different prerequisites for allocating land, and they therefore design the guidelines broadly.

  • 60.
    Irwe, Lina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Forsell, Denise
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    "Annars går allt åt helvete": en studie om social hållbarhet som kommunal planeringsaspekt i fysisk planering2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis is about social sustainability, more specifically it is about how four different municipal areas handles issues about social sustainability in their spatial planning. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the priority of this topic and which methods that are used to deal with this subject. The purpose is also to investigate the possible connection between social sustainability and mixed use-city. The analysis has been made by studying comprehensive plans, detailed development plans and other documents connected to the plans. The content of these document has then been analyzed in relation to theories about social sustainability and mixed use-city. Municipal officials have been interviewed to get at more nuanced view on how social sustainability is incorporated into the process of planning.

    The result shows that the four comprehensive plans in a similar way talk about the aims of planning for social sustainability. In the detailed development plans the difference however is significant, varying to what extent and in what way social sustainability is described the planning specification. Bigger plans tend to include the subject in a more extensive way, whilst smaller many plans don't incorporate social sustainability at all. During the interviews many of the officials said that planning for social sustainability is difficult matter and called for more concrete methods, and for the municipality to use the methods available, to affect the spatial planning. The methods used were; land allocation, civil dialogue and social impact assessment. One official mentioned that he/she personally used the Gothenburg-matrix and another had regular meetings with local brokers. All officials talked about mixed use in connection to social sustainability.

    The conclusion that the result of this analysis finally led to is about the social impact assessment as a suitable method for planning for social sustainability, but also about the potential need for a legislation. Perhaps that could be the way to include social sustainability into the process of planning.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 61.
    Ishida, Yvonne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Andersson, Jessica
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Kommer kommunernas plan- och bygglovsarbete att svämma över i framtiden?: Klimatförändringar och bostadsbyggande2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att kartlägga och utreda det juridiska ramverk som kommunerna ska följa samt undersöka praktisk tillämpning hos tre kommuner. Studien ska även belysa eventuella svårigheter i planarbetet och ge en kunskapsöversikt. I denna studie analyseras främst plan- och bygglagens innebörd och hur den kan användas vid anpassning till klimatförändringarna vid plan- och bygglovsarbete. Som komplement intervjuas plan- och bygglovshandläggare i tre kommuner samt en planhandläggare på länsstyrelse i Västra Götalands län.

    Klimatförändringarna är ett faktum, och som en följd kommer bland annat vattennivåerna att fortsätta stiga i landet. Klimatforskningen består av prognoser som dock är behäftade med ett viss mått av osäkerhet. På grund av klimatförändringarna har det skett tillägg i plan- och bygglagens 2 kapitel för att kommunerna måste ta hänsyn till framtida översvämningsrisk vid fysisk planering. Det är därmed inte endast dagens förhållanden som ska beaktas vid planläggning och lovgivning. Det finns en stor mängd rekommendationer och riktlinjer som kommunerna har att förhålla sig till och som kan underlätta arbetet för att följa de regelverk som gäller. Att anpassa den fysiska planeringen till framtida klimatförändringar bör påbörjas nu, eftersom byggnadernas livscykel sträcker sig långt in i framtiden.

    Kommunerna kan arbeta fram specifika dokument som är anpassade efter deras förutsättningar och karterade risker för att underlätta sitt arbete i frågan. Det finns en mängd skeden i plan- och bygglovsprocesserna och det är viktigt att en samverkan finns mellan dem, för att det ska bli ett helhetsperspektiv. Det är en viktig förutsättning för att uppnå en hållbar bebyggd miljö. Eftersom klimatförändringar inte stannar vid kommungränser är det lämpligt att kommunerna samverkar i frågan. Samtliga aktörer behöver en aktuell och bra kunskapsgrund för att underlätta arbetet med översvämningsrisker.

    Lagtext och riktlinjer är tydliga med hur kommunerna ska arbeta, detta kan vara enkelt att genomföra om det finns oexploaterad mark, men vid anpassning till befintlig bebyggelse och infrastruktur uppstår problem. I och med intervjuerna framkom komplexiteten med att tillämpa lagtext i realiteten. En av de tre kommunerna har ändrat i befintliga detaljplaner för att klimatanpassa. Två av tre har egna översvämnings-program vilket är goda exempel på integrering av klimatarbetet. Det finns ingen rättspraxis idag, men det finns motsvarande situationer där kommunens ansvar vid lämplighetsprövningen ifrågasatts.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 62.
    Ivarsson, Olof
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Jämförelse av TCP BBR och TCP Cubic gällande Throughput, Cwnd och RTT2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, Google released a new congestion control, TCP BBR. Instead of responding to packet loss as a sign of congestion, BBR tries to avoid congestion by estimating how much bandwidth is available at the bottleneck in the network as well as round-trip time (RTT) and then based on that information deciding its transmission rate. The goal of BBR is to send as much data as possible without creating queues at the bottleneck buffer, which increases the RTT without increasing the throughput. The purpose of this work is to conduct an independent study of how BBR and Cubic behave in different network environments where delay differs to reflect the difference between LAN and WAN communication for the two TCP algorithms. The measurements showed that it might be important to consider whether Cubic and BBR are mixed in the network. Changing to TCP BBR on a device in a low delay network when the other devices in the network uses Cubic results in that the device with BBR gets almost all available bandwidth when the transmissions meet at a common bottleneck.

  • 63.
    Jalking, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Davall, Dan-Håkan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    BFD parametrar med BGP2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In modern computer networks routing is needed to communicate between devices. In order to send packages outside of the local network, it is necessary to use routing protocols whose main task is to establish routing sessions with other units and then share information on how to get to a certain destination. When routers have established a session with each other, a function is required to ensure that the session remains active. This function informs if something should happen between the units. What is used by routing protocols is a periodic transmission of Hello packets between the units to inform each other that they still have a working communication to their "routing peer", where peer is the opposite entity where a session was established.

    When a router receives a Hello packet, the router resets it's so called hold timer and waits to receive the next Hello pack. Hold time is how long a unit waits before explaining the session with the "peered" units as down. Hello times are usually a factor of about 3-4 times how often Hello packages are sent. Routing protocols send Hello packets periodically at second level and sometimes even at minute level, this is dependent on what type of network and what type of routing protocol is used.

    This can be too slow today and more and more people are choosing to implement a protocol called Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) to achieve the same result (test so that communication between two units works) but much faster when BFD is usually used at millisecond level. BFD is not only faster at finding errors in communication but is also a flexible protocol that can be used in many different types of solutions. The configuration of BFD is done using parameters.

    This study was made to verify the BFD parameter for that Hold Timer had on the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routing protocol's detection times when its peering interface disappears (goes down) and then see if the expected results are consistent with reality. The processor load was observed during the test to see if different Hello timers had any impact. The method used was to read and compare log prints outs from the devices when they discovered that the BGP session was down. The study showed that the correlation in general was poor between the times expected against the times being discovered.

  • 64.
    Jensen, Max
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Djärv, Mattias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    6LoWPAN over BLE energy savings2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things is considered to have the possibility to be a new revolution with the means to impact the future in a big way. The computers that would form this "Inter-net of Things" (IoT) would need to depend on being battery-powered and in a small form factor. To enable this, an energy-efficient communication technology is required. Because of this it, 6LoWPAN was studied and implemented to test the energy consumption versus a more traditional wireless technique. It was determined that 6LoWPAN is a type of network and that it will save energy. 6LoWPAN over Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has been measured to use approximately 50% less energy than normal WiFi (802.11n) to send the same data.

  • 65.
    Jensen, Max
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Djärv, Mattias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Övergångstider och CPU-utnyttjande i First Hop Redundancy Protokoll2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s society is in a position where we become more dependent on technology for every day that passes, in pace with this dependency we demand higher availability from the technology that we use. Redundancy is one way of minimizing outages in the network. Therefore, it has been studied if First Hop Redundancy Protocols (FHRP) can be implemented with low transition period for a router to do a change from being standby to become active in each FHRP and to start forwarding packets, all in under 150 milliseconds. It was decided to see if HSRP, VRRP and GLBP can achieve this limit. Furthermore, it was measured how the CPU is affected by this changeover in FHRP. The results show that HSRP is the fastest protocol and can just about make the limit, and that these protocols have a very small load on the router, but that it uses more resources to be in the active mode than in standby-mode.

  • 66.
    Johannesson, Marcus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Svensson, Sebastian
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Förutsättningar för småhusbyggande i Dalsland2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In 2012 Boverket calculated a Tobins q for all municipalities in Sweden. Tobin q describes the theoretical profit when building a single-family house, by dividing market value of an existing house with the total production costs of a similar house.

