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  • 51.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Stakeholder Collaboration for Place Innovation: Challenges and Visions in Local Regeneration2018In: Uddevalla Symposium 2018: Diversity, Innovation, Entrepreneurship – Regional, Urban, National and International Perspectives: Revised papers presented at the 21st Uddevalla Symposium, 14–16 June, 2018, Luleå, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2018, p. 127-145Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes its point of departure from urban place innovation studies with focus on stakeholders' interests and involvement in developing local communities in smaller cities. The aim of the present paper is to identify place innovation challenges among local community stakeholders and to discuss approaches to involve stakeholders in local regeneration through case studies in Norway and Sweden.

    In-depth qualitative interviews have been conducted during the years 2016-2018. In total 40 different stakeholders representing local entrepreneurs, non-profit organizations, municipalities, elected officials and residents with particular interests in regeneration of the local communities have been interviewed. Additional participatory observations and document studies were conducted. The results reveal stakeholders' views on challenges and opportunities related to collaborative approaches for place innovation. The complex nature of the two cases is characterized by cultural heritage, authenticity, indistinct place identity, insufficient communication and inclusion together with a mix of nostalgia and resignation. Findings indicate that place innovation requires an integrated approach based on stakeholder collaboration and engagement in order to develop the potential of city centers.

  • 52.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    An eye for an I: a framework with focus on the integration of work and learning in higher education2018In: INTED 2018: Proceedings, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher education plays a new role in the society and the highly specialized labor market, and higher education institutes are expected to interact with and contribute to the surrounding society. University West in Sweden is since 2002 commissioned by the government to develop the pedagogical strategy called work-integrated learning (WIL) and WIL is the “trade mark” for the University. This means that pedagogical methods are based on WIL and that the faculty is working on further refinement and development in order to maximize the pedagogical gain offered by using the synergy between theory and practice.

    Work-integrated-learning activities are often implemented in a course as methods aligned to the learning outcomes regarding knowledge in the specific subject. However, another perspective is that the capacity to reflect and understand the integration of theory and practice could actually be a learning outcome in itself. From this perspective, it is vital to theoretically frame and formulate stringent learnings outcomes. To have a clear framework for this is important for curriculum design, course delivery and assessment, as well.

    In a self-evaluation conducted at the University, including focus groups with, both undergraduate and post graduate students, teachers, researchers and managers, a call for a framework has been expressed.

    In this conceptual paper, we propose a framework to support, design, delivery and assessment of work-integrated-learning progression, i.e. understanding of the integration between theory and practice. This framework is inspired by theories regarding constructive alignment [3], the SOLO taxonomy, agentic learning, SAMR-model and the RAT-model. RAT means Replacement, Amplifying and Replacement [4] while SAMR is the acronym for Substitution, Augmentation, Modification and Redefinition [5]. Our WIL-4U has also been inspired by SOLO taxonomy [6]

    In short, the framework for progression includes a progression from being descriptive regarding the observed practice, skills for comparing and evaluating practices, to be agentic in how theory and practice could be used in synergy for evolving, new theory and development of practice. Thereby, putting on eye on the “i” in WiL.

    Ultimately such a framework could support the progression of “WiL-understanding” through an educational program, and that students after graduation have developed readiness for “life-long-learning” and could be agentic at workplaces in the sense that practice and theory are used in synergy.

  • 53.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Winman, Thomas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Work-integrated-learning: So what?: A framework for describing the level of integration between work and learning2017In: ICERI2017 Proceedings, 2017, p. 443-451Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge society of today is characterized by a continuously ongoing technological development and digitalization that steadily calls for new competencies and transforms existing professions. For being able to provide up-to-date competence in a fast-changing labor market there is, perhaps more than ever, a need for extensive cooperation between Universities and surrounding society. A number of different models supporting the civic university has been established, e.g. “entrepreneurial university”, the triple-helix model and the increasingly popular adoption of “work-integrated learning” (WIL). 

    Work-integrated learning offer students authentic learning experiences and create synergy between theory and practice, e.g. by cooperative educational programs, internship, sandwich programs and case based teaching. Beyond the pedagogical benefits with experiential learning, WIL also supports the transfer between higher education and work, i.e. increases readiness, employability and also encourage a more agentic engagement. Furthermore, research results show that WIL-students have career benefits regarding salary in early career and job advancement. Even though, WIL and similar strategies for combining theory and practice seems to have promising pedagogical and career advantages, the theoretical underpinning is still underdeveloped. For instance, the methodology for how learning is promoted and which role external partners could play is vague. 

    At University West with more than 25 years’ experience of WIL a holistic approach to WIL have been adopted and WIL permeates all the Universities activities: education, research and extensive collaboration with the surrounding society. Over the years our efforts have been formalized and a taxonomy for will-activities have been developed. In sum, we know that WIL have promising potential, and we know what to do. But, in a recently performed study at this University, based on focus groups interviews and consolidation of our experiences we identified that even if the question “what?” is responded to, there is an important sub-question to be addressed, namely: “so what?”. When adopting different WIL activities, both small and large scale activities, e.g. a guest lecture or an internship, it is reasonable to reflect on whether these activities are used in an optimal way? What kind of impact does the WIL-activity imply? What could be achieved by successful integration between theory and practice? Could it be visualized?

    Inspired by models used for integrating technique in education (RAT, SAMR and TPCK-models), we have developed a framework for the progression of work-integrated learning in education. The framework is in a sense a model for “Wil-value”. This framework could be used on different levels and in different context: in a single course, educational program, in research projects, cooperation with surrounding society, mentorship and on partner workplaces.

  • 54.
    Bernheim, Bo-Göran
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Ett förslag till en metod för konceptuell modellering2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vetenskapliga teorier och begreppsmodeller kan ses som representationer av kunskap om något fenomen. Teorier är alltid abstraktioner av ett fenomen, med syfte att; beskriva, förklara, förutse eller styra detta fenomen.

    I ett nummer av MIS Quarterly (2003 27(3) pp iii-xii), argumenterar Ron Weber (2003) för att forskare inom IS-domänen bör sträva efter bättre precision när man presenterar och diskuterar forskning och teorier.

    I den här uppsatsen analyseras Ron Webers artikel för att ta fram en konceptuell modell, en begreppsmodell, för vetenskapliga teorier.

    Syftet är att skapa en modell för vetenskapliga teorier som kan leda till bättre formalisering och tydliggörande av vetenskapliga teorier.

    Dessutom skapas en enhetlig och konsistent terminologi avseende de element (relationer mellan olika entiteter, dessas egenskaper, tillstånd och relaterade händelser) som kan ses som den minsta gemensamma nämnaren för att beskriva alla existerande fenomen. En instansiering av denna modell skulle kunna tjänstgöra som ett generiskt arkiv 1 för kunskap.

  • 55.
    Bittar, Sadik
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Collaborative Learning in a Learning Management System: A Qualitative Case Study of Work-Integrated E-Learning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the increase in importance of a collaborative learning approach in the era of web 2.0 and the emergence of the social web, designing a convenient and adaptable LMS that can support this approach is becoming more challenging. This thesis has been conducted as a qualitative case study. The case study is represented by the "ProdEx" project in the Production Technology Center (PTC) at University West. This project focuses on collaboration and sharing knowledge between academia and industry, by offering Work Integrated e-Learning courses at university level to manufacturing industry companies. Within this environment, the aim of my study was to examine collaborative learning phenomena within an e-WIL environment. The research question of the study was: How does tailored LMS affect collaborative learning in an e-WIL course?

    To answer this research question, I used interviews as the main research method to collect the empirical data. Thus, I conducted seven interviews with different stakeholders in the project, including the project coordinator, a professor who teaches advanced level courses, and one participant of the professor's courses. Moreover, I used an open-ended questionnaire to collect data from the former participants who couldn't attend face-to-face meetings. All the interviews have been transcribed and analyzed using content analysis method.

