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  • 51.
    Andersson, Sara
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Thörngren, Sofia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hur hanteras dilemman med flerdimensionell styrning?: En kvalitativ fallstudie i två företag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are different dilemmas faced by companies in a multidimensional control model and in order to maintain competitiveness such dilemmas shall be managed in an effective way. Use of multidimensional control models has increased among companies and when managing the business through such models companies are facing dilemmas within the frame of the control model analysis, and decisions needs to be taken on such dilemmas. In our qualitative study we present and analyze three selected dilemmas, our aim is to create a deeper understanding of how companies manage such dilemmas. In this study we specifically look into how companies handles the dilemma of combining a short-term and long-term perspective, how they combine financial and non-financial objectives and methodologies, and how companies can create clear goals by effective analysis methods and relevant parameters to measure results. We present criticism in the theory section of the essay on the subject of how companies manage dilemmas that can arise in a multidimensional control model where different objectives and methods of analysis may conflict with each other. We also describe how such dilemmas are solved by companies. The essay is based on five interviews with two selected companies. The theory section of the essay is based on scientific articles and literature concerning the chosen problem area within the field of business economics. In the theoretical framework the analysis model is detailed, the model has been developed through the chosen theory. The three selected dilemmas are then examined in the analysis model. Throughout the empirical section and the analysis section the analysis model is being tested. Our study gives examples of different ways of dealing with dilemmas. Our conclusion is that companies need to be consistent in their control when they have a multidimensional control model. This applies to the choice of strategy and when designing the goals and methods of the analysis model. We think it is important that these dilemmas are being managed rather than avoided as it can help to strengthen the company's competitiveness if properly applied.

  • 52.
    Andersson, Simon
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Could suppliers take greater transport and owner responsibility?: Evaluation of changed Incoterms at GKN Aerospace2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems acts as supplier to the original equipment manufacturers of aircraft engines and is one owe the largest component manufacturer in the aerospace industry. They purchase raw material from suppliers all over the world. The components are big and heavy which means that transport cost could be saved with ship transport. But since GKN Aerospace Engine Systems use Free carrier agreement as incoterm they tie up capital during the transportation. The capital tied up could instead be used in other investments. To overcome the problem with tied up capital during transport the incoterm agreement has been evaluated. The incoterm Delivery at place means that the supplier owns the material and thereby also the capital cost during the transportation. A production stop due to lack of raw material is expensive and to minimize the risk it is important to evaluate all possible risks. The purpose with this thesis is to identify potential risks. The concept with DAP makes it possible for the suppliers to use their own freight carrier, that could lower the prices, but it also increase the inbound transport to GKN Aerospace Engine Systems. The administration cost in the goods receive tends to increase with a DAP solution. It is also necessary to change place where the delivery precision is measured. The supplier also needs some knowledge in export transportation and have competence in transports.

  • 53.
    Andreasson, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Granath, Simon
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Frivillig informationsgivning i årsredovisningar: värdeskapande eller resursslöseri?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An annual report consists of financial and non-financial information which is required by law, however the annual report is considerably more extensive than that. This additional scope of information consists of information that is not required to be disclosed by law. However, companies still decide to publish a lot of voluntary information, though the amount differs heavily. The reason for this depends on the varying positive effects an increased disclosure entails. This is a balancing act that companies must consider and evaluate. Therefore, it is of interest for companies to know whether the market will reward this increased transparency.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the amount of voluntary disclosure that is published in an annual report had a causal relationship to the market value. This was investigated by analyzing 107 annual reports by Swedish listed companies. A number of key words that were associated with future oriented statements were used as a proxy to measure the amount of voluntary disclosure. This information was quantified and then used in a regression analysis where the relationship between the voluntary information and market capitalization was analyzed.

    The analysis concluded that the amount of voluntary disclosure had a linear relationship with the market capitalization. But the regression analysis, under the control of a number of control variables and after excluding extreme outliers from the data, showed that a causal link did not exist. A conclusion to be drawn from this was that the quantity of voluntary disclosure, in terms of future oriented statements, that a company publishes does not have a causal relationship on the market capitalization.

  • 54.
    Andreasson, Matilda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Gustafsson, Moa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Earnings Management: En kvantitativ studie om faktorer som påverkar förekomsten av resultatmanipulering i svenska börsnoterade bolag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Earnings Management is a term aimed at discretionary accounting which involves manipulation of a company's results. Earnings Management can be done either upwards or downwards. When manipulation occurs downwards with the aim of lowering the result, it´s called Big Bath Accounting. There are several researchers who have studied this area over time and have come up with conflicting results. Some researchers believe that Earnings Management and Big Bath Accounting occur to a large extent when companies offer bonus programs based on company performance and whether CEO turnovers has occurred. Other researchers have a different opinion. They do not find any statistical evidence that Earnings Management and Big Bath Accounting occurs when the CEO has changed and companies have bonus programs. Some of these researchers also believe that Earnings Management has diminished significantly or even disappeared in recent years. Previous research also shows conflicting evidence about the use of Earnings Management during financial crises and bonus programs. The purpose of the study was thus to investigate factors that underlie Earnings Management and Big Bath Accounting as well as incentives that may affect the management of a company to apply the theory.

    Results from previous research form the basis of the theoretical framework of the study, which emerged in three hypotheses. These hypotheses were tested by multiple regression analysis as well as a time series analysis. The study's selection was limited to companies in the Swedish market on the OMX Stockholm Stock Exchange's Large Cap in 20072015. The original sample was comprised of 747 observations, but when a certain loss occurred, 547 observations remained while testing hypothesis one and two and 567 observations remained while testing hypothesis three.

    The result showed a statistical correlation between performance manipulation and bonus programs, but we found no statistical correlation between profit-decreasing accruals and CEO turnover. On the other hand, we found support for our third alternative hypothesis that the financial crisis affected Earnings Management during 2008-2009. Our conclusion thus became that the factors underlying Earnings Management and Big Bath Accounting as well as incentives that could affect the management of a company to apply the theory are bonus programs and the financial crisis.

  • 55.
    Andrésson, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Gunnarsson, Michaela
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Att motivera medarbetare på distans: Vad en chef kan göra för att motivera medarbetare iett bemanningsföretag2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Employment with a temporary work agency often involves a complexity because of the three-party relationship between the agency, the consultant and the client company. It can therefore contribute to the emergence of motivation problems and confusion about how managers should proceed to motivate their consultants. As a temporary work agency has a distance and limited attendance to the consultants, difficulties with creating close relationships arise. Which in turn means that the staffing company’s managers have a far more difficult task to motivate its consultants, in comparison to more traditional businesses.

    The purpose of this study was to examine which motivational factors consultants in a temporary work agency see as motivating, and how the consultant managers can create motivation among their employees, despite the distance between them. To achieve the purpose the problem was examined with qualitative methods, through interviews and a questionnaire. Seven interviews were conducted, two with consulting managers and the others with consultants from the temporary work agency.

    In the theoretical part, four motivation theories were used; Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Vroom's expectancy theory, Hertzberg's two factor theory and McGregor's theory X & Y. In addition, theories concerning leadership at a distance, and approaches to motivating at a distance were also consulted. This has formed the basis for the collection of empirical data and the interpretation of the final result, which shows that motivational factors differ slightly from what the motivation theories show. Meanwhile, the result shows that the approaches that should be used to motivate consultants at a distance, are based on close relationships and opportunities for development.

    The conclusions of the study were that the factors that create maximum motivation of consultants, which are employed by an temporary work agency are; fair working conditions, development opportunities, confirmation/feedback, good results on performance, rewards, responsibility, work task design, salary and relationship with colleagues. Meanwhile, the result shows that the approaches that were the most satisfying when motivating at a distance are; relationship-building activities, continuous communication, and education

  • 56.
    Apell, Louise
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Nyborg, Natalie
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Intäktsredovisning av pågående arbeten: en studie inom byggbranschen i Skara och Skövde2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the construction industry are ongoing works a common occurrence and companies wrestle with the problems of making a correct accounting of these. Because there are different ways to account revenues, which give different outcomes on the result, the company must ensure to account so that they comply with the laws, rules and recommendations. This is to achieve true and fair view and follow generally accepted accounting principles. The concept of true and fair view is difficult and can be interpreted in different ways by the company. There are two ways to perform con-struction duties, either the current account or fixed price. Based on these two calculations, there are two methods to account revenues during the missions, the per-centage of completion method and completion method. The purpose of this study is to investigate how construction companies reports its revenues during the work in progress and if the revenue recognition is affected by how they comply with laws, rules and recommendations for various accounting methods.

    We have done a study with a qualitative method through interviews with three different construction companies and an accountant. Our study has been focused on a hermeneutic method and we have used an inductive research approach. Our theory takes up definitions of income, revenue recognition, percentage of completion, completion method and true and fair view. We also take up different concepts, laws and regulations e.g. the different accounting principles, the ÅRL and BFL. On the basis of an analysis model, we have since been able to get a basis for our experiments and analysis. In our results we first have seen what an auditor considers whether revenue recognition for work in progress and then we received the interview people's own views on revenue recognition and how they apply accounting of ongoing work in their companies.

    Based on the results, we did an interpretation and analysis of how the different construction companies applied the various accounting methods and compared it with our theoretical section and the section on standards and rules. What we came up with was that construction companies made use of the laws and rules for revenue recognition for work in progress. They used both the current account and fixed price on their behalf. A difference between the companies was the method they used in the report and why. Two of the companies used the completion method and one of the companies the percentage of completion method. They used their method to achieve true and fair view, and this seemed that true and fair view was perceived differently by the companies. Depending on the method used by companies so affected the result at year-end

  • 57.
    Arnergård, Christopher
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Johansson, Andreas
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Rekryterares roll i rekryteringsprocesser2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Could it be that there are subjective elements in the recruitment process? Recruitment is an important area for companies and is also something that most workers have to undergo. For companies, it is also a question about costly investments. Furthermore it is the employees who determine how the company develops and performs. Choosing these employees is what recruitment processes are there for. Previous research lacks focus on the individual recruiters role in the recruitment process. This study is based on this issue.