    The municipalities in Dalsland had a Tobins q value between 0,0-0,79. Boverket wrote in their report that a Tobins q below 0,8 means worse possibilities for building new houses, which was true for all the municipalities in Dalsland. This makes it interesting to investigate how many single-family houses that are built in Dalsland, if the housing market has changes to a point that makes it possible to build houses with a theoretical profitability and what would enable more houses to be built.

    Method: To answer how many single-family houses that are built, data, from the planning and construction department was gathered and compiled. Tobins q for the Dalslands municipalities was assessed by dividing the average market value for an existing house with a calculated total production costs for a new house with the same standards. The market values were assessed by looking at sales of single-family houses with the same or similar standard as a new house. The analysis showed that it was too few sales that fit the criteria in all the municipalities, instead all Dalsland was divided in to three submarkets. Rural-, waterfront- and urban locations. The cost of building a new house was calculated for each submarket. The costs that were compiled was for building plot, house, foundation and planning permission.

    What it would take for the housing market to be improved to enable more houses to be built was investigated by conducting interviews with chiefs of municipals, the planning and construction department, real estate agent and a banker.

    Result: How much are being built? 2018 in Dalsland 37 single-family houses was built which results in 0,85 single-family houses per 1000 inhabitants. The study reaches from 2013-2018, but it has shown no clear signs of any changes of the amounts of house that is being built.

    Is it possible to build with theoretical profit? No, it's not likely that you will make a profit from building in Dalsland, but in some locations you can build without taking a loss. Waterfront locations got a Tobins q value of 0,99, which are higher than what the national average was in Sweden 2012 which was 0,9. The two other markets got a somewhat worse result. Rural location got a Tobins q value of 0,75 while urban location got a Tobins q value of 0,68. This study shows that you can't build single-family houses on those locations and make a theoretical profit.

    What would it take for the housing market to be improved to enable more house to be built? The two biggest obstacles according to the municipalities are that the County Administrative Board are turning down requests for dispensation from the Beach Protection Act and that it is hard for people to get a loan to build houses because of the low Tobins q value.

    Their proposal for solutions are that the state needs to make changes, especially legislative changes or additions. For LIS to work better from their point of view, the County Administrative Board should apply a more generous interpretation of the Beach Protection Act, which would result in more dispensations from the coastal protection. They had more solutions for raising their Tobins q value. Examples of these are: grants for new construction of small houses in the countryside, higher grants for apartment buildings and lower the VAT on building materials to name a few.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 67.
    Johannesson, Stefan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Olsson, Katarina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Bristfälliga grundkartor och fastighetsutredningar: En studie om hur stort problemet är och följderna av dem2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to PBL 5 chap 8 § it is required to have at least one basemap during the creation of a local plan. However, it is possible to overlook this if it is deemed to be unnecessary.

    The idea for this study was formed after a meeting at the beginning of this year when a group of people learned that the available basemaps were severely flawed and that they did not live up to the standard thus making them unsuited as a foundation for local plans, roadplans and railroadplans. Furthermore, it turned out that property investigations were all too rare. The meeting revealed a couple of cases where things had gone wrong and the consequences that had occurred due to this proved to be delays that lasted for approximately one to two years.

    The study aims to explore different reasons as to if and why there is a problem with the basemaps and property investigations. It also aims to find out what kind of consequences that could possibly arise due to this problem.

    This study is primarily based on interviews with experienced project managers who work at a private housing development companies but also municipal officials who have experience in planning new residences for a more broad study. Furthermore, this study will be based on their personal opinions and experiences regarding the chosen problem which means that not every single professional beyond this study will have the same answers.

    The end result shows that the chosen problem is not considered to be a great problem for the interviewees and that they so far have not come across any consequences caused by flawed basemaps or property investigations. All project managers have however experienced shortcomings, particularly heights, which is a detail that has higher uncertainty in quality. They have also noted that the quality differs between urban areas and countryside areas. The problem is well known amongst the interviewees which means that they are able to fix a problem at an early stage and that reduces the risk for major consequences.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 68.
    Johansson, David
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Stefansson, Simon
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Rättighetshantering vid bildandet av 3D fastigheter: med fallstudie Karlatornet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    3D real estate enable buildings to be divided into multiple real estates for different purpose and with different ownership. 3D real estates are created through a cadastral procedure according to Swedish law. When establishing a new 3D real estate there are specific requirements that has to be fulfilled so the purpose of the real estate is adequate. This means that all the real estate rights has to be acquired at the time of the cadastral procedure. The rights can be obtained through jointly-owned facilities or easements. Stairwells, hallways and the buildings core are a few examples where rights may have to be acquired. The purpose of this study is to map how creating a 3D real estate can be done and how the real estate rights is acquired in the cadastral procedure. Furthermore, it examines how rights can be managed and sustainable. How developers and cadastral engineers are cooperating to accomplish a sustainable management is also part of purpose of this study. This study examines what possibilities there are for 3D real estate's according to the Swedish law. To examine how the Swedish law is applied in reality, we studied ten cadastral procedure reports from four different municipalities. Interviews have been done with two experienced cadastral engineers and two developers who has been working with projects where 3D real estates were present. The purpose of the interviews was to acquire answers from questions that arose when the cadastral procedure reports were studied and how the developers and cadastral engineers cooperation works. The study shows the different possibilities of creating 3D real estates. How the cadastral procedure is done is based on the unique conditions between the projects, what way of work the cadastral engineer use, how experienced the developers are and if consultants has been used. To make sure that the management of the jointly-owned facilities can be done in a sustainable way they have to be formed to be adequate both from the beginning and even for future needs. The tower Karlatornet is a unique project where around 20 different real estate owners will share the building. Planning and cooperation between the cadastral engineers and the developer is an important part to make sure the project will work. Avoiding more details than what is needed in the jointly-owned facilities to enable future adjustments is a must in a project like this. The study show four different solutions on how the rights can be obtained. To let the core of the building and the foundation be a part of the jointly-owned facilities and the jointly-owned land may not be of essential importance but the conclusion is that they should be included for a simplified future management.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 69.
    Johansson, Hanna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Vattenskyddsområden i Sverige inrättade 2013 - 2019: föreskrifter och ersättning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure the current and future generations' access to clean water, water supplies need to be protected with protection areas. When the water protection area is formed, the area is divided in different protection zoned depending on the need of protection. When establishing water protection areas, regulations are issued for which restrictions apply within the protection area. The restrictions may result in restrictions on availability that may, for example, impose a ban on the management of chemical pesticides. Such restrictions on access shall, in accordance with Sweden's constitution, be compensated if ongoing land use within the affected part of the property is made considerably more difficult. However, if these limitations are for health protection, environmental protection or safety reasons, what follows from the law regarding the right to compensation. The general rules of consideration are such rules that each property owner must submit to and restrictions that take place in consideration these are not eligible for compensation.

    The present study focuses on investigating if the decision-making authorities, when establishing a water protection area, prescribe a prohibition or a license requirement under the general rules of consideration and thereby avoids their obligation to pay compensation. The prescribed commitments that have primarily been investigated are the management of pesticides, the management of plant nutrients and the storage of forest products. The study has also intended to investigate whether municipalities or county administrative boards act differently when establishing water protection areas and if the protection regulations indicate different depending on which protection zone applies.

    In the present study, the quantitative method has been applied. The examination of the regulations for the selection of water protection areas was done quantitatively. As a complement, qualitative text has been interpreted. The study investigates various legal sources of law that concern water protection areas and the restriction of access they may entail. The sources of law examined are statutes, regulations, an official investigation and court cases. The investigation of these has been done to clarify the practical function of the law and to ensure how it works.

    The study shows that the decision-making authorities to a large extent announce the regulation that may entail an obligation to pay compensation to the property owner. This, although according to practice, is acceptable to issue regulations that mean that the decision authority can circumvent its obligation to pay compensation. In most cases, the protection regulations in the primary protection zone do not coincide with the protection regulations of the secondary zone. According to the essay, it is concluded that which authority it is that establishes the water protection area has no impact on how the regulations are designed. The municipality and the County Administrative Board thus act equally when establishing water protection areas.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 70.
    Järpestam, David
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Fridström, Anders
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Evaluating common use cases on the distributed InterPlanetary File System2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) is a new distributed peer-to-peer file system protocol, capable of many use cases, one of which is hosting a website. Due to its decentralized network and immutable content hash, it can serve the goal of making the web safer and more open, making data more available and paths permanent. IPFS has been developed since 2015 and is still under extensive development, but is it yet ready for the average internet user? This paper evaluates four common use cases on the internet today; browsing the web, streaming videos, sharing files and personal sync folder. The results show that IPFS is already capable of handling all these four use cases but is substantially slower than other currently established protocols. If an IPFS node is not peers with any of the nodes which distributes the requested data, the lookup time in the distributed hash table could take up to 59 seconds. IPFS also lack back-end programming support and files cannot be executed directly from the IPFS repository.