    During the course of the research, a need to design a prototype artifact, i.e. a WordPress-LMS, arose. The purpose was to put the new collaborative features and the professor's requirements to the test in one of his e-WIL courses, "FEM1". I used the participatory design method to design the prototype with the professor, mainly because he is the primary user of the platform and has particular requirements of the system supporting his e-WIL courses.

    The requirements are derived from his highly pedagogical and technological course demands.The theoretical framework of this study contains a sociocultural theory used to conceptualize the research. The literature of sociocultural theory and the studied phenomena, together with the empirical results, enabled me to answer the research question and draw the following conclusion, namely that the designed LMS can influence the collaborative learning phenomena by enabling collaborative features in the LMS and sustaining the practice community built through it, while t at the same time, enabling the implementation of e-WIL courses, expanding the audience of participants and maintaining the learning relationship with the e-WIL courses. The designed LMS achieves the above through the features implemented in it. These features have been designed, built and customized to adapt the particular situation of the professor, and to suit his high pedagogical and technological course demands.

  • 56.
    Boström, Malin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Staciwa, Monika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Digital Nudging för hållbarhet: En experimentell studie om digital nudging för hållbarhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how digital user interface systems with digital nudges shaped based on FBM (Fogg Behavior Model) and the PSD model (Persuasive Systems Design) can be used for the promotion of sustainable consumption patterns.

    The study's data collection methods are experimental user tests in a semi-controlled environment where user data on a mobile-based user interface design is collected for analysis. The user interface tested was of a prototype mobile app, made for the purpose of this study. Complementary interviews of the participants were performed in connection with the tests in order to gain a deeper understanding of the design situation and the factors that may have an impact on the users' choice, their experiences and attitudes, among other things.

    The results of the experiment in which various digital nudges are tested are interpreted and analyzed from a persuasive design perspective using the FBM and PSD models that conceptualize persuasive design. The intention is to see which factors lead users to more sustainable consumption behaviors.

    We conclude with a discussion on how to apply these models in order to design nudges in context for sustainability purposes. The discussion is intended to lead to an inductive conclusion about which variables and which conditions work best to lead users to more environmentally friendly alternatives using nudges.

  • 57.
    Bramfors, Emanuel P
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Distansmöten i verksamheten: En fallstudie av distansmöten i Fyrbodals kommunalförbund2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the essay is to investigate what experiences and views officials and management, within a public organization such as Fyrbodals Kommunalförbund, have regarding distance meetings. Another purpose of the study is to account for what factors the respondents consider important in order to improve the quality and efficiency of distance meetings. In this essay meeting culture, meeting tools and meeting management within Fyrbodals kommunalförbund are focused. I choose to do the research in this particular organization due to earlier experiences in it, which have motivated me to study it further.

    Case study, with the emphasis of qualitative studies, has been used as research method. I have had a qualitative approach in my essay, with aspects such as usability regarding technique and individuals' experiences and views of distance meetings as a main focus. The different methods used in this case study were semi structured interviews, studies of documents and literary studies. By partly using a few selected parameters of Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology, (UTAUT), usability regarding technique could be analyzed in an efficient manner. UTAUT is a theory based on eight other models for user acceptance of new technique. In my interviews, I was able to identify several issues, within the frame of usability. By using UTAUT, patterns and formations could be discerned. The results of the study show that distance meetings overall is something positive, due to the fact that they do not include travelling, can save money and because the distance meetings are efficient. The most important findings that affect efficiency as well as quality when using distance meetings were a clear, predetermined structure of the meeting using a trained chairman to lead them, and repetitive training of the communication tools.

  • 58.
    Brandes, Erika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Det mobila arbetslivet: Beredskapsanalys och planering inför organisatorisk förändring2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have examined how mobile work processes can be integrated into organizations from a business-oriented perspective, and among organizations there’s a lack of long-term strategies, and understanding, for internal business mobility.

    This study examines how an organization can prepare itself for change towards a mobile work life. In order to do this a literature review and case study involving document studies and interviews at an organization with specifically developed methodologies were conducted.

    The results showed that the state of maturity is still relatively low, and there is a need to focus on developing a more thorough understanding of mobility, where challenges involve handling attitudes, organizational culture and leadership. Mobility-related needs involve task-oriented and social aspects, where different technological solutions were suggested to maintain the connections between individuals and the organization.

    There is also a need for more longitudinal studies due to the results showing how the significant changes occur over a longer period of time. An important part of the development of knowledge concerning mobility also involves learning from others’ examples, where this study is a contribution.

  • 59.
    Bäckman, Kjell
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Automatic fitness in generative jazz soloimprovisation2012In: EIMAS 2012 Conference Proceedings, Juiz de Fora, Brazil, 2012, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent work by the author has revealed the need for an automatic fitness function in the evolutionary algorithm

    for generation of jazz solos. A computer based automatic fitness function enables greater populations and a great

    number of generations within a manageable time. This paper describes how the automatic fitness function is

    implemented using score calculation based on specific events recognized in the solo line The evaluation function

    is based on the author’s solo analysis of 73 great masters’ solo characteristics and their techniques used for buildup

    of jazz solos.

  • 60.
    Bäckman, Kjell
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Evolutionary Jazz Improvisation: Jazz Harmony and Solo Improvisation Created by Means of Evolutionary Algorithms with Automatic Fitness2013In: Sport and Art, ISSN 2331-6195, E-ISSN 2331-6233, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 67-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the Evolutionary Jazz Improvisation (EJI) system for creation of jazz harmony and jazz solo improvisations based on evolutionary algorithms with automatic evaluation. The evaluation function is implemented using score calculation based on specific events recognized in the chord progression and solo line, and alignment to different optimal intensity increase and relaxation curves. The evaluation function is based on the author’s solo analysis of 73 great masters’ solo characteristics and their techniques used for build-up of jazz solos. The results have been evaluated by our live jazz group and used in jam sessions, some of which have been recorded and made available for listening at the links given later.

  • 61.
    Bäckström, Albin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Larsson, Anton
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Föräldrars upplevelser med webbsidan neonatalvard.se: En webbsida för prematurer och deras familjer under tiden de är i behov av vård2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and evaluate the parents’ experiences with the webpage neontalavard.se. It also aims to contribute with any suggestions for improvement to the webpage that arises during the study. The study applied method combination and triangulation to build up the results. Both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was used. The quantitative data was collected from a survey and the qualitative was from interviews. An analysis model was created. The analysis model (UTAM) is a further development of TAM.  The results of the surveys and the interviews conducted are presented in the same section. It is done to put words on the numbers by weaving the questionnaire and quotes from the interviews. It results in a greater understanding why someone felt like they did. The analysis was conducted on the basis of the analysis model, UTAM, indicating that the idea is good and the need for a webpage as this is great. But the parents feel that the health care staff are not sufficiently committed to experience the benefit of the webpage. This study shows that the parents’ want better and greater commitment from the health care staff. They also thought it was a good idea and they felt the need for the webpage was great but that is wasn’t necessary this webpage that was the solution. 

  • 62.
    Cederlund, Jonas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Grahl, Mathias
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Native- vs webbapplikation i Sverige: Vilka för- och nackdelar ser svenska applikationsföretag på native- kontra webbapplikation och vad har de för behov av offlinefunktionalitet i webbapplikationer?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since Apple launched their first iPhone that introduced applications inside mobile phones, it has become a growing trend to create applications for every possible purpose. From the beginning, when applications grew popular, they were developed using a native language as a foundation, but today you can develop applications in many different ways. So how does development look in Swedish application companies? Do they use native- or web applications, and what differences do they see between native- and web applications? In the meantime, web applications have evolved and become more advanced to a degree where they have started to replace desktop applications and use complex business logic. The browser was not originally supposed to be the software platform it has become today and web technology is having problems keeping up with the pace of the needs.

    The biggest difference between web applications and desktop applications or native applications is currently offline availability as a consequence of web applications not being installed like regular applications. Based on a request from a company that is developing web applications, this survey has with the help of a group interview and questionnaires taken a deeper look as to what the need is for offline availability and what possibilities there are. The results show that the companies surveyed view native applications as more responsive and better suited for processor and graphics intensive tasks while web apps are considered advantageous due to its cross-platform nature.The survey shows that there is a certain need for offline functionality among the companies but it is complicated to implement. Ready-made solutions and strategies for offline functionality can be applied to web applications.

