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  • 51.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lessons Learned From A Cross-Sector Development Project: An Integrative Research Approach2018In: INTED 2018: Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, 2018, p. 3914-3922Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws on the experiences of work-integrated learning from a Swedish-Norwegian cross-sector research project where actors from university, industry, government and volunteer sector collaborate on city center development. The empirical setting of the present study consists of six smaller cities in rural municipalities with limited resources and experiences of collaboration with higher education institutions. The following research question is addressed: How can research and development projects serve as a vehicle for facilitating mutual knowledge exchange between academia and society in cross-sector and rural collaboration contexts? The aim is hence to suggest a tentative collaboration model that identify and integrate knowledge flows between actors involved in cross-sector collaborations in such setting. To gain deep insights in the complex dynamics of project collaboration we applied a mixed methods approach including surveys, structured, in-depth qualitative interviews, observations, workshops and student projects. The data collection was performed during 2016-2017. Findings indicate that trust, continuity, and relationship building are the basis vital for successful creation, development and maintenance of knowledge flows. Furthermore, there is a need to develop an integrative tool box with different methodological tools, work practices and strategies to plan, perform, compile to leverage the knowledge flows and coproduce sustainable results. Our tentative model aims to illustrate conceptualize lessons learned on work-integrated learning and collaboration with academia. We discuss how the model may support co-creative and mutual results over time. 

  • 52.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Besökar- och boendestudie i Lysekil sensommaren 20162016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En studie av besökare och boende i Lysekil genomfördes med 279 svarande respondenter under tiden 26 juli - 14 september 2016. Syftet med studien var att öka kunskapen om både boendes och besökandes uppfattningar om Lysekil.Studien syftar även till att ge ett bidrag till ett större underlag för och gränsöverskridande inspiration till planering och utveckling av kommande centrumutvecklande aktiviteter såväl inom som utanför projektets regi.151 besökande och 128 permanent boende besvarade undersökningen.Undersökningen visar att de besökande framför allt kommer till Lysekil för att koppla av och är nöjda med sitt besök i Lysekil samt med service och utbud, stadsmiljö och faciliteter. En stor majoritet av besökarna har besökt Lysekil innan och anger att man kommer att besöka Lysekil igen. Av de besökande är det 97% som sannolikt kommer rekommendera andra ett besök i Lysekil. Ungefär hälften av de besökande bor mer än 10 mil från Lysekil.Bland de permanent boende i Lysekil är man också nöjd med utbudet av restauranger, kvalitén på restaurangmaten samt service på restaurang och i butik. Man är också nöjd med stadsmiljön, skyltning/vägvisning, hur lätt det är att ta sig till Lysekil, faciliteter och kvalitén på boende. En majoritet av de tillfrågade är missnöjda med parkeringssituationen i Lysekil. Utbudet av butiker och uteliv har mer utspridda svar.Samtliga respondenter fick tillfälle att ge förslag på vad som kan förbättras i Lysekils centrum. Av 279 respondenter gav 123 besökande och 114 boende i Lysekil förbättringsförslag. Förslagen, som är både konkreta och visionära, rör huvudsakligen följande sju teman; Trivsel och intryck av stadsmiljön, Infrastruktur, parkering mm, Husbilsparkering/ställplatser, Information och Skyltning, Aktiviteter/evenemang, Utbud och Övrigt.Vår rekommendation är att, de nätverk och aktörer som är anslutna till projektet i Lysekil, tar del av och diskuterar studiens resultat inför framtida centrumutvecklande aktiviteter. Vi rekommenderar även att man åtgärdar de förbättringsförslag som går att genomföra på kort sikt och redan nu diskuterar de mer långsiktiga och eventuellt resurstunga förbättringsförslag.

  • 53.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    En gränsöverskridande workshop om: Hvordan kan vi bruke undersøkelser til å skape et bedre sentrum?2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En gränsöverskridande workshop om Hvordan kan vi bruke undersøkelser til å skape et bedre sentrum? genomfördes den 27 oktober 2016 i Fredrikstad under stormöte 2 i projektet Urban Platsinnovation. Syftet med workshopen var att näringsidkare och kommuner i Sverige och Norge ska knyta kontakter och utbyta erfarenheter. Under workshopen diskuterade de 62 deltagarna undersökningar som beslutsunderlag samt deltagande och samverkan för utveckling av centrum. I anslutning till workshopen redogjordes för tre i projektet genomförda studier. Workshopens genomförande och dokumentation syftar till att ge ett underlag och gränsöverskridande inspiration till planering och utveckling av kommande centrumutvecklande aktiviteter såväl inom som utanför projektets regi.Workshopsdeltagarna får idag information om kunder, besökare och medborgare genom olika spridda kanaler; via kartläggningar, handelsutredningar, nationella näringslivstudier, egna undersökningar via sociala medier, webbstatistik, kommunens kundtjänst, medborgarkontor, medborgardialoger (brukermedvirkning), samtal och personlig kontakt, sociala möten och nätverk, cafédialoger/dialog med organisationer, företag och föreningar, mässor och genom nyheter i dagstidning (avis). Samtliga deltagare menar att studier av det slag som presenterades vid workshopen är mycket viktiga. Presenterade studier är intressanta då de visar på fakta och statistik – vilket inte alltid stämmer med vad man tror eller hört. Faktaunderlag är viktigt för att kunna arbeta framåt. Kritisk och djupare analys, koordinering, samordning och bättre kommunikation kring studier och resultat behövs. Deltagarna framhåller vikten av att dels ha tillgång till ett kvantitativt datamaterial i form av besöksdata som kan kopplas till annan data såsom omsättning, dels till ett kvalitativt material som fokuserar på vem besökaren är, orsaker till besök samt vilka önskemål besökare men även boende har.Det råder en stark vilja till samverkan mellan de olika aktörerna för centrumutvecklingen. I vissa fall och i vissa kommuner fungerar samverkan riktigt bra mellan framför allt kommun och butiksägare. Dock inses vikten av en bredare representativitet i grupperingar för centrumutvecklingen. Nya aktörer välkomnas samt tydliga strategier och roller. Viljan att engagera sig och delta finns, och många ser möjligheten att genom detta projekt få till en hel del bra grundarbete. Bra exempel ges på kanaler och plattformar för informationsspridning och kommunikation och deltagarna ser gärna en fortsatt utveckling av dessa för samverkan och koordinering av olika aktiviteter.

  • 54.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Samverkan och utveckling i Gamlebyen2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Högskolan Västs Rapport 3 - Samverkan och utveckling i Gamlebyen består av en studie av Gamlebyen Fredrikstads kommune, Norge. Denna studie baseras på 18 djupintervjuer med 21 aktörer i och kring Gamlebyen, Fredrikstads kommune, som genomfördes perioden november 2016 - februari 2017 samt en webb-enkät med 22 elever (blivande hantverkare) vid Plus-skolen i Gamlebyen i mars 2017. Syfte med studien var att fånga aktörernas uppfattning om Gamlebyens attraktivitet, vision, nuläge och utmaningar i samverkan. Syftet var även att ge förslag för samarbete och styrning som potential för framtida näringsutveckling och engagemang. Vidare syftar studien långsiktigt till ge ett underlag och gränsöverskridande inspiration för planering och utveckling av kommande centrumutvecklande aktiviteter såväl inom som utanför projektets regi.Studien visar på den mångfald av aktörer som verkar i Gamlebyen och den brist på samarbete och kommunikation som denna mångfald ger upphov till. Området saknar en gemensam vision om Gamlebyen skall utvecklas och bevaras. Sammantaget gör detta att Gamlebyen hämmas i sin utveckling och inte får den attraktionskraft som området har potential för. Många aktörer känner att kommunens satsningar på andra områden i Fredrikstad har haft ett negativt inflytande på området.För att Gamlebyen skall kunna nå sin potential behövs en samordnande roll av typen centrumutvecklare som koordinerar dels internt i Gamlebyen men även verkar in mot kommun och centrum för ökad samordning. En gemensam intern kommunikationsplattform för aktörerna i Gamlebyen är av stor vikt för att öka kommunikationen i området och samordna aktuell och korrekt information.