  • 71.
    Karlsson, Albin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Evbäck, Joakim
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Redundans i DMVPN2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Availability and security are two key points when talking network connections in today's IT environments, that the internet should always be available, and traffic should be sent safely and securely.

    Dynamic Multipoint Virtual Private Network (DMVPN) is a solution that can build Virtual Private Network (VPN) tunnels and utilize Internet Protocol security (IPsec) for security.

    Many solutions are available to create redundant networks and this report addresses how redundancy in multihomed DMVPN networks works and how quickly a failover can occur in DMVPN. A multihomed connection means two separate connections to two different Internet Service Providers (ISP's), and failover is a switch in redundant links. If the connection to the primary ISP is lost a failover will occur and traffic will be forwarded through the redundant backup ISP.

    DMVPN is available in three phases and all work in different ways. Tests have been made on all three phases to see which one is best suited for a multihomed DMVPN implementation.

  • 72.
    Karlsson, Axel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Dynamisk tilldelning av VLAN med hjälp av IEEE 802.1X2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explains what IEEE 802.1X does and what it can be used for. Related protocols that is used in connection with the technology and how they communicate with each other.

    This task is made for a local company that wants to investigate if 802.1X can be used in their internal network. It is also researched what kind of hardware that is needed to make it work. Step by step how to configure it and example on a topology. How to test the tech-nology and how to verify function.

  • 73.
    Karlsson, Oscar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    En studie av Lantmäteriets beaktande av strandskyddet och samråd i fastighetsbildning för bostadsfastigheter inom strandskyddsområden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lantmäteriet decided during 2017 to cancel principle consultation with Länsstyrelsen (county administrative board). The goal was to shorten the time for each case and reduce the number of unnecessary consultations. The purpose of this paper was to examine how frequently consultation takes place for residential properties in areas of protection of the Swedish shoreline. To examine this subject a mapping of this type of residential properties were made for Västra Götalands län. This study has been in cooperation with Plan- och bygg avdelningen (The Department of Community Planning and Building) for county administrative board in Västa Götalands län. The data underlying this study consists of cases that have been sent to this department during 2017. In the examination of this study a mapping of this type of properties has been made. The reason for this is to examine how frequently at consultation have taken place with county administrative board or the specific county.

    The mapping showed that there was more of this type of cases in some parts of Västra Götalands län in 2017.

    The study showed that consultation took place in 31 % of the cases for this type of properties in protective shoreline areas. It also showed that in 23 % of the cases no consultation took place and/or the protection was not taken into account. The result of the study showed that cadastral surveyors decide for them self without consolation in 46 % of the cases. The study showed an indication that this subject has to be further resourced, not only in this part of Sweden but in all of Sweden.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 74.
    Kling, Johanna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Utformning av tydliga detaljplanebestämmelser: För skydd av byggnaders kulturvärden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a detailed development plan, the municipality regulates the use of land and water areas and the built environment. Cultural values of buildings can, through the Planning and building act, be protected by provisions in a detailed development plan. The caution provision means that when changing a building, its cultural values and characteristics are to be taken care of. Prohibition against distortion is the strongest protection a building can get. It regulates what to preserve and therefore cannot be changed on a building. In order to further strengthen the protection of cultural values on a building, it may be subject to a demolition ban. The Planning and building act require that the provisions in the detailed development plan should be so clearly designed that everyone who reads it should be able to interpret and understand the provisions. In order to apply the requirement for clarity, Boverket has developed general advices on the design of planning regulations as well as a solid material on the theme "cultural value" and how to protect interesting cultural values of buildings in detailed development plans. Previous studies have shown that the design of regulations that protect cultural values is a problem among Sweden´s municipalities.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether communities around Sweden nowadays make clear provisions according to the law´s requirements, as Boverket has published general advices and a lot of material on its website.

    To achieve the purpose, two questions have been answered. To what extent does inadequate planning provisions in detailed development plans among Sweden's municipalities exists, regarding to caution provisions, prohibitions against distortion and demolition bans? In what way are they inadequate? To answer the questions, 323 detailed development plans from 37 municipalities around Sweden have been reviewed.

    Of the 95 provisions on the protection of cultural values found, shortly half were inadequately designed, and therefore difficult to interpret.

    Inadequate provisions can lead to difficulties in understanding which cultural values the municipality wants to protect and how they should be protected. Since certain provisions may lead to economic compensation for property owners, it is imperative that they are used correctly and properly designed.

    Deficiencies can result in property owners losing the possibility of economic compensation and complications in reviewing of building permit. The risk is also that interesting cultural values get lost and thereby parts of our cultural heritage. To overcome the problem, a state review would be preferable.

  • 75.
    Kopka, Mathias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Kartläggning av dagvattenhantering i detaljplaner: en studie av tre kommuner inom Skåne2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In connection with exploitation in new areas the storm water management is an essential matter to deal with to always avoid causing damage on the environment. Storm water is momentarily existing water masses that runs off hardened surfaces, examples of storm water is snow, rain and hail. Hardened surfaces are roofs, walls and other constructions. Storm water symbolizes that it is temporary existing, therefore does not lakes count as storm water because it is permanent.

    In natural conditions rainwater penetrates green areas, but when it falls on hardened surfaces for example storm water cannot penetrate a car road, then it starts flowing along the road in a quicker pace then it normally would do in green areas.

    The purpose of this study is partially to get an overall image of how storm water and storm water in zoning plans. And to compare survey storm water information from zoning plans in the three communes in Skåne county and to produce altitude maps for the chosen communes.

    To get additional knowledge about storm water a lot of time has been been laid on literature studies. The study has chosen 20 random zoning plans from each municipality that has been taken directly from their map portal. To get a realistic answer as possible in the study zoning plans older than 1995 are excluded.

    In the municipal of Malmö, it shows that 85 % of the zoning plans contains information about the management of storm water. Second is Lund where it contains information about storm water management in 55% of the zoning plans. Helsingborgs zoning plans only have 40 % of the zoning plans that contains information about storm water management.

    To get a clearer image the author produced simplified altitude maps that shows how the altitude levels causes problems and where the development is mostly concentrated. After looking on Malmös altitude map it gets clear why they need to be in the leading edge of storm water management, their altitude levels are less than ideal.

  • 76.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Axgärde, Åsa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    External customer satisfaction through team-development based on appreciative inquiry2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Larsson, Elin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Särskilt skäl för strandskyddsdispens: Kan övergivna hus och tomter utgöra ianspråktagna områden?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to analyze how special circumstances in accordance with chapter 7, 18 c § 1 p. of the Swedish environmental code (miljöbalken) is applied in practice. What factors contribute to shore protection (strandskyddet) reinstatement so that home privacy protection (hemfridsskyddet) no longer applies, and when a claimed property (ianspråktagen tomt) is considered abandoned. This study is based on the following questions: 1. In what condition should a building and its yard be in order to grant a shore protection dispensation (strandskyddsdispens) in accordance with chapter 7, 18 c § 1 p. the Swedish environmental code? What determines most; the condition of the building or the yard? 2. Where does one draw the line between a claimed property and an abandoned property? 3. What factors contribute to an existing building no longer having a home privacy protection zone (hemfridszon)? To answer these questions, a survey was directed to 75 different municipalities in Sweden as well as an analysis of five different legal cases. The methods used in this study are a qualitative method and a legal method. The theoretical part of the study presents what the legal situation looks like today, which especially must be regarded in the issues of shore protection dispensation as well as a description of the background and objectives of the article of law that is this study’s focus. The result of this study shows a summary of the responses to the questionnaire and case law analysis. In the analysis, the questions were answered by municipalities based on their rationale and case law. The analysis shows that the building’s condition is the most important factor in the assessment, that public perception of the area is of great importance and when the building was last considered inhabitable. What is also important in assessing whether there are special considerations for shore protection dispensation is that the plot demarcation (tomtplatsavgränsningen) should be given, what the type of building is on the site and if the area closest to the shoreline ensures free passage for the public. The conclusion shows that the study subject area is complex and that the problem is in the interpretation and assessment of individual cases, based on current legislation. The study indicates that there is not a specific answer as to how exactly the assessment takes place, because it depends on the situation in individual cases. The study’s discussion features interesting rationale as well as an idea which might facilitate the assessment if there are special circumstances for a shore protection dispensation in accordance with chapter 7, 18 c § 1 p. of the Swedish environmental code.