  • 63.
    Cerna, Katerina
    et al.
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Islind, Anna Sigridur
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lundin, Johan
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, Jubileumsklininken, Sweden.
    Decision-support System for Cancer Rehabilitation: Designing for Incorporating of Quantified Data into an Existing Practice2018In: Proceedings of the 10th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction / [ed] Gerd Berget, ACM Publications, 2018, p. 747-753Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent development in self-monitoring devices indicates that using quantified data in clinical practicesupporting chronic diseases management holds a big potential. However, exploration of this design space also suggests that some unattended challenges still exist, such as a low adoption rate of self-monitoring tools in existing clinical practice. In this text, wetherefore focus on the ways healthcare professionalsuse quantified data in their practice. We draw onempirical data from an ethnographic study of a cancer rehabilitation center. Our preliminary findings suggestthat the self-monitoring tool supported the nurses'work because it became a functional complement totheir work by allowing them to appropriate the deviceto their and the patients' needs.

  • 64.
    Chaat, Hiba
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Spante, Maria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Teaching Civic Orientation for New Residents in Sweden: on Competence Development and Knowledge Sharing in a Growing Profession2017In: Uddevalla Symposium 2017: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies: Revised papers first presented at the 20th Uddevalla Symposium 15-17 June, 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2017, p. 165-178Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the increasing number of refugees in Sweden, there is increased pressure on integration organizations to educate new residents about their rights and obligations in the new country. In Sweden, this is done with a mandatory course in civic orientation for those who get a residence permit. The courses are held in the native language of the new residents, thus increasing the demand for people with both language and pedagogical skills to hold civic orientation courses. The civic orientation classes include participants with different backgrounds and ages. The only common denominator among the course participants is the language. Thus, it isnot conventional teaching where students have more characteristics in common, and integration workers are not conventional teachers since not all of them are professional, trained educators. Therefore, we claim that we see a new profession in the making since these integration workers are recruited as integration workers in Sweden on the basis of their individual background rather than on formal training. In order to illuminate this new profession, this study compares and contrasts thework situation, processes of competence development and knowledge sharing by integration workers in a small and a big city in two different municipalities in west Sweden. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with eight integration workers and two course coordinators. The analysis was based on the dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation by Nonaka (1994). Results indicated that the work situations share similarities in relation to how the courses were organized and planned for. However, organizational differences became evident due to the number of integration workers, quality management, employee support, and possibilities for knowledge sharing. These differences also created varied difficulties in how to improve courses and learn from other civic orientation teachers. It is concluded that there is a need for better national coordination and knowledge sharing on both the individual and organizational level. The study suggests that there should be a dynamic, interactive national support system where integration workers could systematically and individually share experiences to improve the quality of the civic orientation courses. This becomes essential since local conditions create huge variations regarding experience-based improvement of thecourses, thus jeopardizing both content and process quality of the mandatory courses by putting all responsibility on the individual teacher.

  • 65.
    Chaath, Hiba
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    The emergence of a new profession: The knowledge base for integration workers in civic orientation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has been a target for immigrants since the Second World War. However, in the last few years a huge number of immigrants had moved to Sweden. To integrate the new immigrants fast in the society, Sweden has updated the integration policy. One of the changes in the integration policy is to offer a mandatory course about the Swedish society for immigrants, called civic orientation course. The course is conducted in the immigrants' mother tongue which increases the recruitment demands for integration workers who master two languages (Swedish and immigrants' mother language) and have a pedagogical knowledge. Integration workers teach immigrants with different backgrounds, ages, and educational level. In addition, the demands for such a job have a dynamic nature that depends on the immigrants' need of the course. This study is an exploratory research that aims to investigate the knowledge and skills for the integration workers and the organization's role in developing the integration workers' competence. This research is carried out by comparing two case studies in Trollhattan introduction centrum and Gothenburg integration centrum. The data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews; eight interviews were held in Gothenburg integration centrum and two in Trollhattan introduction centrum. The interviews were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis method. The results showed that integration workers have different backgrounds and expertise and they integrate their previous experiences into their job. There is an agreement on some certain skills as classroom management, conflicts handling and dialogue activation. The integration organizations offer different activities to develop the knowledge of the integration workers. However, the organizations under the study face challenges in benefiting from the integration workers' individual knowledge and activating sharing knowledge inside and outside the organization. A cooperative knowledge creation model for the integration organizations is suggested to enhance the knowledge management process and push for establishing a shared knowledge base for the field of integration work in civic orientation. Wiki is suggested as a mean for implementing the cooperative knowledge creation model. Wiki is a collaborative tool that can stimulate the knowledge creation and enable knowledge sharing at both individual and organizational levels. Moreover, it can enhance the organizations' collaboration. Thus, it can direct the integration organizations towards standardization in course's design and the development of the integration work field.

  • 66.
    Collin, Hans
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Maslovski, Andrej
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Mobilapplikation som överfallslarm: vid hot och våld inom offentliga verksamheter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The tragic incident that occurred at the school Kronan in Trollhättan ended up with four people being killed intentionally. In situations like this it goes quickly and it is therefore important to quickly inform the environment to minimize the risk that many will be injured. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether a mobile application can be useful as a panic alarm in the public sector.

    Method: The approach has been to carry out a qualitative study to gain knowledge about if a mobile application is useful as a panic alarm. Data collection was performed through interviews and focus group interviews. In order to measure the user experience of using a mobile application as panic alarm we developed a prototype that the respondents got to test. Perceived usefulness is influenced by perceived ease of use; therefore we placed great emphasis on designing a usable interface. To develop a usable user interface we used Nielsen's ten rules; later the user interface was evaluated with the respondents.Theory: In order to answer the research question we have used the Technology Acceptance Model 2. The model makes it possible to measure how a mobile application will be accepted and used by two basic factors, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Nielsen’s heuristic consists of ten rules, which have been applied to design and evaluate the user interface.

    Result: The result presents the empirical data collection that has been thematised based on TAM2. It appeared that a mobile application as panic alarm is considered useful. The application is considered useful as an information channel to alert staff at the workplace in an emergency situation, but also so the co-workers can quickly get help from each other. It appeared that the safety and security at the workplace increases with such an application. Conclusion: Staff in the public sector believes that a mobile application is useful as a panic alarm when threat and violence occur. The application is particularly useful as an information channel to quickly distribute information with a SMS to staff at the workplace, but also so co-workers can be able to help each other in an emergency situation. The prototype was perceived as user friendly; it was clear how the prototype worked and the functions were easy to use. The prototype fulfills a need that exists today because there are no similar alarms used in the public sector today.

  • 67.
    Cukur, Adnan
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Utvärdering av SF.se utifrån användbarhetsaspekter: En användarundersökning av SF.se2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More and more businesses choose to be available online. A website with high usability can lead a way to endless possibilities. A loss of a market that consists of six million potential customers is what awaits businesses that choose to not sell their products online. This is why usability online is important. Usability can be measured with five attributes, learnability, efficiency, memorability, errors and satisfaction. To make sure that these attributes are as high as possible, a developer can make use of techniques that improves a sites usability. A website with high usability will lead to an increase of the websites sales.

    This studys' purpose has been to research about how the users of SF.se experience the usability on the website. An interview has been conducted with five respondents that have answered questions about their background, they have done simple tasks on the website and they have been asked general questions about the websites usability. The data retrieved from the research was analyzed and a conclusion was drawn. The research showed that the website had a high degree of satisfaction, but a couple of usability problems that affect the users' efficiency. The usability can be improved particularly on the part of the website that handles upcoming movies. The information about upcoming movies was insufficient and difficult to find, this lowers the users' efficiency and reflects upon the whole usability aspect of the website.