  • 55.
    Arvidsson, Louise
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Kutavicius, Ignas
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Vänta! Vart tog alla idioter vägen?!: En kvantitativ studie av beteendemönster för politiskt åsiktsutbyte hos Facebook-, Twitter- och Reddit-användare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media has become a big part of how we communicate with each other. It has also become a virtual meeting point to discuss politics. But is the communication model used by some of the most popular social media platforms, such as Facebook, Twitter and Reddit adapted well enough for political discussions to take place in a democratic way? Eli Pariser (2011) argues that personalization algorithms lock us in a filter bubble, while other studies also have found that users actively block out information that is not in line with their own political opinion themselves, resulting in selective exposure (Garrett, 2009). In this study we use a survey research to get insight about Facebook, Twitter and Reddit users behavioral and interaction habits with political content and how it affects political content visibility on their own feeds. The results have shown that majority of our respondents often share and in other ways interact with political content that primarily is in line with their own opinion, but show interest in discussing politics even with those they disagree with. Our research participants have also expressed a desire for a more balanced spectrum of political opinions in their feeds as well as discussions. They have also pointed out that there is a need for improvements in moderation of political discussions so they do not turn into smear and hate speech.

  • 56.
    Asp, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Jensen, Caroline
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Facebookgrupper och delade dokument: En kvalitativ studie om hur studenter använder sociala medier i sitt skolarbete2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to identify what different types of social media students use and how they actually use these different social medias in their school work.

    Social media is nowdays a natural part of our lives and our society. We interact and communicate with people close to us as well as people on the other side of the world. We use social media to seek information, receive news, share our thoughts, our lives and our opinions. Social media has gained a prominent place in our society and beginning to be used more and more in schools and education. The qualities of social media has been said to stimulate learning and in some cases improve efficiency and facilitate school work.

    We have chosen to look at how students in higher education are using social media in their studies. The selection group we focused on is the first-year students who take the program Digitala Medie at University West. We selected these students based on our own experience of the program, and we know that these students have a fundamental interest in social media and the use of these.

    The results show that Facebook is the social media most used by students, both in their individual work and group work. It is primarily the Facebook function "groups" that is used, where students created two groups for the whole class as well as small groups for each team project. Combined with Facebook groups students use Google docs as a place to collaboratively write texts and presentations. In the individual schoolwork Facebook is primarily used as a communication channel, both with teachers, classmates and team members. The students use the joint groups to contact the teacher by "tagging" them, to get help with problems and answers to questions, to get the support and motivation from classmates and to share essential information.

    In group projects, then current Facebook group works as an extension of the project, this is where most communication, decision-making and cooperation takes place. Even though the students indicate flaws and minor problems with both Google drive and Facebook in context with their school work, none of the participants search for new alternatives. The results of our study may be of interest for other students and teachers as it can inspire to new ways to apply social media in education.

    In our study, we present a variety of tools and services that students use in their schoolwork. We also present distinct examples of how students use different services and platforms. For teachers, this may be interesting to take note of when it can help them to understand students' needs regarding learning tool. It also provides an insight into how students communicate and interact outside the classroom

  • 57.
    Augustsson, Jens
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Holm, Alexis
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Framtidens konsumtion av digitala tjänster: En studie kring bruk av digitala tjänster på mobila enheter, baserat på ett Smart City-perspektiv.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find out how mobile user habits can provide a basis for applications and services based on a Smart City perspective, this by using two scientific methods, interviews and user diaries. The study will also analyze and develop the method for further studies in this subject. The cell phone has in recent years evolved into a unit where the original phone functions and features have become secondary. Even though its main purpose is still to communicate with others, it’s now done primarily through other types of services. Today the development goes from a use of digital services where each unit has a specific purpose, to a practise where they work together and share a common purpose. As a result of the fact that our use and our habits of these devices are changing, the nature of the services provided by these devices are also changing. Due to this, there is an ongoing evolution towards, and a demand for, new services that can take advantage of new technologies to dissolve the border between the digital and the physical reality. Which, from a Smart City perspective, could have great potential in several areas of social and organizational development.

    One can also se that the way we consume digital services is changing. We have gone from having a device centerd focus, were every unit has a specific purpose to a serviced centerd focus, were the units work as a collaborative ecosystem. These units share a collective pupose, to act as a window towards the internet.

  • 58.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Högberg, Karin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ljungdahl Eriksson, Martin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Work-integrated Learning in a Doctoral Course in Informatics2016In: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, p. 1-11Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Being the first university in the world to provide doctoral program in Work-integrated Learning (WIL), we face the challenge of how to integrate doctoral courses into the WIL philosophy, which is the profile of the University West, Sweden. To exemplify what we mean by such a notion of integration, we introduce and demonstrate our proposed ontological approach to integrate a PhDcourse into the fundamental concepts underpinning WIL. The WIL within the context of informatics research (which is a subfield of the IS discipline) playsfive different roles of (1) the main course content, (2) the target occupation ofthe students and occupational field of the teachers, (3) the analytical perspective of the research activities in the course, (4) the educational method where teachers and students conduct collaborative research activities as a cognitive apprenticeship learning model, and (5) a co-authored research paper as outcome.The outcomes of such a conducted approach and lessons learned from the course will be thoroughly described. In the course, a meta-analysis of WIL informatics research will be performed to examine four dimensions which are: theories relevant for WIL; methods used in WIL research; occupational fields in WIL informatics studies; and roles of technology in WIL research. The course is arranged in the these phases: Local investigation; locally rooted research within the informatics field is examined by the course participants in dialogue with the authors of a number of published articles in order to see the extent and the how aspects of these identified WIL-oriented research work; Local synthesis; both teachers and the PhD students (i.e., course participants) explore the results and synthesize a local WIL-model; Global overview; a number of related international literature is selected and studied; Global synthesis; The local WIL model is compared to the global investigation. Co-authoring; a research paper is co-authored by the course participants and presented at a conference. By doing so, we enhance our understandings and thus contribute to one additional practical application of WIL's pedagogical philosophy, which influences the course content, the course format, the activities, the teaching-learning model,and the outcome of the course.

  • 59.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Spante, Maria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A Systematic Process for Selecting a Typical Case in School Setting2013In: Proceedings IRIS 36: August 11-14 2013 at Gran, Norway / [ed] Bratteteig, Tone, Aanestad, Margunn & Skorve, Espen, Oslo: University of Oslo , 2013, p. 461-472Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the rationale behind the concrete steps how we systematically have gone through the case selection process as the first phase of a research project named Consequences of the Digitalization of Schools. The project is a single-case longitudinal (5-year long) study and adopts a so called Whole-School Approach. Previous research has criticized case studies for lack of both systematic approach and transparency in the presentation of the case selection process. The purpose of the presentation of this case selection process is to contribute to enhancing understanding of and broadening knowledge on systematic and transparent case selection techniques. The SIRIS database has been used to select a typical Swedish primary school in the chosen municipality where the project will be conducted. The SIRIS database contains annually statistics from all primary schools in Sweden, and is available online for public use. We demonstrate how and why a particular school representing a so called typical school was selected as our case. 

  • 60.
    Backlund, Stefan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wingård, Robin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Den datorgenererade matbilden: En undersökning av graden av aptitlighet hos datorgenererade matbilder gjorda i reklamsyfte2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For several years, the recreation of photorealistic images has had a major role within the use of 3D-CGI for visualisation and advertisement. The recreation of something that can be called photorealistic without the use of a camera provides several advantages over photography. Because of this - several companies has begun using CGI as an alternative method within advertisement. There's still however, areas where the use of CGI remains limited - either because of the complexity and thus the expense, or because of how we as human perceive something that is done with CGI. We focused this study on the use of CGI food images used for advertisement. The reason for this is that we interact and consume food everyday, which can mean that our perception of something that we see as a consumable item may be drastically different from other products created with CGI.