  • 78.
    Larsson, Kevin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lundgren, Simon
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Performance Evaluation of Scaling Strategies in Cloud Environments Kevin2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Konceptet cloud computing har diskuterats sedan 1960 talet och det blev verklighet 1999 när salesforce.com startades. En av de största fördelarna av cloud computing är möjligheten att ta bort eller lägga till mer virtuella maskiner utan någon manuell handläggning, i.e. skalning. Det finns inte mycket forskning kring skalningsstrategiers prestanda i cloud miljöer. Detta examensarbetet undersöker och jämför applikationsbaserad, benchmarkbaserade och statiska skalningsstrategier. Huvudfrågeställningarna presenterade i detta examensarbete är; Finns det en prestandaskillnad mellan virtuella maskiner i cloud miljöer? Om det finns kan man då använda skalningsstrategier för att bara använda de bästa maskinerna? Test gjordes i fyra datacenter i Amazons EC2 cloud. Det finns ett flertal olika standard skalningsstrategier i cloud miljöer, ett exempel är AWS Auto Scaling som skalar baserat på ekonomiska aspekter och ålder av konfiguration. Detta examensarbete presenterar ett annat perspektiv genom att undersöka prestandan hos virtuella maskiner. Skalning baserat på prestandan av en applikation gav en prestandaökning på upp till 1.72% jämfört med en LIFO strategi. Den bästa skalningsstrategin var den applikationsbaserade (LuxRender) och den näst och den tredje bästa var den CPU-baserade och den benchmarkbaserade Consolidated.

  • 79.
    Larsson, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Sundahl, Amelie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Markåtkomst för järnvägstunnlar – hur säkerställs det?: En sammanställning av statistik och motiv från år 2004 till idag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1 January 2004 it is possible to form three-dimensional properties in Sweden. One of the purposes of the new legislation was to enable ownership of tunnels. Tunnels can be used for many different purposes, including railway. The Swedish railway needs improvement regarding the capacity. When the railway is expanded and rebuilt, it may sometimes be suitable to build a tunnel. This may be the case when the railway is passing a city or built in a hilly landscape. Unlike when the railway runs on the ground, where the rail holder owns the land in very long real estate, the land access for the tunnels has traditionally been solved with easements. The changes in the legislation in 2004 makes it possible to own the tunnels in the form of three-dimensional properties. In this bachelor thesis, the authors investigate if the actors concerned are using the new legislation and, if so, when, how and why. In the thesis, all railway tunnels whose cadastral application have been submitted between 1 January 2004 and 20 May 2018 or whose railway plan has become final before 20 May 2018 was investigated regarded the land access. This includes 27 railway tunnels, from Malmö in the south of Sweden to Umeå in the north. The data was divided into two periods to investigate if any change occurred regarding how the land access was solved during the period. The result displays that this is the case. In the first time span, easement was clearly the dominant choice, while three-dimensional properties was the main pick in the second. However, as the study shows, easement is still sometimes used as a choice. Five interviews have been carried out in the thesis, four of which are related to two current projects, the new railway tunnel in Strängnäs and Västlänken in Gothenburg. The purpose behind the interviews was to find different motives regarding the choice of land access. The two interviews with the cadastral surveyors reveals that both three-dimensional property formation and official easement are suitable solutions and that the choice in between de facto lays with the applicant. The two interviewed land negotiators at Trafikverket shared the motives on which the choices were based. Both official easements and three-dimensional property formation have pros and cons, meaning that the choice must be decided for each tunnel apart.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 80.
    Larsson, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Thorsén, Rasmus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Cryptocurrency performance analysis of Burstcoin mining2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Burstcoin is a cryptocurrency which differ from the well-known Bitcoin, among several integral component which encompass any cryptocurrency, the mining process is one which differ greatly between the two. This difference is basically that the Bitcoin mining process require constant computational calculation, while Burstcoin mining requires a file known as plot file to be read at intervals. As with many altcoins, Burstcoin have very little analysis surrounding it and as such the efficiency of the mining process in how it is usually configured can be questioned. Therefore, the thesis will focus on factors which might affect performance regarding how efficiently the plot file can be read. To begin with, knowledge about which timespans are interesting for Burstcoin mining will be investigated, more precisely the block forge times for the Burstcoin blockchain will be determined to ascertain if any specific timeframes are important regarding how fast a plot file should be processed. Following, three tests will be made focusing on the performance aspect. The first test focus on whether the file system cluster size matters in how fast a plot file is processed and determines if the processor is bottlenecking the processing speed of the plot file. Secondly, it is investigated if the size of the hard drive where a plot file is located play any role in how fast it is processed. The third test compares how fast a plot file is being read when the hard drive which houses the file operates at the SATA 2 standard compared to the SATA 3 one

  • 81.
    Lund, Jesper
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Vallebrant, Niklas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lagen om allmänna vattentjänster: Avgränsning av verksamhetsområden i 6 §2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2007, the Public Water Services Act came in to effect. According to the sixth paragraph in this law, all municipalities shall arrange water supplies and sewerage in a "wider context" if it is necessary with respect to human health or the environment. But sometimes, municipalities choose not to connect certain areas to the operational area even though they should do so according to the sixth paragraph in the Public Water Services Act. These areas are commonly referred to as § 6 areas which means that these areas fulfill the condition "wider context" in the Public Water Services Act, but are outside the operational area. What does it mean that the municipalities shall ensure water supply and sewerage in a "wider context"? The term "wider context" is not defined in the legal text, but preparatory work to the law states that 20 to 30 properties can be seen as a guideline. This amount can be reduced if there are special reasons for it. But how do the municipalities interpret the term? This is the first question that this study answers. The second question that has been answered is why the municipalities choose to not connect some certain areas to the operational area, despite the fact that the conditions for "wider context" in the sixth paragraph are fulfilled. The study concerns the following municipalities: Lerum, Lysekil, Svenljunga, Skövde and Vänersborg. In order to gain information and to find answers to the questions, a combination between legal methodology, a quantitative and a qualitative method has been used. The municipalities VA-plans, which are guiding for municipal VA planning, have been reviewed and interviews have been conducted to supplement the VA-plans and provide a deeper understanding of municipal decisions. The study shows that it varies from municipality to municipality how the term "wider context" is interpreted as the number varies from eight to twenty properties included. Some of the municipalities also use the terms "assembled dwellings" and "assembled built environment" from the Planning and Building Act (2010:900). As for the second issue, there is a connection between how the municipalities have assessed these areas. The reason why some areas not are connected to any operational area is because they have a low priority based on a need and possibility assessment.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 82.
    Lundin, Patrick
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Cogelja, Tony
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Implementation av ELK Stack2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ELK Stack is an open source log system which consists of Elasticsearch, Logstash and Kibana. Elasticsearch is a noSQL search database that is used for data storage. The pipeline program Logstash receives data from inputs and sends it to outputs, filtering of the data occurs in Logstash between input and output. Kibana presents data in a graphical environment where diagram is created to provide a simple overview. This report is made as a collaboration with University Wests IT-department which is in need of a new loggingsystem, to replace their current solution. The new solution ELK Stack builds on the existing one where syslog is used. ELK Stack was installed in a test environment and tested according to the IT-departments demands.

  • 83.
    Lundmark, Elias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Persson, Chris
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    de Blanche, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Thomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Increasing Throughput of Multiprogram HPC Workloads: Evaluating a SMT Co-Scheduling Approach2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simultaneous Multithreading (SMT) is a technique that allows formore efficient processor utilization by scheduling multiple threadson a single physical core. Previous research have shown an averagethroughput increase of around 20% with an SMT level of two, e.g.two threads per core. However, a bad combination of threads canactually result in decreased performance. To be conservative, manyHPC-systems have SMT disabled, thus, limiting the number ofscheduling slots in the system to one per core. However, for SMT tonot hurt performance, we need to determine which threads shouldshare a core. In this poster, we use 30 random SPEC CPU job mixedon a twelve-core Broadwell based node, to study the impact ofenabling SMT using two different co-scheduling strategies. Theresults show that SMT can increase performance especially whenusing no-same-program co-scheduling.

