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  • 51.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    E-government and E-governance - Swedish Case Studies with Focus on the Local level2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of e-government and e-governance are used interchangeably in most research and there is no single definition of these terms. The objective of this licentiate thesis is to provide a deeper understanding of these concepts through empirical studies in a Swedish context. Further, it aims to analyse whether – and if so in what way – the implementation of local contact centres (CC) affect conditions for local planning. This is reported in three articles. In this thesis e-government is defined to as the use of tools and systems by governmental bodies made possible by ICT that affect the organization of public administration. E-governance is defined as the ICT-based networks of services and administration in New Public Management settings including both public and private actors. Case study methodology is used as research method, including interviews, focus group studies, document studies, and some participatory observations. The analysis is partly built on an inductive methodological approach, since this is a new, emerging field of innovative policy and practice. Based on a theoretical discussion of New Public Management in the digital era, findings show that there is a difference between the concepts of e-government and e-governance from the perspective of e-administration and e-services and that the terms should not be used interchangeably. The study indicates that there are examples of implementation that are referred to the e-governance setting. Further the study indicates that local municipal contact centres may be referred to not only as an implementation of e-government but as a combination of e-governance and e-government. The findings indicate that there is a potential for positive impact on the conditions for local planning through the implementation of municipal contact centres.

  • 52.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    E-government and E-governance: local implementation of E-government policies in Sweden2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is recognized in international research that the public sector has been transformed into a networked, open and more flexible, informal and interactive governance structure. This is described as a transition from "government to governance". Sweden is one of the international leaders with regards to e-government development. The objective of this thesis is to provide a deeper understanding of how e-government policies are implemented in an e-governance context, through empirical case studies in Sweden. The focus is on the local level. The overall research question is: How is e-government policy put into practice when focusing on the local level? This is reported in four articles.Case study methodology is used as research method, including interviews, focus group interviews, document studies, and some participatory observations. The analysis is partly based on an inductive methodological approach, since this is a new, emerging field of innovative policy and practice.The analysis arrives at three overarching conclusions: (1) In practice, when e-government policy is implemented and translated at the local level, it tends to happen in an e-governance setting conducted by policy entrepreneurs or promoted by entrepreneurial behaviour in public administration. E-government policies are implemented in relation to local cultures, norms and economic structures. (2) Implementation of e-government and e-governance initiatives requires trust in the service provision among public administrators as well as among citizens. Efficiency and citizen-centred approaches in the redesign of information relationships between public administration and citizens to create some sort of added value are crucial. (3) The thesis indicates that there are two main implications of municipal contact centres (CCs): they localize public services and they combine different services into a one-stop practice striving to provide "holistic" services to the individual citizen. However, although the use of ICT is essential for the organisational transformation, the results indicate that the organisational settings and internal anchoring are greater constraints than new technology for implementation of local e-government and e-governance initiatives in the form of contact centres. One example for potential added value is the source of information of citizens' issues through the implementation of municipal contact centres, which may have a positive impact on the conditions for local planning.

  • 53.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Local e-Government in Sweden: Municipal Contact Center implementation with focus on Citizens and Public Administrators2014In: Journal of Community Informatics, E-ISSN 1712-4441, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the article is to analyze the implementation of municipal contact centers (CCs) - an e-government initiative on the local level - from the perspectives of citizens and public administrators. This article is based on case studies from four Swedish municipalities. The results indicate that the CCs: contribute to increased access to municipal service, localize public services and combine different services into a one-stop practice striving to provide a "holistic" approach to the individual citizen in her local context. However, the quality of the service also depends on the organizations of the work within the back-office of the municipality. All issues from the citizens were registered which contribute to increased knowledge about the citizens needs and perceptions regarding municipality services and planning in urban issues.

  • 54.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2010. Innovation and Multidimensional Entrepreneurship - Economic, Social and Academic Aspects: Revised papers presented at the 13th Uddevalla Symposium, 9-22 August 2010, Jönköping, Sweden2011Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This anthology consists of  twenty-five revised papers, first presented at the thirteenth Uddevalla Symposium, August, 19-22, 2010[1], at Jönköping University, Sweden. The overall theme was Innovation and Multidimensional Entrepreneurship – Economic, Social and Academic Aspects”. This year’s Uddevalla Symposium was organized as a Special Session within the 50th Anniversary ERSA congress 2010. Session organizers were Professor Kingsley E. Haynes, Dean, School of Public Policy, George Mason University & Professor Roger R. Stough, Vice President for Research and Economic Development, George Mason University, USA. A broad range of topics were listed among the themes for Special Sessions within this ERSA congress. One of them (and the largest) was the 13th Uddevalla Symposium to which forty papers were submitted. This session had an interdisciplinary character and provided an opportunity for researchers to discuss their ongoing research that was relevant to clarifying the role of innovation and multidimensional entrepreneurship in the growth and development of regional economies and regional economic systems. The papers were subdivided into nine different subthemes: Multidimensional Entrepreneurship, Regional Innovation Systems, Economic Development, Social Capital, Entrepreneurial Behavior, Rural Development, Industries, Firm Performance & Clusters, and Cities (for a detailed program; see the website: www.symposium.hv.se)

    1Uddevalla Symposium is an international scientific symposium established in 1998 in Uddevalla, Sweden. The primary objective is to foster research collaboration and bring together leading-edge views between experts, researchers and insightful practitioners from various fields of regional science, international business, economics, entrepreneurship and small business economics as well as from regional economics, regional planning, economic geography/economic history/political science and sociology in order to increase our knowledge as regards research questions related to “Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Functional Regions".

  • 55.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2011. Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions: Revised papers presented at the 14th Uddevalla Symposium, 16-18 June, 2011, Bergamo, Italy2011Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This proceedings consists of  thirty-nine revised papers, first presented at the fourteenth Uddevalla Symposium & the Third International Symposium of Entrepreneurship of E-Lab at University of Bergamo, June, 16-18, 2011 , held at University of Bergamo, Italy. The overall theme was “Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions”. The symposium was hosted by the E-Lab, University of Bergamo, Italy. The purpose of the symposium was to contribute to an increased understanding of the role of entrepreneurial knowledge and technology for the transformation of regions by means of the entry, growth and exit of firms.      Except for the overall theme there were twelve special sub-themes, chaired by invited scholars from the Uddevalla Symposium Network: “Work-integrated learning in transforming regions” “Entrepreneurship, family business and innovation”, “Slow city movement and sustainable local development”, “Shrinking urban regions”, “Entrepreneurship, networking and regional development”, “Resilience capacity of firms and new forms of innovation”, “Cluster development and regional transformation in an economic perspective”, “Entrepreneurship policy in comparative perspective”, “Learning and knowledge transfer processes in small firms’ clusters”, “The spatial agglomeration of business services”, “Entrepreneurship, creativity and the brain”, and “Productivity and financing of regional infrastructure.      Ten keynote-speakers gave presentations during these three days; Prof. Shaker A. Zahra, Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, USA. Assoc. Prof.  Charlotta Mellander, Jönköping International Business School, Sweden, Prof. David Audretsch, Indiana University, USA, Assoc. Prof. Johan Klaesson Jönköping International Business School & CenSE, Sweden, Prof. Andrés Rodriguez-Pose, London School of Economics, UK, Prof. Hans Westlund, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm & Jönköping International Business School, Sweden,  Prof. Maryann P. Feldman, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA,  Prof. Giovanna Dossena, University of Bergamo, Italy,  Prof. Hans Lööf, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden,  and Prof. Zoltan J. Acz, George Mason University, USA.      To stimulate high quality papers a Best Paper Award as well as a Best PhD Can¬didate Paper Award was announced and financially supported by the municipality of Uddevalla, Sweden. The winners of the Best Paper were Johan Klaesson & Sofia Wixe, Jönköping International Business School and CEnSE (Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics), Jönköping, Sweden. The winner of the Best PhD Can¬didate Paper Award was Mattias Örnerheim, Linköping University, Sweden.         Organizers of this 14th Uddevalla Symposium were the University West, Sweden and the E-Lab at University of Bergamo, in co-operation with Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), and George Mason University, School of Public Policy, USA. The symposium was also financial supported by the Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE), Jönköping International Business School, Sweden and Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovations Studies (CESIS), Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.         This symposium would not have been possible without a lot of work and support also from certain individuals. The editor expresses sincere gratitude to all participants, participating organizations, not at least the local organizers at the University of Bergamo, and especially to Dr. Christina Bettinelli.          Also I thank all members of the Uddevalla Symposium Organising Committee and all colleagues at University West. A special thank goes to Rebecca Olsson, University West not at least for editorial help.

    Trollhättan, Sweden in December 2011 Department for Economics & IT, University West

    Iréne BernhardEditor   

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    Abstract; Uddevalla Symposium 2011. Entrepreneuril Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions
  • 56.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grunden, Kerstin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Challenging Organizational Issues When Municipal Contact Centers are Implemented in Sweden2013In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 198-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two case studies of the implementation of Contact Centres(CCs) in Swedish municipalities were compared and discussed from anorganizational perspective. The research method was semi-structured qualitative interviews with different personnel categories in both municipalities. Several challenging organizational issues for management and employees were identified:the implementation strategies varied among the cases and affected the pace of implementation, attitudes and motivation, the mental construct and understanding of the implementation. The financing of the CC and recruitment strategies created problems, but in somewhat different ways and in phases of the process in each case. The potential of using registered information as asource for planning and decision-making was not fully utilized, although somestatistics were produced. In both cases there was a combination of formal andinformal learning strategies and flexible co-operation among the employees inthe CCs which contributed to continuous learning processes and a good,co-operative working climate. There was a need for continuous updating ofskills in both cases, but with slightly different focus, related to theorganization of the work. The organization in response groups required morespecialist competence, compared with the organization without response groups,which required more general competence. Some challenges for the caseadministrators in the back offices were to adapt to a more process-oriented organizationof their work, and to co-operate more with their colleagues both in the backoffice and at the CC. They now had the possibility to plan their administrativework in a better way than before, but some administrators missed the previousspontaneous contacts with citizens. Initially, many case administrators wereafraid of losing their jobs and work tasks to CC, contributing to negativeattitudes towards CC and hampering the learning process in taking part in theimplementation process.

  • 57.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A Study of Small Enterprises with Focus on Entrepreneurship and E-government in a Regional Development Context2014In: Uddevalla Symposium 2014. Geography of Growth. The Frequency, Nature and Consequences of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Regions of Varying Density: Revised papers / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2014, p. 165-183Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to describe and analyse a sample of small enterprises located in a region undergoing structural change with focus on entrepreneurship and e-government and is a further development of a previous study that focused on how municipalities supported entrepreneurship and destination development. In this study the focus is extended to include small enterprises contributing to development of tourist destinations within the same region. In-depth qualitative interviews were made with twelve managers from ten small enterprises.

       Based on a theoretical discussion of entrepreneurship, e-government and regional development, the results indicate that networks and strategic networking were important for these small enterprises both in terms of developing the enterprise but also to develop entrepreneurship for regional development. The findings further indicate that municipal information, communication and competence development in order to support entrepreneurship and the development of small enterprises could be improved. The importance of face-to-face contacts was stressed. The use of local e-government was hitherto limited to e-services for public procurement. The entrepreneurs who used the e-services had mainly positive experiences, although despite the complexity of the e-services. The respondents did not ask for more municipal e-services, but that could be a consequence of their limited experience of the potential of local e-government. The use of social media among the enterprises was limited due to lack of time, competence and motivation for most of the enterprises, although the potential of social media for marketing was seen as extensive. A few of the respondents were on the other hand very skilled in their use of digital media, as a consequence of their professional knowledge and business orientation.

  • 58.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lessons Learned from the Implementation of Contact Centers in Swedish Municipalities2013In: Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on e-Government: University of Insubria, Varese, Italy, 13-14 June 2013 / [ed] Elena Ferrari and Walter Castelnovo, Reading: ACAD CONFERENCES LTD, CURTIS FARM, KIDMORE END, NR READING, RG4 9AY, ENGLAND , 2013, p. 63-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Two case studies of the implementation of contact centers (CCs) in Swedish municipalities were compared and analyzed. The purpose of the article is to focus on lessons learned from the perspectives of the management and the employees in the organizations according to the MOA-model. The research method used was semi-structured qualitative interviews with different personnel categories in both municipalities. According to our findings the implementation strategies varied among the two cases. The strategies affected the pace of implementation, attitudes and motivation aspects and understanding of the implementation. The potential of using registered information as a source for planning and decision-making was not fully utilized in the municipal organizations, although some statistics were produced. In both cases there was a combination of formal and informal learning strategies and flexible co-operation among the employees in the CCs which contributed to continuous learning processes and a good, co-operative working climate. Some learning challenges for the handling officers at the back offices were to adapt to a more process-oriented organization. Initially, many handling officers at the back-office were afraid of losing their jobs and work tasks to CC, contributing to negative attitudes towards CC, and hampering the learning process in taking part in the implementation process. The establishment of a CC is a comprehensive organizational change process affecting the whole municipal administration. A challenge for the municipalities is to formulate relevant strategies and manage the implementation in order to involve all employees.

  • 59.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Towards Inclusive E-Government: The Development of Municipal Contact Centers in Sweden2013In: Developing E-Government Projects: Frameworks and Methodologies / [ed] Zaigham Mahmood, Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2013, 1, p. 225-247Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, five case studies of the implementation of contact centers in Swedish municipalities are described and discussed with a focus on inclusive e-government. The research methods used are mainly qualitative interviews with different categories of municipal personnel and also with some citizens. The main conclusions are that the implementation of contact centers contributes to increased accessibility of municipal services, even for those citizens who might have problems using Internet services. The study indicates and development towards increased equal treatment of citizens and a contribution to reducing problems related to the “digital divide.” Municipal services became more adapted to citizens’ needs by using citizen-centric methods and dialogue during the development process and in the daily work of the contact centers. The implementation of municipal contact centers can thus be seen as a step towards inclusive e-government, but there is still a need to go further in this direction.

  • 60.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Value Creation of networks and networking for small enterprises and destination development2014In: The 23rd Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research: THE values of tourism / [ed] Budeanu, Adriana; Möckel, Marie & Gyimóthy, Szilvia, Köpenhamn, 2014, p. 81-82Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature recognizes that networks and networking are vital for firm performance and enterprises of all sizes are joining international networks (Lechner & Dowling, 2003; Bernhard & Karlsson, 2014; Cesário & Noronha Vaz, 2014;). Further research claims that networking is an important business activity for entrepreneurs, especially important for small businesses during start-up, which can then contribute to the growth of the business and superior performance. The emerging information society challenges relations not only between public agencies such as municipalities and citizens but also small enterprises in many ways. Earlier research also claims that entrepreneurship is a key issue in destination development.

    This study aims to describe and analyze the value creation of networks for small enterprises and destination development. The enterprises are located in two municipalities in a region undergoing structural change, due to the closure of a big car plant. We will focus on the value creation of different forms of networks and networking such as face-to-face and digital-based networks. Further we focus on value creation related to different actors within the networks, such as the role of entrepreneurs, municipalities, customers and sub-contractors. Theories on entrepreneurship, e-government, social media and network are important for our study.

    The research method is based on case study methodology with use of qualitative in-depth interviews, observations and document studies. Twelve interviews were conducted with managers from ten small enterprises (defined as microenterprises according to European Commission (Ekonomifakta, 2014). We contacted the public managers at the business offices in each municipality and they selected a list of companies involved in destination development within their municipality. Two of the ten enterprises were chosen from the list made by the managers. The remaining eight were selected from the list of members of the tourism company’s website. The tourism company is partly owned by the two municipalities and managed by a non-profit association for tourism development. Each interview took about an hour and was recorded before transcribing. All interviews were conducted in autumn 2013 and were made together by the authors. The analysis was made by qualitative content analysis and done in two steps; first separately by each author, after which the analysis was discussed together. This was done in order to increase the validity of the analysis. Regarding some issues respondents have received follow-up questions in order to get further understanding.

    The main findings indicated that networks and municipal support were important for the small enterprises. The municipalities could for example support network building for destination development. The use of local e-government was hitherto limited to e-services for public procurement. The respondents did not ask for more municipal e-services, but that could be a consequence of their limited experience of the potential of local e-government.

    The respondents stressed the importance of face-to-face contacts for establishing and maintaining their networks. The use of social media among the enterprises was limited due to lack of time, competence and motivation for most of the enterprises, although the potential of social media for marketing was seen as extensive. A few of the respondents on the other hand were very skilled in their use of social media, as a consequence of their professional knowledge and business orientation. Strategic choices of networks and relevant competence to handle social contacts (both face-to-face and digitally) contributed to the value creation.

    This research provides insight into and deeper understanding of some important aspects that contribute to value creation for small enterprises and destination development.

  • 61.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University.
    Editorial2014In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 269-274Article in journal (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 62.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Municipal Contact Centers: A Slower Approach towards Sustainable Local Development2011In: Uddevalla Symposium 2011. Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2011, 1, p. 111-125Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The constitutional local autonomy of Swedish municipalities aims to relate democracy and public administration to local distinctiveness. It relies on the idea of subsidiarity and rests on the idea of a local common and the citizen’s own inter-pretation of common problems and activities. This gives a unique opportunity to develop Swedish municipalities as slow cities. In Sweden there are some local food initiatives focusing on local and traditional production, hospitality and delivering. However, to live slow is also about how, where and when everyday life take place. This in spite of that all municipalities have explicit sustainability policies. A reason for this could be the dominating discourse of welfare efficiency, production and growth.

       One of the most recent approach to keep up the image as well as the practice of Sweden as a sustainable but still efficient, fast and well-organized state is e-government. The high Internet penetration among Swedes opens for as well as asks for improved and developed governmental services on-line. In Sweden, a recent governmental action plan stresses the importance of using information and communication technologies (ICT) in order to effectively develop the Swedish public administration with the aim to ”make it as simple as possible for as many as possible” leading to improved accessibility for all citizens. This has led to that public municipal contact centers have been established. Contacts centers are both physical and on-line. E-government could be considered as fast government, but in this paper we will try to turn that obvious first impression up-side down. We will conceptual argue that municipal contact centers are a tool towards improved sustainability, localism and slowing up administration.

       Thus there are two main implications of contact centers, they localize public services and they combine different services into a one-stop practice. This strives to provide a ‘holistic’ approach of the individual in relation to the governmental administration. The conclusions of the paper are a double modeling. Firstly, we point out the implications of time-geographical modeling of slow processes. Secondly, we place e-government and contact centers in this model. Policy implications relate both to the conceptualization of slow processes and the potential to further develop municipal contact centers.

    Download (pdf)
    Bernhard I_Wihlborg E Municipal Contact Centers abstract
  • 63.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Municipal Contact Centres: A Slower Approach Towards Sustainable Local Development by E-government2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 2292-2309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is Swedish government policy to use information and communication technologies to increase sustainability. This has implications for planning and local organization of communities. In the municipalities where most public services are provided, there are growing numbers of local contact centres (CCs) aiming to meet citizens’ needs for information and coordination of public services. The CCs localize public services and combine different services into a one-stop practice focusing on needs and demands of individual citizens and their unique situations. The municipalities hereby have to plan for service provision in new ways to meet more individualized needs that are also in line with improved sustainability. CCs are both local offices and advanced services on-line, as e-governmental services. E-government could be considered fast government, but this article aims to turn that obvious first impression upside down and discuss how e-government can slow down and make services more local, personalized and sustainable. Theoretically we take off from a time-geographical modelling of slow processes that has implication for slower, more sustainable development. Based on in-depth case studies of municipal CCs we argue that they are tools towards improved sustainability and localism, and that they are “slowing up” administrative processes. In particular, we point out that e-government has a potential to plan for, and promote, sustainability and slow local development.

  • 64.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Policy entrepreneurs in networks: implementation of two Swedish municipal contact centres from an actor perspective2014In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 288-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to elaborate on the meanings of policy entrepreneursand through the conceptualisation analysing implementation of local municipalcontact centres – a Swedish local e-governmental initiative. The paper buildson qualitative case studies including interviews, observations and documentanalysis, all analysed through the perspective of policy entrepreneurs. Localpolicies are implemented in relation to local cultures, norms and economicstructures. The networked governance structure demands entrepreneurial actorsto combine resources and interests into a change. Here we identified boththeoretically and practical, two types of such entrepreneurial actors. The issueentrepreneur focuses on the issue as such and focuses on the solution to a singleproblem. The political entrepreneur, on the other hand, focuses on core valuesand long term structural changes. The emerging networked governancestructure asks for improved knowledge on policy entrepreneurship both foranalytical and practical improvements. The findings may provide usefulinformation for municipal e-government planning specifically when planningfor implementing contact centres. The study enriches the existing literature onpolicy entrepreneurs in networks expanding the roles to include also local e-government contexts.

  • 65.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Public E-servive as an Innovative Organisational Setting for Entrepreneurial Behavior2009In: Uddevalla Symposium 2009 The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2009, 1, p. 205-222Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public e-services are technical innovations leading to organisational changes. The basic pre-conditions of e-services in the public sector differ in several perspectives from the private sector and e-commerce. For example when the “customers” are citizens instead of consumers the distribution of, access to and use of the services are different. Thus there are demands for developing general models and approaches to analyse as well as promote public e-services. Governmental e-services bring out innovative organisational changes based on how the public sector can meet the e-society and bridge over formerly unseen divides. However, such changes demand an innovative behaviour among actors in usually strictly and formally defined roles. 

        The conceptual model developed in this paper will discuss the differences of e-services, e-administration and e-democracy. Following on to this model an illustrative case of a public e-service on the Internet is presented analysed through the model. The e-service extending the geographical reach of public organisations is the Common application system for upper secondary school, in the regions of West Sweden and Östergötland in Sweden.

  • 66.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Regional e-governance: Promoting Entrepreneurial Behavior in Public Administration2014In: Agglomeration, clusters and entrepreneurship: Studies in Regional Economic Development. / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson, Roger R. Stough, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, 1, p. 199-220Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public e-services are technical innovations which enable organizational changes. The basic pre-conditions for e-services in the public sector differ in several respects from e-commerce in the private sector. When the “customers” are citizens, the distribution of, access to and use of the services are not based on an open market distribution. Public e-services bring about innovative organizational changes for the new e-society and bridge formerly unseen digital divides. However, such changes demand an innovative behaviour among people in professional roles which are usually strictly and formally defined. 

        The conceptual model developed in this paper will discuss the differences of e-services, e-administration and e-democracy. Following this model, an illustrative case of a public e-service on the Internet will be presented and analyzed. The e-service extending the geographical reach of public organizations is the Common application system for upper secondary school in the regions of West Sweden and Östergötland in Sweden. The professionals in public administration acted as entrepreneurs and improved the intended benefits of the e-service. We therefore see a demand for developing general models to analyze as well as for promoting public e-services.

  • 67.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Trust in Safe Public E-services: Translating Policies into Use2011In: Uddevalla Symposium 2010. Innovation and Multidimensional Entrepreneurship - Economic, Social and Academic Aspects / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2011, 1, p. 107-124Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging information society challenges relations between public agencies and citizens in many ways. Such relations taking place on the Internet or in other specific systems are called public e-services, which is a basic component of e-government.  E-services as such are innovations – even if the service as such has been there before – it is a new way producing and organizing the service. For successful implementation of innovations in public contexts the innovations has to be considered as legitimate by all involved actors.

       On a European and national level there are some policies and emerging standardization regarding public e-services. Thus policies are translated both to other levels of governments in the multi-level governance chain and secondly from technical to administrative settings. Since the Swedish public administration rely on a double steering approach, with strong constitutional regional and local autonomy, such policies cannot be forced out into regional local public agencies. Instead European and national policy statements become soft policy instruments in the local context and the implications from them rely on the local uptake in the specific setting and the competences of the professionals in the local public administration. 

       Since this is a new emerging field of innovative practice our analysis will build on an inductive methodological approach. The theoretical framework of policy and technology translation opens for inclusion of this broad process of changes. Our focus here on the translation process is to highlight both translations over levels in multi-level settings and constructions of meanings of safety. The conclusion is that the translation over levels from policies to praxis appears to be more critical than the technological translation. In short: the organizational settings of multi-level governance are greater constraints than new technology for implementation of public e-services.   

  • 68.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Trust in Secure Public E-services: Translating Policies into Use2012In: Entrepreneurship, Social Capital and Governance: Directions for Sustainable Development and Competitiveness of Regions / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson, Roger R Stough, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, p. 241-262Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging information society challenges relations between public agencies and citizens in many ways. Providing e-services on the Internet and using other forms of information and communication technologies are basic components of e-government. E-services as such are innovations – even if the service itself existed before – as they are a new way of producing and organizing the service. For secure use and successful implementation of innovations in public contexts, the innovation must be considered legitimate and related to policies.

       The European Union and all other levels of government form policies, which are translated among the various levels to manage the useful, secure praxis of e-services. Translation in organisational terms takes place across governmental levels in the multi-level governance chain and secondarily from technical to administrative settings. Since the Swedish public administration relies on a dual steering approach, with strong, constitutionally mandated regional and local autonomy, such policies cannot be forced onto regional and local public agencies. Instead, European and national policy statements become soft policy instruments in the local context, and their implications rely on local uptake in the specific setting and on the competencies of the professionals in local public administration. 

       Since this is a new, emerging field of innovative policy and practice, our analysis will build on an inductive methodological approach. The theoretical framework of policy and technology translation allows inclusion of this broad process of changes. Our focus here on the translation process is to highlight translations both across levels in multi-level settings and as constructions of meanings of security. The conclusion is that the organizational settings of multi-level governance are greater constraints than new technology for implementation of public e-services.   

  • 69.
    Bernhard, Irène
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    The Role of Local Destination Management Organizations for Destination Development focusing on E-government and Networks. Case studies from Scandinavia2015In: Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 123-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on destination development from the perspective of the field of tourism, explored by a descriptive study comparing three local Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) focusing on e-government and networks. Local DMOs are often founded by local municipalities and enterprises in conjunction to promote the tourism industry. This study includes three cases in Scandinavia, having inland water areas in common, situated in regions that are undergoing structural change. The research method is based on case study methodology with use of qualitative in-depth interviews and document studies. This research provides insight into and deeper understanding of some important aspects regarding the use of e-government and networks that contribute to destination development in an Scandinavian context.

  • 70.
    Bernhard, Irène
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The Role of Local E-government for Satisfied Citizens: Towards Sustainable Development?2015In: Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 141-153Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to study the role of local e-government regarding citizens view of municipality service, information and accessibility to municipality service. The main hypothesis was that municipalities with high degree of pro-activity regarding e-government are municipalities with high degree of satisfied citizens. Satisfaction among citizens was studied by using a national survey which is performed twice ever year. The survey normally includes roughly 130 municipalities out of the 290 municipalities in Sweden. The number of randomly selected individuals per municipality is usually 600 in smaller municipalities and 1200 in larger municipalities. In this study we focus on the following dimensions: Overall satisfaction, Satisfaction with response and accessibility and Satisfaction with influence and confidence.The results implies that e-government and satisfied citizens are correlated. The correlations between the e-variables: e-proactivity, e-strategy, e-information/transparency, e-interaction were all significantly correlated to the satisfaction indices. The correlations were generally of medium strength, i.e. around 0.2-0.4. There were no significant correlations between in real life interactions, strategy for democracy and the satisfaction indices.

  • 71.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Evaluation of Customer Centre and e-Services in a Swedish Municipality with Focus on the Citizens' Perspective2009In: 3rd European Conference on Management and Evaluation / [ed] Jan Ljungberg and Kerstin Grundén, Reading: Academic Publishing Limited , 2009, p. 34-41Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication and quality of service to the citizens are considered to be of utmost importance in today’s society. Even though the Swedish municipalities have a high level of self-regulation and freedom to organize communication and dialogue with their citizens in their own way, the Swedish government has expressed their demands of increased expectations by citing the potential of e-governance and high quality of service in order to increase the efficiency of the service to the citizens. To implement customer centres is one way to meet these demands. This paper offers a critical evaluation of consequences for Swedish citizens regarding the quality of service from the citizens’ perspective in a municipality where a new customer centre and e-services have been developed and established. The main research method is qualitative based upon analysis from interviews with different personnel categories of employees within the municipality. The results are also based on analysis of customer investigations. The results show that this implementation and developing of e-services are mostly positive for the quality of service to the citizens but there are also some weak aspects found.

  • 72.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Incentives for Inclusive E-Government: The Implementation of Contact Centers in Swedish Municipalities2019In: Open Government: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications / [ed] Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, Information Resources Management Association , 2019, p. 60-85Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the focus is on incentives for inclusive e-government. Five case studies of the implementation of contact centers in Swedish municipalities are described and discussed. The research methods used are mainly qualitative interviews with different categories of municipal personnel and with citizens. The main conclusion is that the implementation seems to contribute to increased accessibility of municipal services, even for those citizens who might have problems using Internet services. The study indicates a development towards increased equal treatment of citizens and a contribution to reducing problems related to the "digital divide." Municipal services became more adapted to citizens' needs by using citizen-centric methods during the development process and in the daily work of the contact centers. The implementation of municipal contact centers can thus be seen as indicating incentives for local e-democracy and a step towards inclusive e-government, although there is still a need to go further in this direction.

  • 73.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gustafsson, Mariana
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sefyrin, Johanna
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    A digital society for all?: Meanings, practices and policies for digital diversity2019In: Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2019, 2019, p. 3067-3076Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of digital divides has been on the agenda in research and policy making for at least the last 20 years. But it is still, a challenge to grasp this concept that is so elusive and transforming. Inclusion, access and equality are still key values for democratic governance and must be addressed in particular when forming and contributing to a digital government. This paper seeks to intervene in current debates on digital divides and digital inclusion by analyzing two cases of responses among street-level public administration in relation to e-government services in Sweden. The case studies are strategically chosen and conducted in national agencies and in local public libraries. Three lines of contributions are discussed, firstly thei mportance to care for equality secondly the need to seethe non-users, and thirdly to discuss the potential of putting focus on digital diversity.

  • 74.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Degree of Digitalization and Citizen Satisfaction: A Study of the Role of Local e-Government in Sweden2018In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 16, p. 59-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate whether there is a relationship between degree of e-government in Swedish municipalities and perceived satisfaction among citizens generally. This is a large-scale quantitative study based on validand reliable Swedish national surveys. Based on these surveys, a new comprehensive index for measuring "degree of digitalization" was constructed. Citizen satisfaction was measured using established indices covering three dimensions:satisfaction with living in the municipality, satisfaction with performance of government activities (delivered services), and satisfaction with transparency and influence. The results show that there is a relationship between the degree of digitalization in a municipality and the perceived satisfaction among its citizens. The degree of digitalization is related to all three dimensions of citizen satisfaction. Additionally, this study indicates that the strength of this relationship is in parity with or even stronger than the relationship between citizen satisfaction and other crucial factors such as educational level and median income

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  • 75.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping Univeristy, Linköping.
    Automation of Digital Public Services: Challenges when Working with Automated Systems and Striving for Inclusion of End-Users2019In: Uddevalla Symposium 2019: Unlocking the Potential of Regions Through Entrepreneurship and Innovation. Revised papers presented at the 22nd Uddevalla Symposium, 27–29 June, 2019, L'Aquila, Italy / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2019, p. 91-105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of automated systems for decision making and decision supportin public administration is forming new practices and challenging public values. Automated decision-making systems are mainly used in administrative systems but require end-users of services to submit relevant data in correct ways to make the services functional. However, not all potential or intended users of these services have the competence and capacity to use them. There is a pressing need to uncover and analyze how professional staff at public agencies respond to users' problems caused by digitalization in general and automation in particular for those who have problems using the services since there is a legal requirement to provide impartial public services. The case study presented in this paper builds on a bottom-up qualitative study including in-depth interviews and observations at two Swedish authorities, the Swedish Public Employment Agency and the Swedish Social Insurance Agency, in two Swedish municipalities. The main contribution by the case study shows how challenges that the professional staff face when they have to support everyone when the main management method is to use automated systems. The first way of addressing risk of exclusion is improved personalized support by the professional "street-level" bureaucrats, and the second is the important support also provided by other citizens and users of the services that enhances inclusion. The study indicates the importance of forming new support structures when public services are digitalized with ambitions to be more efficient.

  • 76.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Urban Planing and Development. Division of Political Science, Department of Management, Linköping University, Linköping (SWE).
    Bringing all clients into the system: Professional digital discretion to enhance inclusion when services are automated2022In: Information Polity, ISSN 1570-1255, E-ISSN 1875-8754, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 373-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of automated systems for decision-making and decision support in public administration is forming new practices and challenging public values since public services must be impartially accessible and designed for everyone. New robotistic process automation (RPA) systems are generally designed based on back-office structures. This requires clients to submit relevant data correctly in order for these services to function. However, not all potential or intended users of these services have the competence and the capacity to submit accurate data in the correct way. Front-line case workers at public agencies play critical roles in supporting those who have problems using the services due to the a forementioned accessibility requirements and there by work in bridging digital divides. This article analyses strategies used by front-line case workers to complement RPA and improve the inclusion of all clients in the services. It builds on qualitative case studies at two Swedish authorities, including in-depth interviews and observations. The study shows that the discretion of the front-line case workers is limited by the RPA systems, and they also have limited discretion to support clients in their use of the digital services. Instead, they develop strategies in line with more service- and socially-oriented values; duty-oriented values are integrated into the RPA. The analysis shows the importance of forming new support structures for inclusion when public services are automated to maintain the core public values of inclusion and democratic legitimacy.

  • 77.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pineda, Maria Victoria
    De La Salle University.
    What Drives a Great Learning Experience for Millennial Learners: Swedish and Filipino Observations2012In: PeLS Online Journal, ISSN 2094-781X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 3-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Millennial learners are individuals born after 1985 with very wide exposure to various types of media enhanced by technology. They are persons who had listened to music while in the womb of their mothers and had watched television starting at age 0. Most of them would have had a music player or a game pad or a mobile phone at age 8. (Deterle, Dede and Schrier, 2008) These millenial learners grew up with constant web connectivity at their fingertips to assist them in their homeworks.The present pedagogies our academic institutions employ to support the learning style of the web generation of students may not be as suitable. Social constructivism, transformative learning or problem-based learning, while prevalent in the Asian context, may be more perfect for cognitively dynamic students. Our students nowadays are more adept to constructing knowledge, content (Attwell, 2007) and even more independent in their learning priorities. This study attempts to understand the new learning practices among our students. This study attempts to find out how college students define what a good learning experience is. It is also the intention of the study to explore new educational practices and hopefully drive ways of designing and developing the future of learning activities. The study was conceived in May 2011 and was planned to collect data in the form of short videos in a span of six months, from June to December. There will be two sets of samples, one from the students of De La Salle University of the Philippines (DLSU) and the other from the students of University West (UW) in Sweden.The experiment asked for a two minute video that will be created and expressed by an individual or group of students. This meant planning and organization to compose the thoughts, the message and the content of the video. Since this contains the expression of the students themselves, the self-expression equates to a great degree of authenticity. This paper will impart the results of this experiment, the Great Learning Experience. There weretwenty videos from DLSU and fifteen videos from UW. This paper will tell the methods used in the different classes and the findings. Comparison of the UW and DLSU videos is not includedin the paper.

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  • 78. Bernheim, B-G.
    et al.
    Hattinger, Monika
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Informatics and Mathematics.
    Sharing Thoughts and Associations: Towards a Neural Metaphor Supporting Boundary Objects in Community Networks,2003In: IRIS 26, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Bernheim, Bo-Göran
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Ett förslag till en metod för konceptuell modellering2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vetenskapliga teorier och begreppsmodeller kan ses som representationer av kunskap om något fenomen. Teorier är alltid abstraktioner av ett fenomen, med syfte att; beskriva, förklara, förutse eller styra detta fenomen.

    I ett nummer av MIS Quarterly (2003 27(3) pp iii-xii), argumenterar Ron Weber (2003) för att forskare inom IS-domänen bör sträva efter bättre precision när man presenterar och diskuterar forskning och teorier.

    I den här uppsatsen analyseras Ron Webers artikel för att ta fram en konceptuell modell, en begreppsmodell, för vetenskapliga teorier.

    Syftet är att skapa en modell för vetenskapliga teorier som kan leda till bättre formalisering och tydliggörande av vetenskapliga teorier.

    Dessutom skapas en enhetlig och konsistent terminologi avseende de element (relationer mellan olika entiteter, dessas egenskaper, tillstånd och relaterade händelser) som kan ses som den minsta gemensamma nämnaren för att beskriva alla existerande fenomen. En instansiering av denna modell skulle kunna tjänstgöra som ett generiskt arkiv 1 för kunskap.

  • 80.
    Bernheim, Bo-Göran
    et al.
    Semcon Sweden AB, Department of Industrial Management, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Informatics and Mathematics.
    Towards Organizational Performance Understanding Management Mindsets and Work Practice2004In: Proceedings of IRIS27 2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the concept of Organizational Performance (OP). Werefer to OP as a management concept, which further develops the research andpractise within Knowledge Management (KM). Our implications suggest Empowerment as a complementary concept to KM. Based upon a practitioner'sreflections on different OP-related problems identified from different consultancy projects within Swedish Industry Bureaucracies we discuss the similarities and differences between different KM/OP management theories andpractises. In such settings, relations between knowledge workers and managersare not satisfactory matched. We discover that different management mindsets are applied from the understanding of work practise. We refer to these mindsetsas Controlling figures respective Managing Knowledge. As a result, we relate experienced-based stories to theoretical concepts within different management mindsets in order to identify implications for a sound organizational performance.

  • 81.
    Bicoli, Ngadhnjim
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Pepi, Elvis
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Säkerhetsutmaningar företag står inför vid övergång till molntjänster: En Litteraturöversik2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud Computing has been and still is a rapidly developing innovation with a lot of beneficial impact for companies. The new IT-paradigm of Cloud Computing poses a shift from the traditional way of IT businesses and resources to a new and coveted infrastructure. The Cloud offers the next generation of internet-based computer systems that will promote Cloud Service Users (CSU) through customizable services anywhere and at any time. Despite the many benefits that cloud services offer, security and privacy still remain a key issue, which makes many Chief Technology Officers (CTO) and Chief Information Officer (CIO) not convinced that migrating their company to the cloud is worth the posed risks. This study uses a literature review as a method for compiling and analyzing previous studies, as well as identifying and classifying the security challenges that may arise and or exist for companies in migration to cloud services. The result of this study shows that companies in migration to the cloud risk being exposed to several security attacks, legal problems, transparency, network threats and various security challenges when choosing a different service or implementation model.

  • 82.
    Bijan, Dina
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Haddad, Daniella
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Effekter av grafisk design: Den grafiska designens påverkan på användarens tillit till e-handelswebbplatser2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has become increasingly important to focus on good graphic design. Users are more likely to use and trust a website when it has a well thought out and appealing graphic design. As it is common to shop from e-commerce websites, it is important to get users to trust the site. E-commerce has become an increasingly important part of users’ lives and it’s important for users to influence factors that contribute to increased engagement, where trust plays a major role. In online transactions where the parties are unknown to each other, online trust is crucial for whether the transaction will take place or not. The purpose of this study is to investigate how graphic design influences users to experience trust in e-commerce websites. This led to the research question:“How does graphic design affect users’ trust in e-commerce websites?”. For this study, aqualitative method has been used, where focus groups have been used to collect data. For this study,we have put together two focus groups that have looked at and compared two types of graphic design on two different websites. Based on our interview questions and based on the graphic design criteria in previous research, the focus groups have responded and discussed which website they trust the most and why. The results have shown that aspects within the graphic design criteria affects users’ trust by having an attractive graphic design and that relevant information must be discoverable to users, that is, the placement of information plays a major role. In addition, the results have shown that it is a factor that a website’s graphic design has aspects that characterize familiarity. 

  • 83.
    Borg, Margareta
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    "It´s Not For Real": The Tablet as Palette in Early Childhood Education2019In: International Journal of Education & the Arts, E-ISSN 1529-8094, Vol. 20, no 14, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study investigated how a group of three-year-old preschool children use the drawing application Doodlecast on iPads. The smoothness, rapid response, and distinctive digital visual expressions of the tablet provided visual feedback that influenced the children's preferences for colors. Doodlecast seemed to encourage the children to explore colors and superimpose and fill-in the iPad's screen. In addition, they painted very precise shapes and lines, which seemed to facilitate pattern making and discovery of signs and relations. The children used the eraser tool to correct, reveal, remove, and create shapes. Irrespective of the method –erasing, superimposing, or filling-in the screen – the clear and professional result seemed to provide a visual confirmation that the children were able to master formulas.

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  • 84.
    Boström, Emelie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Schagerholm, Emelie
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Responsiv webbdesign: en komparativ studie om responsiv fluid och adaptiv webbdesign2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, responsiveness on a website is a must since people use all possible devices to reach a website. It can range from mobiles, tablets, laptops and desktops to smart TVs and game consoles. In this report, we have done a comparative study with experiments to compare two techniques that can be used to create responsive web. Responsive fluid web design that in a fluid/compliant way adapts the elements of the website to the width of the screen and adaptive web design which, with the help of media queries, creates a more "jumpy" design that can change the layout at specific breakpoints/ resolutions. The purpose of the report has been to see how they differ in adaptability, number of lines of code, file size and load times. We have tested by creating two different layouts, a simpler blog page and a slightly more advanced portfolio page, see Appendix 1. We first created these with only responsive fluid techniques to then apply media queries in the second test to improve the layout where it "breaks". The results showed that the adaptive technique was better at adapting the entire layout to different units, it also had better load times but higher number of lines with code and therefore also larger file size compared to the responsive fluid side. Our conclusion is that media queries are still needed to a great extent to help fix the layout in specific places, but that new functions of the grid systems can lead to that media queries is going to be used in the future only to create features on specific units more than to control the layout.

  • 85.
    Brandes, Erika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Det mobila arbetslivet: Beredskapsanalys och planering inför organisatorisk förändring2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have examined how mobile work processes can be integrated into organizations from a business-oriented perspective, and among organizations there’s a lack of long-term strategies, and understanding, for internal business mobility.

    This study examines how an organization can prepare itself for change towards a mobile work life. In order to do this a literature review and case study involving document studies and interviews at an organization with specifically developed methodologies were conducted.

    The results showed that the state of maturity is still relatively low, and there is a need to focus on developing a more thorough understanding of mobility, where challenges involve handling attitudes, organizational culture and leadership. Mobility-related needs involve task-oriented and social aspects, where different technological solutions were suggested to maintain the connections between individuals and the organization.

    There is also a need for more longitudinal studies due to the results showing how the significant changes occur over a longer period of time. An important part of the development of knowledge concerning mobility also involves learning from others’ examples, where this study is a contribution.

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  • 86.
    Brocker, Kristina
    et al.
    Strömstads kommun, Strömstad, Sverige.
    Dalenius, Martin
    Strömstad kommun, Strömstad, Sverige.
    Spante, Maria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Producing digital stories for language learning and digital competence across generations and positions of learners in municipalities2019In: VILÄR 5-6 december 2019, University West, Trollhättan: Abstracts / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2019, p. 3-4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: There is a strong need for methods how to develop language learning and digital competence through all levels of education, and in particular for adult immigrants. In Sweden, the responsible organization for such adult education is called Swedish For Immigrants (SFI), hosted in municipalities. Our paper will describe and analyze a specific effort to create innovative models to not only enhance language learning but also digital competence, something that is emphasized in all levels in the Swedish educational system ranging from kindergarten to adult educations in which SFI is part of. Furthermore, it will also describe how future digital divide between new arrivals and their children growing up in a digital society can be prevented.

    Method and process: The study is framed as an action design research study incorporating initial trials in classroom practice of first translating stories from the mother tongue into Swedish and then later make a digital production using voice and pictures freeware functions in an app on surf tablets. These digital folk tales were then made accessible with QR codes in both Swedish and mother tongue. The latter with the aim of spreading digital folk tales in different mother tongues for children at kindergartens. In order to create an authentic situation for the adult learners in the SFI class, the teacher arranged for the learners to present their stories at kindergartens for both children and staff. At each visit there were 4 students, meeting 8-10 children and 8 staff. This turned out to be a true learning experience for all involved participants.

    Result: In a short period of time the immigrants learnt how to produce digital stories and QR-codes. The children were able to use their tablets and find different stories on different languages on laminated printed QR-code. After listening to the stories, the children could ask questions directly to the producer of the story what it was about including additional questions linked to the specific country the adult person came from. After the round of different stories in Swedish the immigrants hold a presentation for the kindergarten staff about how they had worked with the process of the making of the digital production. Inspired by the immigrants in combination of the response from the children, the staff became enthusiastic in relation to work with digital competence more related to their own work practice rather than a top-down demand, as they had previously experienced curriculum driven need to develop digital competence for their young children.

    Conclusion and future plans: In this case, we could clearly see promising effects from the combined effort of involving actors from children to top management of the municipality interlinked by the curriculum demand of developing digital competence and language learning combined with 21 century skills in life-long learning. Our argument is that story driven digital production combined with co-located presentations and cross generational meetings and talk, is a fruitful way of collaborative effort to empower both children, immigrant adult learners and professional practice of education. The next step is to enlarge the number of participant and have more kindergartens involved in this collaborative model of supporting lifelong learning to find out more about the positive effects seen so far in the design process as well as its problems.

  • 87.
    Broeren, Jurgen
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Akademin, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Johansson, Britt
    NU-sjukvården, Uddevalla kommun.
    Ljungberg, Christer
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Rydmark, Martin
    Sahlgrenska Akademin, Götebrog Universitet.
    Stroke rehabilitation using m-Health Care and 3D virtual environments: work in progress2010In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies / [ed] Sharkey, Paul & Sánchez, Jaime, 2010, p. 115-122Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     We have now started testing a telehealth system for stroke rehabilitation in a rural area in Sweden (NU- Hospital Group Area). For collection of assessments and audiovisual communication, the telehealth system has bidirectional contact with the home-based units. To date, three stroke subjects’ participated; they were instructed to play 3D computer games with the hemiplegic upper extremity. The intervention led to clinical changes for all subjects. The analysis of the audiovisual communication revealed that the both stroke subjects and therapists were not yet effective in regulating their turn taking process. The data suggests the feasibility of a distance based approach using 3D virtual environments for upper extremity rehabilitation after stroke.

  • 88.
    Bäckström, Albin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Larsson, Anton
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Föräldrars upplevelser med webbsidan neonatalvard.se: En webbsida för prematurer och deras familjer under tiden de är i behov av vård2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and evaluate the parents’ experiences with the webpage neontalavard.se. It also aims to contribute with any suggestions for improvement to the webpage that arises during the study. The study applied method combination and triangulation to build up the results. Both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was used. The quantitative data was collected from a survey and the qualitative was from interviews. An analysis model was created. The analysis model (UTAM) is a further development of TAM.  The results of the surveys and the interviews conducted are presented in the same section. It is done to put words on the numbers by weaving the questionnaire and quotes from the interviews. It results in a greater understanding why someone felt like they did. The analysis was conducted on the basis of the analysis model, UTAM, indicating that the idea is good and the need for a webpage as this is great. But the parents feel that the health care staff are not sufficiently committed to experience the benefit of the webpage. This study shows that the parents’ want better and greater commitment from the health care staff. They also thought it was a good idea and they felt the need for the webpage was great but that is wasn’t necessary this webpage that was the solution. 

  • 89.
    Bält, Jessica
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Farnoud Birank, Elmira
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Designprinciper för ökad flödesupplevelse inom Ehandel: en action resign research studie2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research study brings forth design principles for how to design the user interfaces of e-commerce systems to enhance the user’s flow experience. With regards to the continuously growing amount of need for improvements in e-commerce websites to maintain market competitiveness, a crucial part of achieving a web design with good usability in a competitive industry, is to offer an enhanced flow experience based on the needs of the different user types. Earlier studies on flow theory have identified two types of users, consumers driven by utilitarian values and consumers driven by hedonic values. Earlier studies also states that improving a websites’ flow experience based on knowledge of customers’ individual driving forces can lead to increased sales and a sustainable economy for e-commerce companies. The chosen research approach Action Design Research lets the researchers develop an artifact for an organizational problem, whereas the chosen design method Lean UX enables constant collaboration and embraces Lean-Agile methods. To fulfill the purpose, this study has followed the methods together with the e-commerce company Chimi Home in Gothenburg. Prototyping a new design for the e-commerce website’s user interface was made using the design tool Figma. Through conducted interviews and user tests with staff at Chimi Home and external users data gathering has taken place during two iterations using the ADR method. Through the analysis of the six interviews in the first iteration a clear need for increase for flow experience in the Chimi Homes websites’ interface was identified. To deal with the identified organizational problem, five design principles were developed for increased flow experience within the design of e-commerce systems: Design visual designs that aim to increase trust, Easy navigation through known patterns and the possibility of multi-way navigation, Strive for the right feedback and reduce pop-ups, Increase usability by reducing workload and Ensure that the content meets different user types. 

  • 90.
    Bürge, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Olsson, Christopher
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Typografi inom webbdesign: Webbyråer och deras typografiska mönster2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to review how 40 web agencies design the body text of their own websites regarding font, font size, color & contrast and font weight and how these correlate with the research. The method used to answer the question is a quantitative survey. Data from 40 web agencies in Småland and Västra Götaland has been collected through a random sample.

    The result shows that sans-serifs are used to an extremely high extent in web agencies' body text and that Open Sans and Roboto are very well used. In addition, the majority of websites have black or gray text on a white background. A total of 92.5% of the sites surveyed meet the values for approved (AA) contrast ratio.

    Likewise, it turns out that the font size of the body text corresponds to what previous research has concluded. 30 pages are in the range of 15px to 21px font size. From the results, it can be inferred that Web agencies have a well designed page where font, font size, color & contrast and font weight often correspond to what previous research has concluded.

  • 91.
    Carling, Vilma
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Drewitz, Michel
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Dark patterns – en del av vår konsumtion på internet?: En artefaktstudie av svenska E-handelsplattformar2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A dark pattern is a manipulative design method used to mislead a user. This can lead to a user making a decision that they have not planned to make. Most people today live in a digital world and dark patterns can be encountered on all types of websites and mobile applications. If a user is aware of the dark patterns that exist, they become ineffective, therefore dark patterns evolve all the time to remain as invisible as possible. To be able to establish better protection for the consumer in the future, against the negative impact of dark patterns at the time of purchase, our study aims to explore the presence of dark patterns on Swedish e-commerce platforms. The study examines both the frequency of dark patterns but also the way in which the design methodology emerges. The study was carried out as an artifact study, where one explores and studies an IT artifact through practice and documentation. In this study, e-commerce platforms were considered as IT artifacts. The e-commerce platforms examined during the artifact study were examined based on a framework developed by Gray et al. (2018), which categorizes dark patterns. The study examined dark patterns on both desktop and mobile devices, on 12 different Ecommerce platforms. These E-commerce platforms were divided into three different Ecommerce categories: Consumer Electronics, Clothing and Food. Dark patterns were found on all E-commerce platforms examined. The results showed that the spread of dark patterns was uneven, with toying with emotion, hidden information and privacy zuckeringbeing most prominent on the E-commerce platforms. No significant difference could be discerned in the appearance of dark patterns on desktop-adapted versus mobile-adapted E-commerce platforms. The results also showed that dark patterns were significantly more prominent in the e-commerce category Home Electronics, compared with Clothing and Food.

  • 92.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Social Aspects of Strategizing Industrial Digitalization2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to contribute to understanding how contemporary Swedish manufacturing organizations can strategize industrial digitalization with an emerging focus on social aspects. It complements earlier research by highlighting Swedish manufacturing organizations as they stand at the intersection of Industry 4.0 and Industry 5.0.

    The thesis is a longitudinal case study of interviews and focus groups between early 2019 and spring 2023. The case study follows an explorative approach to give texture to industrial digitalization and to understand the social aspects of strategizing industrial digitalization. It is limited to the Swedish context and the characteristics of original equipment manufacturers.

    The thesis contributes by texturizing industrial digitalization through three social aspects, which are argued to be a way for manufacturing organizations to give shape to industrial digitalization. The social aspects elaborated on and presented in this thesis are: to look beyond digital technologies, to formalize a shared understanding, and to transcend organizational structures. These social aspects are thematic but also interlinked. Together, these social aspects bring insights into how managers can guide the organizational capabilities to ensure synergy between an organization’s actions and objectives when strategizing industrial digitalization. Strategizing industrial digitalization should, therefore, be texturized by each organization to define and redefine its organizational capabilities. This means each organization's social aspects are unique, making the manufacturing organizations' capabilities unique.

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  • 93.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Strategizing organizational capabilities for industrial digitalization: exploring managers’ technological frames2023In: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038X, E-ISSN 1758-7786, Vol. 34, no 9, p. 20-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study draws on technological frames to provide an understanding of organizational processes of strategizing by exploring how strategizing organizational capabilities for industrial digitalization could be understood through managers’ perceptions of digital technology applications. This study complements earlier research focused on industry outcomes by addressing technological frames to understand how strategizing organizational capabilities within industrial digitalization may provide insight into socio-cognitive aspects which may affect technology-induced organizational change.

    Design/methodology/approach – The single case study uses 14 in-depth interviews collected over two years (October 2020 to February 2022). The study follows an interpretative research design exploring managers’ perceptions of industrial digitalization through a digitalization project.

    Findings – The case study contributes to research by emphasizing socio-cognitive aspects through technological frames exploring how and why managers’ perceptions of industrial digitalization affect strategizing organizational capabilities. The study contributes to practice by bringing attention to the disparate views of industrial digitalization. By illustrating how socio-cognitive aspects shape organizational capabilities, this study offers managers valuable insight into the relationship between an organization’s capabilities, the individual and the shared structures affecting a digitalization project.

    Research limitations/implications – The case study is limited to Swedish manufacturing industries and is not aiming to be transferred or generalized to other industrial contexts or countries.

    Originality/value – This study recognizes that strategizing organizational capabilities depends on managers’ ability to illuminate the socio-cognitive aspects. Hence, the study contributes to practice by bringing attention to the disparate views among managers on the enhancement efforts made using digital technologies.

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  • 94.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Taking care of Digital initiatives: Managers approaching industrial digitalization2021In: Proceedings of the International Association for Computer Information Systems: Europe June 24 - 25 2021 - Virtual Conference, 2021, p. 22-24Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Carlsson Norlin, Alexandra
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Storm, Alicia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    IoT: Säkerhet vs användbarhet, vad värderas högst?2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IoT, or Internet of Things, have risen in popularity over the years. IoT can be useful for individuals in different aspects and they can offer an increase in productivity. Although IoT is useful it can also bring security risks. This study will discuss if these advantages will outweigh the device’s security risks and if the users are conscious of the risks that exist. The study will report on how IoT is structured and the risks existing within these layers, as well as what the consequences with the risks are for the users. The study will also report on earlier studies who have looked at people's perceptions of IoT from a security and utility aspects. There have been a number of interviews done in order to examine the research question in the study. The interviews in question have been done in different age groups. This study correlated with different aspects of previous studies and found that there’s a lack of understanding of what the risks with IoT are, but also found that the users wouldn’t change their behavior even after having gained a deeper understanding of the risks. The advantages with IoT are therefore perceived to outweigh the potential risks. The study then discusses if the biggest issue could be the risks that will surface with the expected increase of IoT-devices in 2030 if security measures aren’t taken early enough. The conclusion is that regardless if the solution is to give control back to the users and through this create an awareness of the risks with IoT, or a legislation that forces manufacturers to safeguard the security, that action needs to be taken now to make IoT safer in the future.

  • 96.
    Carlsson, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Forbidden and necessary: making sense of smartphones in vocational teaching2023In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The digitalization of schools has intensified in recent years. It is reflected in policy documents as well as in extensive investments in digital technology and professional development initiatives to promote digitalization. At the same time, attempts are being made to “tame” the same digitization sometimes by regulations banning smartphones in class. This study aims to examine how smartphones are interpreted by vocational teachers in Sweden using the theoretical lens of technological frames.

    Design/methodology/approach – The data consist of ten semi-structured interviews with vocational teachers, representing eight vocational programs in Sweden.

    Findings – The results show breadth in how teachers understand, interpret and relate to the smartphone in vocational education. The authors show how the smartphone often forms an integral part of professional work and is thus difficult to separate from vocational teaching and nurturing vocational competencies.

    Originality/value – The authors’ contributions include using technological frames to explore how smartphones are interpreted and understood by vocational teachers by demonstrating how they relate to the nature of the smartphone, the strategy for the smartphone and the smartphone in use. The theoretical framework is used to interpret restrictions on technology use, in this case a smartphone, in education. The results could be of interest to researchers as well as to teachers, school leaders and policymakers.

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  • 97.
    Carlsson, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design. Department of Education, School of Education, Humanities and Social Sciences, Halmstad University (SWE).
    Teaching Here and Now but for the Future: Vocational Teachers' Perspective on Digitalization2022In: International Conference on Work Integrated Learning: Abstract Book, Trollhättan: University West , 2022, p. 70-71Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    When digital technology is introduced into work practice, it means that vocational practice develops and changes (Castells, 2011). New methods, tools, and processes in working life require vocational teachers to develop fundamental vocational competencies and preparedness for this change for their pupil's employability (Persson, 2020). The concept of vocational competencies is understood in different ways (Billett, 2001) yet is often described as tacit and situated (Gåfvels and Paul, 2019). Vocational competence can be described as a symmetric relationship between knowledge, skills, and attitudes (Hiim, 2020, Baartman and De Bruijn, 2011). As working life changes, it places new demands on vocational competence and the use of different technologies. Various attempts have been made to elaborate on the competence needed for teaching in a digitalized society and a digitalized school (Ferrari, 2012, Hatlevik and Christophersen, 2013, Howell, 2012, Kivunja, 2013, Krumsvik, 2008). Vocational practices are intimately associated with physical materials such as objects, bodies, technologies, and these settings permit some actions and prevent others (Carlsson et al., 2022; Fenwick, 2015). In this study, we explore vocational teachers' perspectives on preparing students for future working life and how they relate to teaching in a digitalized society.

    Theoretical perspective

    The TPACK framework, expressing Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge, has arisen as a theoretical framework that specifies what knowledge is required for teaching with technology. It emphasizes that teaching involves developing an understanding of the complex relationship between technology, pedagogy, and content and using this understanding to develop suitable context-specific strategies and representations (Mishra and Koehler, 2006; Willermark, 2018; Willermark and Pareto). In this study, we use TPACK as an analytical lens to explore vocational teachers' perspectives on preparing students for future working life and how they relate to teaching in a digitalized society.

    Method

    The data consists of 10 interviews with vocational teachers from 8 different vocational programs in Swedish upper secondary vocational education. The participants were recruited from a previous survey carried out by the authors (Carlsson & Willermark, 2022) that explored vocational teachers' experiences in using and developing teaching material. A qualitative content analysis was carried out.

    Findings and contributions

    Findings show how teachers benefit from digital technology to support pedagogical strategies as well as facilitate students' content knowledge. Still, digitalization entails challenges of keeping up with changes in professional life and providing students with appropriate vocational digital technologies. It is clear how intimately connected and intertwined digitalization is with pedagogy and the subject content of vocational education (Koehler and Mishra, 2009). Contributions include increased knowledge about digitalization in vocational education, and how it entails navigating tensions between a) teaching practice and vocational practice, b) between different curricula and c) supportive and disruptive digital technologies.

  • 98.
    Carlsson, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Teaching Here and Now but for the Future: Vocational Teachers Perspective on Teaching in Flux2023In: Vocations and Learning, ISSN 1874-785X, E-ISSN 1874-7868, Vol. 16, p. 443-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As working life changes, it places new demands on vocational competence and the use of different digital technologies. It affects vocational teaching, yet digitalization within vocational education constitutes a scarcely researched area. In this study, we explore how vocational teachers relate to teaching in a digitalized society from a socio-material perspective and explore the possibilities as well as the discursive manifestations of contradictions it gives rise to. Data includes semi-structured interviews with ten vocational teachers, representing eight vocational programs in Sweden. Findings show how vocational teachers benefit from digital technology to realize pedagogical strategies and facilitate students’ vocational competence. At the same time, digitalization entails challenges of keeping up with changes in working life and providing students with relevant vocational digital technologies. Contributions include increased knowledge about digitalization in vocational education, and how it entails navigating different contradictions.

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    fulltext
  • 99.
    Carlén, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Maivorsdotter, Ninitha
    University of Skövde.
    Understanding athlete's online participation: a ticket to qualitative research of online arenas in sport2017In: Digital qualitative research in sport and physical activity / [ed] Bundon, Andrea, London: Routledge, 2017, p. 59-79Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Carstensen, Peter H.
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Center for Tele-Information, Denmark.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Informatics and Mathematics.
    "Here is the knowledge-where should I put it?": Findings from a study of how knowledge spaces are used within a support group1999In: Proceedings. IEEE 8th International Workshops on Enabling Technologies:: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises (WET ICE'99), IEEE, 1999, p. 223-231Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to design useful knowledge media spaces to knowledge workers it is essential that we understand the nature of the work conducted and the knowledge applied in real settings. This paper reports from a study of how a group of quality assurance specialists gather, structure and distribute information and knowledge. Based on the findings a number of overall requirements for knowledge mediaspaces are identified and discussed. The essential findingswere that information and knowledge are created and  handled in many different ways and have many differentforms. The core issues of our lessons learned so far are that we carefully need to consider knowledge media spaces both in terms of communication channels and knowledge archives. Knowledge media spaces should be seen as spaces in which knowledge and information is exchanged, filed,retrieved, presented and refined by actors having different vocabulary and perspectives on the knowledge. These characteristics must be taken into account when designing IT and multimedia based knowledge media spaces.

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