    Through interviews with representatives from various companies in various industries as well as a collection of theory and research on the topic, an overall picture has been created where the recruiter's role in the recruitment process appears. The result shows that recruiters have the confidence and ability to influence recruitment processes, but that the decision-making often lies with the responsible leader's power. The study shows that there are benefits to giving a recruiter a lot of space in the process and for allowing him to be involved from start to finish. It also shows that recruiters and the responsible leader should take decisions together on employment issues. This is to enable recruiters to influence and create a composition of employees who can complete each other with personalities and skills

  • 58.
    Arnosson, Sandra
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hållbarhet som strategisk utgångspunkt: En undersökning av utvalda svenska företags hemsidor och års-/hållbarhetsrapporter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this study was in the desire to investigate whatchain stores want to convey beyond sustainability through two different communication channels, sustainability reports and websites. Information about sustainability is perceived to be communicated more and more frequently by companies today and what this could mean and include seemed interesting to investigate. This is to try to bring clarity and insight into the stakeholders who gets in contact with the information. 30 well-established establishments in Sweden became the study area and contributed interesting points of view in relation to the theoretical background. The purpose of the study was to investigate how companies worked with sustainability based on sustainability reports, as well as to review how they choose to communicate sustainability marketing on their websites. The companies were further divided into three categories that were compared and then developed the empirical background. Relevant theoretical research areas in this study included sustainability from a social, economic and ecological perspective, as well as legitimacy theory, stakeholder theory and strategic marketing. Furthermore, sustainability and CSR as strategic starting point were relevant orientations in the theoretical reference framework. The study is of a qualitative nature and had interpretation and reflection as a starting point. The empirical material has been examined using a critical of source perspective where the author was aware of the limitations and benefits that studies with angled material may hold. The study was based on information that the chains themselves choose to convey, which means that the reader cannot interpret it as fully truthful. However, the image that the chains convey was the primary focus of the study and the material found was designed for the remainder of the study and helped answering questions and research questions. The study was completed by comparing the empirical material with Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and other theoretical backgrounds. GRI was used for the development of indicators from the empirical material using the theoretical background. This contributed to the creation of both conclusions that answers the purpose and proposals for further studies. These conclusions, among other things, showed that work on sustainability reports varied greatly between both business chains and industries. This at the same time as all published sustainability reports had a broad and comprehensive summary of both social, economic and social sustainability. In addition, sustainability communication on websites was used approximately equally in all industries and business chains, although the amount of information varied. Sustainability was generally not used as direct marketing to customers, but was available in the context, which showed that the information fulfills an objective in a different sense than in the form of direct marketing.

  • 59.
    Aronsson, Sandra
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kunskapsintensiva organisationer och dess ledarskap2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien cirkulerade kring begreppen kunskap och ledarskap, vilket ledde till inriktningen kunskapsintensiva organisationer och dess medföljande ledarskap. Studiens syfte ansågs vara relevant, då det troddes utgöra en del av utvecklingen av framtidens organisationer och ledarskap. Problemdiskussionen diskuterade ämnenas komplexitet och varför ämnet valdes. Varför valdes det nu och hur var ämnet relevant i ett sammanhang? Med problemdiskussionen hoppades författaren kunna förmedla till läsaren vart på kartan utvalt ämne befann sig. Studien behandlade ett fallföretags ledarskap och hur företaget, i detta fall en butik, kunde kopplas till kunskapsintensiva organisationer. I uppsatsens kommande del presenterades valda metoder. Kunskap erhållen i studien var av kvalitativ natur och studien byggde på två utförda personliga intervjuer, intervjuer med en chef och en medarbetare med hjälp av ett utvalt fallföretag. Övrigt material som användes till uppsatsens underlag, utgjordes av litteratur och vetenskapliga artiklar. Studien byggde på att teoretiskt material relaterades till empiriskt material för att författaren skulle kunna undersöka hur ledarskapet inom företaget såg ut i relation till kunskapsintensiva organisationer.

    Uppsatsens kommande del var den teoretiska referensramen, vilken baserades på överskrifterna; Begreppet kunskap, Kunskap inom organisationer, Kunskapsintensiva organisationer, Begreppet ledarskap och Ledarskap i kunskapsintensiva organisationer. Begreppen kunskap och ledarskap ansågs skapa en bakgrund till de övriga delarna, vilka ansågs vara de främsta för att besvara studiens syfte. Därefter har uppsatsens empiriska underlag presenterats, för att ge läsaren inblick i de två intervjuer som utförts för att besvara studiens syfte. Intervjuerna presenterades separat för att ge läsaren tydlighet i resonemanget. Materialet är presenterat i relation till endast kunskap/kunskap inom organisationer och kunskap i relation till ledarskap.

    För att utforma slutsatser i relation till utvalt syfte, utformades sedan ett tolkningsavsnitt, där material vägdes samman och jämfördes. Kunskapsintensiva organisationer sattes här i relation till utvalt fallföretag och ledarskap i kunskapsintensiva organisationer sattes även det i relation till insamlat material från utvalt fallföretag. Detta gav intressanta synvinklar på hur begrepp och fenomen kan utspela sig i verkligheten, vilket formade de slutsatser som dragits i relation till frågeställningar, forskningsfråga och studiens syfte. Det gav också en fördjupad förståelse kring kunskap och ledarskap. Vilken kan vara användbart för alla, men framförallt de som arbetar, eller kommer att arbeta inom handel, som medarbetare och/eller chef. Studien har påvisat att flera av de aspekter som är relevanta i relation till begreppet kunskapsintensiva organisationer är aktuella i det utvalda fallföretaget och likaså är dess ledarskap nära sammankopplat till ledarskap, som i teori, ofta beskrivs i relation till kunskapsintensiva organisationer. Men det finns också en del aspekter som skiljer butiken från de klassiska kunskapsintensiva organisationerna, det konstaterades dock i sammanhanget att detta inte behövde vara något negativt baserat på fallföretagets utformning.

  • 60.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Att utveckla Lysekils centrum tillsammans: utmaningar och möjligheter2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie designades och analyserades av Högskolan Väst 2016-2017. Undersökningen kompletterar den besökar- och boendestudie som Högskolan Väst tidigare genomförde inom projektet i Lysekil under sensommaren 2016 (se Högskolan Väst Rapport 2 Urban Platsinnovation Besökar- och boendestudie i Lysekil sensommaren 2017). Denna studie genomfördes under tiden 26 maj - 11 augusti 2017 med 363 svarande respondenter, varav 165 var besökare och 198 permanent boende i Lysekil. Syftet med studien var att öka kunskapen om både besökares och boendes uppfattningar om Lysekil. Högskolan Väst har även genomfört en intervjustudie med centrumaktörer i Lysekil under 2017 (se Högskolan Väst Rapport 4 Urban Platsinnovation Att utveckla Lysekils centrum tillsammans - utmaningar och möjligheter). Studierna1 avser även att bidra gränsöverskridande inspiration samt vara ett underlag för planering och utveckling av kommande centrumutvecklande aktiviteter såväl inom som utanför projektets regi.Undersökningen visar att besökare framför allt kommer till Lysekil för att koppla av och är nöjda med sitt besök i Lysekil samt med service och utbud, stadsmiljö och faciliteter. En stor majoritet av besökarna har besökt Lysekil innan och anger att de kommer att besöka Lysekil igen. Av de besökare är det 88% som sannolikt kommer rekommendera andra ett besök i Lysekil. Ungefär hälften av besökarna bor mer än 10 mil från Lysekil.De permanent boende i Lysekil är också nöjda med utbudet av restauranger, kvalitén på både maten och servicen. De boende var också nöjda med servicen i butikerna men ställde sig neutrala till utbudet av butiker. Det största missnöjet bland de permanent boende i Lysekil finns kring parkeringssituationen.Studien är i stort samstämmig med den besökar- och boendeundersökning som genomfördes 2016.Ett stort antal förbättringsförslag ges av respondenterna och finns redovisade i rapporten. Dessa förslag är allt från konkreta till visionära.Det är vår rekommendation att denna rapport ihop med rapporten från undersökningen 2016 (se Högskolan Västs Rapport 2) delges och diskuteras med de aktörer och nätverk som finns i Lysekil i arbetet i att ta fram nya centrumutvecklande aktiviteter.

  • 61.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Besökar- och boendestudie i Lysekil sommaren 20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie designades och analyserades av Högskolan Väst 2016-2017. Undersökningen kompletterar den besökar- och boendestudie som Högskolan Väst tidigare genomförde inom projektet i Lysekil under sensommaren 2016 (se Högskolan Väst Rapport 2 Urban Platsinnovation Besökar- och boendestudie i Lysekil sensommaren 2017). Denna studie genomfördes under tiden 26 maj - 11 augusti 2017 med 363 svarande respondenter, varav 165 var besökare och 198 permanent boende i Lysekil. Syftet med studien var att öka kunskapen om både besökares och boendes uppfattningar om Lysekil. Högskolan Väst har även genomfört en intervjustudie med centrumaktörer i Lysekil under 2017 (se Högskolan Väst Rapport 4 Urban Platsinnovation Att utveckla Lysekils centrum tillsammans - utmaningar och möjligheter). Studierna1 avser även att bidra gränsöverskridande inspiration samt vara ett underlag för planering och utveckling av kommande centrumutvecklande aktiviteter såväl inom som utanför projektets regi. Undersökningen visar att besökare framför allt kommer till Lysekil för att koppla av och är nöjda med sitt besök i Lysekil samt med service och utbud, stadsmiljö och faciliteter. En stor majoritet av besökarna har besökt Lysekil innan och anger att de kommer att besöka Lysekil igen. Av de besökare är det 88% som sannolikt kommer rekommendera andra ett besök i Lysekil. Ungefär hälften av besökarna bor mer än 10 mil från Lysekil. De permanent boende i Lysekil är också nöjda med utbudet av restauranger, kvalitén på både maten och servicen. De boende var också nöjda med servicen i butikerna men ställde sig neutrala till utbudet av butiker. Det största missnöjet bland de permanent boende i Lysekil finns kring parkeringssituationen. Studien är i stort samstämmig med den besökar- och boendeundersökning som genomfördes 2016. Ett stort antal förbättringsförslag ges av respondenterna och finns redovisade i rapporten. Dessa förslag är allt från konkreta till visionära. Det är vår rekommendation att denna rapport ihop med rapporten från undersökningen 2016 (se Högskolan Västs Rapport 2) delges och diskuteras med de aktörer och nätverk som finns i Lysekil i arbetet i att ta fram nya centrumutvecklande aktiviteter

  • 62.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lessons Learned From A Cross-Sector Development Project: An Integrative Research Approach2018In: INTED 2018: Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, 2018, p. 3914-3922Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws on the experiences of work-integrated learning from a Swedish-Norwegian cross-sector research project where actors from university, industry, government and volunteer sector collaborate on city center development. The empirical setting of the present study consists of six smaller cities in rural municipalities with limited resources and experiences of collaboration with higher education institutions. The following research question is addressed: How can research and development projects serve as a vehicle for facilitating mutual knowledge exchange between academia and society in cross-sector and rural collaboration contexts? The aim is hence to suggest a tentative collaboration model that identify and integrate knowledge flows between actors involved in cross-sector collaborations in such setting. To gain deep insights in the complex dynamics of project collaboration we applied a mixed methods approach including surveys, structured, in-depth qualitative interviews, observations, workshops and student projects. The data collection was performed during 2016-2017. Findings indicate that trust, continuity, and relationship building are the basis vital for successful creation, development and maintenance of knowledge flows. Furthermore, there is a need to develop an integrative tool box with different methodological tools, work practices and strategies to plan, perform, compile to leverage the knowledge flows and coproduce sustainable results. Our tentative model aims to illustrate conceptualize lessons learned on work-integrated learning and collaboration with academia. We discuss how the model may support co-creative and mutual results over time. 

  • 63.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Besökar- och boendestudie i Lysekil sensommaren 20162016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En studie av besökare och boende i Lysekil genomfördes med 279 svarande respondenter under tiden 26 juli - 14 september 2016. Syftet med studien var att öka kunskapen om både boendes och besökandes uppfattningar om Lysekil.Studien syftar även till att ge ett bidrag till ett större underlag för och gränsöverskridande inspiration till planering och utveckling av kommande centrumutvecklande aktiviteter såväl inom som utanför projektets regi.151 besökande och 128 permanent boende besvarade undersökningen.Undersökningen visar att de besökande framför allt kommer till Lysekil för att koppla av och är nöjda med sitt besök i Lysekil samt med service och utbud, stadsmiljö och faciliteter. En stor majoritet av besökarna har besökt Lysekil innan och anger att man kommer att besöka Lysekil igen. Av de besökande är det 97% som sannolikt kommer rekommendera andra ett besök i Lysekil. Ungefär hälften av de besökande bor mer än 10 mil från Lysekil.Bland de permanent boende i Lysekil är man också nöjd med utbudet av restauranger, kvalitén på restaurangmaten samt service på restaurang och i butik. Man är också nöjd med stadsmiljön, skyltning/vägvisning, hur lätt det är att ta sig till Lysekil, faciliteter och kvalitén på boende. En majoritet av de tillfrågade är missnöjda med parkeringssituationen i Lysekil. Utbudet av butiker och uteliv har mer utspridda svar.Samtliga respondenter fick tillfälle att ge förslag på vad som kan förbättras i Lysekils centrum. Av 279 respondenter gav 123 besökande och 114 boende i Lysekil förbättringsförslag. Förslagen, som är både konkreta och visionära, rör huvudsakligen följande sju teman; Trivsel och intryck av stadsmiljön, Infrastruktur, parkering mm, Husbilsparkering/ställplatser, Information och Skyltning, Aktiviteter/evenemang, Utbud och Övrigt.Vår rekommendation är att, de nätverk och aktörer som är anslutna till projektet i Lysekil, tar del av och diskuterar studiens resultat inför framtida centrumutvecklande aktiviteter. Vi rekommenderar även att man åtgärdar de förbättringsförslag som går att genomföra på kort sikt och redan nu diskuterar de mer långsiktiga och eventuellt resurstunga förbättringsförslag.

  • 64.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    En gränsöverskridande workshop om: Hvordan kan vi bruke undersøkelser til å skape et bedre sentrum?2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En gränsöverskridande workshop om Hvordan kan vi bruke undersøkelser til å skape et bedre sentrum? genomfördes den 27 oktober 2016 i Fredrikstad under stormöte 2 i projektet Urban Platsinnovation. Syftet med workshopen var att näringsidkare och kommuner i Sverige och Norge ska knyta kontakter och utbyta erfarenheter. Under workshopen diskuterade de 62 deltagarna undersökningar som beslutsunderlag samt deltagande och samverkan för utveckling av centrum. I anslutning till workshopen redogjordes för tre i projektet genomförda studier. Workshopens genomförande och dokumentation syftar till att ge ett underlag och gränsöverskridande inspiration till planering och utveckling av kommande centrumutvecklande aktiviteter såväl inom som utanför projektets regi.Workshopsdeltagarna får idag information om kunder, besökare och medborgare genom olika spridda kanaler; via kartläggningar, handelsutredningar, nationella näringslivstudier, egna undersökningar via sociala medier, webbstatistik, kommunens kundtjänst, medborgarkontor, medborgardialoger (brukermedvirkning), samtal och personlig kontakt, sociala möten och nätverk, cafédialoger/dialog med organisationer, företag och föreningar, mässor och genom nyheter i dagstidning (avis). Samtliga deltagare menar att studier av det slag som presenterades vid workshopen är mycket viktiga. Presenterade studier är intressanta då de visar på fakta och statistik – vilket inte alltid stämmer med vad man tror eller hört. Faktaunderlag är viktigt för att kunna arbeta framåt. Kritisk och djupare analys, koordinering, samordning och bättre kommunikation kring studier och resultat behövs. Deltagarna framhåller vikten av att dels ha tillgång till ett kvantitativt datamaterial i form av besöksdata som kan kopplas till annan data såsom omsättning, dels till ett kvalitativt material som fokuserar på vem besökaren är, orsaker till besök samt vilka önskemål besökare men även boende har.Det råder en stark vilja till samverkan mellan de olika aktörerna för centrumutvecklingen. I vissa fall och i vissa kommuner fungerar samverkan riktigt bra mellan framför allt kommun och butiksägare. Dock inses vikten av en bredare representativitet i grupperingar för centrumutvecklingen. Nya aktörer välkomnas samt tydliga strategier och roller. Viljan att engagera sig och delta finns, och många ser möjligheten att genom detta projekt få till en hel del bra grundarbete. Bra exempel ges på kanaler och plattformar för informationsspridning och kommunikation och deltagarna ser gärna en fortsatt utveckling av dessa för samverkan och koordinering av olika aktiviteter.

  • 65.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Samverkan och utveckling i Gamlebyen2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Högskolan Västs Rapport 3 - Samverkan och utveckling i Gamlebyen består av en studie av Gamlebyen Fredrikstads kommune, Norge. Denna studie baseras på 18 djupintervjuer med 21 aktörer i och kring Gamlebyen, Fredrikstads kommune, som genomfördes perioden november 2016 - februari 2017 samt en webb-enkät med 22 elever (blivande hantverkare) vid Plus-skolen i Gamlebyen i mars 2017. Syfte med studien var att fånga aktörernas uppfattning om Gamlebyens attraktivitet, vision, nuläge och utmaningar i samverkan. Syftet var även att ge förslag för samarbete och styrning som potential för framtida näringsutveckling och engagemang. Vidare syftar studien långsiktigt till ge ett underlag och gränsöverskridande inspiration för planering och utveckling av kommande centrumutvecklande aktiviteter såväl inom som utanför projektets regi.Studien visar på den mångfald av aktörer som verkar i Gamlebyen och den brist på samarbete och kommunikation som denna mångfald ger upphov till. Området saknar en gemensam vision om Gamlebyen skall utvecklas och bevaras. Sammantaget gör detta att Gamlebyen hämmas i sin utveckling och inte får den attraktionskraft som området har potential för. Många aktörer känner att kommunens satsningar på andra områden i Fredrikstad har haft ett negativt inflytande på området.För att Gamlebyen skall kunna nå sin potential behövs en samordnande roll av typen centrumutvecklare som koordinerar dels internt i Gamlebyen men även verkar in mot kommun och centrum för ökad samordning. En gemensam intern kommunikationsplattform för aktörerna i Gamlebyen är av stor vikt för att öka kommunikationen i området och samordna aktuell och korrekt information.

  • 66.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Identifying Summer Season Segments on the Swedish West Coast: the Case of Lysekil2018In: Uddevalla Symposium 2018: Diversity, Innovation, Entrepreneurship – Regional, Urban, National and International Perspectives: Revised papers presented at the 21st Uddevalla Symposium, 14–16 June, 2018, Luleå, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2018, p. 59-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to identify tourist segments present during the summer season in a northern European seaside resort setting. Demographic changes on a global scale bring with them dramatic changes in tourist demand and behavior. This poses new challenges for places that have a history of being attractive summer tourist destinations, challenges that can only be dealt with by informed actors. The small coastal town of Lysekil was chosen as the case of study since it has a history as a traditional northern European seaside resort, experiencing problems with adjusting to changing tourist demand and behavior. In addition, it is geographically separated from other similar towns which facilitates data collection. Data was collected during the summer season, from May to September, with a structured survey. The results identify five segments, what characterize them and when they are present.

  • 67.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Late Season Tourists on the Swedish West Coast2017In: Uddevalla Symposium 2017: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies: Revised papers first presented at the 20th Uddevalla Symposium 15-17 June, 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2017, p. 77-90Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the development of city centers and tourist destinations it is, as for any development of attractive offers, imperative to be informed about who the customer is and what s/he needs, wants and desires. For tourist destinations, various customer types can be identified, each with different purposes, needs and wishes.Some types may be present around the year, whereas others may show up during specific points in time. The aim of this report is to identify who the late season visitor is and what s/he actually does when visiting the small town of Lysekil on the Swedish West coast. On the basis of a sample of 155 tourists, participating instructured interviews performed in the in the late part of the summer season, including the months of August and September, it can be concluded that the only clearly identifiable segment during this period consist of couples over 50 who spend their vacation in their motor homes, visiting different locations for a couple of day seach, and mainly spending their time and money shopping and dining at restaurants.

  • 68.
    Arvidsson, Anna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kooperativt företagande och hållbar utveckling: En studie om gemensamma drivkrafter bakom kooperation och hållbarhet2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag är hållbar utveckling ett ämne som diskuteras på flera plan i samhället och det finns en tendens att företag vill betona sin hållbara inriktning. Detta arbete handlar kooperativa företag och hur de värderingar som kooperativ arbetar med påverkar hållbar utveckling. Kooperation och företag med sociala mål möter problem som är kopplat till valet av associationsform och detta får konsekvenser som påverkar möjligheter till finansiering och trovärdighet. Genom intervjuer med personer som antingen driver ekonomiska föreningar eller arbetar med kooperation presenterar detta arbete gemensamma drivkrafter hos kooperation och hållbar utveckling. Vilka drivkrafter som ligger till grund för valet att starta ett kooperativt företag och vilka värderingar som hållbarhetsbegreppet för med sig visar sig vara liknande på flera punkter. Vidare visar arbetet att forskningen kring dessa ämnen kan upplevas begränsade och att synen på hållbarhetsbegreppet inom forskningen är mer inriktat mot miljöaspekten än som ett helhetsbegrepp.

  • 69.
    Arvidsson, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Johansson, Matilda
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    En studie om ledare och medarbetares upplevelser av organisationsförändring2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To implement an organizational change can be overwhelming for those individuals who work in the organization. Evaluation of results or the process of change rarely occurs and one reason may be lack of resources in the organization or that it´s not a priority. When an organization sees the result they usually compare it to the goals underlying the change, if the result reach the goals it is sees as "successful" if not, the result is "unsuccessful". This study aims to examine how the results are experienced by employees and management who have undergone a change and how they relate it to the goals. The caseorganization has completed a move to new temporary premises while the reconstruction will be completed. We have chosen to study a department within the organization, they have two levels, employee- and management. The study has a qualitative approach where the collection of data is made of semi-structured interviews with twelve respondents, ten employees and two from management. These have been interpreted and presented based on two themes throughout the entire study, communication, and personal experiences.

    There are several elements in the changeprocess that can contribute to employee acceptance. Employees can more easily accept change if they receive information early in the process which gives time to adapt (Shin et al, 2015). Individuals within an organization need to be seen and to be involved in order to be able to feel satisfied with the change (Liljengren et al, 2003). The result of the interviews showed that respondents don´t have the same experience of the result and that everyone did not describe the same goal with the change. All received the same information about the move, some feel that they have been involved and feel satisfied, others feel that they haven´t been involved, which contributed to the discontent of the change. The conclusion of this study is that participation in the process gives a positive experience of the result and a higher acceptance if less satisfying working condition occurs. This study has shown that there are differences between employees and managements experience of organizational change and one way to find these differences is to routinely evaluate the results.

  • 70.
    Arvidsson, Mikaela
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Wilenius, Frida
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Värdet av investering i kompetensutveckling: En fallstudie på GKN Aerospace Sweden AB, en högteknologisk tillverkningsindustri2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The staff is the company’s most important asset is a common expression and compe-tence is considered today as a condition for good results and success (Björklund & Holmqvist, 1999; Johansson & Johrén, 2011). It can though be difficult to concretize increased knowledge in education, which requires a discussion of how the business and employees are affected. Few organizations today have structured systems to track and discover the value and the positive impact that an investment in competence development may entail (Chong et al., 2000). GKN Aerospace Sweden AB is actively working with a training tool for competence development called the "Training Days". The purpose of these training days is that with the help of internal trainers educate the staff to raise skills and to encourage the exchange of knowledge. The purpose of this study is to develop a proposed calculation model for investment in competence development and to study the effects that these internal training days provide, both from an individual perspective and an organizational perspective. The study consists of a qualitative and interpretive appro-ach, in which methods of data collection consists of informants interviews and a survey. The idea of the "Training Days" and internal trainers aims that everyone can share their knowledge, because there is a lot of expertise within the organization. The concept means that employees train other employees, resulting that the company pass on knowledge of key employees to other employees. The results and the conclusions from the study showed that knowledge and information from the "Training Days" was valuable and contributed to improve the participants’ work and led mainly to more general knowledge but also more in-depth knowledge. The model applied to the concept is the bottom-line which according to Smith (2004) is a model of evaluation character, supplemented by monetary measures where the focus of the method lies in determining the effects of investments on a participant level. The effects of these educational interventions considered for the employees to be increased efficiency, improved job performance and improved work quality. From an organizational perspective obtains a competitive advantage as employees possess a deep and general knowledge, as well as it presumably have some impact on the company’s financial performance and success

  • 71.
    Arvidsson, Mikaela
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Wilenius, Frida
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    The Value of Investments in Competence Development and Cross-Cultural Knowledge Sharing2015In: Proceedings Cross-Cultural Business Conference 2015, Steyr, Austria / [ed] Margarethe Überwimmer, Teresa Gangl, Martina Gaisch, Robert Füreder, David Humbarger, Friedrich Bauinger, Hannes Hofstadler, Jörg Kraigher-Krainer, Christian Stadlmann, Pavel Štrach, Andreas Zehetner (Eds.), Aachen: Shaker Verlag, 2015, p. 13-27Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Arvidsson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Gustavsson, Christina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Från medarbetare till ledare: En mellanchefs förutsättningar2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En mellanchef arbetsleder det praktiska arbetet närmast produktionen, och rätt person kan utveckla en verksamhet på ett bra sätt. Många företag i olika branscher väljer internrekrytering av mellanchefer och låter redan kunnig arbetande personal i företaget avancera till arbetsledande positioner. Dessa blir ofta operativa chefer, arbetar närmast de anställda och påverkar produktionsutfallet i högsta grad. Att få en förändrad position inom företaget ger förändrade relationer och arbetsuppgifter. Genom studier av internrekryterade mellanchefer, som tagit klivet från medarbetare till mellanchef, undersöktes upplevelsen av att byta position.

    Syftet med studien var att skapa en ökad förståelse för internrekryterade mellanchefers roll inom företag. Genom att ta del av deras personliga erfarenheter ville vi också få svar på vår forskningsfråga: Hur beskriver mellanchefer övergången från medarbetare till ledare, och hur ser de på sin yrkesroll?Undersökningen har bedrivits utifrån kvalitativa djupintervjuer med sju mellanchefer från olika branscher. Det empiriska materialet har studerats utifrån en analysmodell som belyser mellanchefernas kompetens och förmåga till kommunikation, lojalitet och acceptans, samt även personlighet och förmåga till förståelse. Att fånga berättelser från övre chefer och medarbetare kan i fortsatta studier med fördel kombineras denna forskning.Slutsatsen för vår forskning är att de internt rekryterade mellancheferna är genomgående nöjda med sin roll, och beskriver hur de med åren hittat sätt att hantera svårigheter. Mentorskap, samt utbildning i konflikthantering i tidigt skede skulle gynna förutsättningar för dessa mellanchefers yrkesroll. Detta gynnar produktiviteten och de mänskliga resurserna, samt skapar goda förutsättningar till det kommande ledarskapet.

  • 73.
    Assaf, Jessica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Johansson, Julia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Webbutikens uppbyggnad: Faktorer hos en webbutik som influerar unga kvinnors tillit2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Online retailers that sell fashion have recently become more common and the biggest target group for clothes, shoes and accessories today are young women. The large growth of online retailers has resulted in trust concerns by consumers. The purpose of this report is to examine the factors that influence young women to feel trust towards a web store. A qualitative study has been conducted in form of a focus group interview, which examines seven women's attitudes and thoughts towards online retailers. This study is based on a theory of six different factors that affect trust towards online retailers, which go under the term web site quality. The factors are: web site usability, security and privacy, speed of download, product and service information quality, and aesthetic aspects. The report shows that the six factors have a large impact on trust and particularly the completeness of the web site. Also, the study shows that word of mouth has a big influence and can be developed to an additional factor. 

  • 74.
    Assmundson, Therése
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Dahlborg, Viktoria
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Bokföringsbrott: Vilka är de bakomliggande orsakerna till att individer begår ett bokföringsbrott, och begås handlingen av ett medvetet val eller av okunskap?2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Accounting fraud is a crime committed by individuals who conduct business and don´t do the accounting the right way according to the law. The statutory regulation of accounting fraud oc-curs mainly in two laws. For the individual to create a proper accounting also requires that he takes into account the recommendations and practices that are available. There are many aspects to be considered, and could cause a problem for the businessman if he has no knowledge of this. Because it is easy to start a company in Sweden, many individuals take this opportunity to start a company. In some cases the businessman don´t understand the responsibility that running the company will bring and by that commits a crime. The purpose of the study is to examine if the accounting fraud occurs mainly by conscious actions where individuals know about their obliga-tions, but ignore them for their own benefit. Or is it because the person does not have enough knowledge of the rules and regulation of accounting and commit the crime of ignorance? To con-duct the study, a content analysis conducted on 53 verdicts. This is to get a better understanding of why the accused has been convicted.

    The empirical background is for the reader to get a better understanding of the regulation of ac-counting fraud in Sweden and also to gain an understanding of the analysis. The theoretical framework are factors that previous research says on the reasons of why people commit account-ing fraud. The results obtained using the analysis model that has been developed by the theoreti-cal framework. The results of the study show that accounting fraud is a complex topic, it is not just one factor that represents why an individual commits an accounting fraud but various reasons why the crime has been committed. The interpretation of the results of the study is that it is that middle-aged men who is committing accounting fraud in the most time. There are several reasons that makes the individual commit an accounting fraud. The offender didn´t deliberately commit the crime, and there have been several different types of ignorance. The study shows that a mi-nority of individuals who have broken the law knowingly, accounting crime in these cases is of greed and hoping to cash in on the act.

  • 75.
    Axelsson, Gustav
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Raun, Sebastian
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Marknadsföring inom bemanningsbranschen: Fördjupning kring analys-modellers användning2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport kommer läsaren till en början att få kort insikt i företaget Lernia samt anledningen till vår rapport. Därefter kommer vi att djupare gå igenom några analysmodeller vilka man kan använda sig vid marknadsföring. De modeller som kommer att tas upp är marknadsföringsmixen med sina 4P och 7P, SWOT-analys och relationsmarknadsföring. I empiri och analys går vi sedan igenom de insamlade materialet från teorin och de intervjuer vi sammanställt för att ge svar på frågan om hur man arbetar med marknadsföring inom bemanningsbranschen. I slutsatsen knyter vi ihop arbetet med våra egna tankar kring modellernas varande i samband med dess faktiska användande inom dagliga arbetet.

  • 76.
    Axelsson, Pethra
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    En begreppslig analys av Rättvisande bild2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och problemformulering: Begreppet rättvisande bild har sedan införande i svensk lagstiftning varit svårt att definiera. En anledning till detta är att Sverige tillhör den kontinentala redovisningstraditionen medans begreppets hemland, Storbritannien, tillhör den anglosaxiska redovisningstraditionen. USA använder sig av samma redovisningstradition som Storbritannien och har en liten annorlunda definition av begreppet än vad vi har i Sverige. Här i Sverige krockar även begreppet rättvisande bild med det gamla begreppet god redovisningssed. Detta har lett till funderingar och följande forskningsfrågor:  Hur kan begreppet rättvisande bild definieras enligt enhetsteorin respektive ägarteorin? Syftet med denna fråga är att få en förståelse för varför det är svårt att definiera begreppet.  Kan redovisningsskillnader mellan länderna förklaras utifrån rättvisande bild? Syftet med denna fråga är att kunna tydligare se skillnader mellan USA och Sverige vad gäller rättvisande bild.  Vad är begreppsskillnaden mellan rättvisande bild och god redovisningssed? Syftet med denna fråga är att ifrågasätta om verkligen dessa två begrepp behövs eller om man skulle kunna ta bort en ur lagstiftningen. Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är att göra en kontextuell tolkning av rättvisande bild. Principer och värderingar formar uttrycket rättvisande bild och ligger till grund för det. Dessa ska jag ta upp för att få fram en större förståelse i vad som ligger till grund i konstitution av rättvisande bild. Lagtexten går bara ytligt in på vad rättvisande bild innebär. Detta ska nu undersökas. Läsaren ska även få en insikt i skillnader mellan Sverige och USA vad gäller rättvisande bild och vad som kan vara relevant referenspunkt när det kommer till detta begrepp. Metod: Studien består av en litteraturstudie med ett hermeneutiskt tolkningssätt. Genom att tolka olika texter önskar jag få fram en ökad förståelse för vad begreppet rättvisande bild innebär. Studien använder sig utav lagtext, forskningsrapporter, läroböcker samt artiklar för att få en så bred och objektiv bild som möjligt av begreppet. Rättvisande bild är ett levande begrepp som rekonstrueras och dekonstrueras hela tiden i samhället och har därmed fått olika betydelser, vilket jag fördjupar mig i några av dessa i studien. Resultat: Genom studiens gång har det visat sig att begreppet rättvisande bild kan definieras som att om man följer riktlinjer och principer inom enhetsteorin eller ägarteorin, beroende på vilken teori man använder, så får man en rättvisande bild. Årsredovisningens resultat måste vara lika sann som fair, vilket inte alltid är så lätt. I USA är fair value och present fairly tydligare förklarat än rättvisande bild i Sverige, vilket kan sägas bero på att både USA och Storbritannien har samma redovisningstradition. Fair value är en utvecklad variant av marknadsperspektivet av rättvisande bild medans present fairly är en utvecklad variant av det etiska perspektivet av begreppet. Teoretiska skillnader mellan begreppet rättvisande bild och god redovisningssed finns, men enligt tidigare studier verkar det inte finnas någon praktisk sådan. Detta leder till slutsatsen att om något av begreppet ska tas bort så blir det rättvisande bild, då god redovisningssed är befäst inom redovisningen.

  • 77.
    Axhall, Caroline
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Sambandet mellan butiksbiträdens upplevda meningsfullhet i arbetsrelationerna och deras vilja att stanna kvar i företaget2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problemet som formade studien handlade om de kostnader som uppkommer för företag då det sker uppsägningar av personal. Studiens syfte och fokus låg på att finna sambandet mellan butiksbiträdens upplevda meningsfullhet i arbetsrelationerna och deras vilja att stanna kvar i företaget. För att besvara studiens syfte gjordes sju intervjuer med personer som har titeln butiksbiträden. På grund av tidsbrist valdes en specifik yrkesgrupp och för att avgränsa studien. Vetenskapliga artiklar tillsammans med övrig litteratur var studiens sekundära källor, medan studiens primära källor var intervjuerna som ägde rum med de sju respondenter från fyra olika företag. I teoriavsnittet presenteras olika teorier och studier som gjorts med olika infall- och synvinklar på begreppet meningsfullhet, vilket var många. Min definition av meningsfullhet var de som ser på meningsfullheten så som jag personligen gör, framförallt sker genom de kundmöten jag står inför som butiksbiträde. Tidigare forskare har poängterat att definitionen av meningsfullhet går att koppla till de relationerna som uppkommer mellan individer, vilket då påvisade att det fanns ett intresse kring denna syn på meningsfullhet i arbetet. I teoriavsnittet sammanställs och presenteras olika forskares synsätt på hur meningsfullhet uppkommer i arbetslivet. Baumeister & Vohs (2002), se Vuori T., m.fl., 2012) tolkade ordet meningsfullhet som "en positiv innebörd och betydelsen av en aktivitet" vilket även poängterades av Vuori T., m.fl. (2012) där meningsfullheten uppkommer med att människor associerar sitt arbete med positiva ting. Enligt Dimitrov, D. (2012) tolkades meningsfullhet som att skapa ordning i innehållet, detta innefattade Dimitrov, D. (2012) med självkänslan för vad personen i fråga tillför sin arbetsplats, arbetsinnehållet att skapa utmaning, kreativitet, lärande, egen makt och självständighet. Medan Hirschi, A., & Terrence, T. (2012) uppfattade meningsfullhet som individers uppfattning om hur betydande deras arbete var. Teoriavsnittet innehåller även olika teorier och tidigare studier om hur företag behåller sina anställda. Slutligen i analysavsnittet sammanför diskussionen och kopplingarna mellan den insamlade empirin och teorin. Slutsatsen av studien resulterade i att ledare inte tycktes ha samma inflytande på meningsfullheten i arbetet, så som de övriga kollegorna och främst kunderna hade. Studien påvisade starka samband mellan meningsfullhet och kundbemötandet.

  • 78.
    Axhall, Caroline
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Tjärndal, Lina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Konsekvenser för organisationskulturen vid en sammanslagning av två organisationer: En kvalitativ studie inom offentlig sektor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of change in organizational contexts involves much, what we will focus on in the following study are mergers. Mergers are becoming more common in the dynamic and changing world that we live in. When two different organizational cultures are combined, it´s inevitable to avoid organizational culture being affected. Having knowledge about how interactions affect the organization is important in order to serve as a profitable and giving strategy. Previous research shows that organizational culture is affected by collusion, because the organizational culture has a strong impact on the outcome of the merger. Organizational culture can change in mergers, as the change brings new aspects of the organization, which in turn affects organizational culture. Two recurring factors that existed in the field of research were leadership and communication. Our research questions for the following study are:

    - What consequences can arise in the mergers of two organizations whose cultures differ?

    - How can leadership and communication contribute to developing organizational culture within the organization?

    The aim of the study is to contribute with increased knowledge of how cultural conditions such as organizational culture are affected by a merger. The following study focuses on leaders in raising awareness and awareness of how mergers and organizational culture can be developed and managed to make the transition rewarding and that the organization should have a stronger common organizational culture. In order to accomplish this, a qualitative method was chosen with a hermeneutically interpretative approach. The collected material for the study is based on scientific articles and semistructured interviews with ten selected interviewees. The analysis and conclusion of the study is based on the interviews we received through interviews with both leaders and teachers within the organization. The conclusion showed that geographical distances between organizations can contribute to a reduced degree of cohesion. In order for leadership and communication to develop organizational culture within the organization, clarity and structuring are required.

  • 79.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Högberg, Karin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ljungdahl Eriksson, Martin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Work-integrated Learning in a Doctoral Course in Informatics2016In: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, p. 1-11Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Being the first university in the world to provide doctoral program in Work-integrated Learning (WIL), we face the challenge of how to integrate doctoral courses into the WIL philosophy, which is the profile of the University West, Sweden. To exemplify what we mean by such a notion of integration, we introduce and demonstrate our proposed ontological approach to integrate a PhDcourse into the fundamental concepts underpinning WIL. The WIL within the context of informatics research (which is a subfield of the IS discipline) playsfive different roles of (1) the main course content, (2) the target occupation ofthe students and occupational field of the teachers, (3) the analytical perspective of the research activities in the course, (4) the educational method where teachers and students conduct collaborative research activities as a cognitive apprenticeship learning model, and (5) a co-authored research paper as outcome.The outcomes of such a conducted approach and lessons learned from the course will be thoroughly described. In the course, a meta-analysis of WIL informatics research will be performed to examine four dimensions which are: theories relevant for WIL; methods used in WIL research; occupational fields in WIL informatics studies; and roles of technology in WIL research. The course is arranged in the these phases: Local investigation; locally rooted research within the informatics field is examined by the course participants in dialogue with the authors of a number of published articles in order to see the extent and the how aspects of these identified WIL-oriented research work; Local synthesis; both teachers and the PhD students (i.e., course participants) explore the results and synthesize a local WIL-model; Global overview; a number of related international literature is selected and studied; Global synthesis; The local WIL model is compared to the global investigation. Co-authoring; a research paper is co-authored by the course participants and presented at a conference. By doing so, we enhance our understandings and thus contribute to one additional practical application of WIL's pedagogical philosophy, which influences the course content, the course format, the activities, the teaching-learning model,and the outcome of the course.

  • 80.
    Backman, Pernilla
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    von Leitgeb, Christina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Garbage in, garbage out: automatiserade redovisningsprogram och deras påverkan på redovisningens kvalitet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The digitizing advancement that has occured within the accountant segment have impacted what used to be a manually run segment within the industry to now become fully automated. The autonomous and technical aspect within the IT-segment have brought both new possibilities and ways of working, the following leads to an advantage being that you now have the possibility to get rapports in real time, among other things. An increasing number of accounting processes are automated as accounting programs evolve and an important question to be asked is how the quality within the accounting segment is affected.

    The aim of this study was to enhance the understanding of the impact of automated accounting processes on the quality of accounting. We chose a qualitative research strategy and abductive research facility.

    Through semi-structured interviews with accountants and auditors at various agencies, we collected data for our empirical analysis. We analyzed based on a thematic analysis based on the themes of the study; comprehensibility, reliability, relevance and comparability.

    The results of the study show that quality is improved and work more efficiently with automation. Reducing the manual work in the form of instancing's and transferring it to an automated process minimizes the risk of errors in the accounting. What is important, however, is that the setup of accounting programs automatic processes must be correct from the start, if the setup is incorrect then the result will be incorrect. Having standard setups in the applications reduces any errors that may arise when loading against, for example, proprietary templates, as they constantly need to be updated. To fully automate all parts within the accountant segment is presently not possible as some parts must be manually handled, such as annual accounts. Although the automated processes minimize the risk of instance, it is still important that some form of quality check needs to be done to assure that the result is correct. The results of the study also show that a good accounting quality requires that the accounting consultant has the correct competence and understanding of accounting. The correct competence in the future also includes IT-management why it should be introduced in the financial studies.

    In conclusion, we have been able to conclude with the help of the study that it is wrong from the beginning in the form of incorrect setup of the automatic process, error of failure or lack of competence of the accounting consultant will also the final result be incorrect, in other words "garbage in, garbage out".

  • 81.
    Badjie, Fatou
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ghavaed, Sara
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    En kvalitativ studie kring faktorer som kan påverka personalens hälsa i en organisation2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats har författarna valt att titta närmare på vilka faktorer det finns som kan påverka anställdas hälsa i en organisation. Detta genom att först identifiera faktorerna i det valda företaget och sedan med hjälp av intervjuer och den teoretiska referensramen få ett resultat. I den teoretiska referensramen redogör författarna för en historisk bakgrund om hälsa och faktorer som kan påverka medarbetarens hälsa. För att få fram relevant litteratur inom ämnesområdet har författarna använt sig av en kvalitativ metod, vetenskapliga artiklar och intervjuer. I det empiriska avsnittet framgår intervjuerna på fyra anställda i det valda företaget. För att veta hur deras hälsa är gjorde författarna ett urval på grund av att författarna ville få fullständiga svar från personer med erfarenhet. Det ställdes frågor angående arbetsförhållanden, motivation, trivsel etc. Därefter har författarna vävt samman den teoretiska referensramen med det empiriska och analyserat kring det. Detta för att besvara frågeställningen och syftet. Senare visar det sig att personalen i det valda företaget skulle kunna tänka sig att byta jobb om det fanns möjlighet. De känner även att de saknar motivation och tydliga mål från chefen. Slutligen har författarna kommit fram till att det trots några positiva saker på arbetsplatsen finns det en del brister som skulle kunna förbättras som kan gynna personalens hälsa.

  • 82.
    Bagge, Elin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Gustafsson, Johanna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Orden bakom siffrorna: Hur tydliggörs tillvägagångssättet vid värdering av förvaltningsfastigheter i noterna?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research have pointed out that the regulatory framework IAS 40 is not detailed enough. There are therefore no clear directives on how specified information that should be included in the notes regarding the approach of investment properties. The purpose of this study was therefore to obtain deeper understanding concerning the way Swedish listed real estate companies presents the approach of valuation of investment properties in the notes and get a deeper knowledge about similarities and differences with focus on; input level, method of valuation and external valuation. The study is based on a hermeneutical approach since a qualitative method in form of a content analysis has been done. The content analysis included all Swedish real estate companies listed on NASDAQ OMX Stockholm. The notes of the real estate companies´ annual report from 2016 were examined. The study found out that all companies applied input level three when they clarified fair value. Furthermore, many of the companies based the fair value on similar calculations and this phenomenon can be explained by coercive and mimetic isomorphism which are presented in the theoretical section. The study also discovered that the extent of the external valuation differs between the companies. Further, the study also revealed that the notes overall included the same type of information concerning input level, method of valuation and external valuation. However, there are some differences in how much details that are included.

  • 83.
    Bahtijari, Agon
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Deyab, Mohammed
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Den nytillträdde verkställande direktörens möjlighet och incitament till Earnings Management2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The financial statements submitted by the companies will form the basis for various financial decisions taken by external stakeholders. This assumes that the information presented in these reports is valid and consistent with reality. However, the reliability and validity of these reports has been contested by previous studies whichmean that surrounding companies CEO turnover, both the incoming and the outgoing CEO have opportunities and incentives to Earnings Management. The possibility of Earnings Management arises as the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), as a principle-based accounting system, creates scope for subjective assessments and estimates that can be utilized by the management to conduct Earnings Management. This opportunity is complemented by the management's opportunistic perspective and the seek after own interest. Against this background, the purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge if the newly appointed CEO conducts Earnings Management process, as well as whether the presence of Earnings Management surrounding CEO turnover is affected, depending on whether the newly appointed CEO is promoted from within or recruited outside the company. To carry out the survey, we have used a quantitative research method. The study contains 49 companies registered on the OMX Stockholmsbörsen Large Cap. All companies' annual reports have been analyzed between 2005 and 2015, which resulted in 539 observations. The study's result indicate that it can't be ensured that a newly appointed CEO conducts Earnings Management process. Nor can we be ensured that an external newly appointed CEO has greater opportunities for Earnings Management than an internal newly appointed CEO.

  • 84.
    Bajraktari, Lirije
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Abdallah, Rosanne
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Konflikter och kommunikation: Hur konflikter och kommunikation hanteras på en arbetsplats2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi valde att göra en undersökning på en skola inom kommunen i Trollhättan som heter Kronan. Studien handlar om hur man hanterar konflikter på arbetsplatsen och hur kommunikationen påverkar konflikterhanteringen. Till hjälp av vår studie ville vi få besvarat på hur konflikter sköts och hur kommunikationen kan leda till konflikter för att kunna få inblick på hur detta kan hanteras på bästa sätt. För att få hjälp med undersökningen kontaktade vi Kronan för att utföra vår undersökning. Vi har utgått från en kvalitativ metod och valt att intervjua fem anställda på organisationen angående deras syn på ämnet. För att kunna genomföra vår studie har vi utnyttjat oss av litteratur för att jämföra med resultaten från våra intervjuer. Resultatet från vår undersökning visade att konflikter inte trängs bort utan det hanteras till en bättre arbetsmiljö där kommunikation har en stor påverkan. De anställda väljer att hantera konflikterna på olika sätt, vissa väljer att låta individerna sköta problemen själva medan andra väljer att försöka lägga sig och hantera konflikterna på direkten.

  • 85.
    Bajwa, Humera
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Karawan, Liza
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ledningens roll i arbetsmiljön: En studie inomhemtjänsten2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vårdens styrning måste väsentligt förbättras samt utvecklas, det allvarligaste problemet ledningen handskas med inom äldreomsorgen är det faktum att personalens ansvar gällande arbetsprestationen är otydlig samt att det finns en brist på återkoppling gällande utfört arbete. Det saknas konkreta insatser som kan implementeras för att förbättra personalens arbetsvillkor. Detta leder i sin tur till att personalen är omotiverade i sitt arbete. Utifrån ovan diskuterade perspektiv skapar äldreomsorgen en bild av att vara en dysfunktionell organisation. Problemet är att arbetsmiljön inte är särskilt bra inom äldreomsorgen då högsjukfrånvaro, brist på motivation, kommunikation samt konflikter är de vanligaste förutsättningar som skapar en dysfunktionell organisation.

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka ledarskapets roll i den dysfunktionella organisationen samt hur ledningen kan förbättra arbetsmiljön. Genom att kvalitativt intervjua sju personer, fyra enhetschefer samt tre medarbetare, kunde vi uppnå studiens syfte.

    I teoridelen definierade vi ledarskapets innebörd genom att presentera fyra olika ledarskapsstilar vilket är karismatiskt, transaktionellt, transformellt samt Laissez - faire ledarskap. Dessutom presenterades definitionen av arbetsmiljö samt friskfaktorer för att skapa en god arbetsmiljö. Därefter presenterade vi ledningens roll i att skapa en god arbetsmiljö genom att belysa faktorer som motivation, kommunikation samt konflikter.

    Det som framkom av studien var att ledningens har en väsentlig roll i att förbättra arbetsmiljön inom äldreomsorgen genom att implementera ett ledarskap som präglas av gemenskap, motivation samt kommunikation. Respondenterna ansåg även att återkoppling, varierande arbetsuppgifter, inre motivation samt att en god gemenskap är väsentlig för att skapa en tillfredställande arbetsplats.

  • 86.
    Barkman, Henrik
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Forsler, Elin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Motives for voluntary sustainability reporting: A study of SMEs in Sweden and the U.K.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The climate is rapidly changing due to an increasing amount of emitted carbon dioxide which will lead to problems for future generations to meet their needs in terms of resources. More and more organizations have started acknowledging that their activities affect the environment surrounding the organization. Multinational organizations are forced by law to present a sustainability report to declare their contribution to a more sustainable development. Small and medium-sized organizations (SMEs) do not need topublish a sustainability report by law, but an increasing number of SMEs publish a sustainability report voluntarily. Therefore, it is of interest to gain knowledge about what motives SMEs have to present a voluntary sustainability report. The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about motives for voluntary sustainability reporting by SMEs in Sweden and the U.K. To gain knowledge about the subject, a quantitative approach was used. In order to limit the scope of this study, SMEs in Sweden and the U.K. was targeted to answer a web-based survey. The survey was based on the theoretical framework, which consisted of the triple bottom line, the legitimacy theory and the stakeholder theory. Based on the theoretical framework, four hypotheses were formulated. Hypothesis 1 was that organizations have more motives for presenting information about environmental sustainability. Hypothesis 2 was about motives for voluntary sustainability reporting and legitimacy. Hypothesis 3b was that organizations prioritize certain stakeholders' demands. Hypotheses 1, 2 and 3b were all confirmed by descriptive statistics and one sample t-tests. Hypothesis 3a was about motives for voluntary sustainability reporting and satisfying their stakeholders' demands. Hypothesis 3a could not be confirmed or rejected due to scattered results in the descriptive statistics and the one-sample t-test. Two major conclusions could be drawn from the conducted survey. The first conclusion was that organizations have more motives to sustainability report about the environment rather than about the social or economic aspects of sustainability. The second conclusion was that both gaining legitimacy and satisfying certain stakeholders' demands are motives for sustainability reporting for SMEs.

  • 87.
    Benayed, Elie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Jama, Issa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Bitcoin: An empirical study on the future developments2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bitcoin has over the years dominated the headlines for good and bad reasons. Examples of this range from the first introduction of a Bitcoin Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) to the recent attack on the Bitcoin exchange, MT Gox, where 850000 bitcoins were stolen worth hundreds of millions USD. The fundamental questions that this research answers are what Bitcoin exactly is and whom the actors are using this digital currency. Furthermore, an empirical research is conducted to highlight how actors expect Bitcoin to develop in the future.

    Bitcoin is depicted as a self-evolving system that has its own community. This research draws similarities with the traditional theory of ecosystem and the business ecosystem theory by Moore (1996). The Bitcoin ecosystem is presented as a model that consists out of internal and external factors.

    The methods that are used in this research are mostly of quantitative nature, though a qualitative way of analysing is also incorporated in this research. An electronic questionnaire was sent to users, investors and companies that use Bitcoin. These electronic questionnaires were sent to companies by email and to different Bitcoin forums to reach users and investors in Bitcoin. A total of 51 actors have completed the questionnaire.

    The empirical analysis focused on the present and the future of Bitcoin. The subjects that are covered consisted of legal, economic and technological factors that determine the Bitcoin system. The present situation shows that the main reason people use Bitcoin is that it offers the actors an alternative for fiat currencies and low transaction costs when making payments. The current drawbacks of the Bitcoin system are, regarded by scholars and actors, to be the high volatility in the value of Bitcoin and the security concerns that are caused by hackers of the system.

    Finally, the overall sentiment amongst users, investors and companies is that the future of Bitcoin is considered to be a bright one based on the legal, economic and technological factors

  • 88.
    Bengtsson, Ida
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Feldt, Denise
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kompetensförsörjning som en del av HR-funktionen: HR-funktionens förändringar och dess betydelse för strategisk kompetensförsörjning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to get a good economic growth in the community, as well as a fully functioning labor market, competence is an important prerequisite. Competence is not only about the amount of years a person has studied at the university, instead its more about lifelong learning that takes place outside traditional education systems. During the passage of time, human resources and skills gained in importance while today's employees have much higher education. Despite this, there seems to be a shortage in some organizations when it comes to skills development.

    The purpose of this study is to examine what the work of strategic competence can look like. In the work we have chosen to interview three organization employees with HR responsibility to see what tools they use to plan and work with skills development. We've chosen to adopt a qualitative approach in the form of interviews to get a picture of how the tasks are done.

    The result of this work has been based on empirical data, wich later is linked to the theory section parts. Based on this we have drawn connections and interpretations which are later summarized in the analysis and conclusion. The result we reached was that the concept of competence was interpreted differently between the various organizations we worked with. Organizations' common view was that competence has a significant role to achieve success.

  • 89.
    Bengtsson, Ida
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Jörgensen, Mimmi
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kundrelationer: Vikten av goda kundrelationer inom detaljhandeln2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How should the retail stores work with their customer relationships to successfully retain their customers in a time of increased competition in the form of accessible e-commerce?

    This work aims to provide a deeper knowledge of how a company should work on creating good customer relationships. The work also provides an updated view on how an established retail company such as Hennes & Mauritz works with customer service and how well it meets the service requirements of todays customers.

    The work includes a literature survey, which refers to the customer and their service expectations. To get a better view on how actual customers and shop assistants look at customer relationships, the work also include an empirical study that is prepared in the form of a questionnaire survey, two shorter interviews with employees at Hennes & Mauritz and an organizational survey. These two parts will in the end be the answer to our question

  • 90.
    Bengtsson, Karoline
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Jansson, Martina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Sociala medier som ett marknadsföringsverktyg: En fallstudie om hur Lyckåsen Styling & Interiör kan använda sig av sociala medier.2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med att Internet bara blir större och större har sociala medier blivit ett självklart val av marknadsföringsverktyg där homestyling och interiör företag lägger stor vikt på marknadsföringsarbetet via sociala medier.

    Syftet med studien är att ge förslag till Lyckåsen Styling & Interiör i Göteborg som är ett nystartat företag inom branschen, hur dem kan nå ut till många intressenter med hjälp av sociala medier.

    Studien är av både kvalitativ och kvantitativ metod i form av intervjuer och en enkätundersökning. Intervjuerna har genomförts med två organisationer, Alvhem Mäkleri & Interiör och Lyckåsen Styling & Interiör med fokus på Lyckåsen som är studiens uppdragsgivare. Egna observationer har gjorts av de nämnda organisationernas hemsidor för att få en inblick hur dem använder sig av sociala medier idag. Vi har även genomfört en enkätundersökning för att få reda på intresset av styling och interiör samt användningen av sociala medier i allmänheten. Sociala medier har gjort att det blivit möjlighet att skapa relationer mellan säljare och köpare på nätet därför är det viktigt att dra nytta av dessa resurser och skapa relationer.

    Resultatet från observationer, intervjuer och enkätundersökning visar att Lyckåsen till skillnad från Alvhem har lagt mindre fokus på att marknadsföra sig på sociala medier. En av anledningarna till att dem inte är aktiva är att dem är ett nystartat företag och har inte tillräckligt med kunskap kring ämnet. Eftersom respondenterna i enkätundersökningen föredrog att ta del av information via Facebook, bloggar och Instagram är det viktigt att utnyttja dessa forum vid marknadsföring. Man vill också förmedla företagets mål på rätt sätt så att man får en bred krets av intressenter. För att behålla sina intressenter via sociala medier är det viktigt att satsa på snygg layout, färgstarka bilder och en kontinuerlig uppdatering på de olika forumen

  • 91.
    Bengtsson, Madeleine
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Persson, Stina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hög arbetsbelastning och stress: En kvalitativ fallstudie inom läraryrket2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi lever idag i ett kravsamhälle där vi har höga förväntningar på oss, både inom arbetslivet och privatlivet. Det kan vara svårt och mycket påfrestande för oss att leva upp till alla dessa krav och förväntningar, det märks inte minst då den psykiska ohälsan kraftigt ökat i Sverige under de senaste åren. Psykisk ohälsa har blivit vår stora folksjukdom och står idag för över 40 procent av sjukfallen i Sverige. Det är ett hett ämne som ständigt diskuteras inom nyheter och media. Dålig arbetsmiljö en är bidragande faktor till psykisk ohälsa och vi vet att hög arbetsbelastning och stress är ett vanligt problem inom många branscher idag, som påverkar människor negativt. Debatten har nu resulterat i en ny föreskrift, som trädde i kraft den 31 mars 2016, i syfte att förbättra de organisatoriska och sociala förhållandena på arbetsplatsen.

    Vi har gjort en fallstudie på en högskola i Västsverige för att undersöka hur lärare upplever och hanterar hög arbetsbelastning och stress. Vi har gjort intervjuer med sex lärare som även fört dagbok under två veckor, som en del i undersökningen.

    Lärarna uppger att deras arbetssituation är mycket påfrestande i vissa perioder. Främst handlar det om tentaperioder samt vid överlappningen mellan kursslut och kursstart. Stressen och den höga arbetsbelastningen påverkar lärarna på olika sätt. Vissa menar att de på grund av arbetet har ett minskat socialt liv och några nämner att de ibland har en störd nattsömn. Att arbetet ibland går ut över deras privatliv är samtliga lärare överens om, då de ofta arbetar både under kvällar och helger. Arbetssituationen hanteras genom att lära sig strukturera arbetet och hitta rutiner som fungerar för sig själv.

  • 92.
    Bennis, Isabel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Mattila-Markus, Kajsa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning: Hur utformningen av rapporterna skiljer sig åt mellan branscher i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem - Negative environmental impacts are increasing due to various global development trends and sustainability reporting is growing among companies. To get a comparability between companies' sustainability work GRI can be used which publishes guidelines for what and how companies should report. Previous research shows that there are differences between sectors in what they choose to report.Purpose - The study aims to examine how sustainability reporting differs between industries in Sweden and what these differences are caused by.

    Delimitation - The study has been limited to analysing major Swedish listed companies' sustainability reports, published in 2014, which applies the Global Reporting Initiative guidelines. Only companies' work on environmental and social responsibility have been studied. Method - In the study a quantitative survey approach has been used to make it easier to measure and compile the collected empirical data. Information has been gathered from companies' annual and sustainability reports, as well as their web pages. Data has through content analysis been reworked to facilitate the information management.

    Results and conclusions - The study shows that there are differences between the analysed industries since some of them reported a greater extent than others. The material industry is the sector that accounts for most information while the health industry reports the least. Greenhouse effect, energy usage and information about employees are those indicators that are reported most frequently among all companies. Proposal for further research - In continued research, a similar survey can be done but where interviews are conducted to gain a deeper understanding of the corporates sustainability work. A comparison between the public and private sectors as well as examining sustainability reporting over time are also suggestions for further research.

  • 93.
    Berg, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Persson, Stina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Relationen mellan företagsledare och revisor inom ägarledda bolag: Förtroende eller kontroll?: En kvalitativ studie om relationens påverkan på revisorns oberoende och revisionskvalitén2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of auditor independence is based on providing reliable information to stakeholders. If the auditor is partial in the audit, the financial report is at greater risk to provide deceptive information to stakeholder and their decisions will be based on inaccurate information. Based on previous research, three critical situations, where the auditor independence could be threatened, were identified. These situations are when the auditor offers consulting services, when there is a long-term customer relationship and when the customer is either financially or personally important to the auditor. Previous research differs from what consequences this implies, for example how audit quality is affected. Furthermore, accurate statement regarding the company's going concern can be equated with good audit quality. These statements do not in itself constitute a threat to independence, but an effect that the auditor in his audit is not independent may be that he does not make correct statements about the company's going concern. Based upon this, the intention of the study was to provide increased knowledge of how the relationship between auditors and business executives can affect the independence of the auditor and the perceived audit quality. Furthermore, also how the auditor's statements of going concern was affected by independence. Previous research formed the semi-structured interviews conducted with auditors and business executives. The study included responses from seven respondents, three of whom are auditors and four whom are business executives. The study revealed that the auditor's independence, in appearance, was affected in some of the critical situations, but is not questioned in owner managed businesses, based upon that they do not have any external stakeholders of essential importance. The auditor's independence, in fact, is not threatened in any of the critical situations as there is no conflict of interest between shareholders and business executives. Furthermore, the study also distinguished that both consulting services and long-term customer relationships improved the perceived audit quality. This because that business executives gained a greater trust in the auditor of the company and that this reduces the information asymmetry between the company and the auditor. On this basis, this also leads to that the statements of going concerns did not became affected since the auditor's independence was maintained in all situations.

  • 94.
    Berg, David
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Sediqi, Elhamuddin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Beröm som motivation inom vården: en kvalitativ studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The public sector in Sweden comprises businesses within the municipality, state and county councils. Of all employed people in the country, one third works in the public sector. Major challenges are reported in healthcare where poor working conditions, low salaries and a lack of motivation are common issues. This study has the purpose of creating a better understanding and knowledge of how praise affects the motivation of the employees in the healthcare. We also investigated the form of praise that motivates the employees and consequently contributes to higher motivation. Previous research on motivation has to a greater extent focused on the private sector, hence there is a need for more empirical studies of praise in the public sector. The study is based on an empirical study on motivation and a qualitative research approach where we have chosen to do six semi-structured qualitative interviews with employees in healthcare. These interviews were later transcribed, and the data was used for the empirical work. Much of the empirical data showed that praise affects motivation differently depending on the recipient's characteristics, which were also in line with the theoretical basis of the study. The study also shows that most employees have a greater desire to receive praise individually rather than other alternatives, even though some felt that receiving praise in front of others was also important. These differences can be explained with Maslow's hierarchy of needs - depending on how the employee’s needs have been met. Those who have their basic needs met (step 1) and feel safe (step 2) and feel social belonging (step 3) need for self-esteem (step 4) are more receptive to praise. The study shows that praise as motivation in healthcare is used to a lesser extent than desired. It is also desirable for employees to receive praise and there are virtually only positive effects except if the praise is given to an individual in front of a collective group. Then it can contribute to negative effects in the form of jealousy or negative feelings

  • 95.
    Bergenholtz, Rebecca
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Belöningens betydelse för försäljning och service: en kvalitativ studie av balansen mellan bankens försäljning och god kundservice2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how well organizational rewarding system can get the staff to increase their sales of products and services, while customers are offered service-excellence for their own good.

    The study is related to reality through a qualitative research, in the shape of semi-structured in-depth interviews, were the employees' views of the reward system at Swedbank's telephone bank are examined. Respondents consisted of six advisors and one business manager.

    Using a theoretical framework based on motivation theories of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs, Herzberg's Two factor theory and Vroom's Expectations theory, the data obtained during in-depth interviews were processed and analyzed. Further, the 4P-model was used to analyze how well the organization exhibit customer service-excellence.

    The result shows that it is mainly distributed internal, verbal reward to the workers, but that the sales statistics are the basis for a possible raise. All of the respondents stated that there are unclear directives from senior management regarding the goals; should the staff either increase the sales or reduce the queues. Employees consider that unclear directives create demotivation at work, when the focus on target setting constant varies. Furthermore, all respondents stated that colleagues encourage each other to sell better when they regularly receive reports regarding sales and efficiency.

    In the interviews, it also became clear that the organization does not apply any reward for customer service-excellence, but reports from unsatisfied customers are followed up and investigated in some cases. However, business managers sometimes participate at client meetings through call screening, in order to develop staff in improved customer service.

    The conclusion of the study is that the organization mainly applies reward of internal nature, where regular reports, considering sales and efficiency create competition among the staff. Their comparison with one another evokes motivation. Different directive considering goal achievement is a factor of demotivation among the respondents. There is no reward for service-excellence. There have been indications that customers are not satisfied with the bank's service, which is suggested to be based on that there is an imbalance between hard (structure and strategy) and soft factors (shared values and personal skills)

  • 96.
    Berger Jernberg, Matilda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hjelm, Kajsa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Fördelar och nackdelar med budget: Hur arbetar svenska börsnoterade bolag med budget2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One purpose of budgeting is to allocate financial responsibility within organizations and can be a valuable management tool (Kullvén, 2009). A discussion of long duration, however, is that traditional budgeting should be complemented by other management tools. There is also an advocate for organizations to abandon traditional budgeting and instead work in accordance with the Beyond Budgeting (Neely, Bourne & Adams, 2003).

    The purpose of this study is to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of classical Budgeting and Beyond Budgeting. The study was conducted in five listed organizations where interviews were conducted with key personnel.

    The study's research questions are:

    How do listed companies work with budget, regarding planning, management and evaluation? How does listed companies relate to criticism against the traditional budget?

    Four of the five organizations that participated in the study use budgets. They consider that the criticism of the budget is not relevant to their business. All four companies use budgets or forecasts as they prefer to call it, as a tool for planning, management and monitoring. In other words, all four companies follow the classic basic idea of budgeting. None of these four companies have been thinking about abandoning budgeting, but instead works to develop and streamline its budgeting work and adapting budgeting to its own operations and to the world around us changes.

    The fifth organization which is working with Beyond Budgeting, believes that the people working close to the customers know the market best and should make the decisions. The organization believes that budgeting is not in accordance with their values. This is because they want to have a flat organization with a minimum of control. Furthermore, the organization working with Beyond Budgeting means that each employee is aware of the need of economizing and does not want to get as much of the "budget pie" as possible.

  • 97.
    Berggren, Julia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Carlsson, Jennifer
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Attraktivt arbete och främjande ledarskap enligt 90-talisterna: Med fokus på arbetets innehåll, tillfredsställelse och förhållanden samt motivationsfaktorer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of an organizations most important assets is the employees and today, changing workplace is common, especially for younger generations. Therefore, organizations face a challenge in creating attractive work and retaining the employees.

    The purpose of this study was to identify what 90-talists considered attractive work to be in terms of work content, job satisfaction, working conditions and motivation factors, but also how leadership can create an attractive work.

    The study examines general traits of 90-talists, what they consider attractive work to be and which motivational factors they consider important. Furthermore, the role of leadership in the context of an attractive work is examined. A Facebook-survey has been conducted to reach out to 90-talists, where thirty questions were answered. In total, 133 respondents answered the survey, where 100 of the answers came from respondents born in the 90s. Their answers have resulted in statistics that have been presented in the study.

    From the responses in the questionnaires, it was possible to conclude that the 90-talists saw themselves as cooperative and ambitious. They value freedom of action, where they can influence and control their own work and that there are opportunities for development. Having the opportunity to come up with own ideas and make own decisions was also something that the 90-talists considered important. They also felt that social contact, both with employees and leaders, was important. Committed and responsive were the leadership qualities that were valued highly by the 90-talists. The 90talists considered it important that the leader shows appreciation through feedback and dialogue and also promotes cooperation.

    From the empirical material, the analysis was one of the most important dimensions in the work content of freedom of action, in terms of job satisfaction, the perceived internal and external recognition of the 90s was in the employment relationship, the social contact at the workplace that weighed heavily.

    The study shows that in order to attract or retain the 90-talist in workplaces, an attractive work content, job satisfaction and working conditions need to be created in order to create an attractive work. An attractive work based on the 90-talists perspective is mainly based on the fact that development opportunities exist, that there is possibility of freedom of action and also social cohesion. A leadership that promotes these factors can thus also promote attractive work for the 90-talists.

    Proposals for future research are to implement qualitative studies in order to reach underlying thoughts and explanations that could have deepened the study´s results.

  • 98.
    Berisha, Agnesa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Sundblad, Viktoria
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Arbetsmotivation i öppna kontorslandskap: En kvalitativ fallstudie om sambandet mellan den fysiska utformningen av en kontorsavdelning och medarbetarnas individuella motivationsnivå på ett försäkringsbolag2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats är en kvalitativ fallstudie om sambandet mellan fysisk arbetsmiljö och medarbetares individuella motivationsnivå till det dagliga arbetet. Studien är riktad till en specifik avdelning på ett försäkringsbolag i centrala Göteborg. Avdelningen är ett öppet kontorslandskap där medarbetarnas främsta arbetsuppgift att ta emot skadeärenden från kunder via telefon.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att studera och nå ökad kunskap kring vad som motiverar medarbetarna på den valda organisationens avdelning utifrån fysiska arbetsmiljöaspekter.

    De ämnesområden studien behandlar inom den fysiska arbetsmiljön är planlösning, inredning och ergonomi. Studien kommer även belysa ämnesområden så som motivation och psykosocial arbetsmiljö.

    De slutsatser vi kan dra efter genomförd studie är att medarbetarna på avdelningen sällan medvetet lägger märke till vad i den fysiska arbetsmiljön som fungerar motivationshöjande för dem. Det som istället är märkbart angående fysisk arbetsmiljö är medarbetarnas medvetenhet kring de faktorer som stör deras motivation till arbetet på olika sätt.

  • 99.
    Berndtsson, Adam
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kourieh, Gabriel
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Förändring och strategi inom organisationer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We have this report studied change and strategy within organizations. The purpose of this report is to show how organizations can work with their changes and their strategy. Theory of these subjects has been developed with the help of scientific articles. Interviews with staff at the organization Innovatum have been done in order to create our own empirical data about changes and strategy. Innovatum is an experience center which is located in the town of Trollhattan. Innovatum is owned by the Foundation Innovatum, Trollhättan city and municipal Fyrbodals. To collect data to the empiricism the chosen method was qualitative interviews, this is because this method was considered to be most suitable and we wanted to have a deep and comprehensive data. Interviews were done with seven people, four women and three men. One of the interviewed was an operations manager, one was an economist and the rest were teachers. Theory and the empiricism has been analyzed in the report's discussion section

    The conclusion of our completed study was that for successful change requires that the organization focuses on creating positive attitudes and behavior towards change. To succeed with changes it is also important that the organization gives priority to a clear and effective communication. Competent leaders are also something that is important during change. The results of our study reinforced previous theories about what is important to improve the changes within an organization

    The conclusion of our completed study was that for the success of the strategy process in organizations, the organization is required to have an overall picture when deciding on strategies. An effective strategic planning is also something that is important for the strategies. It is also important that the organization is willing to take new ideas from their employees when designing strategies. The organization must not only make use of a single strategy. To succeed in the strategy process, the organization must work to make the strategic implementation properly functioning. The results of our study reinforced previous theories about what is important to improve the strategy process within an organization.

  • 100.
    Berndtsson, Adam
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Svensson, Kenneth
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Jämställdhet i bolagsstyrelser2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med denna rapport ville författarna undersöka jämställdhetsdebatten angående bolagsstyrelser, hur pass viktig denna egentligen är och om organisationerna kan gagnas utav denna diskussion. Frågan undersöktes med hjälp av teori från vetenskapliga rapporter samt egen empiri som skapades med hjälp av intervjuer.

    För att reda ut diskussionen om jämställdhet i bolagsstyrelser undersöktes vad jämställdhet egentligen är, där det togs fram att det absolut inte handlar om hur könsfördelningen för tillfället ser ut i en organsation. Om det är jämställdhet eller inte, handlar snarare om en individ vid en rekrytering blivit bortvald utav den orsaken vilken grupp denna individ tillhör.

    Anledningar till varför det är få kvinnor i bolagstyrelser togs också fram i rapporten där mycket tydde på att det inte är något ”glastak” som skapar den låga andelen kvinnor i bolagstyrelser. Istället var det orsaker som att det finns färre kvinnor med den utbildning och de erfarenheter som krävs för att sitta i en bolagstyrelse. Orsaker som att kvinnor i större utsträckning inte är lika intresserade av att göra karriär togs också upp. Enligt teorin i rapporten tydde också mycket på att kvinnor i större utsträckning ogillar konkurrens och att detta är en bidragande orsak till att det finns färre kvinnor i bolagstyrelser.

    I rapporten undersöktes också hur en tvingande könskvotering kan påverka organisationer, där resultatet var väldigt enhetligt att organsationer med största sannolikhet inte har någonting att vinna på att använda sig av en tvingande könskvotering i sina bolagsstyrelser. Det undersöktes också om bolag som har en jämn könsfördelning kan gagnas utav detta gentemot bolag som har mestadels män, resultatet som uppvisades var att det förmodligen inte finns något att vinna på att försöka ha en jämn könsfördelning. Vad som krävs av en individ som sitter i en bolagstyrelse skrevs också ned i rapporten, där bland annat följande saker utmärktes: Högskoleutbildning i ekonomi, teknik eller juridik, ledarerfarenheter, erfarenheter av att vara VD, kunnig inom området bolaget bedriver samt strategisk förmåga.

    Slutsatsen blev den att jämställdhetsdebatten kan vara viktig i den mån det handlar om att de som tillsätter styrelserna skall bortse från vilket kön eller grupp individen tillhör. Det enda som skall vara avgörande för vilken individ som rekryteras till en styrelse skall vara hur stor potential denna individ har att skapa lönsamhet och att utveckla organsationen. Det viktigaste för organisationerna är att de tillsätter de individerna som är bäst lämpade för uppgiften och då spelar det ingen roll vilken grupp eller kön dessa individer tillhör.

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