  • 84.
    Lundqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    de Blanche, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Andersson, H. Robert H.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Thing-to-thing electricity micro payments using blockchain technology2017In: Global Internet of Things Summit (GIoTS), 2017: Proceedings of a meeting held 6-9 June 2017, Geneva, Switzerland, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 261-266, article id 8016254Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thing-to-thing payments are a key enabler in the Internet of Things (IoT) era, to ubiquitously allow for devices to pay each other for services without any human interaction. Traditional credit card-based systems are not able to handle this new paradigm, however blockchain technology is a promising payment candidate in this context. The prominent example of blockchain technology is Bitcoin, with its decentralized structure and ease of account creation. This paper presents a proof-of-concept implementation of a smart cable that connects to a smart socket and without any human interaction pays for electricity. In this paper, we identify several obstacles for the widespread use of bitcoins in thing-to-thing payments. A critical problem is the high transaction fees in the Bitcoin network when doing micro transactions. To reduce this impact, we present a single-fee micro-payment protocol that aggregates multiple smaller payments incrementally into one larger transaction needing only one transaction fee. The proof-of concept shows that trustless, autonomous, and ubiquitous thing-to-thing micro-payments is no longer a future technology.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 85.
    Lundström, Patrik
    University West, Department of Technology. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Generalized Brauer Algebras2002In: Communications in Algebra, ISSN 0092-7872, E-ISSN 1532-4125, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 2229-2270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using some ideas of Brauer, we introduce what we call generalized Brauer algebras and, as a special case, Brauer orders. We show that many well-known classes of so-called crossed product algebras, and in particular, the well-known crossed product orders, can be obtained as special instances of our construction. We prove several results showing when Brauer orders are Azumaya, maximal, hereditary or Gorenstein.

  • 86.
    Lundström, Patrik
    University West, Department of Technology. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Normal Integral Bases for Infinite Abelian Extensions2001In: Acta Arithmetica, ISSN 0065-1036, E-ISSN 1730-6264, Vol. 100, p. 79-83Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Lycke, Liselott
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Tano, Ingrid
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Building quality culture in higher education2017In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 9, no 3-4, p. 331-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe an approach to build a quality culture within a higher education institution. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is based on Action research and a Case study. Findings: The authors show the result of the mapped processes of a higher education institution, Management planning and control, Education, Research and Support, and describe how the mapping was performed, working in cross-functional teams. Further on, they discuss the result of the pilot and the plan for implementation. Originality/value: A process-oriented approach in higher education institutions, with its complexity, creates opportunities for successful quality assurance and control when having an integrated quality assurance system. © 2017, © Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 88.
    Mustakangas, Sanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Tallheden, Jenny
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Upplåtelse av allmän plats för enskilt ändamål2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Municipalities have the plan monopoly which means that they have the exclusive right to produce and adopt detailed plans. A detailed development plan regulates how land and water areas should be used and granted. The plan regulates which land that should constitute a land for public space and an area for building sites. Public space is for example land as parks, nature, squares or roads that are made for the public's needs. Public spaces are usually not allowed to be leased for private interests as they are made for public interests. The use of the site's must be reported in the map for the detailed plan, with associated plan regulations that both are legally conclusive. The public spaces should, among other things, also be available for emergency vehicles. Property formations should compliance with the current detailed plan. Minor deviations from the detailed plan can be made if the deviations are compatible with the purpose of the plan, according to the Real Property Formation Act 3:2. It has been questioned if it´s allowed to lease public spaces for private interests. Certain municipalities mean that the purpose with the public spaces disappears if it is leased for a private interest, but other municipalities think that there is a need. The selected authorities' reasons for the leases are minor deviation from the detailed plan, that the purpose of the detailed plan is not counteracted and that the public place's accessibility to the public is not affected that much. This thesis clear that land which is leased temporary regulates in the Order Act of Sweden and is leased with a police license. Permanent leases regulate in the Code of Land Laws forms part of the Statute Book of Sweden as well as in the Property Formation Act and make the leases with a use agreement or an easement. In this thesis public spaces definition that specifies in the Planning and Building Act and the corresponding definition in the Order Act of Sweden. The purpose of the thesis is to describe the legal situation concerning private leases on public places. The study is supposed to describe how four municipalities and two land survey authorities deal with the issue. The study also intends to clarify the underlying motives that the selected authorities have for their decisions. There are several rights to apply for private interests in public spaces. The authors of this thesis have defined to only investigate whether it is possible to grant land for private interests through easements or rights of user. After completing the study, we can conclude that there are shared opinions about whether the legislation should be clarified or changed. The authors of this study can see that the issue of granting public space should be dealt with early in the planning process. To start setting the issue up early, the authorities can avoid a time-consuming and expensive change of plan. We also can see that there is a need to change or clarify the legislation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 89.
    Niedomysl, Thomas
    et al.
    Lund University, Department of Human and Economic Geography, Lund SE-223 62, Sweden.
    Hall, Ola
    Lund University, Department of Human and Economic Geography, Lund SE-223 62, Sweden.
    Archila Bustos, Maria Francisca
    Lund University, Department of Human and Economic Geography, Lund SE-223 62, Sweden.
    Ernstson, Ulf
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering. University of Gothenburg, Department of Economy and Society, .
    Using Satellite Data on Nighttime Lights Intensity to Estimate Contemporary Human Migration Distances2017In: Annals of the American Association of Geographers, ISSN 2469-4452, Vol. 107, no 3, p. 591-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For well over a century, migration researchers have recognized the lack of adequate distance measures to be a key obstacle for advancing understanding of internal migration. The problem arises from the convention of spatially defining migration as the crossing of administrative borders. Because administrative regions vary in size, shape, and settlement patterns, it is difficult to tell how far movers go, raising doubts about the generalizability of research in the field. This article shows that satellite data on nighttime lights can be used to infer accurate measures of migration distance. We first use the intensity of nighttime lights to locate mean population centers that closely correspond to mean population centers calculated from actual population data. Until now, locating mean population centers accurately has been problematic, as it has required highly disaggregated population data, which are lacking in many countries. The nighttime lights data, which are freely available on a yearly basis, solve this challenge. We then show that this information can be used to accurately estimate migration distances. © 2017 by American Association of Geographers.

  • 90.
    Nielsen, Linn
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Ovik, Anja
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Dagvatten: Vem har ansvaret?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's climate change means warmer temperatures and annual precipitation is expected to increase by 20-60 %. The increased rainfall means more stormwater on the ground. This water must be taken care of in a long-term sustainable manner, otherwise it can lead to problems. Therefore, society must adapt to the climate change that occurs. The study aims at investigating who is responsible for handling the water and clarifying the legal conditions for local stormwater treatment. The study also examines how water management looks like in the detailed plans in Västra Götaland County. The study focuses on looking at and how responsibility for stormwater is distributed in the detailed plan documents as well as the planning rules that are used for water treatment. The method we used is a combination of a qualitative and quantitative as well as a legal method.The study answers the following questions: o Who is responsible for the disposal of stormwater? o How does the municipalities distribute the responsibility of stormwater in the detailed plans? o Are there any plans for regulation of stormwater, which? o What is the distribution of responsibility in the plan descriptions? o Do municipalities have a legal basis for the use of local stormwater treatment, how do legal conditions look? The study results show that 28 % of municipal plans for stormwater are about local stormwater treatment, which is an illegal plan. Local stormwater treatment does not have the support from Chapter 4 Planning and Building Act required for a plan regulation to be used. The conclusion is that the municipalities should take responsibility for the discharge of stromwater if it is within the municipality's area of activity. Nevertheless, only in 16 % of the plans that the real estates are connected to the stormwater network.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 91.
    Niklasson, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Hagström Russell, Christopher
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Stora bostadsfastigheter på landsbygden med kombinerade ändamål: En studie av gällande rätt och fastigheter bildade i Västra Götalands län år 20182019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the year 1991, the general suitability conditions in FBL 3:1 was revised and the statements in the preparatory work made it possible to form larger properties for housing with additional ground suitable for other purposes than housing, such as ground for smaller animal retention or cultivation. According to prior practice in the field, properties purposed for housing was limited to only containing enough ground to cover the space needed for buildings and gardens. This thesis applies the scientific method of legal dogmatics in order to examine the applicable law. The method includes analysis of preparatory work, court cases, and doctrines that is relevant to understanding how the general suitability condition should be applied in cases where large properties for housing with additional ground for other purposes in rural areas are formed. Based on the different sources of analysis some parts of what could be viewed as a framework for the law has been defined. The study shows that there are three typical cases when it is allowed to include forest land in properties for housing. Furthermore, it shows that the ordinary areal size of properties with the sole combined purpose of retention is considered to be 3,5 hectares. It can also be concluded that forming properties within the general protection area of beaches must be done with great restrictiveness and lastly it is allowed to form properties that consists of more than one unit as long as the units has a functional connection in relations to each other. The applicable law seems to vary from case to case depending on the many factors that must be considered when the general suitability condition is applied. Therefore, it has been difficult to draw more detailed conclusions from this part of the study. This thesis also contains a legal sociologic study in which the documentation from the creation of multipurpose properties in Västra Götaland, Sweden, has been converted into statistics and compared with the results of the legal dogmatics study in order to determine how the law is applied in reality. The study showed that a total of 269 properties had been created in the year 2018. The properties have been created in every council except two, the areal mean is 4,5 hectares and the most ordinary combined purpose is retention. Most properties are created as one sole unit and lastly there are 48 properties that are created within the general protection area of beaches. The legal sociologic study was concluded with five cases where the creation of multipurpose properties which had been appealed to the land and environment courts. They were studied in order to determine what the county government considers to be a property that does not conform with the general suitability conditions.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 92.
    Nilsson, Galina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Peer-Assisted Learning in Mathematics in Higher Education.2010In: LTH:s Pedagogiska Inspirationskonferens: 6:e Pedagogiska inspirationskonferensen, dec 2010. Lund, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores opportunities for implementing a peer-tutoring system in mathematics in two contrasting settings: a traditional classroom environment with a teacher-centred educational process and the higher education environment where a range of student-centred teaching and learning methods has already been introduced. After a series of PAL sessions a questionnaire was distributed and in-depth interviews with the peer tutors were conducted. The analysis of the impact of peer-assisted learning (PAL) on the students' learning experience showed that the majority of students positively evaluated their PAL experience. The students felt that they were more actively engaged with and more in control of the learning process than during a traditional tutorial. This study demonstrated that the size of the groups, timing and the number of PAL sessions are crucial for successful implementation of PAL. The paper concludes with the recommendations for using PAL in a variety of educational settings.The higher education sector has been experiencing a dramatic change during the past decade: it is rapidly expanding both in the number and diversity of students. Student to staff ratio has enormously increased. The students are coming from different ethnic, social, and cultural backgrounds and have different levels of knowledge. The change in higher education from an "elite" to a "mass" system creates new challenges for educators. At the same time, the main features of the modern knowledge-based society, the society we live in, are the fast pace of technological advancements, interdisciplinary work organisation and globalisation of the work market. Educators in Europe are facing new challenges in preparing young people for their social and professional integration, successful career and personal development.

