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  • 51.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Roundtable of the Month:The Image of Beyond Oneself:: The Context and Development of Swedish Animation Documentaries2019In: Contemporary Animation JournalArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikels primära ämne är en tämligen okänd filmgenre, den så kallade animerade dokumentären, vars utveckling under senare decennier fick ny fart tack vare moderna tekniska möjligheter. Med filmens inträde i den digitala eran blir denna genre allt mer vanligt inom de recenta rörliga bildproduktionerna. Förutom att ringa in grundläggande kännetecken av en specifik filmform grundad på genretraditionen som växt fram kring hybridiseringen mellan olika genrer är artikeln samtidigt ett försök till en samtidshistorisk kontextualisering. För att illustrera hur animerade dokumentärer synliggör några dolda aspekter av våra liv genom att behandla den mänskliga existensen i ett stort socio-politiskt sammanhang analyseras svensk animerad film i form av en specifik fallstudie.

  • 52.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Seriously Funny: Animation, The Concealed Avant-Garde2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The progressive migration of the European avant-gardes to America in the late 1930s compelled an adjustment of modern art practice and theory to the new cultural environment and to the needs of the cultural institutions that supported them. This radical redefinition of modern art implied the construction of a modernist canon, one that became hegemonic after WWII with the institutionalization of a discourse of modernism strictly focused on the value of form and an adherence to medium specificity. Associated with cartoons, advertising, and with popular culture in general, animation was dismissed as kitsch.  Moreover, while modernist scholars widely acknowledged film as the modernist medium par excellence, they did not pay much attention to animation, which was relegated to the category of a minor, subsidiary cinematic genre.

    Inherently and unabashedly multidisciplinary (it encompasses and creatively blends painting, drawing, sculpture, film and many other artistic media), animation obdurately defied and still challenges disciplinary regulation. Animation and animation theory, developed in the interstices between modernist fields of practice and theorization such as art history and film studies, offer a unique standpoint from where to analyze modernism in art, the historiography of this discourse, and modernist theory itself.

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  • 53.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Sketching Out the ”Proxy Space”2016In: / [ed] Franziska Bukner, 2016, p. 15-15Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Animation is usually defined as the moving image that
 is not recorded from a real-time movement but the
 movement created artificially. My concern here is the 
visualisation of the space inaccessible for either pho
tographic film image or our sensory apparatus. I see it
 as the crucial attribute of animated image that is equally 
important for understanding of the animation medium
as the movement making. What the philosopher Paul 
Crowther labelled as "proxy space in animated film"
(quoted by Donald Crafton 2013: 147) could in my own
interpretation be distinguished as the creation of the diegetic space that only exists in the viewers' imagination, and only in the moment while they are watching the film. Mise-en-scène in animation is always a symbol for a space, no matter how convincing an illusion of three dimensions is created in some particular film. Actually, many animators who are active in our time exploit the fact that digital animation made a possible perception of space totally inaccessible to the photographic film technique. For instance the penetrating camera (fly-through) dissolves the restrictions associated with the pictorial space so that we can reach what we cannot see beyond the picture's surface. However, in this short presentation I aim to examine that aspect of animation in the realm of traditionally made animated films in order to verify the view on the "proxy space" being always an essential part of the animated image regardless technical or production conditions.In order to explore varied approaches toward the creation of "proxy space" I will look at some canonical films produced during the golden age of Zagreb School of Animation. Those films made by Vladimir Kristl, Dušan Vukotić, Borivoj Dovniković, Vatroslav Mimica and Nedeljko Dragić, provide lot of evidences that prove that animation space stands for an inherent liberation from the limitations of the laws of physics and entering into the world of the fantastic, symbolical and metaphorical. Employing various minimalistic methods the Zagreb animators created a complex multi-dimensional representation of space. By using several film examples I am going to emphasise five different methods in this paper.

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    fulltext
  • 54.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Swedish animated film - 100 Years: Animated children's films, commercials, animated documentaries, as well as films influenced by comics made by distinct individualists are the cornerstones this cinematic phenomenon is based on.2015Conference paper (Other academic)
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    Swedish animated film - 100 Years
  • 55.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Tamna strana Potemkinovih kulisa: sovjetski animirani film od animiranih agitki do animacije otopljavanja u filmovima Fjodora Hitruka 2010In: Hrvatski filmski ljetopis, ISSN 1330-7665, Vol. 63, p. 70-93Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 56.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    The "Clayman" from Norway and his worlds2011In: Catalogue, 34th Göteborg International Film Festival, januari - februari 20011, Vol. 34, no 34, p. 16-20Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 57.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    The Context and Development of Animated Documentaries, the Cornerstones of Modern Animation in Sweden2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It seems that the first decades of the new millennium has brought a small renaissance of documentaries, especially those that combine live action and animated pictures and even those visualised totally by employment of some animation technique. The main concern in this paper is a conspicuous propensity in Swedish animation toward animated documentary. Arguably, Sweden is the country that, besides Canada and Great Britain, has developed the most prolific production of films that merge documentary purposes and animated imagery. The paper is composed of three parts. In the beginning the paper defines animated documentary. Swedish animation and documentary history is roughed out in the second part putting emphasis on certain features that might be the base for the development of the animated documentary. Finally, the last part focuses first on some factors in its production and social background that, at least partly, explain why the animated documentary is a prominent feature on the Swedish animation scene and, lastly, some films and filmmakers that eminently represent the genre are pointed up.  

  • 58.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    The Feast of Humoristic Drawing2012In: Catalogue, 40th World Gallery of Cartoons – Skopje 2012, no 1, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 59.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    The man and the line: Monographyc study of the work of animator, cartoonist and comics author Nedeljko Dragic2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nedeljko Dragic is without doubt one of the most important creators not only in the Zagreb School of animation but of cartoon films in general, if we accept this term as designating a particular subspecies within the medium of the animated image. However, because of several factors, not unimportant among them the author’s personal bohemian and nonchalant attitude to his work, his films and his other works have not to date been adequately studied.

    Dragic’s film animation, and also his comic strips and cartoons, are works of great complexity and stratified symbolism. Instead of treating animated artificial movement as a mimetic reflection of reality, as the great majority of his colleagues worldwide does, Dragic was practically from the beginning of his career interested in the concept of idea in motion, thought brought to life, visual anthropology and, especially topical in our time, documentary animation. For Dragic the viewer is an active consumer, and for him the act of projection is inter-sub- jective communication, an approach that has only become customary in our post- modern time. This, of course, is not the result of coincidence but of the intuition of an author who is turned to the future with all the force of his creative energy.

