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  • 51.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Bång, Angela
    University College of Borås, Prehospital Research Centre of Western Sweden.
    Andréasson, Emma
    University West.
    Johansson, Anna
    University West.
    Herlitz, Johan
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital,, The Prehospital Research Centre of Western Sweden, Institute of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine,.
    Does sex influence the allocation of life support level by dispatchers in acute chest pain?2010In: American Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 0735-6757, E-ISSN 1532-8171, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 922-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate (a) the differences between men and women in symptom profile, allocated life support level (LSL), and presence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), life-threatening condition (LTC), or death and (b) whether a computer-based decision support system could improve the allocation of LSL. PATIENTS: All patients in Göteborg, Sweden, who called the dispatch center because of chest pain during 3 months (n = 503) were included in this study. METHODS: Age, sex, and symptom profile were background variables. Based on these, we studied allocation of LSL by the dispatchers and its relationship to AMI, LTC, and death. All evaluations were made from a sex perspective. Finally, we studied the potential benefit of using a statistical model for allocating LSL. RESULTS: The advanced life support level (ALSL) was used equally frequently for men and women. There was no difference in age or symptom profile between men and women in relation to allocation. However, the allocation of ALSL was predictive of AMI and LTC only in men. The sensitivity was far lower for women than for men. When a statistical model was used for allocation, the ALSL was predictive for both men and women. Using a separate model for men and women respectively, sensitivity increased, especially for women, and specificity was kept at the same level. CONCLUSION: This exploratory study indicates that women would benefit most from the allocation of LSL using a statistical model and computer-based decision support among patients who call for an ambulance because of acute chest pain. This needs further evaluation.

  • 52.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Bång, Angela
    Herlitz, Johan
    Could a computer based system including a prevalence function support emergency medical system and improve allocation of life support level?2006In: European Journal of Emerging Medicine, ISSN 0969-9546, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 290-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate whether a computer-based decision support system could be useful for the emergency medical system when identifying patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or life-threatening conditions and thereby improve the allocation of life support level.

    Methods: Patients in the Municipality of Goteborg who dialled the dispatch centre due to chest pain during a period of 3 months. To analyse the relationship between patient characteristics (according to a case record form used during an interview) and the response variables (AMI or life-threatening condition), multivariate logistic regression was used. For each patient, the probability of AMI/life-threatening condition was estimated by the model. We used these probabilities retrospectively to allocate advanced life support or basic life support. This model allocation was then compared with the true allocation made by the dispatchers.

    Results: The sensitivity, that is, the percentage of AMI patients allocated to advanced life support, was 85.7% in relation to the true allocation made by the dispatchers. The corresponding sensitivity regarding allocation made by the model was 92.4% (P=0.17). The specificity was also slightly higher for the model allocation than the dispatcher allocation. Among the 15 patients with AMI who were allocated to basic life support by the dispatchers, nine died (eight during and one after hospitalization). Among the eight patients with AMI allocated to basic life support by the model, only one patient died (in hospital) (P=0.02).

    Conclusion: A computer-based decision support system including a prevalence function could be a valuable tool for allocating the level of life support. The case record form, however, used for the interview can be refined and a model based on a larger sample and confirmed in a prospective study is recommended.

  • 53.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Furberg, Bengt
    D¹²: diagnostik - en tolkningsfråga?2007Book (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Magnusson, J.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Ahlstedt, S
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Bengtsson, U
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg.
    Interpretation of subjective symptoms in double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges: interobserver reliability2004In: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 354-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subjective symptoms after food challenges are difficult to interpret and no standard is available. We discuss a strategy for how to interpret a diary. Furthermore, the interobserver reliability is evaluated.

    Methods: Diaries for 32 patients with subjective symptoms were used. The diaries were re-evaluated with a predefined strategy by three independent observers.

    Results: The proportion of positives was 21.9% among the old diagnoses, according to the new approach 34.4% (observers I and II) and 37.5% (observer III) were positive. The new approach had high interobserver reliability (97 and 100%).

    Conclusions: The proportion of positives depends on how subjective symptoms are interpreted. Interpretations of subjective symptoms in diaries could be made with high interobserver reliability.

    The double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) is the gold standard for diagnosing food hypersensitivity (1–5). However, DBPCFC needs further standardization regarding essential issues, e.g. quantity of food, vehicles, blinding, dose titration and interpretation of symptoms (2, 3, 6–10). This study highlights the latter problem. For patients with several subjective symptoms that may occur in various degrees both on active and placebo provocations, a standardized strategy for interpretation would be valuable. Bindslev-Jensen et al. have theoretically illustrated that there may be great differences dependent on how placebo symptoms are treated (11, 12) and in a position paper (13) it is suggested that in situations when only subjective symptoms are present, several provocations must be used. The lack of an interpretation standard may be one reason for explaining the doubts regarding the value of subjective variables for making a diagnosis (9, 14). We discuss a strategy for how to interpret the symptom profile found in such a mixed sequence of active and placebo provocations. Furthermore, the interobserver reliability is evaluated.

  • 55.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Petersen, Per Hyltoft
    University of Bergen, NOKLUS, Norwegian Quality Improvement of Primary Care Laboratories, Division for General Practice.
    Partitioning reference values for several subpopulations using cluster analysis2007In: Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine, ISSN 1434-6621, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 1026-1032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A crucial question when developing reference intervals is whether different subpopulations need their own reference interval or if a single joint reference interval can be used. It is reasonable to use partitioned reference intervals in situations where a single interval results in considerable variation in sensitivity between subpopulations. The aim of partitioning is to harmonize the sensitivity of the reference intervals, i.e., to make the sensitivity similar for all patients, regardless of patient characteristics. Statistical criteria to identify when partitioning is adequate have been developed over the last two decades. These criteria are applicable when considering two subpopulations, but recently a procedure for considering several subpopulations has been developed. When several subpopulations are considered, there is a possibility that some subpopulations could form a group or cluster that could share a common reference interval. However, there is no formal systematic approach to indicate how to divide these subpopulations into clusters. The aim of this study was to suggest such a systematic approach for clustering. METHODS: A clustering technique was applied to data including several subpopulations. The technique is based on measuring the distance between separated reference limits and successively pooling subpopulations divided by short distances. A cluster is defined by a group of subpopulations that are close to each other and that differ from subpopulations in another cluster. A cluster recruits new subpopulations as long as the subpopulations can be pooled without violating a partitioning criterion. CONCLUSIONS: We have suggested a procedure for partitioning a number of Gaussian (or Gaussian-transformable) subpopulations into clusters. This is the only formalized procedure indicating how to analyze several subpopulations and identify a suitable number of groups and reference intervals. Using a computer program developed for partitioning issues, the approach was easy to adopt.

  • 56.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Petersen, Per Hyltoft
    University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Partitioning reference values for several subpopulations using cluster analysis.2007In: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, ISSN 1434-6621, E-ISSN 1437-4331, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 1026-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A crucial question when developing reference intervals is whether different subpopulations need their own reference interval or if a single joint reference interval can be used. It is reasonable to use partitioned reference intervals in situations where a single interval results in considerable variation in sensitivity between subpopulations. The aim of partitioning is to harmonize the sensitivity of the reference intervals, i.e., to make the sensitivity similar for all patients, regardless of patient characteristics. Statistical criteria to identify when partitioning is adequate have been developed over the last two decades. These criteria are applicable when considering two subpopulations, but recently a procedure for considering several subpopulations has been developed. When several subpopulations are considered, there is a possibility that some subpopulations could form a group or cluster that could share a common reference interval. However, there is no formal systematic approach to indicate how to divide these subpopulations into clusters. The aim of this study was to suggest such a systematic approach for clustering. METHODS: A clustering technique was applied to data including several subpopulations. The technique is based on measuring the distance between separated reference limits and successively pooling subpopulations divided by short distances. A cluster is defined by a group of subpopulations that are close to each other and that differ from subpopulations in another cluster. A cluster recruits new subpopulations as long as the subpopulations can be pooled without violating a partitioning criterion. CONCLUSIONS: We have suggested a procedure for partitioning a number of Gaussian (or Gaussian-transformable) subpopulations into clusters. This is the only formalized procedure indicating how to analyze several subpopulations and identify a suitable number of groups and reference intervals. Using a computer program developed for partitioning issues, the approach was easy to adopt.

  • 57.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Www means win win win in education: some experiences from online courses in applied statistics2010In: OZCOTS 2010 Proceedings of the 7th Australian Conferenceon Teaching Statistics / [ed] Helen MacGillivray & Brian Phillips, Statistical society of Australia , 2010, p. 51-56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the experiences from online courses in applied statistics. The courses were designed with the ambition of making studies in statistics, fun, interesting, useful, not that difficult and directly supported the possibility to combine studies and work. When designing the courses we considered three dimensions: "pedagogies","community" and "structure". Experiences after giving a first-year course three times show that the online course succeeds in attracting new studen ts since 90% of the participants would not be able to follow an on-campus course and 62% worked full time.

    The pedagogies were highly appreciated because focusing on the interpretation of results and using computer analyses really changed the prejudices about statistics. Structure and prompt feedback was experienced as important factors. It was possible to combine online studies with employment, and the student completion rate was (84%, 55% and 61%), with a potential for further improvements.

  • 58.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    A Social Perspective on Implementation of e-Government: A Longitudinal Study at the County Administration of Sweden2009In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 65-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    longitudinal study of implementation of e-Government at the County Administration of Sweden was analysedcand discussed from a social perspective. Two interview studies at the legal and traffic departments were compared.Interviews were made with decision makers, handling officers and administrative assistants focussing on socialcconsequences of work situations, work processes and quality of e-services to the clients. The MOA-model was used as a frame of reference for the study. According to the analysis, coping and sense making strategies by the respondents increased. e-Government made demands for new competencies for employees and clients. Internal and external digital divides are social consequences of the implementation of e-services. Management increased their focus on efficiency aspects related to e-Government. There is a need to integrate competence of social aspects into the development process of e-Government. The users were aware of the importance of social aspects of IT implementation. There is a need for competence development of social consequences related to IT implementation also for development personnel and different interest groups

  • 59.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    A Study Circle Approach for Competence Development of e-Government Implementation2010In: Electronic Government and Electronic Participation: Joint Proceedings of Ongoing Research and Projects of IFIP EGOV2010 and ePart 2010 / [ed] Chappelet, Jean-Loup, Glassey, Olivier, Janssen, Marijn, Macintosh, Ann, Scholl, Jochen, Tambouris, Efthimios, Wimmer, Maria, A., Berlin: Springer , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implementation of e-Government means cultural changes involving changes of attitudes and competences, apart from technological changes. An interview study of a web-based course for issues related to implementation of e-Government at the County Academy of Sweden is described and analysed. The course was developed with a study circle pedagogical approach. Interviews were made with eighteen respondents from different authorities, different geographical locations and different professional roles. The respondents were especially positive to the group discussions of the studied course. The discussions were relevant for support of behaviour changes and competence development related to implementation of e-Government. A study circle approach could be relevant in order to encourage development-oriented learning needed for implementation of e-Government. There is also a need for pedagogical learning of producers and organisers of web-based education in public organisation, in order to make them conscious about the importance of different pedagogical approaches for different education objectives.

  • 60.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    An Evaluation Model for CSCW Systems2002In: Ninth European Conference on Information Technology Evaluation / [ed] Brown, Ann, Remenyi, Dan, Reading, UK: MCIL , 2002, p. 181-188Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CSCW systems usually involve complex informal communication between several users at different geographical locations. An evaluation model focussing especially on organisational and social aspects is the MOA-E model. This model is used for the evaluation of the use of videoconferences for healthcare planning. The case study has a multi-method approach with the combination of participated observation, interviews and questionnaire. The use of the MOA-E model has contributed to a comprehensive understanding of the case study.

  • 61.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Competence Development of E-Government: A Study Circle Approach2012In: Handbook for E-Government in Emerging Economies Adoption, Continuance usage, e-Participation, and legal frameworks / [ed] Bwalya, Kevin Joseph, Zulu, S. F., IGI Global , 2012, p. 591-604Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implementation of e-Government means cultural changes involving changes of attitudes and competences, apart from technological changes. There is a need for competence development of employees and citizens using relevant educational forms and pedagogical approaches. An interview study of a web-based course for issues related to implementation of e-Government is described and analysed. The course was developed with a study circle pedagogical approach. Interviews were made with eighteen respondents from different authorities, different geographical locations and different professional roles. The respondents were especially positive to the group discussions of the studied course. The discussions were relevant for support of behaviour changes and competence development related to implementation of e-Government. A study circle approach could be relevant in order to encourage development-oriented learning needed for implementation of e-Government. There is also a need for pedagogical learning of producers and organisers of web-based education in public organisation, in order to make them conscious about the importance of different pedagogical approaches for different education objectives.

                         

  • 62.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    E-learning at work: Towards a participative approach2009In: E-Learning and Digital Media, E-ISSN 2042-7530, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 206-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A case study focusing on learning outcomes from a web-based course and integration ofn new knowledge into work practices at the County Administration of Sweden is analysed. The study has a process-orientated longitudinal character combining different methodological approaches. The current work situation of the workers was studied using interviews. A questionnaire was distributed to the first hundred learners after they had passed the course. Telephone interviews were then made a month after the course. The respondents were more positive with respect to the usefulness of the course for their work immediately after completing the course, compared with their interview responses a month later. When they answered the questionnaire they also thought it was easier to get time for the course, than they indicated later in the telephone interviews. Likely reasons for this discrepancy are considered. The study shows the risk of obtaining inflated positive judgements of a course when the evaluation is made immediately following course completion. Instead, a processoriented evaluation is recommended, evaluating both the work situation before the course, the comprehension of the course immediately after the course has been passed, and evaluation a month after the course has been passed. Although a majority of the learners had an overall positive judgement of the course, about half of them had not applied the new knowledge to their work, a month after thecourse. A participative approach with discussions in local work groups before and after the course supported by local management, is proposed in order to facilitate integration of knowledge from the course into the work practices.

  • 63.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    E-Learning Processes in Organisations2004In: Proceedings of ED-Media 2004 World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications / [ed] Cantoni, Lorenzo, McLoughlin, Catherine, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article two different types of e-learning processes in organisations are presented and discussed; adaptive and development-oriented learning. Both adaptive and development-oriented learning are seen as complementary. Two evaluation studies of IT-mediated learning illustrate these types of learning. Consciousness of these types of learning could lead to appropriate design of web-based courses and the organising of project work, supporting both organisational and individual learning processes.

  • 64.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Evaluation of Contact Centre Implementation in a Swedish Municipality with Focus on Social Aspects2010In: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on e-Government / [ed] O’Donnell, David, Limerick: Academic Publishing International , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A case study of the implementation of a contact centre in a Swedish municipality was analysed and discussed. The MOA-E model was used as a theoretical frame of reference of the study. In the study mainly social consequences from the perspective of the employees were focussed. Semi-structured interviews were made with managers and employees at the contact centre and the governmental agencies. Negative attitudes from handling officers at governmental agencies affected were one of the most difficult problems to solve when the contact centre was implemented. Some reasons behind the negative attitudes were related to fears for loosing work tasks or even loose their jobs and to professionalization struggles. The management had their main focus on the employees at the contact centre during the implementation process compared with the professionals at the governmental agencies. A lack of management attention caused a feeling of inadequacy among some professionals at the governmental agencies. There is a need for more focus from management also on work aspects at the governmental agencies during the implementation process of the contact centre. The management need also to be more aware of social aspects affecting the implementation process. Increased user participation during the implementation could be a way to increase the motivation and lead to more positive attitudes.

     

  • 65.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Evaluation of eGovernment Implementation from a Social Perspective2008In: Proceedings of the 2nd European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation / [ed] Remenyi, Dan, Reading, UK: Academic Publishing Limited , 2008, p. 203-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An interview study focussing on experiences of the on-going implementation of eGovernment for the County Administration of Sweden is presented and discussed. The study was made during 2007 in the region of West Gotaland. Eighteen interviews were made with different personnel groups in the traffic and legal departments. The interviews especially focussed on experience of the implementation and social consequences of work situations, work processes and customer services. A new electronic system for dealing with official matters has been implemented at the legal authority. They have also implemented e-services for security guards and foundations. Implementation of e-services for drivers' licence applications was in progress at the traffic authority. According to the results some social consequences are benefits, such as fast, efficient treatment of e-services, facilitating the handling process from both a citizen's and an employee's perspective. But other aspects are barriers, such as risks for a more stressful job, and more impersonal, slow routines for manual applications from citizens and an increased schism among different user groups. Therefore, it is important to integrate knowledge about social aspects into implementation processes, in order to get more overall positive consequences for work situations, work processes and services to the client.

  • 66.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Evaluation of e-Learning in Health Care: A Qualitative Approach2009In: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, & Higher Education: E-Learn 2009 / [ed] Bastiaens, Theo, Dron, Jon, Xin, Cindy, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An interactive web-based course was studied with the aim to improve the behaviour of health care professionals when they interact with disabled patients. The course was offered to about 45.000 employees within the health care sector in a region of Sweden. According to a survey most respondents showed a positive attitude towards the course, but only four respondents had changed their behaviour towards disabled due to the course. A qualitative study was then made focussing on the reasons behind the fact that very few of the respondents changed their behaviour after the course, and what aspects did affect the total impact of the course. Aspects that influenced the total impact were engagement of management and co-ordinators, the relevance of the course contents for the work, the organisation of the studies, the aim and marketing of the course, time aspects, and the study form of the course.

     

  • 67.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Evaluation of the Development Process of a CSCW System for Health Care Planning2008In: Communication in Dependability and Quality Management International Journal (CDQM), ISSN 1450-7196, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 87-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article an evaluation study of the development and test of a CSCW system for health care planning, is reported. The system supports the co-operative health care planning process for hospital care, primary care and municipality organised care. A CSCW system often affect informal aspects of work, and the use of the evaluation model MOA-E contributed to explain the logics of a CSCW system focussing on both work situation of the individuals, work process and quality produced to the patients. The system development was criticised for taking too long time by the stakeholders. They did not seem to understand the special characteristics of developing a CSCW system compared with a more traditional system. The evaluation model contributed to explain for the long time used for developing the system. Interviews with test users focussed their experiences of the development process. Much time has been spent on analysis of the work routines in the development work in an iterative “learning by doing” process. This participate development work has served as a learning process for the participants. The participative development style seems to be relevant for CSCW systems, but is more time consuming compared with traditional systems development.

     

  • 68.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Evaluation of the Development Process of a CSCW System for Health Care Planning2006In: Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Information Technology Evaluation / [ed] Remenyi, Dan, Brown, Ann, 2006, p. 274-282Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article an evaluation study of the development and test of a CSCW system for health care planning, is reported. The system supports the co-operative health care planning process for hospital care, primary care and municipality organised care. A CSCW system often affect informal aspects of work, and the use of the evaluation model MOA-E contributed to explain the logics of a CSCW system focussing on both work situation of the individuals, work process and quality produced to the patients. The system development was criticised for taking too long time by the stakeholders. They did not seem to understand the special characteristics of developing a CSCW system compared with a more traditional system. The evaluation model contributed to explain for the long time used for developing the system. Interviews with test users focussed their experiences of the development process. Much time has been spent on analysis of the work routines in the development work in an iterative “learning by doing” process. This participate development work has served as a learning process for the participants. The participative development style seems to be relevant for CSCW systems, but is more time consuming compared with traditional systems development.

  • 69.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Evaluation of the use of videoconferences for healthcare planning2001In: Health Informatics Journal, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 71-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of CSCW systems in general involves complex informal communication between many users at different geographical places. An evaluation strategy of such systems has to be complex and focussing especially on organisational and social aspects. The MOA-E evaluation model is used for the evaluation of the use of videoconferences for health care planning. The case study has a multi-method approach with the use of participated observation, interviews and questionnaire. If the patients are not healthy enough personnel meetings are found as more appropriate than videoconferences for health care planning. The case study could be seen as a “critical case” for the use of videoconferences for elderly persons. The MOA-E model has contributed to a comprehensive understanding of the case study.

  • 70.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Implementation of "Vision of E-Government 2007" at the County Administration of Sweden2005In: / [ed] Irani, Z., Elliman, T., Sarikas, O.D., London, England: Brunel University , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article a current interview study is presented and discussed. A vision of E-government was formulated by the County Administration of Sweden and should be implemented at the end of 2007. The interviews focus on knowledge and attitudes towards E-government of personnel in the organisation, before implementation. The respondents mainly had a positive attitude towards E-government, although they also mentioned some negative aspects. The results of the study indicate that the implementation of the vision of “E-Government 2007” need to focus more on information, attitudes, and work culture issues, than on pure technology issues. Web-based information and education could be used in flexible forms, such as study circles, for the work-integrated learning needed in the implementation process.

  • 71.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Internal Digital Divide in Organizations2012In: E-Governance and Civic Engagement: Factors and Determinants of E-Democracy / [ed] Aroon Manoharan & Marc Holzer, Hershey, US: Information Science Reference, 2012, p. 235-250Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, internal digital divide problems in organizations are identified and discussed. A longitudinal case study focusing on the implementation of e-Government at a public organization in Sweden is used as a starting-point for the discussion. Although the general use of information and communication technology is very high in Sweden there are still problems with digital divide. Such problems could hamper the implementation process of e-Government. In the case study the older employees were especially stressed and had problems to renewing their competencies and adapting to new working situations due to the implementation of e-Government. Internal digital divide is however a complex phenomenon and involve aspects of learning, motivation, professionalization, management strategies and organizational culture. Some ways of bridging the internal digital divide problems are discussed. Soft systems methodology could be used for analysis and change of internal digital divide aspects involving a discussion with the concerned communities.

  • 72.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    MOA - An Evaluation Model for Implementation and Use of IT in Organizations2009In: Proocedings of the 3rd European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation (ECIME) / [ed] Remenyi, Dan, Reading, UK: Academic Publishing Limited , 2009, p. 187-194Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MOA is an evaluation model for implementation of IT in organisations, developed by the author. The model has been used for several evaluation studies, and has been slightly modified in order to be useful for different fields of informatics.  The MOA-E model has been used for case studies within the field of Computer-Supported Co-operative Work and implementation of e-Government. The MOA-L model has been used for case studies within the field of e-Learning at work for web-based internally developed courses. The MOA model has also been used as a scenario model (MOA-S). The basic model primarily focuses on the three different aspects work processes (from a management perspective), work situations (from the perspectives of the employees) and quality of services (or product) produced (from the perspective of the customers/clients or patients). The model has mainly been used in a process-oriented way, studying implementation and use at different stages of the development process. The aim of the paper is to describe the model and the main experiences from the use of the model. Some experiences from the use of the model are usefulness for many different fields of informatics and flexibility. The model combines simplicity and complexity in a flexible way. The focus on different perspectives of the model facilitates the design of technology, organisation (and education) leading to a “win-win”-scenario for the different interest groups, and also the evaluation of consequences for different interest groups.

  • 73.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    MOA-S A Scenario Model for Integrating Work Organization Aspects into the Design Process of CSCW Systems2000In: IFIP TC WG8.2 International Working Conference on the Social and Organizational Perspective on Research and Practice in Information Technology / [ed] Baskerville, Richard, Stage, Jan, DeGross, Janice, I., ssachusetts, USA: Kluwer Academic Publishers , 2000, p. 409-428Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scenarios using the MOA-S model is proposed as a method for discussion and design of the future work organisation of CSCW systems The CSCW technology has the potential to enable a flexible design of the organisation as it can be used for more flexible communication patterns than before. We still have, however, lack of methods for the design process of CSCW systems. A case study is presented of the development and test of a prototype in Lotus Notes for dealing with social insurance matters within the Swedish Social Insurance Board. The focus of the case study is on integration of work organisation aspects into the development process of CSCW systems. Different design of the technology and the organisation could affect the work organisation as well as efficiency and quality aspects.

     

  • 74.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    New Organizational Forms can Emerge when CSCW systems are Implemented in the Swedish Social Insurance Board1999In: Proceedings of the 22nd Information Systems research Seminar in Scandinavia: Enterprise Architectures for Virtual Organisations / [ed] Käköla, Timo, K., Jyväskylä, Finland: Jyväskylä University Printing House , 1999, p. 377-398Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The CSCW technology enables a flexible design of the organisation compared with the old technology. New organisation forms emerge that are flexible, boundless and process-oriented. In this article a case study is presented of the development and test of a prototype in Lotus Notes for dealing with social insurance matters within the Swedish Social Insurance Board. The focus of the case study is on integration of work organisation aspects into the development process of CSCW systems. The design of the technology and the organisation could affect the work organisation of the individual as well as efficiency and quality aspects. Scenarios are proposed as a technique for discussion and design of the future work organisation of CSCW systems.

  • 75.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Professionals and Learning in Organizations2004In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management / [ed] Remenyi, Dan, 2004, p. 119-124Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient IT-mediated learning processes are crucial for modern knowledge organisations. Two case studies from Swedish public organisations are presented. These case studies illustrate two different aspects of professional conflicts affecting the learning processes of the organisations. Such power struggles could prevent or delay the learning process an also affect co-operation and motivation. Power struggles among professionals in organisations are not enough noticed in modern theories about learning in organisations.

  • 76.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Reflection Meetings as a Method for Learning and Evaluation2004In: Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Information Technology Evaluation / [ed] Remenyi, Dan, 2004, p. 169-174Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reflection meetings were used as a method for learning and evaluation in the project County Academy at the County Administration of Sweden. An internal organisation for the administration of in-house education should be developed in the project. The project group consisted of both researchers and practitioners. The reflection meeting became an arena for ptoblem setting, analysis, reflection and evaluation. There were no pre-defined agendas for the meetings. The discussions often focused on different psychosocial aspects of the project. The discussions at the previous project meetings focused more on technical-oriented aspects.

  • 77.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Implementation of a Contact Centre: a Local eGovernment Initiative2012In: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference of e-Government: ESADE Ramo Llull University Barcelona, Spain 14-15 June 2012 / [ed] Dr. Mila Gascó, Reading, UK: Academic Publishing International, 2012, p. 329-335Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: A case study of the implementation of a contact centre (CC) in a Swedish municipality was described and discussed. The implementation was an example of a local e-Government initiative. Seventeen employees at the municipality were interviewed. The initial implementation of the CC was done quickly, with a top-down approach. There were initial problems with negative attitudes towards the CC from the employees at the municipal departments. The new technology systems contributed to increased efficiency and to a more process-oriented organization. The CC was largely well-functioning, and many handling officers were relieved of work tasks related to the implementation of CC. There was a need for further competence development among the service handling officers at the CC. The number of incoming matters increased, related to the increased availability to citizens of municipal services.

  • 78.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Frisk, Elisabeth
    The Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation (EJISE): ECIME2009 Special2010Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Jansson, Elisabeth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lindh, Kristina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media Production. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Experience Design: Understanding the Role of Technology for Virtual Experiences2006In: Proceedings of 29th Information System Research Seminar in Scandinavia, IRIS 29: Paradigms, Politics, Paradoxes, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New technologies have always teased the imagination of avant-garde artists on how to challenge existing cultural paradigms. For instance, experience design for the creative industries of today provides exciting challenges with a potential to innovate practices and creating new ways of interaction between the artist and her audience. In an ongoing research project we aim at framing the design space for virtual experiences. The paper presents and discusses the role of technology in such context and use three ongoing case studies where ICT has been used to augment and support consumers of cultural experiences. The analysis shows how technology-driven interventions are less oriented towards radical change compared to interventions that are rooted in their nondigital origins.

  • 80.
    Guevara-Garca, Alfredo
    et al.
    McMaster University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology.
    Echegaray, Eleonora
    Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile, Facultad de Qumica, Laboratorio de Qumica Terica Computacional (QTC).
    Toro-Labbe, Alejandro
    Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile, Facultad de Qumica, Laboratorio de Qumica Terica Computacional (QTC).
    Jenkins, Samantha
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Kirk, Steven R.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Ayers, Paul W.
    McMaster University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology.
    Pointing the way to the products Comparison of the stress tensor and the second-derivative tensor of the electron density2011In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 134, no 23, p. 234106-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The eigenvectors of the electronic stress tensor can be used to identify where new bond paths form in a chemical reaction. In cases where the eigenvectors of the stress tensor are not available, the gradient-expansion- approximation suggests using the eigenvalues of the second derivative tensor of the electron density instead; this approximation can be made quantitatively accurate by scaling and shifting the second-derivative tensor, but it has a weaker physical basis and less predictive power for chemical reactivity than the stress tensor. These tools provide an extension of the quantum theory of atoms and molecules from the characterization of molecular electronic structure to the prediction of chemical reactivity. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  • 81.
    Gustavsson Christiernin, Linn
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Nilsson, Anders
    EDS.
    Brandt, Eric
    University West/Chalmers Technical University3.
    Mankefors-Christiernin, Stefan
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Reliability and Quality of Software Engineering in Manufacturing Industry: a case study2008In: 19th International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE 2008.): Proceedings of a meeting held 10-14 November 2008, Seattle, Washington., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ( IEEE ) , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineering has proposed the use of formal and industrial methods, models and tools within software industry for some time now. There are several good examples like the aircraft industry, branches of the military, the space shuttle development and the nuclear power plant industry that have come a long way with their software processes. However, there is still an ongoing dilemma of how to better introduce software processes within most regular production industry. In this paper we try to summaries our experiences of software processes and quality systems within the vehicle industry of northern Europe. A first investigating case study is conducted at a large software consulting company, focused on industrial software, and then we further investigate the software situation at one of the largest vehicle manufacturers in Scandinavia. We use a ten point list with adapted metrics to evaluate process quality and create a progress report of the work-flow and process implementation rate. Based on our results from the evaluation we also provide a first set of guidelines for how to level the differences in quality processes for hardware and software development.

  • 82.
    Hanson, Malin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Larsson, Mikael
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Fria och öppna programvaror inom kommunal verksamhet: Vägen mot öppna standarder?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with the attitudes within municipalities of open source software and open standards and if open source software may be an option to gain open standards. The aim has been to find out if open source software and open standards would be able to solve the lock-in problems that municipalities have against proprietary software. The study is conducted as an exploratory, inductive and qualitative study with depth interviews of subjectively selected informants as data collection method. A literature review has also been implemented by the relevant books and articles. Some economic determinants of municipalities to make use of open source software have not been considered in this study. The informants used in this study are all IT managers in a Swedish municipality and our key informants have been selected in a subjective manner based on the expertise they have in the subject. The conclusions drawn were that municipalities have been difficult to define standards and open standards, and that they do not automatically see the connection between open standards and open software. They also see different areas of interest for standardization.

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  • 83.
    Hansson, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Academy, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Marklund, Bertil
    University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Academy, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care.
    Gedda, Birgitta
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Nursing.
    Mattsson, Bengt
    University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Academy, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care.
    Working together - primary care doctors' and nurses' attitudes to collaboration2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 78-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Multidisciplinary teamwork is recommended for various disorders and it has been suggested that it is a way to meet the new challenges and demands facing general practitioners (GPs) in modern society. Attempts to introduce the method in primary care have failed partly due to GPs' unwillingness to participate. The aim of this study was to measure attitudes towards collaboration among GPs and district nurses (DN) and to investigate whether there is a correlation between a positive attitude toward collaboration and high self-esteem in the professional role. Methods: The Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician Nurse Collaboration and the Professional Self-Description Form (PSDF) was used to study a cohort of 600 GPs and DNs in Vastra Gotaland region. The purpose was to map differences and correlations of attitude between DNs and GPs, between male and female GPs, and between older and younger DNs and GPs. Results: Four hundred and one answers were received. DNs (mean 51.7) were significantly more positive about collaboration than GPs (mean 49.4). There was no difference between younger and older, male and female GPs. DNs scored higher on the PSDF-scale than GPs. Conclusions: DNs were slightly more positive about collaboration than GPs. A positive attitude towards collaboration did not seem to be a part of the GPs' professional role to the same extent as it is for DNs. Professional norms seem to have more influence on attitudes than do gender roles. DNs seem more confident in their profession than GPs.

  • 84.
    Hattinger, Monika
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Hellsten, Jan-Olof
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Lärcentrum - perspektiv och möjligheter: analys och praktik2007Report (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Herrman, Margaretha
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Nilsson, Lena
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Interprofessionellt samarbete2010In: Lärande i och för det nya arbetslivet / [ed] Lagrosen, Stefan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika & Nehls, Eddy, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 1, p. 191-220Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 86.
    Jansson, Nina
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Perinatal Center, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology.
    Nisfelt, Anna
    Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Perinatal Center, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Wennergren, Margareta
    Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Rossander-Hulthén, Lena
    Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Department of Clinical Nutrition.
    Powell, Theresa L.
    University of Cincinnati, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cincinnati, OH, United States.
    Jansson, Thomas
    Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Perinatal Center, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology.
    Maternal hormones linking maternal body mass index and dietary intake to birth weight2008In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 87, no 6, p. 1743-1749Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Jenkins, Samantha
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Ayers, P. W.
    McMaster University, Hamilton, Department of Chemistry.
    Kirk, Steven R.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Mori-Sánchez, P.
    Duke University, Durham, Department of Chemistry.
    Marti­n Pendás, A.
    Universidad de Oviedo, Departamento de Química Física y Analítica.
    Bond metallicity of materials from real space charge density distributions2009In: Chemical Physics Letters, Vol. 471, no 1-3, p. 174-177Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Jenkins, Samantha
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Kirk, Steven R.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Persson, M
    R & D Pulp and Paper, Eka Chemicals AB, SE 445 80 Bohus, Sweden.
    Carlen, J
    R & D Pulp and Paper, Eka Chemicals AB, SE 445 80 Bohus, Sweden.
    Abbas, Z
    Göteborg University, Department of Chemistry.
    Molecular dynamics simulation of nanocolloidal amorphous silica particles: Part II2008In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 128, no 16, p. 164711-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 89.
    Jenkins, Samantha
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Kirk, Steven R
    Persson, M
    R&D Pulp and Paper, Eka Chemicals (Akzo Nobel).
    Carlen, J
    R&D Pulp and Paper, Eka Chemicals (Akzo Nobel).
    Abbas, Z
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Chemistry .
    The role of hydrogen bonding in nanocolloidal amorphous silica particles in electrolyte solutions2009In: Journal of colloid and interface science, ISSN 1095-7103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Explicit solvent (water) molecular dynamics simulations were undertaken containing three pairs of amorphous silica nanoparticles, having diameters of 2.0nm, 2.4nm and 2.8nm, respectively. Mean forces acting between the silica nanoparticles were calculated in a background electrolyte, i.e., NaCl at four different concentrations. Dependence of the inter-particle potential of mean force on the center of mass separation, silicon to sodium ratio (Si:Na(+)), background electrolyte concentration, number of hydrogen bonds directly linking pairs of silica nanoparticles and the density of charged surface sites, are calculated. The pH was indirectly accounted for via the ratio of silicon to sodium used in the simulations. The close relationship between the variation of the number of hydrogen bonds between the pairs of silica nanoparticles and the inter-particle potential of mean force indicates that the degree of inter-particle hydrogen bonding quantifies, for a given size of nanoparticle, the degree of nanoparticle 'stickiness'. Simulations also show that the number of hydrogen bonds between the charged surface (O(-)) sites and the surrounding water molecules increases with increase in charged sites, in agreement with the interaction behavior of silica nanoparticles usually seen in experiments.

  • 90.
    Jenkins, Samantha
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Kirk, Steven R
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Persson, M
    R&D Pulp and Paper, Eka Chemicals (Akzo Nobel) AB.
    Carlen, J
    R&D Pulp and Paper, Eka Chemicals (Akzo Nobel) AB.
    Abbas, Zareen
    Göteborg University, Department of Chemistry.
    Molecular dynamics simulation of nanocolloidal amorphous silica particles: Part I.2007In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 127, no 22, p. 224711-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Explicit molecular dynamics simulations were applied to a pair of amorphous silica nanoparticles in aqueous solution, with diameter of 4.4 nm and with four different background electrolyte concentrations, to extract the mean force acting between the two silica nanoparticles. Dependences of the interparticle forces on the separation and the background electrolyte concentration were demonstrated. The nature of the interaction of the counterions with charged silica surface sites (deprotonated silanols) was investigated. A "patchy" double layer of adsorbed sodium counterions was observed. Dependences of the interparticle potential of mean force on the separation and the background electrolyte concentration were demonstrated. Direct evidence of the solvation forces is presented in terms of changes of the water ordering at the surfaces of the isolated and double nanoparticles. The nature of the interaction of the counterions with charged silica surface sites (deprotonated silanols) was investigated in terms of quantifying the effects of the number of water molecules separately inside each pair of nanoparticles by defining an impermeability measure. A direct correlation was found between the impermeability (related to the silica surface "hairiness") and the disruption of water ordering. Differences in the impermeability between the two nanoparticles are attributed to differences in the calculated electric dipole moment.

  • 91.
    Jenkins, Samantha
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Kirk, Steven R
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Persson, M
    R&D Pulp and Paper, Eka Chemicals (Akzo Nobel).
    Carlen, J
    R&D Pulp and Paper, Eka Chemicals (Akzo Nobel).
    Abbas, Zareen
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Chemistry.
    Molecular dynamics simulation of nanocolloidal amorphous silica particles: part III.2009In: The Journal of chemical physics, ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 130, no 13, p. 134702-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations were applied to four pairs of amorphous silica nanoparticles, two pairs having a diameter of 2.0 nm and two pairs with diameter 3.2 nm. The silica nanoparticles were immersed in a background electrolyte consisting of Ca(2+) and Cl(-) ions and water and mean forces acting between the pair of silica nanoparticles were extracted at four different background electrolyte concentrations. The pH was indirectly accounted for via the ratio of silicon to sodium used in the simulations. Dependence of the interparticle potential of mean force on the center-of-mass separation and the silicon to sodium ratio (5:1 and 20:1) is demonstrated. A Si:Na(+) ratio of 5:1 gave more repulsive interparticle potentials and lower numbers of internanoparticle or "bridging" hydrogen bonds. Conversely a Si:Na(+) ratio of 20:1 yielded more attractive potentials and higher numbers of bridging hydrogen bonds. The nature of the interaction of the counterions with charged silica surface sites (deprotonated silanols) was also investigated. The effect of the sodium double layer on water ordering was observed. The number of water molecules trapped inside the nanoparticles was investigated, and at the highest background ionic concentrations were found to consistently behave in accordance with there being an osmotic pressure. This study highlights the effect of divalent (Ca(2+)) background ions on the interparticle potentials compared with previous work using monovalent (Na(+)) background ions. Mechanisms of coagulation and the stability of silica nanocolloids found from this work appear to be in agreement with findings from experiments described in the literature.

  • 92. Johansson, Caroline
    et al.
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    A true and fair view: harmonization of the accounting2008In: European Journal of Management, ISSN 1555-4015, E-ISSN 2378-8526, no SummerArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to describe the essence of the concept "true and fair view, in Swedish "a correct view" (en rattvisande bild). The aim is also to present how this concept is practically handled in some different countries and how this has influenced the accounting internationally. In the harmonization process of the accounting in different countries the concept "true and fair view" have been important. Different accounting traditions have traditionally had an impact on the accounting in different countries. Which tradition a country belongs to is to a great extent dependent on how the companies in the country have financed their capital. The countries where the companies' capital is built up by a capital-based financial market with individual investors and shareholder have traditionally belonged to the Anglo-Saxon accounting tradition. In the countries traditionally belonged to the continental accounting tradition it is the polity and the credit-market who have financed the long-termed investments. Today, the financing market is being more and more globalized. This will impy that companies in different countries are needed to harmonize their financial accounting. Thereby some laws and directive in different countries are going to be changed.

  • 93.
    Johansson, Lars-Olof
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Halmstad.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Dynamics in an innovation boundary context: exploring a living labprocess from a community of practice perspective2011In: Proceedings of IRIS 2011: TUCS Lecture NotesNo 15, October 2011 / [ed] Leino, Timo, Turku: Turku Centre for Computer Science , 2011, p. 1-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on studies of a living lab process, which is an open, user-centric, innovation approach, where several actors from industry, user groups and academia are involved. We aim to describe and analyze the dynamics in an innovation boundary context based on a living lab process. An action-oriented research approach was applied and the empirical results are from The Find Project (TFP), with the aim of customizing an ICT product based on the needs of a user group. The findings are analyzed from a community of practice perspective where the three different communities i) researchers from Halmstad Living Lab (HLL), ii) ICT developers (ICTD), and iii) next of kin's to demented elderly persons (NOKD) represented the units of analysis. The analysis identified several boundary situations that played a vital role for the innovation process. The contribution of our research to innovation theory is a process model describing the dynamics in an innovation boundary context with regard to boundary objects-in-use as well as to brokering. The research highlights two different levels of brokering: i) product/service brokering; and ii) process brokering.

  • 94.
    Johansson, L-O
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Boundary dialogues in user-centric innovation2012In: 18th Americas Conference on Information Systems 2012, AMCIS 2012, Seattle, WA, 2012, Vol. 4, p. 2910-2919Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on a user-centric innovation project, Free2Ride, which is seen as an example of community interaction that overcomes boundaries. Free2Ride aimed at developing a piece of ICT safety equipment consisting of a sender (on the horse) and a receiver (application in a smartphone) to be used by equestrian club members during their everyday riding activities. We will answer the research question of what the characteristics of a boundary dialogue in user-centric innovation activities are. The aim of the paper is to propose a model describing the characteristics of boundary dialogue in user-centric innovation that involve different communities of practices such as ICT developers, users and researchers. We applied a combination of research approaches consisting of action research and engaged scholarship approach. The theoretical framework for analyzing our findings is communities of practices with a specific interest in boundary spanning and learning dialogues. Our contribution is a model describing the characteristics of boundary dialogues in user-centric innovation. An important element of that model is the mental wandering, inwards and outwards, by core members in a community. We discuss the temporal as well as the symbolic nature of the mental wandering during the boundary dialogue in user-centric innovation activities. © (2012) by the AIS/ICIS Administrative Office All rights reserved.

  • 95.
    Karlsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Engelbrektsson, Pontus
    Chalmers.
    Larsson, Lena E.
    Chalmers.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Berndtsson, Bo
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Use-centred design ofmedical and health care technology: A pilot study of fieldtests as a development tool2011In: International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1752-6418, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 11-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the project has been to develop a process through which users, staff as well as patients, can be involved in field evaluations of medical and healthcare technology. Interviews with different stakeholders and the experiences from four case studies have led to the following conclusions. Users have the potential to act as active evaluators rather than passive subjects or participants only. However, user involvement in field evaluations must be supported by a formation of facilitators or 'door openers' to the healthcare organisation, moderators enhancing the dialogue between developers and users, and mentors for the users acting as evaluators.

  • 96.
    Kjellén, Bengt
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Reflection on and sharing of work-life experiences in higher education2010In: International Journal of Case Method Research & Application, ISSN 1554-7752, Vol. XXII, no 2, p. 95-102Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 97.
    Lagrosen, Stefan
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lundh Snis, UlrikaUniversity West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.Nehls, EddyUniversity West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Lärande i och för det nya arbetslivet2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Oavsett vilka förändringar man vill göra i en organisation måste dess medlemmar lära sig någonting nytt. Alltför ofta går emellertid förbättringsinsatser om intet därför att man inte har förmått åstadkomma ett verkligt lärande. Med ett djupgående lärande kan organisationer i stället lyckas med att uppnå sina mål avseende kvalitet, arbetsmiljö och ekonomisk framgång – samtidigt som deras medlemmar trivs och är delaktiga.

    Lärande i och för det nya arbetslivet täcker in väsentliga infallsvinklar på vuxnas lärande inom organisationer och vänder sig till studenter, forskare och alla som arbetar med någon form av personalansvar. Läs mer om boken på studentlitteratur.se

  • 98.
    Lagrosen, Stefan
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Nehls, Eddy
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Lärande i och för det nya arbetslivet: en syntes2010In: Lärande i och för det nya arbetslivet / [ed] Lagrosen, Stefan, Lund Snis, Ulrika, Nehls, Eddy, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 1, p. 295-305Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 99.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media Production. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Competence Management Systems in Networking Organisations: Designing for Empowerment?2007In: Proceedings of 30th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia: IRIS 30 / [ed] Tarja Tiainen, Hannakaisa Isomäki,Mikko Korpela, Anja Mursu, Pirkko Nykänen,Minna- Kristiina Paakki & Samuli Pekkola, University of Tampere , 2007, p. 1236-1248Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current trends among business companies imply that sources of human competencies are spread across intra-organisational and inter-organisational units into networks of organisations of different kinds. This paper explores the challenges for design of competence management systems (CMS) raised by inter-organisational collaboration in a network of private companies. We take the point of departure from the co-workers’ abilitly to explore and manage their competence. The research question to be answered is: How can a network perspective on competence management systems empower co-workers? The paper presents findings from an on-going research project aiming at identifying design implications of a network competence management system (nCMS), where the role of the individual is valued crucial for its success. We argue that there is a need to take a critical stand towards common assumptions of CMS as a tool for intra organisational strategic work - instead a nCMS should empower the individual member of the network organization.

  • 100.
    Lundin, Johan
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Nuldén, Urban
    University of Gothenburg.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    A new agenda for research on higher education and information technology2008In: Proceedings of the 31th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, IRIS 31, Åre, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for a more timely agenda for research on teaching and learning, and the use information technology in higher education. It is here claimed that many of the prior research issues within this area are obsolete. Information technology infrastructure previously provided solely by the institutions of higher education is now successively replaced by the students own technology which they bring to the educational context. The new agenda should orient towards (i) integration of students own technology in educational activities, and integration between on and of campus learning activities (ii) tools for supporting activities in classrooms such as presenting, visualizing and simulating, and (iii) issues of availability to participate in alternative ways, making educational activities available to new groups. The suggested agenda is discussed using a number of anecdotes collected in various educational settings.

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