    The appropriate choice of teaching methods which meet the demands of the knowledge-based society, influence the learning process and accommodate the needs of young generation is crucial in achieving these tasks. Implementing student-centred approaches in the educational process creates the learning environment which stimulates students' learning developing their ability of independent and deep learning. 

  • 93.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Luchinskaja, Elena
    Leeds Universitet, UK.
    Providing university students vith effective maths support2013In: The 41st Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association: Disruptions and eruptions as opportunities for transforming education. Abstract book., Reykjavik: Nordic Educational Research Association, NERA , 2013, p. 143-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European universities are facing the fact that students entering higher education have a diverse

    level of maths knowledge which is often below university requirements. Teaching such a diverse

    student body is a challenging and complex task. In addition, students struggle with their studies

    which affects the university drop-out rate. This paper addresses the use and organisation of

    maths support provision in two universities: University West, Sweden and Leeds Metropolitan

    University, UK and is part of an on-going research collaboration between the two universities.

    The present study evaluates the efficiency of maths support in these institutions from both the

    academic staff and students’ perspective. Our study was conducted in two stages, based on

    qualitative methodology. We used mixed methods for our data collection: questionnaires for

    students, interviews with tutors and observations during the sessions. The combination of these

    methods gave us a fuller picture of the effectiveness of maths support in these two universities.

    Our study showed that students’ maths abilities and maths support requirements varied a lot.

    First year undergraduate students were mainly struggling to cope with their assignments and

    were looking for additional support to help with that. Often the lack of maths knowledge was

    intertwined with a lack of subject-specific knowledge. From the observations and interviews with

    tutors it was noticeable that students tended to adopt a ’solve it for me’ approach. From students’

    feedback it was clear that they highly appreciated the maths support provision. They found the

    environment more friendly and supportive than normal tutorials. They felt at ease to ask more

    questions and to clearly indicate what they did not know. They appreciated that tutors were able

    to meet their needs and explained the problems in a variety of ways and in small, easy to follow,

    steps.

    The paper concludes with recommendations for improving the effectiveness of maths support for

    students and discusses how the research can be taken further.

  • 94.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, D.
    Provision of maths support for student in higher education institutions2012In: The 40th Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association: March 8-10, 2012, Copenhagen, Aarhus: Department of Eduation, Aarhus University , 2012, p. 283-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European countries including Scandinavian countries are facing a crisis in preparing qualified staff for working in science and engineering. Declining numbers of students pursuing careers in these areas and poor quality of maths education in secondary schools are the principal factors contributing to this problem.

    Students entering universities have a diverse level of maths knowledge which is often below university requirements. University teachers face a challenging and complex task of teaching such a diverse student body. One of the most common ways to tackle this problem and to raise the level of students' maths knowledge to the required standard is to introduce a maths foundation course prior to mainstream teaching. However, this is not always possible because of academic staff availability and/or time and cost constraints.

    Another solution is to provide additional help with maths-related problems by running drop-in sessions, workshops and/or tutorials.

    This study analyses the efficiency of maths support provision in two universities: Leeds Metropolitan University, UK and Högskolan Väst, Sweden. This is an on-going collaboration between two universities and in this paper we present the results of this study focussing on the academic staff prospective, using questionnaires, observations and interviews with tutors.

    Based on the collected data we concluded that often students are not fully engaged during workshops. They prefer a 'solve this for me' approach which they try to achieve during individual sessions and which is not always possible with the course tutor. However, implementing methods which increase students' engagement with the learning process (e.g. problem-based learning andpeer-assisted learning) can be more useful. Running subject-specific workshops (e.g. for nurses, business students or teachers) helps to focus on students' particular needs, and individual tutorials can accommodate other needs.

    The paper concludes with recommendations for improving the efficiency of maths support for students.

  • 95.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, E
    Developing generic and subject specific competences through non-traditional teaching methods2009In: European Educational Research Association conference: ECER 2009, 25-30 september, Vienna, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 96.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, E
    Enhancing student employability prospects through competence development: using non-traditional methods in teaching mathematics in higher education2010In: NERA ‘ s 38 th Congress: Malmö, 11-13 March 2010, Malmö University School of Teacher Education, Malmö: Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA) , 2010, p. 144-144Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic/aim: This paper analyses student and academic experience in generic and subject specific competence development to evaluate the potential of using problem-based learning (PBL) and peer-assisted learning (PAL) in raising student employability prospects. The fast pace of technological advancements, interdisciplinary work organisation and globalisation of the work market are the main features of the modern knowledge-based society. Equipping students with competences that are required for their social and professional integration, successful career and personal development is becoming a key mission of the higher education sector. Fostering effective teaching and learning methods facilitates the acquisition of professional skills and competences. This paper explores the opportunities for implementing PBL and PAL in delivering mathematics on a range of programmes at the University Väst in Sweden focusing on the development of generic and subject specific competences. Theoretical framework: This study is underpinned by the socio-cultural theory of the learning processes which was originally formulated by Vygotsky and is currently experiences a tremendous peak of its popularity. PBL encourages deeper learning via meaning construction and connecting ideas. It stimulates collaborative knowledge building process among participants and develops self-directed learning. PAL is an example of a student-to student support scheme grounded in collaborative learning. PAL is aimed to improve student performance and develop a range of study skills through creating an informal environment for learning. The introduction of both methods into the educational process independently and at the same has a broad potential. Methodology/research design: Our study was carried out in the University Väst, Sweden in 2005-2009. The first year students on the ‘Land Surveyors’ and ‘Computer Science’ undergraduate programme participated in this study. Two pedagogical methods — PBL and a combination of PBL and PAL were incorporated into the mathematics modules delivery. The lectures were delivered in a traditional way; PBL and PAL were used throughout tutorials. The students were solving applied mathematical problems working in small groups. The problems selected were aimed to acquire a set of competences relevant to their future career. To evaluate the outcomes of this study, a questionnaire consisted of multiple choice and openended questions was designed where the students could comment on their learning experience. The interviews with tutors were conducted. The study has drawn a comparison between the development of particular competences and the use of PBL, PAL and traditional methods. Expected conclusions/findings: The results showed that the students evaluated PAL and PBL methods as useful and valuable. The students indicated that have developed problem solving skills, advanced their analytical skills and ability to apply mathematical tools. These competences are important for their future employment. The students highly rated collaboration with peers. It was noted that the selection of the problems, the number of students enrolled on the course, the choice of peer tutors, the way how training sessions are organised, the number and timing of the sessions are crucial for the successful implementation of PAL and PBL. Relevance for Nordic Educational research: Higher education systems in Europe including Scandinavia are facing new challenges in raising employability of students. The appropriate choice of teaching methods is instrumental to a successful implementation of this task. The paper concludes with recommendations for fostering PAL and PBL as they represent a useful educational tool which encourages the development of generic and subject specific competences.