  • 68.
    Cukur, Adnan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Adoption of ERP system for operations management in SMEs2016In: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, p. 1-10Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The fast development of the IT in the society of today has led to that more SMEs rely on ERP systems. Especially, IT has facilitated the management of the flow of goods within and between organizations and have made lead times more effective and also have increased the overview of the flow of goods. This will help SMEs obtain a competitive advantage. The aim of this paper is analyze the factors influencing SMEs adoption of ERP systems. A qualitative case study is conducted within a company which both is engaged in manufacturing and project work. The company runs service projects for its customers and at the same time they produce articles both for sale and for use within the service projects. An ERP system can also serve as an overall system for the administration, the production and inventory management in the company. However, there are important factors to take into account in the adoption phase, related to the technological infrastructure, the organizational challenges as well as environmental relations in order to decide on an implementation on an ERP system. It is of a critical importance that the SME really change their routines in order to follow the processes implemented in the ERP system. Otherwise, the company runs the risk to be stuck in its previous and ineffective inventory management processes, regardless of investments in the ERP system and the technological infrastructure.

  • 69.
    Dahl, Emma
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Litavszky, Tamas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Environmental Storytelling och Affordances: En kvalitativ studie av hur environmental storytelling kan påverkas av användning av affordances2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the presentation and usage of affordances can affect the players understanding and experience of in-game environmental storytelling. We created a realistic digital game environment with a highly intelligible story that were presented in two different variations, one with obviously marked affordances and one with no markings at all. With these two scenes we performed an experiment with eight participants, four for every scene. After the experiment followed an interview where we got to learn about how deeply the participants interpreted and understood the story in the scene and how affordances might have had affected it. The study showed that different ways of implementing affordances in digital games has a noticeable impact on how environmental storytelling is experienced by the player. This is based on discussions about what the participants told us about their understanding of the story and their overall experience with the game environment. Our conclusion is that the way affordances are implemented and presented in a digital game has an impact on the players experience and understanding of in-game environmental storytelling.

  • 70.
    Danielsson, John
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lokomotion i ett gyllene snitt: En observationsstudie av naturtrogna och uttryckslösa kroppsrörelser med en metod designad för naturalistisk karaktärsanimation.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In aspiration to achieve naturalistic character animation, some difficulty does show up, both in 3D-CGI, 2D-CGI as in traditional handmade animation. The reason why difficulty appears in the task of achieving naturalism is for instance because of the simulated natural laws in the digital world which cannot affect the characters cinematic movement. The result of illustrating the natural law manually by hand can affect the illusion of the movement as not naturalistic or inconsistent, which can result in that the spatial adaptation to space is not perceived as naturalistic. It is most often up to the animator to make a believable illusion of the natural laws. This study examines a deeper understanding of the human way to behave and to adapt to the physical reality and through that, apply this movement on character animation.

    The purpose of a deeper understanding of movement's phenomena is to find a clearer method dedicated to naturalistic movement that can be adapted to all forms of character animation, regardless of the character anatomy. Unfortunately, it would not be possible to study all aspects of the physically adaptive behaviors as to the size of the topic. This study will therefore orbit the human locomotion, also known as walking. Focus will therefore be on the bottom part of the body, from the pelvis down to the ankles. There are scientists that do argue about a connection between the golden ratio and the human locomotion. This study is an attempt to apply the golden ratio on 3D-characters.

    This study has been devoted to a different approach in the character animation, where its starting point will be mathematical equations. For this study, it has meant an application of the golden section in a temporary form, that is in motion.

    The result is therefore a mathematically based method dedicated to imitating naturalistic movement in terms of time, that is to say human locomotion. The method has been proved to be useful even in the imitation of characters movements that do not possess human proportions.

  • 71.
    Davoud, Ivan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Khadem Haghighi, Sam
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Att bättra på användarupplevelse: En fallstudie på Högskolan Västs nylanserade webbplats användbarhet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are today few websites that can fully meet a user's requirement. A reason for this could be because you either do not know your target audience enough or that you try to make your business cost-effective. University West has recently relaunched their website. The response from the target audience, the university students, was negative, but unclear. This study has researched how the existing students are experiencing the new website from a usability perspective. To collect empirical data, a questionnaire was sent out to the students. 230 students responded and answered the questionnaire. The results were later categorized in categories that should be improved, from the students view of point. The empirical data was then transformed into usability requirements which in turn was applied into a prototype. The approach of this study did conclude on a few usability aspects that needs to be re-worked to satisfy the users. Among other things navigation, efficiency and appearance.

  • 72.
    De Castro Emerick, Agatha
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Utveckling av e-tjänster med hjälp av processbaserad verksamhetsutveckling ur medarbetarnas perspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government requires municipalities to provide their services via new channels. These requirements come from an EU directive. What is expected from municipalities is that they provide their services electronically, so called e-services. The municipalities have different ways of developing e-services. The city of Trollhättan uses processes to develop eservices, through process-based business development. This means that employees in addition to dealing with a new information system also sometimes need to participate in an organizational change. Literature studies show that research about municipal e-services has grown while researchers have spent less time researching on how e-services affects the public administration work. There is a growing interest in how the change affects the individual employee's daily work. The purpose of this study is to gain knowledge about the experiences of the employees involved, partly by the way in which different e-services are created, and how these affects and changes the working situation of the employees. In order to fulfill the purpose of the study, a qualitative approach was chosen. The survey is based on four deep interviews with employees from the city of Trollhättan. E-service development through a process-based business development is perceived as complex, instructive and constructive. It leads to a transition from an individual perception to a holistic view of the organization, which means greater understanding of the employee's own work in conjunction with the goals of the organization. The effects that have been found with the introduction of e-services are a more efficient way of working that leads to easier handling of incoming cases and better control over them; Time saving where manual work is replaced by direct communication computer to computer and an increased workload when e-services are not the primary application method.

  • 73.
    Dervisevic, Amel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Talos, Robert
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Användaracceptans av videokonferensteknik för samordnad vårdplanering i primärvården: en kvantitativ studie grundad på UTAUT-modellen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Västra Götaland (VGR) began in the 2000s to introduce an alternative form of meeting, meeting remotely via video, for coordinated care planning at hospital discharge in the region. Hospitals and local authorities have started to use the technology and the format of the meetings but regardless access to materials and training to primary care have a low degree of use. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence the intention to use remote meetings via video technology in primary care. The research question for the study is, what factors affect health professionals' intention to use remote meetings via video in primary care? To find out which factors affect health professionals the study has been based on user acceptance theory called Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The study uses a quantitative approach with web surveys as a tool for data collection because it is best suited with the theory UTAUT. Based on data collected from web questionnaires a result was produced in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) by displaying descriptive statistics and perform a correlation analysis and regression analysis. The result shows that the factors that influence the intention to use the video technology is Performance Expectancy, Effort Expectancy and Social Influence. Beyond that the results show that Faciltitating Conditions have a direct impact on the Use Behavior.

  • 74.
    Donev, Jovan
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Mozaffari, Maxim
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Facebook: Gratistjänsten som endast kostar användarens personliga data: En surveyundersökning om svenska Facebook-användares kunskap om Facebooks datainsamling och hur deras användning och kunskap påverkar deras personliga integritet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Facebook is the largest social media site in the world with the highest amount of users. However, many people do not read Facebook's terms of use and use the service anyway, which possibly means that the user does not know what data Facebook is collecting. The purpose of this study is to investigate how aware Swedish users are about the data Facebook collects about them and how their knowledge and use of the service can affect their personal privacy and security. The method used in this study was web surveys that were sent out to Swedish Facebook users, where questions about how they use the service and what they are believed to know about Facebook's data collection. What emerged from this study was that users today are aware that Facebook collects information about them, but not exactly what type of data. This lackof knowledge, together with how they use Facebook's services, has been shown to affect their personal privacy and security.

  • 75.
    Eborn, Hanna
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Jönsson, Nklas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Välfärdstjänster med stöd av IT: Införandet av IT-stöd gällande vård och omsorgs verksamhet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Welfare technology is a constant recurrent topic that concerns big parts of society, not least the health sector. The topic aims at enhancing the independence, safety and activity of people in need of care and their relatives through technology. As medical research is constantly moving forward and the world population is getting bigger and lives longer, the pressure on activities and in the healthcare is increasing as a sanction. One of the pieces that requires more and more resources is the elderly care. They have a challenge to keep up with the increasing amount of people who want and need their services. In parallel, the technical solutions to make the healthcare more efficient is presented. Society is becoming increasingly digital and new technical IT solutions are presented to facilitate the way in which businesses operate.

    The purpose of this report is to handle the question of how the work changes municipal activities when IT is introduced in the daily healthcare activities. Vänersborg municipality in western Sweden has been studied using the introduction of a technical platform as a first step in the process of introducing IT support in elderly care. The technical platform is an independent platform that is not dependent on a specific supplier, which gives a free choice to adapt the platform to the business. By applying the platform, which in this study is termed an independent service platform, free communication with other IT solutions can be made possible.

    The following study is based on a qualitative approach which aims to interpret and understand the data collected through empirical studies. In order to design the theoretical frame of reference for the study, an extensive literature review has been conducted to gather knowledge relevant to the subject before the interviews were conducted. The analysis of the collected data shows that Vänersborg's municipality can extract benefits by implementing an independent service platform in the business to change the way in which IT support is introduced.

    The conclusion of the study shows that there is a strong and clear vision of the municipality of Vänersborg to improve the efficiency of care by introducing an independent service platform. The working environment thus becomes easier with smaller external IT solutions that benefit from future procurement, which is the main goal of the welfare technology.

  • 76.
    Ekblad, Lovisa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Findley, Hannah
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Sociala mediers roll i centrumutveckling: Kommunikation mellan Trollhättans Stad och dess invånare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urban development is a part of a municipality’s responsibility in offering its citizens a good living environment. A crucial aspect for a municipality to succeed with urban development is to include the needs and opinions of its citizens. Social media, as a part of e-government, can be used to increase involvement and participation from citizens in a municipality's work with urban development. When the public sector uses social media, they need to actively encourage communication with citizens to be able to understand and ascertain their needs and opinions and not only use social media to distribute information. The purpose of this study was to understand how large municipalities in Sweden work with social media to increase involvement and participation from citizens and how social media can promote urban development. The study was conducted with a qualitative approach using mixed methods. The findings of the study show that the participating municipality primarily uses social media to distribute information about cultural and entertainment events, which is also what the citizens of this municipality are requesting. Social media is not used to ascertain the opinions and suggestions from citizens, however social media is used to advertise occasions when citizens are invited to participate and influence the work with urban development. Municipalities need to develop common strategies and definitions when working with social media to facilitate their work and to provide their citizens with a better understanding of what they can expect from the municipalities social media accounts.  

  • 77.
    Ekerum, Tommy
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Larsson, Anna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    "Processverkstan": Forum för kommunal e-tjänstutveckling2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the start of a project on the department for IT in Sotenäs, Munkedal and Lysekil municipalities and on the department handling establishments of businesses in Lysekil. The aim of the study is to describe the startup of process mapping and e-service development in municipal organisation. The focus lies on the early stages and from an internal perspective. On the department for IT, they have just started working with e-service development. Before that there had not been much development of e-services in Lysekil municipality. They have formed a concept which they call "Processverkstan". In this format the different departments of the municipalities are able to get help from the department of IT, who has initialized this, and who will also lead the work. People from departments together with people from department of IT will in workshops be able to draw a process map for the area that is covered by the e-service. The tool that is used is a computer program by the name of Barium Live.

    The study is a qualitative study, performed as a case study. Semi-structured interviews and observations are used to collect data. Theories used are e-services, stakeholders for e-services and process mapping.

    The results from the study show that different stakeholders have cooperated to develop the e-service. The end user has not participated, and the respondents wish to involve the end user in the process of e-service development. They have had a clear focus on why the work is being done - to make the communication between the municipality and the citizen easier when they want to apply for establishment of a business in Lysekil. This has been done with process mapping as a foundation. This means that as you are developing an e-service that is supposed to be of use to the citizen, you are at the same time able to accomplish an activity development. The cooperation has been characterised by engagement, participation and a clear focus on use for the citizen.

  • 78.
    Eklund, Matilda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Tavakoli Banizi, Farrokh
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Att aktivera mottagaren: en kvalitativ studie av interaktion mellan bild, mottagare och kontext ur ett marknadsföringsperspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A large part of today's advertising is avoided by consumers who are tired of the endless amount of advertising out there. It makes it difficult for advertising creators to be seen and be able to attract the attention of the target market, which has led to the appearance of the phenomenon interactive advertising. Through the active contribution that the method offers, the advertising becomes more personal and creates a closer connection between transmitter and recipient. A similar but more intrusive method that utilizes the environment like interactive advertising is called guerilla marketing. The purpose of the study is to examine how an effective message can be conveyed within guerilla marketing and interactive advertising through interaction with the two concepts of context and the Zeigarnik effect.

    The methods used in the study are interviews with six informants and document analysis of four representative images illustrating how guerilla and interactive advertising might look like. The study shows that the Zeigarnik effect is used in marketing without advertising creators being aware of it, for instance in terms of the creative circle. It is all about leaving the final piece for the recipient to fill in on their own. The study also shows that a combination of humor and the Zeigarnik effect can increase the advertising effectiveness as humor seems to be desirable for recipients and contribute to higher engagement. Recipients' activities by the advertising image is, according to the study, affected by the social context as personality and the temporary company influences choices and attitude. Finally, the study suggests that guerilla and interactive advertising which utilizes active participation may benefit companies in both short and long term.

  • 79.
    Ekman, Karin
    et al.
    Department of Applied IT, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lundin, Johan
    Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg Sweden.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Attitudes towards IT and use of LMS in Teacher Education: A Swedish case study2015In: Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, Mar 02, 2015 in Las Vegas, NV, United States / [ed] David Slykhuis; Gary Marks, Chesapeake, VA, 2015, p. 900-906Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore the relation between attitude and use of a university-wide Learning Management System (LMS) among faculty members engaged in teacher education at a large Swedish University. We compare the findings with a control group of educators from the same university, not involved in teacher education. The results reveal that all teachers fail to provide evidence for a correlation between attitude and use, which contest established assumptions in, for instance, the technology acceptance model (TAM). Still we can detect significant differences between teacher educators and other faculty members: Teacher educators are more positive to the potential for IT in general (p<0.1), and in particular more positive to (i) how IT develop their pedagogy, and (ii) that time spent on communicating with students through IT is time well spent. Furthermore, teacher educators use the LMS significantly more frequently, and with a wider scope of used functionality compared to other faculty.

  • 80.
    Emilsson, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Skyvell Nilsson, Maria
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Johansson, Kristina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Berndtsson, Ina
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Pedagogical challenges in nurse education: A Case Study Focusing on the Completion Rate in Theoretical Education at a Swedish University2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Emilsson, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Josefsson, Rasmus
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    En studie om intern kommunikation i distribuerad agil systemutveckling med tvärfunktionella utvecklarteam2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the help of a qualitative approach and by means of semi structured interviews, this study investigated how distributed agile system development affects the internal communication between cross-functional teams. The interviews are conducted with staff who work in IT-projects with distributed agile teams.

    The result of the study shows that there are challenges in the form of technical problems during meetings over the Internet, misunderstandings and a higher probability of inaccurate comprehension regarding team members tasks. Secondly, it seems that, unlike similar earlier studies, cultural differences and language barriers were not a major problem. Thirdly, unlike earlier studies, it emerged despite the well-functioning infrastructure problematic moments in the form of human factors.

    At the end of this study, we propose that there is a need for continued research in order to explore the contexts in which the human factors affect distributed agile teams.

  • 82.
    Eriksson, Felix
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Isoaho, Simon
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Kritiska framgångsfaktorer avseende samarbete i agila utvecklingsprojekt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många agila utvecklingsprojekt misslyckas att leverera och blir försenade på grund av en snabbt skiftande marknad där projekt förändras under tidens gång. De faktorer som påverkar individer och dess samarbete inom ett agilt utvecklingsprojekt är därtill otydliga.

    Denna studies mål var därför att utreda vilka kritiska framgångsfaktorer som finns gällande individer och dess samarbete i ett agilt utvecklingsprojekt.

    Kvalitativa intervjuer har genomförts med individer som arbetar inom agila utvecklingsprojekt på stora verksamheter i Sverige. Detta för att kunna kartlägga vad som är viktigt för att lyckas med implementationen och användandet av den agila utvecklingsmetoden.

    Intervjuernas resultat kunde brytas ner in i tre kategorier som har en påverkan för att lyckas med utvecklingsprojektet: produktion, personer och samarbete samt arbetsmiljö. Analysen, baserat på intervjuerna och tidigare forskning inom agila utvecklingsmetoder och samarbete i utvecklingsprojekt, visar att kommunikation är den viktigaste påverkande faktorn. Graden av bra kommunikation inom och utanför projektet är en stor faktor till att en projektgrupp kan ha ett agilt och flexibelt arbetssätt som kan förändras i takt med att utvecklingsprojektet pågår. Därtill visar även studiens resultat att val av kommunikationsverktyg är en viktig faktor för ett bra samarbete mellan individerna.

  • 83.
    Eriksson, Olle
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Söderberg, Jimmy
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Om trivsel och inlärning på högskolenivå i distansutbildningar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a total of five students from two different courses were interviewed about how they experience the enjoyment and learning during studies in distance courses. There were three students from an education and two from another training. To find out how students perceive their distance we have used semi-structured interviews. The different aspects we have assumed is: how they perceive distance education learning platform, lectures over the net, critical thinking, community, motivation, and computer anxiety. Learning platform was considered by all those we interviewed said it was easy to navigate and that it had sufficient tools to conduct distance education. None of the respondents wanted the learning platform would implement more communication components than discussion boards and e-mail. All respondents have been using video lectures that they have been satisfied with. The difference is that a training course had live lectures, while the second training had pre-recorded lectures. Critical thinking had a varied meanings for training. Motivation and fellow-ship were the aspects that had the greatest impact on a student in a distance learning. Comput-er anxiety was something that had little impact because the respondents who participated in the study had a high level of computer experience.

  • 84.
    Estifanos, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Modiri, Omid
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Ungdomars syn, erfarenheter och upplevelser av nätmobbning: intervjuundersökning av gymnasielever2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I och med det ökade internetanvändandet bland ungdomar har tillväxten av nätmobbning ökat. Studiens syfte är att få kunskap om problemet genom att använda sig av ungdomar som kunskapskälla. En individuell intervjuundersökning genomfördes där ungdomarna beskrev sin syn, upplevelser och erfarenheter om nätmobbning för att få en förståelse kring problemet och vad man kan göra för att förhindra det. Empirin har samlats in genom kvalitativa intervjuer där tolv svenska gymnasielever deltagit. Det framgick att anonymitet är en stor faktor till varför nätmobbning ökat men möjligheten till att kunna vara anonym får ungdomar att agera och skriva saker de vanligtvis inte hade gjort. Ungdomar använder ett grövre språk, och accepterar mer på Internet än vad de hade gjort i verkliga livet.Eleverna saknar säkerhetstänk på Internet, de ser Internet som en arena utan lagar och regler där man inte behöver stå för sina handlingar. Det finns inga konsekvenser av ens handlingar på Internet, vilket resulterar i att det är svårt att dra en gräns för hur långt man kan gå med nätmobbning. Grupptryck är även en faktor till varför nätmobbning ökar bland ungdomar då det är viktigt att passa in bland ungdomar. Det framgår även att ungdomarna hade önskat att vuxna i skolan hade engagerat sig mer för att förhindra nätmobbning.

  • 85.
    Fernström, Nathalie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Holmeby, Emilia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Ungdomars påverkan av sociala medier2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet has helped people around the world gain new opportunities to communicate with each other. Global communication has also been streamlined, especially with the phenomenon of social media. Social media is a big part of many people's daily lives these days and it is a phenomenon that many people use every day. This has resulted in many young people spending a very large part of their waking hours to the use of social media. But there are also downsides and implications of using social media. It is not only the risks relating to what information young people choose to share, but also what information they consume and to which degree they consume information. Social media has become a venue for different types of social comparison. The aim of the present study is to investigate what impact using various social media has on young people's self-image and self-esteem. To achieve this purpose, we made a quantitative study by distributing a survey with relevant questions to young people between 15-19 years in Sweden. The selection was done by snowball sampling which means we distributed a link to the survey to secondary schools throughout Sweden and through a viral post on Facebook with a request to share the survey. The answers from the survey were analysed by comparing means, bivariate regression analysis and independent t-tests. The result was then related to previous research and Festinger's (1954) Social comparison theory as a theoretical framework. The survey measured the self-image and self-esteem of the respondents' using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale and the State Self-Esteem scale. Young people today has much wider social network than in the past thanks to social media. Therefore they have the opportunity to compare their appearance with and get affected by far more people than before. Young people are also concerned about how they appear on social media, which have been shown to influence young people's self-esteem and self-image greatly. The results in this study suggest that girls generally have a lower self-image and self-esteem than boys. Girls are most affected by the appearance related factors, even if these factors also affect men significantly. The boys are affected not only by the appearance related aspects, but also especially the questions regarding popularity, masculinity and power. They have also been shown to have a more risky behaviour on social media than girls. The conclusion of this study is that most respondents are affected, but to varying degrees, by comparison on social media.

  • 86.
    Fili, Saman
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Murguz, Amar
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Sociala mediers framgång; en potentiell fara för personlig integritet: En kvalitativ studie kring studenters inställningar till och medvetenhet kring personlig integritet samt sociala medier.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media has become pervasive technology that deeply penetrates the everyday of its users and studies have shown that especially students have a hard time imagining life without social media. With regards to this, social media exposes its users to threats to privacy and with it comes the debate of privacy concerns. Personal data has become the means with which users pay to be able to use social media. This side of social media offers a discreet but wellfunctioning datamining process wheras the more obvious side entails amusement, agility, social relations and such. From a privacy perspective, datamining becomes problematic where threats to privacy are being experienced. With this background, the underlying study examines personal integrity and how it is affected by social media usage. More specifically, students' attitudes regarding privacy and social media is examined based on Alan Westins theory. Students differ in age but come together in lives of the students as there are similarities in stress and pressure. This, with earlier research showing a need for online presence entail students to become an interesting target. The research question is answered qualitatively where interview where conducted with ten students from Högskolan Väst. Based on these interviews, empirical data was gathered, analyzed and discussed. The study showed that the majority of respondents were pragmatic in their approach to social media and prefer therefore to have control over the spreading of their information. They like to decide who gets to see what. The conclusion is that students' personal integrity is threatened by their use of social media as the study showed a lack of knowledge in the fact that their data is being used and spread to third parties

  • 87.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Against users2015In: Proceedings of the 38th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS 38), Oulu, Finland, 9-12 August. (USB) / [ed] Anssi Öörni, Netta Iivari, Kari Kuutti, Harri Oinas-Kukkonen and Mikko Rajanen, IRIS , 2015, p. 1-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the 50’s users has played a great role in the research aboutinformation systems. However, users have mainly been considered as operators of the information system or as managers receiving the output. In this article I argue that users are not operators but clerks performing their job. In the same way as I’m a driver and not a car user when I drive my car, the clerk is performing the work, not using an information system. Knowing how to use the information system the clerk produces useful inform ation without paying any specific attention to the artifact. This perspective put certain demands on the designer of the artifacts, in fact (s)he should be a meta-designer, providing the clerks with useful tools for designing their own workflows

  • 88.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Becoming Professor: With Almost no Publications2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, ISSN 0905-0167, E-ISSN 1901-0990, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 135-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. I consider my career as rather exceptional. I think I am the only living person in Sweden who achieved a professor chair with only one international journal publication; a publication I use as an example of a totally incomprehensible text! The following is the storyof how I achieved this. I first describe two important issues that have governed my decisionsin the career: Being interpretivist in a dominating positivist research paradigm and my decision not to publish. This is important for understanding my interpretation of what was happening. Then I describe the four universities where I have worked, first by providing the story, then describing how the discipline developed at that place and finally some reflections on the research we conducted. I summarize by giving an historic overview of informatics as Iperceive it after 44 years of teaching and finally I reflect upon my career according to my goals.

  • 89.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Introducing e-learning in municipal contact centers: a Swedish case study2011In: Uddevalla Symposium 2011. Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions: Revised papers presented at the 14th Uddevalla Symposium, 16-18 June, 2011, Bergamo, Italy / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2011, p. 307-318Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 90.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Investigation of scientific background for the IRIS community: evaluation of method2016In: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, August 7-10, 2016. Ljungskile, Sweden: Electronic Proceedings / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika, Trollhättan, 2016, p. 1-13Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In IRIS business meeting 2015 it was decided that we should undertake a description of 40 years of trends, topics, theories and methods used by the IRIS community. In this paper a method for doing such an investigation is described and the problem of the paper is to find ways of improving it. This is done in a pilot investigation, which is evaluated. The conclusion is that at least one more test need to be done. 

  • 91.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    IT and the new society: from XML to Habermas2011In: Challenges for the Future in an ICT Context: ... for Stig / [ed] Viveca Asproth, Sundsvall: Dep. of Information Technology and Media, Mid Sweden University , 2011, 1, p. 103-122Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Flensburg, Per
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Holl, Alfred
    Technische Hochschule Nürnberg Georg Simon Ohm / University Nuremberg, Germany.
    Das älteste gedruckte schwedische Rechenbuch (Aegidius Aurelius, Arithmetica, Uppsala 1614): (Aegidius Aurelius, Arithmetica, Uppsala 1614)2017In: Tagungsband zum wissenschaftlichen Kolloquium vom 21.–23. April 2017 in der Berg- und Adam-Ries-Stadt Annaberg-Buchholz / [ed] Gebhardt, Rainer, Annaberg-Buchholz: Adam-Ries-Bund , 2017, p. 313-326Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 93.
    Flod, Nicholas
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Kajdic, Eldin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Designriktlinjer för att anpassa Augmented Reality-applikationer till högskoleutbildningar: Att anpassa användningen av Augmented Reality-applikationer till högskoleutbildningar2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As technology keeps evolving, new ways to access information begin to emerge. A subject that recently has received more attention is Augmented Reality (AR), which can be explained as a reality enhanced with virtual information. Using AR for educational purposes is something that recently has started to gain attention, which has created a greater demand for AR-applications that can be used in higher educations. As the subject is relatively new, there are yet no clear design guidelines and principles to be followed when developing these types of applications. To create successful AR-applications with good usability, it is vital that developers follow design guidelines and mainly focus on the needs of the application's users.

    This thesis aims to answer the research question "which design guidelines should be followed when developing AR-applications for higher education?".

    To be able to answer this question, this thesis has collected data by exploring a wide range of previous research consisting of a combination of AR, Design and Higher education. The reasoning behind why a literature study was conducted was to acquire knowledge of how AR-applications are being used at present time, as well as finding already existing design guidelines that may be applicable to the end result of this thesis. This thesis was later backed up by user observations and interviews with purpose of collecting empirical data to further amplify the final design guidelines. Previous research found that a lack of user experience related AR-studies has led to insufficient information on both evaluating and designing AR-applications for educational purposes. The creation of AR-applications for higher education is relatively new, which means that there are no direct guidelines for what is right or wrong in terms of design. The research also found that customizing the applications to multiple platforms, making rewards systems, following certain design principles and keeping cultural differences in mind could lead to significantly improved results in terms of usability and user satisfaction.

    The results from the user observations and interviews imply that students are in need of in-app tests, clear instructions, intelligible interfaces and immediate feedback, as user AR-application interfaces sometimes can be confusing, resulting in frustrated students. By following the proposed design guidelines, this study may benefit developers who intend to create AR-applications to be used in higher education.

  • 94.
    Forssell Eriksson, G.
    et al.
    Ytterbyskolan, Kungälv .
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Coping Skills of Students in Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication2013In: ICERI2013 Proceedings, 2013, p. 1210-1216Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactive and communicative situations within social environments are prerequisites for learning in collaboration. Synchronous computer-mediated communication is often used as a means to achieve active learning in collaboration. Synchronous communication thus offers the opportunity to actively engage students in collaborative learning activities. This paper is based on an ethnographic case study of synchronous communication between students in the lower secondary school collaborating in a cross-border project involving Danish, Norwegian and Swedish students. The project is aimed to promote the students in their Scandinavian intercomprehension skills using their own native languages when the students are collaborating in different joint projects. The aim of the paper is to analyze the characteristics of the coping skills of the students within a collaborating learning project using synchronous computer-mediated communication.One of the students in each group in each of the collaborating countries acted as a group leader, decided in advance. The students were also prepared in advance of what to synchronously discuss with their collaborating Scandinavian student groups. However, a critical part of the synchronous collaboration was the assignment for the group collaboration leader. It has been obvious that the student assigned for the role really is coping with this situation. The group collaborating leader has to take initiative, relate the discussion to the actual subject, distribute the word between the participants, ask questions and distribute the questions between the students in the different collaborating countries speaking different neighbor languages. To help in this situation is to have visible name tags on each student. A prerequisite is that the group collaboration leaders have to have the social skills as self-esteem, empathy, emotional intelligence as well as problem solving. Thus, these students need different types of cognitive, affective and social skills related to cope with a real situation performed synchronously with support of information and communication technology. Some students sometimes prove specific coping skills in this real context in the school and are not necessarily those students who are the most skilled within their native language.The engagement from the teachers is of vital importance for the students' active participation in the synchronous collaboration. Therefore the teachers have to take part in the background in each room in the different countries within the collaborating computer-mediated synchronous session. This will imply a more serious and engaged participation of all the students. The instructional strategies and advices the students got from the teachers in advance were of significant importance. Moreover, the teachers' engagement also has an impact on the students' sense of trust and security between each other and between the students in each collaborating country within the synchronous communication.

  • 95.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Gävle, Sverige.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    Jaldemark, Stefan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Sverige.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå universitet, Umeå, Sverige.
    Lundin, Johan
    Gothenburg University, Applied Information Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå universitet, Umeå, Sverige.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Öberg, Lena-Msrie
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för data- och systemvetenskap, Sverige.
    On the Swedish national graduate school for digital technologies in education - GRADE: Expectations and experiences of doctoral students and supervisors2018In: ICERI2018 Proceedings: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, Sevilla, 2018, p. 769-774Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Graduate School for Digital Technologies in Education (GRADE) is a cooperative venture between six Swedish universities established during 2018. Within the field of educational sciences and in the area of digital technologies in education, GRADE aims to strengthen the expertise in the area and to increase national and international cooperation in research training activities.Over a number of years, and from multitude of sources (cf. Brown & Davis, 2004; Fisher, Higgins & Loveless, 2006; Kafai & Resnick 1996), research has stressed that increased digitalization in schools leads to a complexity that needs to be taken into account on different levels, from different perspectives and with different designs, methodologies and theoretical perspectives (cf. Olofsson, Lindberg, Fransson & Hauge, 2015; Price, Jewitt & Brown, 2013; Tondeur, Valcke & van Braak, 2008). At a micro-level, the learning situation of students, teachers and school-leaders changes and it becomes important to deepen the knowledge about the impact digital technologies has on the fundamental conditions for teaching and learning of different school subjects (cf. Chun, Kern & Smith 2016; Leung & Baccaglini-Frank, 2017). On a macro-level, conditions for education as such changes and digital technologies becomes an important object of study as agents of change (Wong & Li, 2008). The digitalization of K-12 schools has long been highlighted in policy as a necessity (cf. Kirkman et al, 2002; OECD, 2010). However, research and evaluations (cf. Fransson et al, 2012; OECD, 2015; Wastiau et al, 2013) show that many substantial challenges remain. One of the fundamental pillars of GRADE is the interdisciplinary approach. Several disciplines are present (Applied IT, Curriculum studies, Education, Informatics, Technology and Learning, Educational work, Work-interated Learning) in researching digital technologies in K-12 schools with the ambition to contribute to the continued implementation, integration and use of digital technologies in Swedish K-12 schools that stems from the evidence-based knowledge produced within the activities of GRADE. The research within GRADE will be characterized by close cooperation with stakeholders from school practice, with the aim to contribute to concrete school development. In GRADE, a multi-level approach that involves multiple layers or levels of school activities will be encouraged. When possible, studies will be longitudinal. This will imply studies from an organizational and management perspective, e.g. studies of school leaders and other members of senior management positions responsible for digital technology use and implementation. Also implied are studies of teachers' teaching practices and didactical considerations, as well as studies of the students in classrooms and their learning using digital technologies. This will also imply that several issues with a bearing on the digitalization of education, for example regarding school policy, teaching, learning, assessment and professional development will be researched from different perspectives and with different methodological approaches. In this paper, these points of departure will be explored based on the expectations and experiences of the first twelve admitted doctoral students and their supervisors

  • 96.
    Fritzon, Anders
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Wester, Linn
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Säkerhetsaspekterna med "Bring Your Own Device": Hur företag hanterar egna enheter på arbetsplatsen, samt säkerheten som krävs för en tryggare arbetsplats2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2007, a whole new market of mobile phones was created, which we today call smartphones. As smartphones developed at a furious pace, new technology and security issues also surfaced for companies. Since 2009, "Bring Your Own Device" (BYOD) made companies start thinking and plan their activities for the wireless technology that we use all the time, and this caused information security to come into focus. BYOD has become so much larger that it has meant a new creation of policy documents and safety issues that are coming into focus among companies that use BYOD. Consequences, threats, risks, etc. are things that companies need to be aware of if they are going to use BYOD in their businesses. By interviewing five different companies of different sizes and industries, an impression of how Swedish companies manage BYOD and its security aspects can be determined. While providing clear facts, one can also increase awareness among other companies and help the thinking about why they should adopt BYOD into a company. BYOD was difficult for the companies to define. Should employees own a device or could a company own a device and the employees use it? The purpose of this report is to contribute knowledge about how companies manage BYOD, and if they know what the consequences for safety are that may arise. This study provides the following results, if the companies use BYOD and if so, how they use their mobile devices when connecting to different networks. And how companies provide security to minimize the risks that can be generated when companies make use of BYOD. Safety is always a focus of companies and they are aware of the consequences that may occur if security does not functions within the company.

    Safety is always in focus of the companies and they are aware of the consequences that may occur if the security functions within the company. Smaller companies find it easier to use a BYOD approach in dealing with less information within the company. If companies are not protected, they can suffer from threats and viruses even though they were fully aware of the consequences.

  • 97.
    Färnefors, Viktoria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lindman, Oskar
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Användaracceptans av IT inom svensk hälso- och sjukvård: En kvalitativ studie om användaracceptans av ny teknologi under postimplementation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Implementation of IT in healthcare is by many considered to have several benefits. On the one hand, it can improve the health care by, among other things, making it more efficient. On the other hand, it can give economic advantages, for example by health care providers being able to save money. At the same time, there are studies showing problems may arise at the implementation of new technologies in healthcare. Problems reported include hesitation regarding the profitability of the technologies, and staff deeming the technology taking up too much time. There have also been reported difficulties in the post-implementation phase, for example increased strain on personnel and worsened communication between staff and patients. In the light of this, this study has investigated which factors influence the user acceptance of IT in healthcare during the post-implementation phase. This study has, with a qualitative approach and based on the theory UTAUT, carried out a number of interviews with personnel working in healthcare who recently took part in an implementation of new technology. Then, the result was analyzed to find out which factors most influence the acceptance of technology in healthcare. The result shows that expected performance is the factor that matters most for acceptance of new technology. The voluntariness and if the usage has become norm in the workplace both have a large effect on whether the technology is accepted or not. When the work routine is of a more complex nature it is also important to have a good understanding of the processes which the technology is built around. The study also shows that there is a need to adjust the UTAUT model to better explain acceptance within the context of Swedish healthcare. The degree of voluntariness should be more than a moderating variable, and a new construct, regarding knowledge about the processes and routines that govern the work in healthcare, ought to be considered.

  • 98.
    Gabrys, Piotr
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Införande av IT-system i kommunala organisationer: Faktorer som kan påverka resultatet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An implementation of an IT system is a socio-technical change that places many demands on the organization if the implementation is to be considered successful. There are challenges of both the technical, social and organizational nature. Descriptions of the implementations that were perceived as successful often refers to common factors that contributed to the successful implementation, so-called success factors. The purpose of this work is to obtain knowledge about those factors and how they can affect system implementations in municipal organiza-tions. In this work those so-called success factors are identified based on theory and studies of practical circumstances in organizations. The factors are examined and knowledge about them is gathered and presented. This work is conducted using a qualitative interview study of two organizations in two small municipalities with large experience on system implementations. The interviewed persons have varying roles in the organizations and different experiences of implementations. The results are the respondents' perceived views, experiences and comments on implementations regarding such as system usability, leadership, training and commitment.

    This work presents factors perceived to have contributed to the success, for example the lead-ers support and commitment, technical stability and user participation. The main conclusions of this work include that a number of success factors that are described in studies from other types of organizations can even be found in municipal organizations. Factors that affect the implementations success are found in fields that regards organization, qualifications, systems applicability and the systems users. There are different methods for evaluation, and different definitions of success, therefore they are not general shortcuts to success, but rather a base for the work before, during and even after the systems implementation. The specific circum-stances of each system implementation and organization overall strategy for system and busi-ness development may vary and influence the factors' effects.

  • 99.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The impact of word of mouth when booking a hotel: could a good friend's opinion outweigh the online majority?2019In: Information Technology & Tourism, ISSN 1098-3058, E-ISSN 1943-4294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online user generated reviews are transforming business and customer behavior and could have a major impact on sales. The primary aim of this study was to measure the impact of online reviews in comparison with the impact of a good friend's opinion. The question in focus was: to what extent could a single review made by a good friend compensate the opinion of the online majority? Subjects were randomly allocated to different versions of guest reviews of a fictive hotel: either constituting a positive or a negative online majority. After reading the reviews, respondents were asked about their booking intention. The respondents were also asked to re-evaluate booking intention given the additional information that a good friend has given a recommendation or an advice against booking the hotel. The study design was experimental and based on a survey which included 1319 respondents who were randomized to the different versions of guest reviews. The results showed that the overall valence of reviews is crucial for booking intention, also the latest two reviews were important even though the effect was much smaller. If the overall valence was negative the latest two reviews had no importance, no matter if these were positive or negative. But, if the overall valence was positive, then the booking intention could be diluted if the two latest reviews were negative. Concerning the primary aim of the study, it is concluded that a good friend’s word of mouth could outweigh the online majority. This means that a negative online majority could be outweigh by a good friend's recommendation and that a positive online majority could be outweigh by a goods friend's recommendation against booking the hotel. 

  • 100.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A first step towards a model for teachers' adoption of ICT pedagogy in schools.2018In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 4, no 9, article id e00786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important to identify and understand important factors underpinning the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in schools. And, it is important that ICT is adopted in a sound pedagogical manner. The aim with this study was to suggest a model for the actual use of ICT in schools and how it may be related to important factors such as technological pedagogical expectations. The design of the model was inspired by TAM2 and UTAUT models, but with some modifications. We have developed a model which highlight the pedagogical aspects beyond the technical ones. Furthermore, our suggested model also include the adoption of digital techniques in everyday life as a potential predictor of adoption of ICT at work. The sample consists of 122 teachers and we analyzed the model with a structural equation model. This study contributes with a suggested model including a new construct for measuring expected performance from a technological pedagogical point of view. This new construct was a significant predictor to actual use of ICT in school. Furthermore we also developed a new construct for adoption of ICT in everyday life, which also was a significant predictor to actual use of ICT in school.

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