    This is why I decided on a combined form of monograph and author study, with emphasis on scholarly analysis and contextualisation in film history, not on the kind of text that is usually tailored to suit books of this kind. Therefore, the aim and purpose of this book is to lay an analytical foundation for the definitive contextualisation and evaluation of Nedeljko Dragic’s work in Croatian culture, and the development of the animation medium on the global level.

    I planned the book on several levels, where each chapter takes us one step further towards some aspect of Dragic’s opus, unaffected by time and still as interesting and provocative today at it was about half a century ago, when the majority of his works were created.

    The introductory chapter is a collection of personal notes about meetings with Nedeljko DragiÊ and the birth of the idea about this book, a process that lasted for decades.

    The second chapter focuses on Dragic the cartoonist, because, in my opinion, it was in this activity that all the preconditions developed which crucially determined the aesthetics of his animated films. Dragic the artist grew out of the modern cartoon, a tradition that differed comple- tely from the idea about the cartoon as a comical drawing, a drawn joke. The modern cartoon, whose prominent representative Saul Steinberg greatly influenced the formation of Dragic’s worldview as an author, is in the first place stamped by a wealth of symbolism and a great ran- ge of subjects which include practically all the basic philosophical issues about man and his world. Dragic’s experiences as a cartoonist fundamentally determin- ed him as a cineaste, animator, satirist and creator in general, sensitive to some of the basic moral issues of our time.

    The third chapter deals with the history of the contacts between and intertwining of comics and animation as a context for understanding Dragic’s work. In this chapter analysis focuses on the comic Tupko, which Dragic made for Vecernji list and which functions as a bridge notonly between his cartoons and films, but also serves to bring his entire opus toget- her into a coherent whole.

    The fourth chapter is a presentation of Nedeljko Dragic’s films, based on his personal attitude to each of them and showing characteristic excerpts from their critical reception.

    To completely understand the value of Dragic’s work, it must in my opinion be placed in the context of film history and global modernist processes in the animation medium, in the evolution of which an essential stage belongs to the phenomenon known as the Zagreb School. This is the purpose and ambition of the fifth chapter of the book. Dragic’s films grew out of and belong to the modernist wave that swept through animation from America after the 1940s and 1950s. This period brought a new trend in cartoon films, characterised by a different sensibility both in visual stylisation and approach to animation. This new current, known as limited animation in older film literature, meant a radical move away not only from the so-called Disney model but also from what was, for example, being created by Avery, Jones, Tashlin and other prominent authors in the Warner Bros. studio. Some important circumstances influenc- ed this development of animation, such as the war, change of lifestyle, industrialisation, the appearance of television, which soon became the main distributor of the animated picture, modern design and art in general. All these tendencies, after an initial spur from the United States, found fertile soil in, among other places, the Zagreb Animation Studio, and Nedeljko Dragic was one of the leading promoters and practicians of this trend.

    A precondition for any attempt to interpret Dragic’s work is the establishment of precise analytical instruments on which this analysis can be based. The- refore, the sixth chapter deals with animation semiotics, which has so far hardly ever appeared in its pure form, at least not in texts in languages that I know. I derived here this barely existent scholarly discipline from the relatively well-established film semiotics, because of the kind- red nature of the moving picture in animation and film (photography), whose basic characteristics are highly coincidental. I also see a reason for this approach in the fact that film semiotics often treat animation in a rather confused and contradictory manner. I will build a specific model for interpreting Dragic’s animation in the first place on the basis of the work of Yuri Lotman, an Estonian structuralist semiotician.

    The final chapter of the book is a long and detailed interview with Dragic himself, who comments all the essential issues concerning his work, the Zagreb School and animation in general from his own point of view.

     

  • 60.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    The Puppet-Actor in Virtual Environment: Theatrical puppetry, cinema puppetry, digital puppetry2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    My concern is animated puppetry in the digital era. Actually, this presentation is a brief depiction of a much larger "to-be-a book" project.

    Puppet comes from pupa, Latin for "small creature that portray human".

    The idea about a movable, humanlike object emerged in puppet theatre but blossomed in animated film. By using an inanimate objects as an actor puppet animators create worlds we recognize as a deeper, metaphorical truth of own world. Animators are tasked with creating expressions and emotions for their artificial figures, thus turning them into characters.

    That is why probably no other form of creating moving pictures is lavished with as much time, care and passion as stop-motion. In difference to live-action directors that direct living people, the animation director directs his or her own deepest feelings through the material, which allows practically unlimited space for individualism and creativity. By touching the models the animator leaves traces of his life on them so the feelings and spiritual state emanate from puppet-films as some sort of fantastic reportage about the dreams hidden deep in their creators.A great number of important puppet-animators such as Starewitz, Zeman, Ewald, O?Brien, Moss, Trnka, Pall, Kajer, Kawamoto, Borowczyck, Barta, Shorina, Svankmajer or Burton developed the type of iconoclastic aesthetic of the three-dimensional animation.

    But what happened with the illusion of "living" object in the modern 3D computer animation? Can we consider the three-dimensional figures created with the help of some software application as puppetry?

    I argue that digital puppetry could be seen as a new stage in the development of this form of expression whose basic characteristics largely coincide with cinema puppetry and theatrical puppetry.

    In this presentation I focus on a phenomenon sometimes called "uncanny valley",or rather a reduced emotional response, which I see as one of the main reasons for some doubts and confusion in recent discussions concerning digital animation. Absence of human touch and tactile sensation in digital pictures contributes to a form of dehumanization in 3D CGI animation because of the fact that mathematic accuracy in digitally created characters may not elicit the intended empathetic response in the viewer.

    I present three ways in which the problem is usually addressed by animators: (1) creating puppet characters that are in appearance markedly non-human or non-realistic, based on a tradition inherited from theatrical and cinema puppetry, (2) employing some documentary methods, (3) applying a kind of surreal quality to the performing puppet.

  • 61.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Throbbing Desire: During the 70s and 80s, a feminist animation movement grew forth with the Czech creator Michaela Pavlátová as one of the central figures. This year’s animator in focus is an exuberant fountain of ideas who with humor and rich imagery portrays inequality, masturbation and unhappy marriage.2015In: Catalogue, 38th Göteborg International Film Festival, Göteborg, 2015, no 01, p. 23-28Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    Throbbing Desire
  • 62.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Titoism and the Idea of “The Third Road” as Ideological Foundation of Zagreb School for Animated Film2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geographically, and ideologically, Yugoslavia stood on the border between two confronted blocks during the Cold War, but belonged to neither. The idea of ‘the third road’ was extremely popular; people really saw their country as an alternative to imperialist West and bureaucratic East.

    Yugoslav regime was rarely criticized for lack of democracy; it was more fiercely attacked by the nationalist right wing, which sheds much light on the catastrophe that happened after Tito’s death.