  • 97.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, E
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Using Problem-based and Peer-assisted Learning in Teaching Mathematics to University Students: Focus on Competence Development2009In: British Educational Research Association conference: BERA 2009, Manchester University, Manchester, UK, 2-5 September 2009, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The harmonisation and internationalisation of higher education systems in Europe driven by the principles encapsulated in the Bologna Declaration [1] are offering new agendas for educators. The shift towards a student centred educational paradigm with the focus on learning outcomes and acquired competences highlights various ways in which this process can be mediated. An appropriate choice of teaching methods is instrumental to a successful educational process. The use of different teaching and learning styles such as discussions, group work, case studies, problem-based learning (PBL), peer-assisted learning (PAL) and critical thinking enables deeper engagement of learners within the learning process and at the same time facilitates the acquisition of professional skills and competences [2, 3].

    The paper assesses the impact of PAL and PBL methods applied in teaching Mathematics to students on the 'Land Surveyors' programme, on student experience across generic and subject specific competence development.

    The carried out research had the following objectives:

    To plan and select tasks for tutorials where students can practise PBL;To design and implement several PAL sessions to facilitate the development of problem solving skills;To design questionnaires to evaluate the quality of student experience;To analyse the challenges university teachers face in implementing innovative approaches to teaching and the competence development.

    There is a substantial body of literature on the PAL [e.g. 4] and PBL methodology [e.g. 5, 6]. PAL is an example of a student-to student support scheme grounded in collaborative learning. PAL  is aimed to improve student performance and  develop a range of study skills through creating an informal environment for learning. At the same time PBL encourages deeper learning via meaning construction and connecting ideas. It stimulates collaborative knowledge building process among participants and develops self-directed learning. The introduction of both methods into the educational process at the same has a broad potential.

    Our study was carried out in the University Väst, Sweden during 9 weeks in 2008. The 'Core  Mathematics' module (7.5 credits) is one of the cornerstone modules of the 'Land Surveyors' programme curriculum. The competences acquired by students while on this module are fundamental for the future study. 42 first year students on the 'Land Surveyors' undergraduate programme participated in this study. Two pedagogical methods – PAL and PBL have been incorporated into the programme delivery. PBL method has been already introduced before in University Vast in Computer Science programmes [7] and this method was highly appreciated by students. In order to introduce PBL and PAL methods into the course design and to stimulate student involvement in the educational process, it was decided to keep a traditional layout of lectures but to change the way seminars were conducted. PBL method was used throughout the tutorials but three PAL sessions were introduced at the end of the course.

    The students were solving applied mathematical problems working in small groups of five. The selection of problems was based on the relevance of the competences acquired through this activity to their future career. The introduction of PAL and PBL methods was focused in particular on the developing problem-solving and analytical skills as well as developing ability to formulate the problem mathematically. A peer tutor from the same student cohort was assigned to each group and training sessions for them were organised. To evaluate the outcomes of this study, the questionnaire was designed where the students could evaluate their learning experience. In addition, the peer tutors were interviewed. The results of the survey were statistically analysed. The results showed that the students evaluated PAL and PBL methods as useful and valuable. The students positively evaluated the peer tutors' performance. They thought that the group leaders were well-prepared, competent and could clearly explain the problems to peers.

    The analysed data indicated that over 60 percent of the students estimated that have developed problem solving skills, while 35 percent indicated that they advanced their analytical skills and ability to apply mathematical tools. The students highly rated working in groups and commented on the positive effects of collaboration with peers. In their comments they pointed out that it was easier for them to ask questions, get support and explanation The students perceived the use of PAL and PBL approaches as a useful contribution to their learning experience.

    The introduction of non-traditional methods into educational process creates new challenges for tutors. The selection of the problems, the number of students enrolled on the course, the choice of peer tutors, the way how training sessions are organised, the number and timing of the sessions are crucial for the successful implementation of the PAL and PBL.

    In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the use PAL and PBL was rewarding and overall well received by the students at University Vast. The results of the final exams showed an improvement in student grades compared to previous years. The opportunity of implementing a more individual and flexible approach to the educational process led to improved generic and subject specific competences.

    References

     

    1. The Bologna Declaration of 19 June 1999 http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/hogeronderwijs/bologna/documents/MDC/BOLOGNA_DECLARATION1.pdf

    2. Moon, J. (2002) The module and programme development handbook. London: Kogan Page.

    3. Ramsden, P. (2003) Learning to teach in higher education (2nd ed). New York: Routledge Falmer.

    4. Peer Assisted Learning, Topping, K. and Ehly, S. (Eds.),  Lawrence Erlbaum, 1998

    5. Dahlgren, M. (2003) PBL through the looking glass: Comparing applications in computer engineering, psychology, physiotherapy. International Journal of Engineering Education, 19 (5), 672-681.

    6. Dahlgren. L. O. (1998) "Problembaserat lärande - Idé, Praktik Och Effeter", Linköpings Universitet.

    Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E. "Developing Competences Using Problem-based Learning: a Case Study of Teaching Mathematics to Computer Science Students", Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 2007, No 3. p 13-21. 

  • 98.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, E.
    Nilsson, R.
    Using peer-assisted learning in mathematics and physics in higher education in Sweden and Russia2010In: British Educational Research Association conference 2010: BERA 2010, 1-4 Sept, University of Warwick, Warwick, 2010, p. 0581-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores students' experience of peer tutor system in Mathematics and Physics education in two contrasting settings. The first one is a traditional classroom environment with a teacher centred educational process, the other is tutorials in the higher education where a range of student-centred teaching and learning methods has already been introduced [1-3].

    The education systems in Europe are facing new challenges in preparing young people for their social and professional integration, successful career and personal development in the modern knowledge-based society. The implementation of this task influences approaches to teaching and learning in so far as greater emphasis is placed on learner, learning outcomes and student competence. As a consequence, the old educational paradigm and didactical approaches which stress knowledge acquisition are being replaced by new pedagogical approaches with a focus on students and their learning process, particular on meeting learning outcomes and students' competence development.

    The appropriate choice of teaching methods is instrumental to a successful implementation this task. Fostering effective teaching and learning methods such as discussions, group work, case studies, problem-based learning, peer-assisted learning and critical thinking facilitates the acquisition of professional skills and competences.

    This paper explores the opportunities for fostering peer assisted learning (PAL) in teaching Physics at A-level and in delivering Mathematics at the university level. The study was carried out at University Väst, Sweden and School No 99 (with profound mathematics and physics education, in association with Moscow State Institute of Radio-engineering, Electronics and Automation), Moscow, Russia. The Physics education curriculum in this school corresponds to the first year curriculum in the UK and Swedish universities.

    There is a substantial body of literature on the PAL methodology. [e.g. 4, 5]. PAL is an example of a student-to student support scheme grounded in collaborative learning. PAL is aimed to improve student performance and to develop a range of study skills through creating an informal environment for learning. This method has been applied across a range of disciplines and is becoming an important part in programmes' delivery.

    The carried out research had the following objectives:

    to explore opportunities for fostering PAL in traditional classroom and in university practice to enhance students' performance.to evaluate and compare the quality of students' experience of using PAL in both settings;to analyse the challenges teachers face in implementing innovative approaches to teaching and learning in two different settings.

     

    Methodology

    Our study was carried out in 2008. 31 A-level student studying Physics and 42 first year students on the 'Land Surveyors' undergraduate programme participated in this study. PAL sessions have been incorporated into the Physics subject and 'Core  Mathematics' module delivery. The lectures were delivered in a traditional way; several PAL sessions were introduced during tutorials.

    The students worked in groups of five. A-level students were grouped according to their performance. The university students were randomly divided into groups.

    A peer tutor from the same student cohort was assigned to each group and trained. Peer tutors were selected from the more advanced students. The tutors decided themselves which teaching method they were going to use.

    The questionnaire was designed to evaluate the students' learning experience. In addition, the peer tutors were interviewed. The results of the survey were statistically analysed and compared with the previous test results.

    Findings

    Our findings showed that all A-level students and over 60% of the students at University Vast evaluated PAL method as useful and valuable. The students highly rated collaboration with peers and commented that it was easier to ask questions, get support and explanation. Over 80% of A-level students and over 50% of university students felt that PAL stimulated their activity. They felt that they were more in control of their learning and found it more enjoyable. However, the university students, having experienced the use of problem based learning (PBL), rated PBL higher than PAL.

    Both student samples positively evaluated the peer tutors' performance.

    Our study showed that the number of students enrolled on the course, the choice of peer tutors and timing of the sessions are crucial for the successful implementation of PAL. The test results showed an improvement in student grades.

    The paper concludes with recommendations for fostering PAL.