    To test the perception of CGI images of food, we created a survey which purpose was to compare images of food utilizing CGI with photographic counterparts to judge the experienced appeal felt towards each image by a group of participants. This was done by having participants rate the images with a score of appeal as well as give written feedback of their thoughts about specific images and their general opinion of the use of CGI for advertisement purposes. Our survey showed a slight preference towards the CGI rendered images compared to the photographs that we used. There were however, several participants who disliked the "plastic" and unrealistic look of the CGI images that severely lowered the amount of appeal that was experienced. We hypothesize that the reason for the preference for CGI images in this study was because the use of CGI can make an image have an unrealistic perfection to it that can provoke a stronger appeal than how the look of the product would do in actuality. The type of product that the image represents may also play an important factor. This study focuses on chocolate bars, and thus the results may vary greatly if the study was conducted with the use of other food products, such as meat, fruit or vegetables.

  • 61.
    Bayar, Aylin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bergman, Tilde
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Att förändra utan att förstöra: En intervjuundersökning om hur externa byråer arbetar med rebranding2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies are required to have the ability to be attractive because of today's intense market. They have to constantly make sure that their visual elements and graphic profile are related to the current market conditions. Furthermore the market are placing higher demands on how companies expose their brands and quite often the companies have to do a rebrand to keep their brand relevant. To do this, companies often have to hire an external party, such as an external advertising- or media agency.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate what causes a rebranding and how the external agencys are working with the process. The study also examines which factors the agencies take into account when designing a new visual identity and whether it's important to preserve certain core elements from the previous visual identity. This is investigated based on following questions: "What are the reasons to why a company chooses to do a rebrand?", "What do external agencies take into account when designing a new visual identity?" and "Is it important to maintain graphic elements from the previous visual identity?".

    To answer the questions, the researchers have applied a qualitative study where semi-structured interviews have been implemented. Theory is based on secondary sources and previous research that deals with the area of rebranding, visual identity and the different elements of identity.

    The reasons to rebranding can be different. The study also shows that some companies have a visual identity that does not interact with their products or services, which is the reason to rebranding. In summary, the external agencies take into account many of the aspects surrounding the design that are brought up by previous research, but the study also adds new perspectives.

  • 62.
    Begby, Simon
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Apelqvist, Hampus
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Den asymmetriska karaktärsanatomin: En jämförande analys av kroppsliga differenser vid animering av asymmetriska och symmetriska karaktärer2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how asymmetrical anatomy on 3D CGI characters can be constructed and influence experiences. The paper is based on comparing symmetrical and asymmetrical characters for a given situation. The experiment contains of two character animations where both characters are walking up on a staircase. One of the character has a prosthetic leg, otherwise, both characters have identical design for the same situation. For this thesis the character with asymmetrical leg is called 'asymmetrical character'.

    The purpose of this thesis is to identify and examine the effect of the differences between the characters, based on three of Disney's twelve animation principles (Frank Thomas & Ollie Johnston, 1981, s.47). The three most common, and chosen principles are: Anticipation, Exaggeration and Squash & Stretch. The comparison also include differences calculated in frames, and a discussion on considering the center of mass and the balance for figures. The aim is to create more believable characters and show how the combination of these factors can improve the reliability of the animation, and help to keep the suspension of disbelief alive.

    The results shows how the three animation principles applied to symmetrical and asymmetrical characters differs in terms of 1) usage, 2) needed frames, and 3) handling the center of gravity and obtaining balance for the characters. By interpreting the results, this study contributes to guidelines for the students interested in animation to create animation on asymmetrical characters. Since asymmetrical characters are needed for many settings, awareness about the resources required for asymmetrical characters should be clearer. Changing symmetrical characters to asymmetrical can also be common, and therefore methods and requirements for understanding the changes should be already described in handbooks and manuals used for character animations.

  • 63.
    Bellak, Matilda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bellak, Susanna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Responsiv Webbdesign: En studie av två responsiva gränssnitt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The market for new devices is expanding, while older devices and browsers still remains. This makes it problematic for designers and developers to know what screen size and device that is used by the visitor. Previously , this has often been handled by creating a separate mobile site , but since we are no longer limited to a few screen sizes , this becomes untenable. The designer / developer then would have to create different web pages for all devices. One popular solution to this is responsive web design, which is based on a flexible and dynamic interface that automatically adapts to the visitor's screen size. Although responsive web design has had a major impact on the web , it is still a new area which is reflected in the lack of research on the subject. The rapid development of the area has also led to that the designers and developers have had to quickly adapt interfaces and techniques as they no longer work for all user situations.

    The purpose of our study was to increase the understanding about responsive web design, and how this can be adapted to improve the usability and user experience . We have chosen to evaluate different, responsive interface to find guidelines that can be the basis for future, responsive web pages. Our research question is therefore :

    "How can responsive design be optimized for an improved user experience and greater usability?"

    The main findings in our study is partly that it is very important that the user perceives the website as consistent and recognize both the design of aesthetic elements and the interface, regardless of platform. We were also able to say that it is important for the designer / developer to prioritize the content and maintain margins and distance even on the smaller screens, allowing users to create a good overview and therefore get a better user experience

  • 64.
    Bengtegård, Dante
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Mo, Johan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Fotogrammetri och 3D-artisten: En studie om fotogrammetrin inom spelindustrin och dess effekt på branschens artister2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time, modelling for 3D games have strived to achieve photographic realism. The road there have historically gone through well-established traditional 3D-methods like box modelling and digital sculpting. However, in 2014 a big paradigm shift starts to happen, in 2014 photogrammetry arrives to the game industry in force. Since then the technology of photogrammetry has exploded within the game development industry and the field is now rapidly going through an arms race to not get left behind in the evolution of workflows for developing photo realistic 3D games. The purpose of this study was to understand how the implementation of this technology affects the 3D artists in the game industry. To study this, which has not been treated in previous scientific literature, we have conducted a survey study and a series of interviews. From our results we can see that the respondents, for the most part, have a positive attitude towards the change. This technology means for them a faster workflow and a shortcut towards photorealism. On top of this we cannot see a strong indication that this technology diminishes the artists creativity or causes something that can be called disruptive.

  • 65.
    Bengtsson, Simon
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Nyholm, Carl
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Kortfilm - födkrok eller språngbräda?: En undersökning om de digitala plattformarnas påverkan på distributionen av svensk kortfilm2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The intent of this paper is to examine the conditions for Swedish filmmakers with the short film format as final goal. Through a qualitative study we investigate what paths there are for distributing short films through the digital platforms available today. We do this by interviewing some of the most experienced and successful short film creators in Sweden and one of Sweden's main financier in film creation, to provide as just image of the branch as we can.

    Short films with financing from the state and regional financiers rarely has any focus on economic gain. They are rather intended to help form filmmakers and give them an opportunity to establish themselves prior to further filmmaking.

    The main digital platform in Sweden is SVT Play, witch is much based on the fact that SVT is part of sponsoring a big part of the government financed short films. The greatest problem we found is the availability for short films through digital platforms, since SVT Play most often has exclusive rights and only buy viewing rights during periods.

    When you want to distribute your short film, the most important aspect is the context, the film should not only appeal the audience it reaches but it also has to appeal the audience in the situation where it reaches them.

  • 66.
    Bengtsson, Viktor
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Eriksson, Anton
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ilska mot maskinerna?: En studie om upplevelser och attityder gentemot användning av kameradrönare ur ett integritetsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to gain increased knowledge and a deeper understanding of experiences and attitudes towards the use of camera drones from an integrity perspective.

    Theory: The theoretical framework consists of theories regarding technology, technology fear, personal-, contextual- and behavioral integrity.

    Method: The thesis assumes a mixed approach (Bryman, 2006) and the research question has been answered through a combination of qualitative content analysis and a survey.

    Result: The result shows that an overwhelming majority have a positive attitude towards camera drones. The result also points towards a lack of technology neutrality in legislation. In accordance with previous research, this study concludes that there is a need for frameworks as well as a deeper understanding of how people experience ethical, legal and integrity aspects of camera drones.

  • 67.
    Bergstedt, Tobias
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Sociala mediers påverkan på vår kreativitet: En studie i hur referensmaterial från sociala medier påverkar vår kreativa förmåga2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay was made to investigate the effects on creativity of students and professionals in the creative field caused by the use of reference materials from social media. It was performed by using an Aesthetics and Media class from De la Gardie High School to carry out an experiment where participants in two test groups were given the task of individually creating an image of a dragon. With the help of a preliminary investigation survey and an evaluation survey an interesting conclusion could be drawn.

    The result of the survey was that we were not significantly affected by the inspiration and reference material from social media. There was a clear difference between the results from the two groups, but this could be explained by the preliminary survey. From this survey it was obvious that the participants in Group 2 considered themselves to be more creative than the participants in group 1 did. Assuming that the participants had appreciated their ability correctly, it means that after correction based on this difference, the difference between using and not using social media for references is almost non-existent.

  • 68.
    Bergérus, Erik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Karlsson, Harald
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Inbrott eller besök?: En experimentell studie av narrativ varseblivning genom spelmekanisk interaktion2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the connection between mechanical interaction in a digital game and the narrative perception of the player, and thereby whether one and the same digital game sequence is perceived as thematically and narratively different based on available interactions and their degree of granularity. By executing a user test and allowing two groups of participants to experience and evaluate a game sequence with different degrees of granularity in their core mechanics, we have aquired the self-reflective experiences of the participants through subsequent interviews. The result of this shows a correlation between the granularity of the interaction phase and the subjective perception and narrative understanding of the digital game sequence. When the player is offered mechanical conditions that enables peeking through a door before opening it, the participant's perception of the relation between player character and location changes in a way that colors the overall understanding of the scenario. The study reaches the conclusion that game mechanical interaction in a digital game is a strong semiotic information carrier and that the possibilites of extended use of thorough granularity in games creates new narrative possiblites in interactive experiences. Research on narrative aspects of game mechanics are currently very limited and we see this study as part of a foundation for further and more extensive research within the field.

  • 69.
    Berholt, Minne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olander, Yasmine
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ungdomar och Facebook: En studie om en grupp gymnasieelevers användning av Facebook2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:To study the everyday use of Facebook among high school students in order to gain a deeper understanding of Facebooks possibility to motivate and activate interaction and how this tool is given different purposes and alternative meaning in users self-presentation. With this information we aim to explain how the phenomena Facebook impacts the interaction between people and examples can be defined by how the users communicate and interact witheach other online and how they choose to present themselves in a desirable way on their profiles. Material and method:By netnografi. The material in this study consist of non-participating hidden observations on seven high school students and their use of the social media tool Facebook. We used the approach qualitative observation with the justification that this grant us the opportunity to approach the real behaviour of the users without disturbing the sequence of event. Main results: The conclusion of this study is that youths everyday use of Facebook consists of sharing videos and links more than updated information about what they are doing. Friends are more responsible for the activity on the users Facebook profile. Social spheres are the answer to the users neutral posts. The students were members in several groups were the majority of the activity took place. The interaction between the users took place in the group-tool were the students interacted with like minded people who shared the same interest and communicated with the similar language patterns.

  • 70.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    E-government and E-governance - Swedish Case Studies with Focus on the Local level2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of e-government and e-governance are used interchangeably in most research and there is no single definition of these terms. The objective of this licentiate thesis is to provide a deeper understanding of these concepts through empirical studies in a Swedish context. Further, it aims to analyse whether – and if so in what way – the implementation of local contact centres (CC) affect conditions for local planning. This is reported in three articles. In this thesis e-government is defined to as the use of tools and systems by governmental bodies made possible by ICT that affect the organization of public administration. E-governance is defined as the ICT-based networks of services and administration in New Public Management settings including both public and private actors. Case study methodology is used as research method, including interviews, focus group studies, document studies, and some participatory observations. The analysis is partly built on an inductive methodological approach, since this is a new, emerging field of innovative policy and practice. Based on a theoretical discussion of New Public Management in the digital era, findings show that there is a difference between the concepts of e-government and e-governance from the perspective of e-administration and e-services and that the terms should not be used interchangeably. The study indicates that there are examples of implementation that are referred to the e-governance setting. Further the study indicates that local municipal contact centres may be referred to not only as an implementation of e-government but as a combination of e-governance and e-government. The findings indicate that there is a potential for positive impact on the conditions for local planning through the implementation of municipal contact centres.

  • 71.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    E-government and E-governance: local implementation of E-government policies in Sweden2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is recognized in international research that the public sector has been transformed into a networked, open and more flexible, informal and interactive governance structure. This is described as a transition from "government to governance". Sweden is one of the international leaders with regards to e-government development. The objective of this thesis is to provide a deeper understanding of how e-government policies are implemented in an e-governance context, through empirical case studies in Sweden. The focus is on the local level. The overall research question is: How is e-government policy put into practice when focusing on the local level? This is reported in four articles.Case study methodology is used as research method, including interviews, focus group interviews, document studies, and some participatory observations. The analysis is partly based on an inductive methodological approach, since this is a new, emerging field of innovative policy and practice.The analysis arrives at three overarching conclusions: (1) In practice, when e-government policy is implemented and translated at the local level, it tends to happen in an e-governance setting conducted by policy entrepreneurs or promoted by entrepreneurial behaviour in public administration. E-government policies are implemented in relation to local cultures, norms and economic structures. (2) Implementation of e-government and e-governance initiatives requires trust in the service provision among public administrators as well as among citizens. Efficiency and citizen-centred approaches in the redesign of information relationships between public administration and citizens to create some sort of added value are crucial. (3) The thesis indicates that there are two main implications of municipal contact centres (CCs): they localize public services and they combine different services into a one-stop practice striving to provide "holistic" services to the individual citizen. However, although the use of ICT is essential for the organisational transformation, the results indicate that the organisational settings and internal anchoring are greater constraints than new technology for implementation of local e-government and e-governance initiatives in the form of contact centres. One example for potential added value is the source of information of citizens' issues through the implementation of municipal contact centres, which may have a positive impact on the conditions for local planning.

  • 72.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Entrepreneurs and Policy Networks: A Study of the Implementation of two Swedish Municipal Contact Centers2012In: Uddevalla Symposium 2012 : Entrepreneurship and Innovation Networks. Revised papers presented at the 15th Uddevalla Symposium 14-16 June, 2012, Faro, Portugal. / [ed] Bernhard, Irene, Trollhättan: University West , 2012, 1, p. 79-93Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to discuss lessons learned of policy entrepreneurs to analyze how local policy entrepreneurs are acting in setting up local municipal contact centers - a Swedish local e-governmental initiative. The increased interest in political entrepreneurship has both analytical and practical grounds and implications. The networked governance settings demand new roles of entrepreneurial actors, which are approached here in relation to their localization, how they act to expand action spaces for themselves as well as others in the local community.

    …This case study is based on qualitative field studies. The main methods used were interviews with key actors, document studies and observations. The results indicate two main implications of Contact Centers; they localize public services and combine different services into a one-stop operation, striving to provide a ‘holistic’ approach to the individual citizen in her local context. However, contact center implementation also includes an organizational change within the municipalities, facilitating a reorganization of back-office procedures in order to optimize the efficiency and quality aspects. The policy entrepreneurs forming the contact centers promoted them from different perspectives and with varying ambitions. In one of the studied cases the core values of inclusion and participation grounded the design of the contact center, while in the other case the issue as such was the key – a new organizational approach. This is here explained as two illustrations of different approaches of policy networks and entrepreneurial behavior.

  • 73.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Incentives for Inclusive e-Government: The Implementation of Contact Centers in Swedish Municipalities2015In: Digital Solutions for Contemporary Democracy and Government / [ed] Bwalya, Kelvin Joseph & Mutula, Stephen, IGI Global, 2015, 1, p. 304-327Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Innovative Networks and Entrepreneurship: Special Issue: Innovative Networks and Entrepreneurship2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Local e-Government in Sweden: Municipal Contact Center implementation with focus on Citizens and Public Administrators2014In: Journal of Community Informatics, ISSN 1712-4441, E-ISSN 1712-4441, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the article is to analyze the implementation of municipal contact centers (CCs) - an e-government initiative on the local level - from the perspectives of citizens and public administrators. This article is based on case studies from four Swedish municipalities. The results indicate that the CCs: contribute to increased access to municipal service, localize public services and combine different services into a one-stop practice striving to provide a "holistic" approach to the individual citizen in her local context. However, the quality of the service also depends on the organizations of the work within the back-office of the municipality. All issues from the citizens were registered which contribute to increased knowledge about the citizens needs and perceptions regarding municipality services and planning in urban issues.

  • 76.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    The Role of Innovation with Focus on its Relevance for Regional Development: A Selected Recent Literature Review2014In: Uddevalla Symposium 2014. Geography of Growth. The Frequency, Nature and Consequences of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Regions of Varying Density: Revised papers presented at the 17th Uddevalla Symposium 12-14 June, 2014, Uddevalla, Sweden / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2014, p. 145-164Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review of recent research theories and to draw some conclusions for a new tentative research agenda on the role of innovation with focus on its relevance for regional development in a European context. The paper is more policy-oriented than theory-oriented. The analysis is based on a literature review of 15 articles published in 2012 or 2013 and is a further study of a literature review analysis based on selected literature from 2011 and 2012. The method has an explorative approach that is primarily concerned with generating knowledge for building theory. Some tentative implications for a new research agenda are suggested although results imply that for some of the most innovative European regions, innovation does not always pay off.

        It is suggested to apply a broader view of the concept of regional innovation including not only technological but also other types such as social innovation. Further it is suggested that a region no longer should be viewed as a bounded territory with a set of characteristics but as a space of professionals and social networks. A more proactive role by regional governance is advocated. It is argued that there is an increasing role of regional policymakers, not least to develop policies for different types of knowledge that have not traditionally been considered central to their activities. A constructed regional advantage approach based more on the uniqueness of the capabilities of regions and not only on the basis of R&D efforts is still argued for. The importance of cross-sector knowledge interactions and the importance of combining different types of knowledge for driving innovation are suggested. Further, the concept of “learning region” is criticized and needs to be developed. A theoretical framework towards a suggestion for operationalization of the concept of “learning region” is presented.

  • 77.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2010. Innovation and Multidimensional Entrepreneurship - Economic, Social and Academic Aspects: Revised papers presented at the 13th Uddevalla Symposium, 9-22 August 2010, Jönköping, Sweden2011Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This anthology consists of  twenty-five revised papers, first presented at the thirteenth Uddevalla Symposium, August, 19-22, 2010[1], at Jönköping University, Sweden. The overall theme was Innovation and Multidimensional Entrepreneurship – Economic, Social and Academic Aspects”. This year’s Uddevalla Symposium was organized as a Special Session within the 50th Anniversary ERSA congress 2010. Session organizers were Professor Kingsley E. Haynes, Dean, School of Public Policy, George Mason University & Professor Roger R. Stough, Vice President for Research and Economic Development, George Mason University, USA. A broad range of topics were listed among the themes for Special Sessions within this ERSA congress. One of them (and the largest) was the 13th Uddevalla Symposium to which forty papers were submitted. This session had an interdisciplinary character and provided an opportunity for researchers to discuss their ongoing research that was relevant to clarifying the role of innovation and multidimensional entrepreneurship in the growth and development of regional economies and regional economic systems. The papers were subdivided into nine different subthemes: Multidimensional Entrepreneurship, Regional Innovation Systems, Economic Development, Social Capital, Entrepreneurial Behavior, Rural Development, Industries, Firm Performance & Clusters, and Cities (for a detailed program; see the website: www.symposium.hv.se)

    1Uddevalla Symposium is an international scientific symposium established in 1998 in Uddevalla, Sweden. The primary objective is to foster research collaboration and bring together leading-edge views between experts, researchers and insightful practitioners from various fields of regional science, international business, economics, entrepreneurship and small business economics as well as from regional economics, regional planning, economic geography/economic history/political science and sociology in order to increase our knowledge as regards research questions related to “Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Functional Regions".

  • 78.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2011. Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions: Revised papers presented at the 14th Uddevalla Symposium, 16-18 June, 2011, Bergamo, Italy2011Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This proceedings consists of  thirty-nine revised papers, first presented at the fourteenth Uddevalla Symposium & the Third International Symposium of Entrepreneurship of E-Lab at University of Bergamo, June, 16-18, 2011 , held at University of Bergamo, Italy. The overall theme was “Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions”. The symposium was hosted by the E-Lab, University of Bergamo, Italy. The purpose of the symposium was to contribute to an increased understanding of the role of entrepreneurial knowledge and technology for the transformation of regions by means of the entry, growth and exit of firms.      Except for the overall theme there were twelve special sub-themes, chaired by invited scholars from the Uddevalla Symposium Network: “Work-integrated learning in transforming regions” “Entrepreneurship, family business and innovation”, “Slow city movement and sustainable local development”, “Shrinking urban regions”, “Entrepreneurship, networking and regional development”, “Resilience capacity of firms and new forms of innovation”, “Cluster development and regional transformation in an economic perspective”, “Entrepreneurship policy in comparative perspective”, “Learning and knowledge transfer processes in small firms’ clusters”, “The spatial agglomeration of business services”, “Entrepreneurship, creativity and the brain”, and “Productivity and financing of regional infrastructure.      Ten keynote-speakers gave presentations during these three days; Prof. Shaker A. Zahra, Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, USA. Assoc. Prof.  Charlotta Mellander, Jönköping International Business School, Sweden, Prof. David Audretsch, Indiana University, USA, Assoc. Prof. Johan Klaesson Jönköping International Business School & CenSE, Sweden, Prof. Andrés Rodriguez-Pose, London School of Economics, UK, Prof. Hans Westlund, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm & Jönköping International Business School, Sweden,  Prof. Maryann P. Feldman, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA,  Prof. Giovanna Dossena, University of Bergamo, Italy,  Prof. Hans Lööf, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden,  and Prof. Zoltan J. Acz, George Mason University, USA.      To stimulate high quality papers a Best Paper Award as well as a Best PhD Can¬didate Paper Award was announced and financially supported by the municipality of Uddevalla, Sweden. The winners of the Best Paper were Johan Klaesson & Sofia Wixe, Jönköping International Business School and CEnSE (Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics), Jönköping, Sweden. The winner of the Best PhD Can¬didate Paper Award was Mattias Örnerheim, Linköping University, Sweden.         Organizers of this 14th Uddevalla Symposium were the University West, Sweden and the E-Lab at University of Bergamo, in co-operation with Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), and George Mason University, School of Public Policy, USA. The symposium was also financial supported by the Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE), Jönköping International Business School, Sweden and Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovations Studies (CESIS), Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.         This symposium would not have been possible without a lot of work and support also from certain individuals. The editor expresses sincere gratitude to all participants, participating organizations, not at least the local organizers at the University of Bergamo, and especially to Dr. Christina Bettinelli.          Also I thank all members of the Uddevalla Symposium Organising Committee and all colleagues at University West. A special thank goes to Rebecca Olsson, University West not at least for editorial help.

    Trollhättan, Sweden in December 2011 Department for Economics & IT, University West

    Iréne BernhardEditor   

  • 79.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2012: Entrepreneurship and Innovation Networks: Revised papers presented at the 15th Uddevalla Symposium 14-16 June, 2012, Faro, Portugal2012Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research report consists of forty-four revised papers, first presented and discussed at the fifteenth Uddevalla Symposium held at University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal, June, 14-16, 2012[1] and hosted by Research Centre for Spatial and Organisational Dynamics (CIEO), University of Algarve. The overall theme was Entrepreneurship and Innovation Networks”.  The purpose of the symposium was to contribute to an increased understanding of the role of entrepreneurship and innovation networks for the transformation of regions. Hundred researchers from various fields, such as economic geography, entrepreneurship, international business, management, political science, regional economics, small business economics and urban and regional planning, from more than 20 countries took part. Except for the overall theme there were the following six sub-themes, chaired by invited scholars from the Uddevalla Symposium Network: Learning in Organizational Networks, Chair: Assoc. Prof. Lars Svensson, Research Director, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden. Learning Networks for Entrepreneurial and Regional Development, Chair: Prof. Stefan Lagrosen, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden. Demythologising the Entrepreneurial University, Chair: Prof. David Charles, European Policies Research Centre, University of Strathclyde, UK. Regional Innovation Systems and Innovation Networks, Chair: Prof. Christina Ponsiglione, University of Naples Federico II, Italy. Mobility and Innovation Flows, Chair: Prof. Teresa de Noronha, Research Centre for spatial and Organizational Dynamics (CIEO), University of Algarve, Portugal and Academics Entrepreneurship and Innovation – bridging perspectives and pushing the frontier, Chairs: Prof. Martin Andersson and Prof. Åsa Lindholm-Dahlstrand, Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Lund University, Sweden. Uddevalla Symposiumis a yearly international scientific symposium ran by University West (former University of Trollhättan-Uddevalla), Sweden and established in 1998 in Uddevalla, Sweden. The primary objective is to foster research collaboration and bring together leading-edge views between experts, researchers and insightful practitioners from various fields of regional science, international business, economics, entrepreneurship and small business economics as well as from regional economics, regional planning, economic geography/economic history/political science and sociology in order to increase our knowledge as regards research questions related to “Entrepreneurship  and Regional Development".

            Organizers of this 15th Uddevalla Symposium were the University West, Sweden and the CIEO, at University of Algarve, in co-operation with Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), and George Mason University, School of Public Policy, USA. The symposium was also financial supported by the Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovations Studies (CESIS), Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden and Jönköping International Business School; the Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Lund University, Sweden and the Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE), Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.

     

  • 80.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2013. Innovation, High-Growth Entrepreneurship and Regional Development: Revised papers presented at the 16th Uddevalla Symposium 13-15 June, 2013, Kansa City, MO, USA2013Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2014. Geography of Growth. The Frequency, Nature and Consequences of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Regions of Varying Density: Revised papers presented at the 17th Uddevalla Symposium 12-14 June, 2014, Uddevalla, Sweden2014Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grunden, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A Study of Small Enterprises with Focus on Entrepreneurship and E-government in a Regional Development Context2015In: A Nordic Perspective on Co‐Operation for Sustainable Destination and Regional Development / [ed] Iréne Bernhard & Anna Karin Olsson, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 59-75Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter aims to describe and analyze a sample of small enterprises located in a region undergoing structural change with focus on entrepreneurship and e-government and is a further development of a previous study that focused on how municipalities supported entrepreneurship and destination development. In this study the focus is extended to include small enterprises contributing to development of tourist destinations within the same region. In-depth qualitative interviews weremade with twelve managers from ten small enterprises. Based on a theoretical discussion of entrepreneurship, e-government and regional development, the results indicate that networks and strategic networking were important for these small enterprises both in terms of developing the enterprise butalso to develop entrepreneurship for regional development. The findings further indicate that municipal information, communication and competence development in order to support entrepreneurship and the development of small enterprises could be improved. The importance of face-to-face contacts was stressed. The use of local e-government was hitherto limited to e-services for public procurement. The entrepreneurs who used the e-services had mainly positive experiences, although despite the complexity of the e-services. The respondents did not ask for more municipal e-services, but that could be a consequence of their limited experience of the potential of local e-government. The use of social media among the enterprises was limited due to lack of time, competence and motivation for most of the enterprises, although the potential of social media for marketing was seen as extensive. A few of the respondents were on the other hand very skilled in their use ofdigital media, as a consequence of their professional knowledge and business orientation.

  • 83.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grunden, Kerstin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Challenging Organizational Issues When Municipal Contact Centers are Implemented in Sweden2013In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 198-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two case studies of the implementation of Contact Centres(CCs) in Swedish municipalities were compared and discussed from anorganizational perspective. The research method was semi-structured qualitative interviews with different personnel categories in both municipalities. Several challenging organizational issues for management and employees were identified:the implementation strategies varied among the cases and affected the pace of implementation, attitudes and motivation, the mental construct and understanding of the implementation. The financing of the CC and recruitment strategies created problems, but in somewhat different ways and in phases of the process in each case. The potential of using registered information as asource for planning and decision-making was not fully utilized, although somestatistics were produced. In both cases there was a combination of formal andinformal learning strategies and flexible co-operation among the employees inthe CCs which contributed to continuous learning processes and a good,co-operative working climate. There was a need for continuous updating ofskills in both cases, but with slightly different focus, related to theorganization of the work. The organization in response groups required morespecialist competence, compared with the organization without response groups,which required more general competence. Some challenges for the caseadministrators in the back offices were to adapt to a more process-oriented organizationof their work, and to co-operate more with their colleagues both in the backoffice and at the CC. They now had the possibility to plan their administrativework in a better way than before, but some administrators missed the previousspontaneous contacts with citizens. Initially, many case administrators wereafraid of losing their jobs and work tasks to CC, contributing to negativeattitudes towards CC and hampering the learning process in taking part in theimplementation process.

  • 84.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grunden, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Municipal Support of Entrepreneurship and Business Development from an e-government Perspective2015In: A Nordic Perspective on Co‐Operation for Sustainable Destination and Regional Development / [ed] Iréne Bernhard & Anna Karin Olsson, Uddevalla: University West , 2015, p. 44-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article will contribute to the debate about regional development in peripheral areas by examining the social capital in 14 villages in a Danish municipality, and particularly the influence of social media on the social capital.Contrary to the current public discourse in Denmark on peripheral communities and how they are falling apart because of demographic changes, economic cut backs, and structural changes, this study did not find one single village, where the social capital seems to be in any imminent danger. The article also proposes a different perspective on the operationalization of social capital. Social capital is typically measured in big international values surveys based on the variables network, trust and reciprocity. However, this study is based on a qualitative research with interviews in 14 villages in a peripheral Danish municipality. This in depth research shows that when examining the social capital of communities, the most valuable parameter is to look at the most typical proxy for network: associations and in particular the character of these associations. They furthermore give an indication of the kind of social capital they are building and maintaining.The study also shows that we might have to extend the notion of network to include that of social media as this type of network gets increasingly more important. However, the study cannot conclude that the communities not using the social media have less social capital then the one who does, nor that they are disconnected from the citizens.

  • 85.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grunden, Kerstin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Networking and e-government for local development: experiences gained by entrepreneurs in small enterprises in Sweden2016In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 154-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to analyse experiences gained by entrepreneurs in small enterprises located in a region undergoing structural change, focusing on networking and e-government for local development. The study is a further development of a study that focused on how municipalities supported entrepreneurship and destination development. In-depth qualitative interviews were made with twelve entrepreneurs from ten small enterprises. Based on a theoretical discussion of networking, e-government and social media marketing, the results indicate that networks and strategic networking were important in order to develop their enterprises, which also contributed to local development. The importance of initial face-to-face contacts in order to build business relationships in networks was stressed. The use of local e-government was hitherto limited to e-services for public procurement, the use of social media marketing was limited due to lack of time, competence and motivation for most of the entrepreneurs.

  • 86.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A Study of Small Enterprises with Focus on Entrepreneurship and E-government in a Regional Development Context2014In: Uddevalla Symposium 2014. Geography of Growth. The Frequency, Nature and Consequences of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Regions of Varying Density: Revised papers first presented at the 17th Uddevalla Symposium, 12-14 June, Uddevalla, Sweden. / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2014, p. 165-183Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to describe and analyse a sample of small enterprises located in a region undergoing structural change with focus on entrepreneurship and e-government and is a further development of a previous study that focused on how municipalities supported entrepreneurship and destination development. In this study the focus is extended to include small enterprises contributing to development of tourist destinations within the same region. In-depth qualitative interviews were made with twelve managers from ten small enterprises.

       Based on a theoretical discussion of entrepreneurship, e-government and regional development, the results indicate that networks and strategic networking were important for these small enterprises both in terms of developing the enterprise but also to develop entrepreneurship for regional development. The findings further indicate that municipal information, communication and competence development in order to support entrepreneurship and the development of small enterprises could be improved. The importance of face-to-face contacts was stressed. The use of local e-government was hitherto limited to e-services for public procurement. The entrepreneurs who used the e-services had mainly positive experiences, although despite the complexity of the e-services. The respondents did not ask for more municipal e-services, but that could be a consequence of their limited experience of the potential of local e-government. The use of social media among the enterprises was limited due to lack of time, competence and motivation for most of the enterprises, although the potential of social media for marketing was seen as extensive. A few of the respondents were on the other hand very skilled in their use of digital media, as a consequence of their professional knowledge and business orientation.

  • 87.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lessons Learned from the Implementation of Contact Centers in Swedish Municipalities2013In: Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on e-Government: University of Insubria, Varese, Italy, 13-14 June 2013 / [ed] Elena Ferrari and Walter Castelnovo, Reading, 2013, p. 63-71Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Two case studies of the implementation of contact centers (CCs) in Swedish municipalities were compared and analyzed. The purpose of the article is to focus on lessons learned from the perspectives of the management and the employees in the organizations according to the MOA-model. The research method used was semi-structured qualitative interviews with different personnel categories in both municipalities. According to our findings the implementation strategies varied among the two cases. The strategies affected the pace of implementation, attitudes and motivation aspects and understanding of the implementation. The potential of using registered information as a source for planning and decision-making was not fully utilized in the municipal organizations, although some statistics were produced. In both cases there was a combination of formal and informal learning strategies and flexible co-operation among the employees in the CCs which contributed to continuous learning processes and a good, co-operative working climate. Some learning challenges for the handling officers at the back offices were to adapt to a more process-oriented organization. Initially, many handling officers at the back-office were afraid of losing their jobs and work tasks to CC, contributing to negative attitudes towards CC, and hampering the learning process in taking part in the implementation process. The establishment of a CC is a comprehensive organizational change process affecting the whole municipal administration. A challenge for the municipalities is to formulate relevant strategies and manage the implementation in order to involve all employees.

  • 88.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Municipal Support of Entrepreneurship and Business Development from an e-Government Perspective2013In: Uddevalla Symposium 2013 Innovation, High-Growth Entrepreneurship and Regional Development: Revised papers presented at the 16th Uddevalla Symposium 13-15 June, 2013, Kansas City, MO, USA / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2013, 1, p. 177-193Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to describe and analyze municipal support of entrepreneurship and business development from an e-government perspective. We analyze two Swedish municipalities and a local tourism company partly owned by the municipalities located in a region undergoing structural change, focusing on efforts of municipalities to develop digital services to support entrepreneurship and business development to promote local and regional development. The research method is based on case study methodology. The case studies are part of the research project “Maritime Inlands – past, present and future strengths” (Marifus) financed by Interregional European Union Regional Development Fund (Interrreg). Based on theoretical discussions of entrepreneurship and e-government theories, the analyses of the two case studies show substantial variations in how they supported entrepreneurship. The findings indicated that e-government services so far have under-used potential for the studied municipalities and the tourism company in order to support efficient communication and information towards the entrepreneurs and businesses aiming at local and regional development.

  • 89.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Towards Inclusive E-Government: The Development of Municipal Contact Centers in Sweden2013In: Developing E-Government Projects: Frameworks and Methodologies / [ed] Zaigham Mahmood, Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2013, 1, p. 225-247Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, five case studies of the implementation of contact centers in Swedish municipalities are described and discussed with a focus on inclusive e-government. The research methods used are mainly qualitative interviews with different categories of municipal personnel and also with some citizens. The main conclusions are that the implementation of contact centers contributes to increased accessibility of municipal services, even for those citizens who might have problems using Internet services. The study indicates and development towards increased equal treatment of citizens and a contribution to reducing problems related to the “digital divide.” Municipal services became more adapted to citizens’ needs by using citizen-centric methods and dialogue during the development process and in the daily work of the contact centers. The implementation of municipal contact centers can thus be seen as a step towards inclusive e-government, but there is still a need to go further in this direction.

  • 90.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Value Creation of networks and networking for small enterprises and destination development2014In: The 23rd Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research: THE values of tourism / [ed] Budeanu, Adriana; Möckel, Marie & Gyimóthy, Szilvia, Köpenhamn, 2014, p. 81-82Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature recognizes that networks and networking are vital for firm performance and enterprises of all sizes are joining international networks (Lechner & Dowling, 2003; Bernhard & Karlsson, 2014; Cesário & Noronha Vaz, 2014;). Further research claims that networking is an important business activity for entrepreneurs, especially important for small businesses during start-up, which can then contribute to the growth of the business and superior performance. The emerging information society challenges relations not only between public agencies such as municipalities and citizens but also small enterprises in many ways. Earlier research also claims that entrepreneurship is a key issue in destination development.

    This study aims to describe and analyze the value creation of networks for small enterprises and destination development. The enterprises are located in two municipalities in a region undergoing structural change, due to the closure of a big car plant. We will focus on the value creation of different forms of networks and networking such as face-to-face and digital-based networks. Further we focus on value creation related to different actors within the networks, such as the role of entrepreneurs, municipalities, customers and sub-contractors. Theories on entrepreneurship, e-government, social media and network are important for our study.

    The research method is based on case study methodology with use of qualitative in-depth interviews, observations and document studies. Twelve interviews were conducted with managers from ten small enterprises (defined as microenterprises according to European Commission (Ekonomifakta, 2014). We contacted the public managers at the business offices in each municipality and they selected a list of companies involved in destination development within their municipality. Two of the ten enterprises were chosen from the list made by the managers. The remaining eight were selected from the list of members of the tourism company’s website. The tourism company is partly owned by the two municipalities and managed by a non-profit association for tourism development. Each interview took about an hour and was recorded before transcribing. All interviews were conducted in autumn 2013 and were made together by the authors. The analysis was made by qualitative content analysis and done in two steps; first separately by each author, after which the analysis was discussed together. This was done in order to increase the validity of the analysis. Regarding some issues respondents have received follow-up questions in order to get further understanding.

    The main findings indicated that networks and municipal support were important for the small enterprises. The municipalities could for example support network building for destination development. The use of local e-government was hitherto limited to e-services for public procurement. The respondents did not ask for more municipal e-services, but that could be a consequence of their limited experience of the potential of local e-government.

    The respondents stressed the importance of face-to-face contacts for establishing and maintaining their networks. The use of social media among the enterprises was limited due to lack of time, competence and motivation for most of the enterprises, although the potential of social media for marketing was seen as extensive. A few of the respondents on the other hand were very skilled in their use of social media, as a consequence of their professional knowledge and business orientation. Strategic choices of networks and relevant competence to handle social contacts (both face-to-face and digitally) contributed to the value creation.

    This research provides insight into and deeper understanding of some important aspects that contribute to value creation for small enterprises and destination development.

  • 91.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University.
    Editorial2014In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 269-274Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Municipal Contact Centers: A Slower Approach towards Sustainable Local Development2011In: Uddevalla Symposium 2011. Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions: Revised papers presented at the 14th Uddevalla Symposium, 16-18 June 2011, Bergamo, Italy / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2011, 1, p. 111-125Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The constitutional local autonomy of Swedish municipalities aims to relate democracy and public administration to local distinctiveness. It relies on the idea of subsidiarity and rests on the idea of a local common and the citizen’s own inter-pretation of common problems and activities. This gives a unique opportunity to develop Swedish municipalities as slow cities. In Sweden there are some local food initiatives focusing on local and traditional production, hospitality and delivering. However, to live slow is also about how, where and when everyday life take place. This in spite of that all municipalities have explicit sustainability policies. A reason for this could be the dominating discourse of welfare efficiency, production and growth.

       One of the most recent approach to keep up the image as well as the practice of Sweden as a sustainable but still efficient, fast and well-organized state is e-government. The high Internet penetration among Swedes opens for as well as asks for improved and developed governmental services on-line. In Sweden, a recent governmental action plan stresses the importance of using information and communication technologies (ICT) in order to effectively develop the Swedish public administration with the aim to ”make it as simple as possible for as many as possible” leading to improved accessibility for all citizens. This has led to that public municipal contact centers have been established. Contacts centers are both physical and on-line. E-government could be considered as fast government, but in this paper we will try to turn that obvious first impression up-side down. We will conceptual argue that municipal contact centers are a tool towards improved sustainability, localism and slowing up administration.

       Thus there are two main implications of contact centers, they localize public services and they combine different services into a one-stop practice. This strives to provide a ‘holistic’ approach of the individual in relation to the governmental administration. The conclusions of the paper are a double modeling. Firstly, we point out the implications of time-geographical modeling of slow processes. Secondly, we place e-government and contact centers in this model. Policy implications relate both to the conceptualization of slow processes and the potential to further develop municipal contact centers.

  • 93.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Municipal Contact Centres: A Slower Approach Towards Sustainable Local Development by E-government2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 2292-2309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is Swedish government policy to use information and communication technologies to increase sustainability. This has implications for planning and local organization of communities. In the municipalities where most public services are provided, there are growing numbers of local contact centres (CCs) aiming to meet citizens’ needs for information and coordination of public services. The CCs localize public services and combine different services into a one-stop practice focusing on needs and demands of individual citizens and their unique situations. The municipalities hereby have to plan for service provision in new ways to meet more individualized needs that are also in line with improved sustainability. CCs are both local offices and advanced services on-line, as e-governmental services. E-government could be considered fast government, but this article aims to turn that obvious first impression upside down and discuss how e-government can slow down and make services more local, personalized and sustainable. Theoretically we take off from a time-geographical modelling of slow processes that has implication for slower, more sustainable development. Based on in-depth case studies of municipal CCs we argue that they are tools towards improved sustainability and localism, and that they are “slowing up” administrative processes. In particular, we point out that e-government has a potential to plan for, and promote, sustainability and slow local development.

  • 94.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Policy entrepreneurs in networks: implementation of two Swedish municipal contact centres from an actor perspective2014In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 288-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to elaborate on the meanings of policy entrepreneursand through the conceptualisation analysing implementation of local municipalcontact centres – a Swedish local e-governmental initiative. The paper buildson qualitative case studies including interviews, observations and documentanalysis, all analysed through the perspective of policy entrepreneurs. Localpolicies are implemented in relation to local cultures, norms and economicstructures. The networked governance structure demands entrepreneurial actorsto combine resources and interests into a change. Here we identified boththeoretically and practical, two types of such entrepreneurial actors. The issueentrepreneur focuses on the issue as such and focuses on the solution to a singleproblem. The political entrepreneur, on the other hand, focuses on core valuesand long term structural changes. The emerging networked governancestructure asks for improved knowledge on policy entrepreneurship both foranalytical and practical improvements. The findings may provide usefulinformation for municipal e-government planning specifically when planningfor implementing contact centres. The study enriches the existing literature onpolicy entrepreneurs in networks expanding the roles to include also local e-government contexts.

  • 95.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Regional e-governance: Promoting Entrepreneurial Behavior in Public Administration2014In: Agglomeration, clusters and entrepreneurship: Studies in Regional Economic Development. / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson, Roger R. Stough, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, 1, p. 199-220Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public e-services are technical innovations which enable organizational changes. The basic pre-conditions for e-services in the public sector differ in several respects from e-commerce in the private sector. When the “customers” are citizens, the distribution of, access to and use of the services are not based on an open market distribution. Public e-services bring about innovative organizational changes for the new e-society and bridge formerly unseen digital divides. However, such changes demand an innovative behaviour among people in professional roles which are usually strictly and formally defined. 

        The conceptual model developed in this paper will discuss the differences of e-services, e-administration and e-democracy. Following this model, an illustrative case of a public e-service on the Internet will be presented and analyzed. The e-service extending the geographical reach of public organizations is the Common application system for upper secondary school in the regions of West Sweden and Östergötland in Sweden. The professionals in public administration acted as entrepreneurs and improved the intended benefits of the e-service. We therefore see a demand for developing general models to analyze as well as for promoting public e-services.

  • 96.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Trust in Safe Public E-services: Translating Policies into Use2011In: Uddevalla Symposium 2010. Innovation and Multidimensional Entrepreneurship - Economic, Social and Academic Aspects: Revised papers presented at the 13th Uddevalla Symposium, 19-22 August, 2010, Jönköping, Sweden / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2011, 1, p. 107-124Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging information society challenges relations between public agencies and citizens in many ways. Such relations taking place on the Internet or in other specific systems are called public e-services, which is a basic component of e-government.  E-services as such are innovations – even if the service as such has been there before – it is a new way producing and organizing the service. For successful implementation of innovations in public contexts the innovations has to be considered as legitimate by all involved actors.

       On a European and national level there are some policies and emerging standardization regarding public e-services. Thus policies are translated both to other levels of governments in the multi-level governance chain and secondly from technical to administrative settings. Since the Swedish public administration rely on a double steering approach, with strong constitutional regional and local autonomy, such policies cannot be forced out into regional local public agencies. Instead European and national policy statements become soft policy instruments in the local context and the implications from them rely on the local uptake in the specific setting and the competences of the professionals in the local public administration. 

       Since this is a new emerging field of innovative practice our analysis will build on an inductive methodological approach. The theoretical framework of policy and technology translation opens for inclusion of this broad process of changes. Our focus here on the translation process is to highlight both translations over levels in multi-level settings and constructions of meanings of safety. The conclusion is that the translation over levels from policies to praxis appears to be more critical than the technological translation. In short: the organizational settings of multi-level governance are greater constraints than new technology for implementation of public e-services.   

  • 97.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Trust in Secure Public E-services: Translating Policies into Use2012In: Entrepreneurship, Social Capital and Governance: Directions for Sustainable Development and Competitiveness of Regions / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson, Roger R Stough, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, p. 241-262Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging information society challenges relations between public agencies and citizens in many ways. Providing e-services on the Internet and using other forms of information and communication technologies are basic components of e-government. E-services as such are innovations – even if the service itself existed before – as they are a new way of producing and organizing the service. For secure use and successful implementation of innovations in public contexts, the innovation must be considered legitimate and related to policies.

       The European Union and all other levels of government form policies, which are translated among the various levels to manage the useful, secure praxis of e-services. Translation in organisational terms takes place across governmental levels in the multi-level governance chain and secondarily from technical to administrative settings. Since the Swedish public administration relies on a dual steering approach, with strong, constitutionally mandated regional and local autonomy, such policies cannot be forced onto regional and local public agencies. Instead, European and national policy statements become soft policy instruments in the local context, and their implications rely on local uptake in the specific setting and on the competencies of the professionals in local public administration. 

       Since this is a new, emerging field of innovative policy and practice, our analysis will build on an inductive methodological approach. The theoretical framework of policy and technology translation allows inclusion of this broad process of changes. Our focus here on the translation process is to highlight translations both across levels in multi-level settings and as constructions of meanings of security. The conclusion is that the organizational settings of multi-level governance are greater constraints than new technology for implementation of public e-services.   

  • 98.
    Bernhard, Irène
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    The Role of Local Destination Management Organizations for Destination Development focusing on E-government and Networks. Case studies from Scandinavia2015In: Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 123-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on destination development from the perspective of the field of tourism, explored by a descriptive study comparing three local Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) focusing on e-government and networks. Local DMOs are often founded by local municipalities and enterprises in conjunction to promote the tourism industry. This study includes three cases in Scandinavia, having inland water areas in common, situated in regions that are undergoing structural change. The research method is based on case study methodology with use of qualitative in-depth interviews and document studies. This research provides insight into and deeper understanding of some important aspects regarding the use of e-government and networks that contribute to destination development in an Scandinavian context.

  • 99.
    Bernhard, Irène
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross-border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 100.
    Bernhard, Irène
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The Role of Local E-government for Satisfied Citizens: Towards Sustainable Development?2015In: Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 141-153Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to study the role of local e-government regarding citizens view of municipality service, information and accessibility to municipality service. The main hypothesis was that municipalities with high degree of pro-activity regarding e-government are municipalities with high degree of satisfied citizens. Satisfaction among citizens was studied by using a national survey which is performed twice ever year. The survey normally includes roughly 130 municipalities out of the 290 municipalities in Sweden. The number of randomly selected individuals per municipality is usually 600 in smaller municipalities and 1200 in larger municipalities. In this study we focus on the following dimensions: Overall satisfaction, Satisfaction with response and accessibility and Satisfaction with influence and confidence.The results implies that e-government and satisfied citizens are correlated. The correlations between the e-variables: e-proactivity, e-strategy, e-information/transparency, e-interaction were all significantly correlated to the satisfaction indices. The correlations were generally of medium strength, i.e. around 0.2-0.4. There were no significant correlations between in real life interactions, strategy for democracy and the satisfaction indices.

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