    Yugoslav film makers rarely confronted the system; they were mostly its ardent propagators. The ‘third road’ idea was popular even among the creators of Yugoslav’s best films – members of the Zagreb School of Animated film. Still, satire was an important element of Zagreb films, but the satirical razor was directed towards actual global problems, racism, colonialism, pollution, hunger, poverty, fear of the A-bomb, war, etc. Criticism was present, but it did not include social criticism. Yugoslav system was not only spared of criticism, it was, indirectly but indisputably, celebrated. The idea of a small, spiteful country existing on the borderline between two gigantic and hostile worlds was interwoven in many films made in the Zagreb studio. A small freedom oasis, surrounded by pressures, terror and danger, was an all-present motif in animated anecdotes of the leading school’s masters. A small man abused by his surrounding, who, despite the troubles, kept fighting for his way of life, his independence and neutrality was a common denominator of the authors of the Zagreb school, regardless of their artistic profile and their filmic and visual expression.

    Soon after Tito’s death in 1980, the idea of the ‘third road’ turned out to be completely ‘unrealistic reality’, just like La Grande Illusion. After Gorbachov, perestroika, the fall of the Berlin wall, and the end of the cold war, the idea of the ‘third road’ and a country in between lost its initial meaning. Yugoslavia lost its international position, and moreover, dissolved in a bloody war.

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    fulltext
  • 63.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Tragajuci za kompleksnim kadrom: Roy Andersson, sadasnji i buduci klasik2010In: Sarajevske sveske/Sarajevo Notebok magazine, ISSN 1512-8539, no 29-30, p. 548-562Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Midhat Ajanovic's My Choice paints an idiosyncratic portrait of the most well-known Swedish director, Roy Andersson, and provides a translation of an inspirational program text by this controversial filmmaker.

  • 64.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Tragajuci za vidljivim pojmom / Searching for visible concept: Pokusaj definiranja semiotike animiranog filma na primjeru opusa Nedjeljka Dragica / An attempt to define animated film semiotic on the example on Nedeljko Dragic's work.2012In: Hrvatski filmski ljetopis / Croatian Film Cronicle, ISSN 1330-7665, Vol. Sommar 2012, no 70, p. 91-118Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The text looks at semiotics in animation, a branch of semiotic which, as far as the author knows, has practically never appeared in its pure form. Such barely existing scientific discipline is here derived from the comparison with a relatively established film semiotics, considering the similarity between animated and film (photographic) moving images, the basic characteristics of which in most pert overlap. A case study was conducted on the animated films by  Croatian author Nedeljko Dragic, due to their complexity and richness of layers in terms of symbolic charge. Instead of treating the artificial movement in animation as a mimetic reflection of reality, as most of his colleagues do, Dragic takes interest in a moving concept, in a thought brought to life, in visual anthropology amd in animated documentarism, particular topical in our times. For Dragic, a viewer is an active consumer snd he perceives the act of screening as intersubjective communication, an idea that will become popular only in our postmodern times. Of course, this is not a coincidence, this is the intuition of the author who has always looked at the future with the full force of his creative energy.

    Key words: Animated film, semiotic, sign, Nedeljko Dragic, Passing Days, Diary, Tup-Tup        

  • 65.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Usamljeni detektiv u svijetu pohlepe i lazi/Lonely detective in a world of greed and lies: Jedan pogled na  dugovječnu tradiciju tvrdo kuhanog trilera u literaturi i na filmu/One look at the long-lived tradition of hard-boiled thriller in literature and film.2016In: Hrvatski filmski ljetopis/Croatian Film Chronicle, ISSN 1330-7665, Vol. 22, no 85, p. 163-196Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is centred on the phenomenon of the specific socially critical so-called hard-boiled thriller that distinguished itself as a separate film genre in the USA already during 1920s. The reason for this should be looked for in the everyday life that provide versatile stimuli and inspiration, but first of all in hard-boiled literature that rose to stardom in this period. Another typical American genre, western, deals with the, not only geographically, but also strictly time-limited vision of American history in the years of expansion and settlement (the beginning of western coincides with the emergence of the Colt revolver and its end with the time when cars replaces horses) and in principle represents a glorification of American history and system. However, crime film has a tendency to adjust its framework to the changing historical circumstances, different and new media and is integrated in other cultures, most frequently as an eminent critique of capitalist society. Dashiell Hammett, author and screenwriter, played the most prominent role in the process of genre defining. He basically created the American-type thriller and made it an independent literary genre. Although he authored only a small number of literary works and although he has been more or less completely unrecognized by the academic and literary establishment, with is prose Hammett stimulated the development of the hard-boiled thriller and the aesthetic model on which it was based which transferred from literature to feature film and from there to other media as well, such as comic book and videogames. The model was successfully adapted to non-American environments as well in the form of original hybrids such as Scandinavian thriller for example. What Hammett inserted into crime literature, and indirectly into film and other media as well, is the perception of reality embodied through the modelling of protagonists and a complete relativisation of the line between good and evil. As a man who was all but apolitical, he contemplated society from the inside, from its darker and unembellished, but artwise much more stimulating side, formulating the hard-boiled thriller as a specific socially critical discourse.  On the one hand, this essay is constructed as an analytical overview of the development of genre, its characteristic and significance, and on the other hand as an attempt to provide arguments for the thesis on the stableness of the model, and its vitality, durability as well as pronounced presence in other media and non-American cultures. Regardless of time periods, different characteristics related to theme and style, and subgenres (crime film, gangster film, film noir, police drama, etc.), hard-boiled thriller is, just like Aristotle’s three-act structure, demonstrated as a magic formula on which a highly critical vision of the dominant modern civilisation system related to state, values and culture was based for almost an entire century.

  • 66.
    Ajanović, Midhat
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Vlado Kristls Don Quijote2011In: Maske und Kothurn, ISSN 0025-4606, E-ISSN 2305-0667, ISSN ISSN 0025-4606, no 3-4, p. 237-244Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The author studies the animated film Don Quixote (1962) by Vladimir Kristl and sees it as one of the first works of art which depicts a mechanical and dehumanized world marked by the loss of subjectivity and the violent erasure of cultural differences between people as an image of global civilization.

  • 67.
    Ako, Clint
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Humour by violating & flouting the Gricean maxims: Male and female characters in How I Met Your Mother2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the female and male characters' humour in the American sitcom How I Met Your Mother explained in view of Grice's four conversational maxims and three theories of humour – the incongruity theory, hostility theory and relief theory. In doing so, the study also looks at the divergences and convergences in humour created between the male and female characters of How I Met Your Mother. Similar to previous research, results showed that the violating and flouting of Gricean maxims can lead to humour, which can be explained by the three theories of humour. In most examples of my study, all humour theories could be applied to the same humorous situation, providing different angles and interpretations. Furthermore, the results showed that the male and female characters create humour differently and the reason might be that there is a connection to social and cultural norms about genderr oles, which may have been stereotyped in the sitcom. For future studies, this paper suggests that a quantitative study should be conducted in order to draw quantitative conclusions regarding the frequency of violations and flouts of maxims between male and female genders of the show. The reason for the suggestion is that the results in this paper is based on four episodes and therefore limited to these specific episodes. A quantitative study could perhaps include more episodes in order to reach more general conclusions regarding the shows entirety.

  • 68.
    Al Bitar, Dima
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    English Loan Words and English-Swedish Cognates in Swedish Texts Among Highly Frequent Vocabulary2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    English and Swedish have descended from the same language family, the Germanic language. Over time, English and Swedish have undergone big changes both phonologically and orthographically, evolving further into different languages. Despite the difference and variance between modern English and Swedish, and although they look dissimilar at the first sight, one can still trace the remnants of the English language in the Swedish texts. This study is concerned with looking at the degree of resemblance between English and Swedish in terms of vocabulary and examines the extent to which English words and English-Swedish cognates are present in Swedish texts. 

    Previous research showed that not all languages develop the same way. All languages acquire their own unique features through their evolvement. For example, the English language showed a phonological development of its own that is different from other Germanic languages, through contact with different languages, such as the French language. The Swedish language had a more German influence which came through the translation of the New Testament from German into Swedish, which in turn left a great deal of German influence on Swedish. Despite that, both languages still share words that have mutual origins, which are called cognates. False cognates, on the other hand, are homographs that might have the same etymology or a different one but with different meanings. These are called false friends. A loanword can be defined as any word borrowed at any point in time to fulfil a lexical gap in the language. Anglicism is using an English word and inflecting it according to the Swedish norms, despite the existence of a corresponding word in Swedish.

    This essay investigated vocabulary taken from Swedish learning books. These vocabulary items were categorized in tables according to their relationships with English words, namelynon cognates, Germanic cognates, non-Germanic cognates, loan words and hybrid words in the word classes: nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. The results showed that only 4 texts showed more non-cognates words, 4 other texts have a nearly equal number of cognates and non cognates. Nouns occupy the highest percent of cognates, followed by verbs, adjectives and at last adverbs. Only 30 false cognates appeared in all of the 10 texts. The more the text is close to society and people and describes traditions and social life, the less cognates it uses. A very little percentage of direct loan words could be found in Swedish texts directed to students in all levels. The texts that talk about everyday life and address people's worries tend to contain more loan words in comparison to other kinds of texts.

  • 69.
    Alenius, Filippa
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    "I Can't Help What's Past!": Mourning and Melancholia in F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to present Nick's, Gatsby's and Daisy's relations to their pasts, as they have the strongest connections to their previous history. In particular focus will be on what constitutes their losses from a psychoanalytic perspective, and the Freudian framework of mourning and melancholia will be applied. In his work from 1917, Freud claimed that both mourning and melancholia are responses to loss. However, mourning is seen as the healthy and conscious response to loss, whereas melancholia is a pathological and paralyzing response. Therefore, I interpret the novel as an exploration of how the different attitudes towards loss affect the main characters and their relation to the future.

    As this essay will show, both Nick and Daisy display mourning, in contrast to Gatsby who represents the more pathological state of melancholia. This results in Gatsby's unwillingness to let go of the past, and causes his obsession with having it repeated. Nick and Daisy, on the other hand, have an awareness of their losses, which eventually leads to an acceptance and therefore detachment from what they have lost.

    In Chapter One, a few of the critical readings of the novel that are relevant for the essay will be summarized, as well as a deeper explanation of Freud’s framework and his theory regarding mourning and melancholia. An introduction to the Lost Generation will also be provided, together with modernism and the American Dream, as they deepen the understanding for the novel’s historical and societal context and connect with the themes of loss, mourning and melancholia.

  • 70.
    Ali, Feisal
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Gender and Language similarities and differences in mixed sex conversations and same sex conversations in the American TV series Modern Family2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to analyze females and males in mixed-sex conversations and same-sex conversations using cooperative speech, competitive speech, interruptions, and similarities and differences in their communication styles in the Tv series modern family. Men and women are said to use different speech styles regarding cooperative, competitive, and interruptions. I used three conversations taken from Season 1 Episode 24, Family Portrait, for mixed-sex conversations in my analysis. I also used three same-sex discussions taken from Season 3, Episode 5, Hit and Run, and Season 1, Episode 11, Up all night. The result shows similarities in both same-sex and mixed-sex conversations regarding women’s use of cooperative speech styles and men’s use of competitive speech styles and interruptions. However, my study found differences regarding women in mixed-sex and Same-sex conversations when it comes to interruptions. Women interrupt in mixed-sex discussions and not in same-sex discussions. Therefore, my analysis of the series modern family is in line with previous research on gender and language.

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  • 71.
    Allard, Annelie
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Taking things too literally: How sarcasm and irony affect the fictional character Sheldon Cooper2024Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay studies the use of indirect speech acts in dialogues from mainly Sheldon Cooper from the tv series The Big Bang Theory. By analysing the character Sheldon Cooper this essay explores the challenges people on the autistic spectrum face when someone says something that they do not mean. To investigate this, the essay focuses on the linguistic rules of the locutionary-, illocutionary- and perlocutionary act. Sheldon is seen as a special character that most people are not able to relate to and is therefore both loved and hated by many. His characteristic features align with many features of autistic criteria, such as having a hard time understanding indirect speech acts, when someone says something that they do not literally mean. This results in him often not understanding when someone is being ironic or sarcastic leading to Sheldon Cooper often being the one everyone is laughing at.

  • 72.
    Allard, Annelie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Milde, Lovisa
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Pupils’ Experiences of and Attitudes Towards Textbooks in English Education2024Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate the experience and attitudes of pupils when it comes to textbooks in English education. The study was carried out by doing mixed method research, combining a survey and group interviews. The survey, the quantitative aspect of the study, provided the context and an overall view. The survey was done by 80 pupils from secondary and upper secondary schools. The qualitative part of the study consisted of two group interviews, one in ninth grade of secondary school and one in upper secondary school with the pupils currently taking the course English 6.

    The findings in the study showed that the pupils, to a large extent, had not had textbooks in their English education the last year. It provided information that the pupils’ thoughts were divided on digital or physical textbooks, but the majority was still in favor of the digital version. Lastly, it showed that the pupils who did the group interview provided a different result from the survey by mostly preferring physical textbooks. In conclusion, the results are thereby divided within the pupil groups.

  • 73.
    Allenby, Ulrika
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Ydenius, Josefin
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Duger du som mamma: En studie av bilder och föreställningar om moderskap2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we have had as purpose to analyze the discourse about motherhood as it shows in media which appeal to mothers. This is in order to get an understanding about standards and valuations existing in today´s community concerning what it means to be a mother. The paper´s empiric material consists of the magazine Mama, which appeal to mothers with children younger than 12 years of age. We have with the help of an attempt of a discourse analysis analyzed how the motherhood discourse is reproduced and constructed in the material, and we can in our analysis see that it in the magazine is conveyed a message about what a mother "is" and "should" be. It is even evident that in the material there are pictures and texts where the mother has the basic responsibility for the children and for the home, and that these pictures strengthen the motherhood discourse. They become an accordingly normative ideal for mothers to endeavor. We also see in our analysis that there is a conception that a woman is expected to fulfil and balance different roles in many fields, as an example you should be able to combine being a good mother, career woman and a wife at the same time. And it is very important to be a great success in all these fields

  • 74.
    Almqvist Nielsen, Lena
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013), Karlstad (SWE).
    Prehistoric history in Swedish primary school education: pupils' expression of empathy after visiting a cultural heritage site2023In: Education 3-13, ISSN 0300-4279, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the concept of historical empathy in the context of field trips for young pupils to a prehistoric heritage site in Sweden. The example discussed is a field trip to Vitlycke, a heritage and rock carving site with an associated reconstructed Bronze Age farm, where pupils had the opportunity to experience prehistory with all their senses.

    The study is based on the idea that historical empathy is a process that involves both cognitive and affective dimensions and that both dimensions are important for progress. The pupils were interviewed after the trip and their responses are related to the concepts of perspective recognition and care. The study shows how the cognitive and affective dimensions were interwoven in the pupils’ reasoning and how the field trip contributed to an emotional and personal connection necessary for the development of historical empathy. This engagement led to a broadening and deepening of the pupils’ cognitive understanding of Bronze Age life and living conditions, while the cognitive understanding of the historical context contributed to a framework in which they could use their imagination. The results also show the importance of giving pupils time to follow up on theirexperiences after visiting a heritage site.

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  • 75.
    Almäng, Jan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. University of Gothenburg, Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Time, Mode and Perceptual Content2012In: Acta Analytica, ISSN 0353-5150, E-ISSN 1874-6349, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 425-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Francois Recanati has recently argued that each perceptual state has two distinct kinds of content, complete and explicit content. According to Recanati, the former is a function of the latter and the psychological mode of perception. Furthermore, he has argued that explicit content is temporally neutral and that time-consciousness is a feature of psychological mode. In this paper it is argued, pace Recanati, that explicit content is not temporally neutral. Recanati's position is initially presented. Three desiderata for a theory of time-consciousness are subsequently introduced. It is then argued that a theory locating time-consciousness as a feature of psychological mode will fail to satisfy these desiderata. In the last section the intentionality of memories is discussed. Using the notion of shiftable indexical, it is argued that memories have the same explicit content as perceptions, but that they nevertheless can have different conditions of satisfaction since they are entertained in different modes.

  • 76.
    Almér, Elin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. Jyväskylä universitet.
    Barns uppfattningar om språk: en studie av samtal om språk med barn på en finskspråkig förskoleavdelning i Sverige och en svenskspråkig daghemsavdelning i Finland2017In: Nordand 13: Abstrakt, 2017, p. 9-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande studie om barns uppfattningar om språk utgör en del av ett större forskningsprojekt (Child2ling 2013–2017) som studerar uppfattningar om tvåspråkighet kring barn. Projektet Child2ling är finansierat av Finlands akademi och har Jyväskylä universitet som huvudman. Följande studie syftar till att jämföra små barn i Finland och Sveriges (3–5 år) egna uppfattningar om språk. Forskningsfrågorna är sålunda:• Vilka uppfattningar om språk, språkbruk och flerspråkighet uttrycker tvåspråkiga barn (3–5 år) på en finskspråkig förskoleavdelning i Sverige sinsemellan och i interaktion med forskaren?• Vilka uppfattningar om språk, språkbruk och flerspråkighet uttrycker tvåspråkiga barn (3–5 år) på en svenskspråkig förskoleavdelning i Finland sinsemellan och i interaktion med forskaren?Studiens fältarbete skedde i två olika steg. Det första steget var etnografiskt och det andra steget bestod av olika "lek-metoder" som syftade till att stimulera samtalsämnet "språk" mellan mig och barnen. De etnografiska observationerna och fältanteckningarna analyserades med diskursanalytiskt anslag genom begreppen interaktiv agens (Nijnatten 2013) och historisk kropp (Scollon och Scollon 2004). Inspelningarna och transkriptionerna av samtalen har analyserats med samtalsanalytiska verktyg (Lindström 2014). Detaljanalyser av interaktionen möjliggjorde en högre grad av validering än vad som är möjligt via analys av observationer och fältanteckningar.Det preliminära resultatet visar ingen skillnad mellan barnens uppfattningar om språk mellan de olika länderna. De kontextuella aspekter som aktualiseras i samtal och utsagor är knutna till samtalet som sådant och till barnens närmiljö. Den främsta uppfattningen som barnen uttrycker är att språkkunskap är likställd med annan kunskap.

  • 77.
    Almér, Elin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Children's beliefs about bilingualism and language use as expressed in child-adult conversations2017In: Multilingua - Journal of Cross-cultural and Interlanguage Communication, ISSN 0167-8507, E-ISSN 1613-3684, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 401-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to describe young children's beliefs about language and bilingualism as they are expressed in verbal utterances. The data is from Swedish-medium preschool units in three different sites in Finland. It was generated through ethnographic observations and recordings of the author's interactions with the children. The meaning constructions in the interactions were analyzed mainly by looking closely at the participants' turn taking and conversational roles. The results show that children's beliefs of bilingualism are that you should use one language when speaking to one person; that languages are learnt through using them; and that the advantage of knowing more than one language is being able to talk to (other) people. The results also show that this knowledge of languages is no different from other knowledge within their world. This will probably change over time as the children enter school, and it is something in which our presence as language researchers will have played a part.

  • 78.
    Almér, Elin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Ungdomars språkbruk och identitet2020In: Ungdomar och identitet / [ed] Frisén, Ann & Hwang, Philip, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2020, Andra utgåvan, p. 197-217Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Almér, Elin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. University of Jyväskylä.
    Where communication flows, languages swim freely: developing fieldwork methods for investigating preschool children's language beliefs2015In: AFinLAn vuosikirja, E-ISSN 2343-2608, no 73, p. 159-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I reflect on methodological aspects to take into consideration when developing methods for investigating three- to five-year-old children's beliefs about language, language use and bilingualism. I analyze participant observations and notes taken in the field. The study focuses on bilingual Finnish-Swedish children in Swedish-medium preschools in Finland. At one of the schools, most of the children and I did not share a common language, so the interaction between us heightened both the children's language awareness and that of my own. This drew my attention to communicative aspects of embodiment and multimodality and to the distribution of responsibility for interaction. I detected two interaction orders in which children's agency stood out in their intention to make their voice heard, and I used my experiences to develop an ethically-oriented data-generating approach to enhance communication about communication.

  • 80.
    Altinisik, Mathias
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Grammatical Difficulties in English in Swedish L1 Learners’ Texts: A study on common errors in a Swedish secondary school class2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the grammatical phenomena that create difficulties in the second language learning of English for Swedish L1 students. By analyzing written English texts produced by Swedish as L1 students, an attempt is made to identify which grammatical errors are the most commonly occurring when Swedish students produce English texts. An attempt is also made to provide explanations for why these grammatical errors occur. The purpose of this study is to get an understanding of which errors are frequent in an L2 classroom and what causes the grammatical errors by taking into account the students’ bilingual context and second language development. To answer the research questions, both qualitative and quantitative research methods are used. The material consists of 20 authentic texts produced by 9th grade students from a Swedish elementary school. The outcome shows that most of the grammatical errors produced by the students arise due to negative transfer (interference) from the students’ L1, Swedish. The analysis of the grammatical errors was carried out using a contrastive analysis where the grammatical structures of Swedish and English were compared. The errors that the contrastive analysis could not explain, were explained using the following concepts: overgeneralization, processability theory, and communication strategies.

  • 81.
    Amin, Alan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Men det beror på vem det kommer ifrån: En undersökning om skällsorden i skolan2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Skällsord har alltid använts av människan såvitt man vet och förekommer i alla språk, hos alla åldrar och i alla socialgrupper. Interjektioner av dessa slag har olika typer av funktion och mening beroende på vad sändaren vill förmedla. Beroende på omfattning, val av kraftuttryck och vid vilka tillfällen man väljer att använda svordomarna, blir de lämpliga respektive olämpliga. Forskning visar att uttrycken har förändrats, brett ut sig och försvunnit genom århundraden. Svordomarna förekommer oftast i det formella språket där orden är tabubelagda och har ett "förbud" över sig, men förekommer även i det informella språket då de har en viktig funktion för sändaren att förmedla exempelvis känslor på ett lekfullt sätt. I skolmiljön är skällsord inget undantag. I denna uppsats har jag valt att använda skällsord som en övergripande term för både invektiv och svordomar, men ibland har jag när det varit nödvändigt valt att skilja dem åt. Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka vilka skällsord som används i skolan. Uppsatsen kommer även att undersöka elevers attityder till skällsord och vad det har för betydelse för ungdomars språk och relationer till varandra. Metod: Enkätundersökningar.

  • 82.
    Andersson, Helene
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    "Jag vill inte bli sedd som den som inte kan, jag vill vara med och göra samma sak som de andra": Elevers upplevelser av organisationen av ämnet svenska som andraspråk2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Hur ämnet svenska som andraspråk bör organiseras för att bäst möta elevernas behov är något som diskuterats och studerats i många år. Somliga förespråkar separat undervisning där sva-elever undervisas för sig, och andra en blandad undervisning där svaeleverna läser tillsammans med eleverna som läser svenska. Utifrån detta studeras i denna uppsats elevernas egna upplevelser av olika sätt att organisera undervisningen.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att få kunskap om några elevers upplevelser av blandad och separat undervisning i svenska som andraspråk i förhållande till språkutveckling, inkludering och integration.

    Metod: Den metod som använts är kvalitativ intervjustudie med fem elever. Intervjusvaren har analyserats enligt en kvalitativ analysmodell där svaren har tematiserats i olika kategorier. Dessa kategorier har sedan analyserats utifrån teorier om sociokulturellt lärande och inkludering som gemenskap, samt tidigare forskning om blandad respektive separat undervisning.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att eleverna upplever blandad undervisning som mer önskvärd än separat. Skälen till detta är dels att eleverna upplever att blandad grupp innebär en mer gynnsam miljö för språkutveckling, då de menar att de lär nya ord och sätt att prata och skriva av eleverna som läser svenska, dels att de anser det viktigt att ingå i gemenskapen i helklass och att inte bli betraktad som annorlunda eller mindre kunnig. Att läsa i blandad grupp upplevs också positivt för att det erbjuder möjligheter att lära eleverna som läser svenska om andra länder och kulturer och för att eleverna upplever att det hjälper dem att komma in i samhället och "bli en av folket". Fördelar med separat undervisning som lyfts fram är att undervisningen bedrivs i mindre grupper och att undervisningen har ett tydligt andraspråksperspektiv.

  • 83.
    Andersson Hval, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    New Zealand/Aotearoa: Choosing an Identity2013In: Postcolonial texts and events: cultural narratives from the English-speaking world / [ed] Andersson Hval, Ulrika, Henry, Alastair & Bergström, Catharine Walker, Lund, 2013, 1. uppl., p. 261-292Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 84.
    Andersson Hval, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    The Supoerhero and the Tiger Mom : Examining the Relation between parental expectations and career choices:: Gene Luen Yang and Sonny Liew's The Shadow Hero2021In: Engaging with Work in English Studies: An Issue-Based Approach / [ed] Alastair Henry & Åke Persson, Cham: Springer Publishing Company, 2021, p. 127-150Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the example of Gene Luen Yang and Sonny Liew’s The Shadow Hero (2014), this chapter interrogates the cultural clashes emerging from the discrepancy between individualist and collectivist views of work in relation to family and society. While classic superhero narratives can be understood as manifestations of individualism, this narrative presents a young hero who is pushed into the role by an overzealous mother, reminiscent of the Tiger Mother-figure of Amy Chua’s controversial autobiography (Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother, Penguin, 2011). Applying theories from social psychology to the analysis, it is shown that the idea of the independent self, in which work is a mark of adult autonomy, is posited against an idea of the self as interdependent and associated with collectivist ideals that link work with family and prioritize filial piety.

  • 85.
    Andersson Hval, Ulrika
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Henry, AlastairUniversity West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.Walker Bergström, CatharineUniversity West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Postcolonial texts and events: cultural narratives from the English-speaking world2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 86.
    Andersson Hval, Ulrika
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Stibe, Anna
    The Immigrant Girl and the Western Boyfriend: The Romance Plot in Young Adult Novels of Migration2016In: ESSE messenger, E-ISSN 2518-3567, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 122-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore a recurring motif in a number of young adult novels centered around the experiences of immigrant girls and their adjustment to life in a new country. The integration process appears to belinked to the girls’ relationships with boys from the majority culture, making romance a central element of the girls’ development of a new identity and sense of belonging in the new country. We will examine the intersections of gender and integration by focusing on the narrative voices of immigrant girls in three contemporary novels, Sarah Darer Littman’s Life, After (2010), Sarah Crossan’s The Weight of Water(2012), and Terry Farish’s The Good Braider (2012).

  • 87.
    Andersson, Olle
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    A Load to Pull: Rites, Symbols and Archetypes of Initiation in The Call of the Wild2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 88.
    Andersson, Therese
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    de Jong, Jonathan
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Hur designar man en e-handelssite:: är designers och dokumenterad forskning överens?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines and summarizes rules, guidelines and methods for how an e-commerce site should be designed, which elements it should contain and where these should be placed. Our approach consists of two phases. First we comprise relevant research within the target area. This is then divided into logical themes and is used as a foundation for an interview guide, which will be used in the second phase. After this, in the second phase, we conduct qualitative interviews with designers that are actively working with design of e--‐commerce  sites. These can be part of a larger team or work more or less alone, i.e. the participants are not limited to being part of a larger or smaller company or project. The purpose of this is to establish if the relevant research is coherent with how designers work within the area of  Västra Götaland. The result will also serve as a kind of general template, which can be used as support or inspiration while creating an e--‐commerce site, supported by the research material as well as the interviews. We concluded that the research and the way the designers work were mainly coherent. The difference between the research and the result of the interviews were mainly that the people in the business develop more methods and guidelines in a faster pace than the research can keep up with. This is because they are actively developing the business as part of the design community. 

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  • 89.
    Andersson, Åsa
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Den urbana periferin som politiserad erfarenhet2006In: Storstadens omvandlingar:  Postindustrialism, globalisering och migration / [ed] Sernhede, Ove, Johansson Thomas, Göteborg: Daidalos , 2006, p. 223-248Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Andersson, Åsa
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture. University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Knife in the Heart: Suburban mythology in the new post-industrial order2010In: (Re)searching Gothenburg: Essays on a Changing City / [ed] Holgersson, Helena m. fl., Göteborg: Glänta produktion , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 91.
    Andersson, Åsa
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture. University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    Kniven i hjärtat: postindustriell förortsmytologi2010In: Göteborg utforskat: Studier av en stad i förvandling / [ed] Holgersson, Helena, Göteborg: Glänta produktion , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Andersson, Åsa
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    The Multicultural Presence in Contemporary Swedish Film2007In: Inter: A European Cultural Studies : Conference in Sweden 11-13 June 2007, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2007, p. 103-108Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 93.
    Andréasson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Jonasson, Julia
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Ondskans makt: En foucauldiansk textanalys av Jan Guillous Ondskan2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Jan Guillous Ondskan, utspelar sig i 50-talets Sverige och är inte bara en berättelse om Erik och hans liv på internatskolan Stjärnsberg, det är också en berättelse om makt. Både skolan som institution och karaktärernas handlande genomsyras av systematisk maktutövning och kontroll. Eftersom verket förekommer som en del av den litteratur elever kan få ta del av i grundskolan, är det också relevant att diskutera det i relation till undervisning.

    Syfte

    Syftet med studien är att synliggöra vilka maktstrukturer Jan Guillous verk Ondskan lyfter fram, genom en foucauldiansk textanalys. Studien fokuserar dels på skildringen av skolans struktur, dels på skildringen av karaktärerna.

    Metod Vi har valt att göra en kvalitativ textanalys av Ondskan, där vi anlägger ett foucauldianskt perspektiv för att synliggöra verkets maktstrukturer och maktförhållanden.

    Resultat

    Analysen synliggör de maktförhållanden som råder dels på skolan som institution, dels utifrån karaktärerna och deras agerande. Samtliga karaktärer är omslutna av det maktsystem som präglar skolan, inklusive rådsmedlemmarna själva. Maktsystemet är baserat på överordning och underordning vilket benämns som Stjärnsbergsanda och kamratuppfostran. I enlighet med den försöker Rådet kontrollera skolan, något som blivit normaliserat och inte ifrågasätts av varken elever, lärare eller rektor. I alla fall inte förrän Erik börjar på skolan, och gör motstånd. Utifrån hans tidigare erfarenheter, och i diskussion med sin nye kamrat Pierre, går han emot normen och vägrar gå med på de krav Rådet ställer. Rådsmedlemmarna försöker styra skolan men lyckas inte hålla maktsystemet tätt, något som Erik tar vara på. Både fysisk och psykisk makt är något som präglar verket, och kan kopplas samman med att det i slutändan synliggörs sprickor i maktsystemet. Analysen visar även att det krävs en medvetenhet från läraren i arbetet med Ondskan i undervisningen, för att inte riskera att reproducera de normer och maktförhållanden som framställs i verket. För att arbeta medvetet menar vi därför att verket bör behandlas utifrån begreppet kritisk litteracitet, där läsaren antar en analytisk ställning till texten i syfte att synliggöra maktförhållanden.

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  • 94.
    Antonsson, Ann-Helen
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Dumani, Gentiana
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Socialstyrelsens och Skolverkets myndighetsspråk2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Myndighetsspråk kan vara både komplext och svårbegripligt, vilket kan medföra att kommunikationen mellan myndighet och medborgare försämras (Forsberg 2012, s. 12). Inom varje myndighet finns det en yrkesjargong samtidigt som det finns riktlinjer och lagkrav att förhålla sig till. Detta betyder att varje myndighet använder ord och begrepp utifrån sin speciella yrkesjargong vilket kan leda till missförstånd mellan myndigheterna. Med den utgångspunkten har vi valt att studera myndigheters språkbruk och diskurser ur ett hälsoperspektiv för att få en förståelse för språkbruket i maktens korridorer. De myndigheter som vi har analyserat är Socialstyrelsen och Skolverkets webbsidor som handlar om psykisk ohälsa.

    Syfte: Socialstyrelsen och Skolverket är två myndigheter som deltar i samhällets konstruktion genom sin språkanvändning. Det är denna språkanvändning som en social handling (se vidare Svensson, 2019, s. 25) vi är intresserade av att studera.

    Metod:Ur ett diskursanalytiskt perspektiv både som metod men även som analysverktyg har vi valt att utgå ifrån Ernesto Laclau och Chantal Mouffes diskursteori (Winther Jørgensen och Phillips,2000, s. 32–37). Vi har även valt att använda oss av LIX som är ett analysverktyg för att mäta läsbarhetsindex på våra utvalda texter.

    Resultat: Studiens resultat visar att Socialstyrelsens text tillhör den medicinska diskursen och Skolverketstext tillhör utbildningsdiskursen. Det som framkom vid analys av texterna var att Socialstyrelsens text använder sig av ord som behandling, sjukdom och diagnostisering när de skriver om psykisk ohälsa. Skolverkets text använder sig av ord och begrepp som stödjande, hälsofrämjande och förebyggande för att motverka psykisk ohälsa. Det innebär att myndigheterna skriver om psykisk ohälsa ur olika perspektiv. Utifrån Läsbarhetsindex LIX visar resultatet på att båda myndighetstexterna är medelsvåra att läsa

  • 95.
    Apelgren, Petra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Åberg, Paulina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    En kvalitativ studie om genus och jämställdhet i förskolan2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Den nya reviderade läroplanen Lpfö 98 (10) har skapat striktare regler och högre krav på att pedagoger i förskolan skall uppnå de mål som finns i läroplanen. Läroplanen är också tolkningsbar, vilket ger olika förutsättningar för hur mycket och vilka mål som ska prioriteras i förskolan. Det står heller inte i läroplanen på vilket sätt man skall uppnå målen. Vem avgör om man har uppnått målen i läroplanen eller inte?  

    Syfte

    Vi vill i den här studien veta hur pedagoger i förskolan arbetar med och ser på genus och jämställdhet i förskolan. Vi vill undersöka hur de arbetar med genus och jämställdhet utifrån läroplanen och om det är ett viktigt och prioriterat ämne ute på de förskolor som vi varit ute på. Hur ser deras kunskap och tolkning av läroplanens mål om genus och jämställdhet ut i förskolan? Hur arbetar de för att motverka traditionella könsmönster?

    Metod

    I vår undersökning har vi använt oss av en kvalitativ metod genom intervjuer. Vi har intervjuat åtta pedagoger med olika utbildningsbakgrunder som arbetar på tre olika förskolor i Sverige. Med hjälp av ljudupptagning samlade vi in vårt empiriska material. Därefter har vi transkriberat alla intervjuer och analyserat de utifrån ett genusperspektiv.

    Resultat

    De intervjuade pedagogerna var överens om att de ville arbeta för att alla barn oavsett kön skall få samma möjligheter, rättigheter och förutsättningar i förskolan. De ansåg också att de uppfyllde läroplanens mål utifrån genus och jämställdhet men det var svårt för dem att berätta om hur eller på vilket sätt de uppnådde målen. Flera ansåg att kön är något som man biologiskt sett föds till och därför finns det olikheter hos flickor och pojkar. Överlag var inte genus och jämställdhet ett prioriterat mål som pedagogerna på förskolorna arbetade aktivt med. Det var endast några enstaka pedagoger som diskuterade genus och jämställdhet utifrån att kön är något som konstrueras socialt och påverkas av människor och den kultur som vi lever i. 

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    En kvalitativ studie om genus och jämställdhet i förskolan
  • 96.
    Areskoug, Nils-Göran
    Strömstad Akademi.
    Strövtåg i tankens värld: Om estetik och mening. En essä om musiken i livet och konsten i vetenskapen2014Report (Other academic)
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    fulltext
  • 97.
    Aronsson, Agda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Olsson, Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Lärande för förändring: en normkritisk analys av läromedel i svenskämnet på gymnasiet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Svenska impulser 1, 2 och 3 är kurslitteratur som används på en gymnasieskola i Sverige. Kurslitteraturen möjliggör för läraren att låta arbetet växla mellan lärarnas egen planering och efter läroböckernas upplägg, vilket i sin tur underlättar lärarens planeringsarbete. Utifrån skolans värdegrund om ett jämlikt klassrum har en studie gjorts för att ta reda på hur läroböcker förhåller sig till olika maktrelationer som kan påträffas i samhället. Med avstamp i Wineburgs (2001) teori om hur information presenteras i läroböcker, samt Kumashiros (2002) lära om vikten av normkritik i klassrummet.

    Syfte: Då litteraturen ska finnas för att underlätta lärarens arbete, är syftet med denna uppsats att ta reda på huruvida vald serie av läroböcker på egen hand möjliggör för ett normkritiskt lärande som utmanar maktrelationer, utan att lärarens roll spelar in. Analysen fokuserar på att ta reda på om det normkritiska perspektivet genomsyrar inkluderingsarbetet i läroböckerna eller om arbetet slutar i vad Bromseth (2010) kallar toleranspedagogik.

    Metod: En normkritisk analys har gjorts av läroböckernas diskussionsfrågor och skrivuppgifter för att ta reda på vilka möjligheter serien ger till samtal och lärande om samhälleliga maktstrukturer.

    Resultat: Resultatet påvisar en typisk struktur i berörda läromedel där informationen presenteras enligt Wineburgs (2001) teori. Den presenteras som en sanning utan att ifrågasättas, vilket därmed förstärker de rådande normer som serien berör. Det finns ställen där försök till inkluderingsarbete kan urskiljas, men informationshanteringen, kombinerat med diskussionsfrågorna där ett kritiskt förhållningssätt saknas, resulterar i det som Bromseth (2010) kallar för toleranspedagogik, vilket istället förstärker rådande normers maktstrukturer.  

  • 98.
    Asplund Carlsson, Maj
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Barn- och ungdomslitteratur som samhällsspegel2018In: Barn- och ungdomsvetenskap: grundläggande perspektiv / [ed] Johansson, Thomas & Sorbring, Emma, Stockholm: Liber, 2018, p. 192-204Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 99.
    Asplund Carlsson, Maj
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Herrman, Margaretha
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences.
    Högberg, Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media Production.
    Kullgren, Carina
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences. University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Mårdén, Björn
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Att göras till filmarbetare i den nya kulturekonomin2011In: Att göras till filmarbetare / [ed] Margaretha Herrman, Nora: Nya Doxa , 2011, 1, p. 280-298Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Asplund Carlsson, Maj
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Lunneblad, Johannes
    Göteborgs universitet, Inst för pedagogik, kommunikation och lärande.
    Till ”vildingarnas” land: Barnboksförfattaren besöker förorten2013In: Nordisk Barnehageforskning, ISSN 1890-9167, E-ISSN 1890-9167, Vol. 6, no 7, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have been carried out on children’s literature from a post-colonial perspective. In this article, we look closer at four picture books recently published in Sweden with the purpose of giving children from urban areas patterns of identification. The aim of our study is to see how the ‘suburb’ is articulated as a multi-accented sign. Three themes are elaborated in our analysis, i.e. loneliness and alienation, drug abuse and misery as well as small business occurrence. We also discuss the consequences for children in early years of an encounter with a distorted or alienated view of suburban culture.

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