    References

    Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E. "Problem-based Learning and competence development: a Case Study of Teaching Mathematics to Computer Science Students", Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 2007, No 3. p 13-21.Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E, "Developing students' competences through problem based learning: a case study of delivering 'Decision Mathematics' module on Computer Science programme". Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Conference BERA 2008, Edinburgh, September, 2008Luchinskaya E., Nilsson G. and Williams C., "Developing students' competences in the light of Bologna process: the responses from Sweden and Russia". Paper presented at the European Educational Research Conference, ECER 2008, Gothenburg, Sweden, September 2008.Peer Assisted Learning, Topping, K. and Ehly, S. (Eds.), Lawrence Erlbaum, 1998 Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, Volume 12, Issue 2 June 2001 , pages 113 - 132Peer Learning in Higher Education. Learning from & with each other. Boud D., Cohen R. and Sampson J.(Eds.) Kogan Page, 2001. 

  • 99.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, E
    Ratbil, E
    Using peer-assisted learning in Sweden and Russia: preparing active citizens for their future professional life2010In: NERA’s 38th Congress.: 11-13 March 2010, Malmö University School of Teacher Education, Malmö: Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA) , 2010, p. 129-130Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic/aim: This paper evaluates and compares students’ and academics’ experience of peer tutor system in Mathematics and Physics education in two contrasting settings. The first one is a traditional classroom environment with a teacher centred educational process (Russia), the other is tutorials in the higher education where a range of student-centred teaching and learning methods has already been introduced (Sweden). The education systems in Europe including Scandinavia are facing new challenges in preparingyoung people for their social and professional integration, successful career and personal development in the modern knowledge-based society. The implementation of this task influences approaches to teaching and learning in so far as greater emphasis is placed on learner, learning outcomes and student competence. The appropriate choice of teaching methods is instrumental to a successful implementation this task. Theoretical framework: This study is underpinned by the socio-cultural theory of the learning processes which was originally formulated by Vygotsky and is based on the idea that knowledge is socially and culturally constructed. The research has also demonstrated that the teaching practices that teachers adopt affect students’ learning process. Our study adopted teaching methods based on the learning-focused conception. PAL is an example of a student-to student support scheme grounded in collaborative learning. PAL is aimed to improve student performance and to develop a range of study skills through creating an informal environment for learning. This method has been applied across a range of disciplines and is becoming an important part in programmes’ delivery. Methodology/research design: Our study was carried out in 2008. 31 A-level student studying Physics and 42 first year students on the ‘Land Surveyors’ undergraduate programme participated in this study. PAL sessions have been incorporated into the Physics subject and Core Mathematics’ module delivery. The lectures were delivered in a traditional way; several PAL sessions were introduced during tutorials. A-level students were grouped according to their performance. The university students were randomly divided into groups. A peer tutor from the same student cohort was assigned to each group and trained. Peer tutors were selected from the more advanced students. The tutors decided themselves which teaching method they were going to use. The questionnaire was designed to evaluate the students’ learning experience with the focus on competence development. In addition, the peer tutors and both lecturers were interviewed.Expected conclusions/findings: Our findings showed that all A-level students and over 60% of the students at University Vast evaluated PAL method as useful and valuable. The students highly rated collaboration with peers and commented that it was easier to ask questions, get support and explanation. Both groups of students felt that PAL stimulated their activity, that they were more in control of their learning and found it more enjoyable. The evaluation of students’ level of generic and subject specific competences prior to the study and after the study was analysed. The analysis shows that students developed such competences as critical thinking, problem solving, decision making etc which are importance for becoming active members of the society. Our study showed that the number of students enrolled on the course, the choice of peer tutors and timing of the sessions are crucial for the successful implementation of PAL. Relevance for Nordic Educational research: The results of this study enable to identify the ways to further develop student competences which are necessary for their active participation in a democratic society through the use of best practice and knowledge transfer.

  • 100.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, Elena
    Leeds Metropolitan University.
    Do We Deliver Effective Maths Support for Students?2012In: The European Conference on Educational Research 2012: Cadiz, 18-21 september 2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    European countries are facing a crisis in preparing qualified staff for working in science and engineering. Declining numbers of students pursuing careers in these areas and poor quality of maths education in secondary schools are the principal factors contributing to this problem.

    Students entering universities have a diverse level of maths knowledge which is often below university requirements. University teachers often face a challenging and complex task of teaching such a diverse student body. One of the most common ways to tackle this problem and to raise the level of students' maths knowledge to the required standard is to introduce a maths foundation course before to mainstream teaching begins. However, this is not always possible because of academic staff availability and/or time and cost constraints. Another solution is to provide additional help with maths-related problems by running drop-in sessions, workshops and/or tutorials.

    This study analyses the efficiency of maths support provision in two universities: Leeds Metropolitan University, UK and University West, Sweden and is part of an ongoing research collaboration between the two universities. The present work reflects the first stage of this research and is focused on evaluating the efficiency of the maths support in these two institutions from the perspectives of academic staff. The next stage of our research will include the analysis of this provision from the students' perspectives.

    The literature on this topic is growing but limited and is mainly focussed either on quantitative indicators: the numbers of maths support centres and staff employed, hours when this support is available, numbers of students attending etc. [e.g.1, 2] or at the correlation between maths support session attendance and students' test or exam results [3].

    However, there has been little research about how the tutors who deliver this maths support evaluate the effectiveness of their work and what they think can be done to provide maths support which can successfully meet students' needs.

    In both universities the main part of maths support provision consists of drop-in workshops which are available throughout the week. Leeds Metropolitan University does not offer very maths intensive courses, however, maths elements are incorporated into a number of subject areas such as  nursing, business, sports science psychology, education etc. There are specific workshops for maths and statistics. Two dedicated members of staff from the maths support centre run these one hour sessions. University West offers both maths intensive courses such as engineering and computer science, and less maths intensive courses such as education and nursing. Its maths workshops are open to all students and cover all subject areas. Selected academic staff from the Maths department are appointed to run three-to-four hour sessions three times a week as part of their teaching load.

    One tutor from Leeds Metropolitan University and three tutors from University West participated in the study.

    MethodOur study is conducted in two stages and uses mixed methods for data collection: questionnaires for students, interviews with tutors and observations during the sessions. The combination of these methods will give us a fuller picture of the effectiveness of maths support in these two universities. At this stage of our research we collected information about which students used the sessions – their departments, year and course of study, why they attended and what problems they needed help with – which we then analysed. We also observed how tutors were coping with a wide range of maths topics and teaching methods. We conducted interviews with the tutors to understand in more detail how they work, the difficulties they face, the types of problems that arise and the ways students expect help to be provided as well as tutors' ideas about more effective ways of providing maths support. At the next stage of our research we will be analysing the feedback from students and their suggestions on how maths support provision can be improved. The two-stage approach will provide us with a better understanding of the students' real needs and will facilitate the deployment of more effective student support.

    Expected OutcomesThe academic staff from both universities noticed a broad variation in students' maths abilities. The majority of workshop attendees were first year students struggling with their assignments as well as undergraduates who failed their exams and wanted help as part of their resit preparation. High performing students sometimes came to perfect their knowledge. In Leeds, postgraduate students often attended the workshops, particularly on statistical data analysis. The students came from a wide range of subject areas and tutors found that sometimes it took extra time to answer the students' subject-specific questions. The number of attendees increased before exams or project submission deadlines. Based on the interviews and observations we concluded that students are often not fully engaged during the workshops, instead preferring a 'solve this for me' approach. However, implementing student-centred methods which increase students' engagement with the learning process (e.g. problem-based learning and peer-assisted learning [4-6]) can help.  Subject-specific workshops (e.g. for nurses, business students or teachers) help to focus on students' particular needs, and individual tutorials can accommodate other needs. The paper concludes with recommendations for improving the effectiveness of maths support for students and discusses the next stage of the research.

    References1. Perkin G. and Croft T. (2004), "Mathematics Support Centres – the extent of current provision", MSOR Connections, May 2004, Vol. 6 No 2 p 14-18. 2. Lawson, D.A. and Reed J. (2002), "University mathematics support centres: help for struggling students". In Ivanchev, D. and Todorov, M.D (eds.), Applications of Mathematics in Engineering and Economics. Heron Press, Sofia, pp.686-692 3. Pell G. and Croft T., (2008), "Mathematics Support – Support for all?" Teaching Mathematics and its Applications, 27 (4), pp. 167-173. 4. Anari M., (2006) An analysis of a maths workshop – students with mathematical difficulties. (in Swedish). Thesis. Mälardalen University, the Library of the Institute for Mathematics and  Physics. 5. Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E. (2007), "Problem-based Learning and competence development: a Case Study of Teaching Mathematics to Computer Science Students", Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 2007, No 3. p 13-21. 6. Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E. (2009), " Using Problem-based and Peer-assisted Learning in Teaching Mathematics to University Students: Focus on Competence Development." Paper presented at the European Educational Research Conference, ECER 2009, Vienna, Austria, September 2009.

123 51 - 100 of 139
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf