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  • 51.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Municipal Contact Centers: A Slower Approach towards Sustainable Local Development2011In: Uddevalla Symposium 2011. Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2011, 1, p. 111-125Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The constitutional local autonomy of Swedish municipalities aims to relate democracy and public administration to local distinctiveness. It relies on the idea of subsidiarity and rests on the idea of a local common and the citizen’s own inter-pretation of common problems and activities. This gives a unique opportunity to develop Swedish municipalities as slow cities. In Sweden there are some local food initiatives focusing on local and traditional production, hospitality and delivering. However, to live slow is also about how, where and when everyday life take place. This in spite of that all municipalities have explicit sustainability policies. A reason for this could be the dominating discourse of welfare efficiency, production and growth.

       One of the most recent approach to keep up the image as well as the practice of Sweden as a sustainable but still efficient, fast and well-organized state is e-government. The high Internet penetration among Swedes opens for as well as asks for improved and developed governmental services on-line. In Sweden, a recent governmental action plan stresses the importance of using information and communication technologies (ICT) in order to effectively develop the Swedish public administration with the aim to ”make it as simple as possible for as many as possible” leading to improved accessibility for all citizens. This has led to that public municipal contact centers have been established. Contacts centers are both physical and on-line. E-government could be considered as fast government, but in this paper we will try to turn that obvious first impression up-side down. We will conceptual argue that municipal contact centers are a tool towards improved sustainability, localism and slowing up administration.

       Thus there are two main implications of contact centers, they localize public services and they combine different services into a one-stop practice. This strives to provide a ‘holistic’ approach of the individual in relation to the governmental administration. The conclusions of the paper are a double modeling. Firstly, we point out the implications of time-geographical modeling of slow processes. Secondly, we place e-government and contact centers in this model. Policy implications relate both to the conceptualization of slow processes and the potential to further develop municipal contact centers.

  • 52.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Municipal Contact Centres: A Slower Approach Towards Sustainable Local Development by E-government2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 2292-2309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is Swedish government policy to use information and communication technologies to increase sustainability. This has implications for planning and local organization of communities. In the municipalities where most public services are provided, there are growing numbers of local contact centres (CCs) aiming to meet citizens’ needs for information and coordination of public services. The CCs localize public services and combine different services into a one-stop practice focusing on needs and demands of individual citizens and their unique situations. The municipalities hereby have to plan for service provision in new ways to meet more individualized needs that are also in line with improved sustainability. CCs are both local offices and advanced services on-line, as e-governmental services. E-government could be considered fast government, but this article aims to turn that obvious first impression upside down and discuss how e-government can slow down and make services more local, personalized and sustainable. Theoretically we take off from a time-geographical modelling of slow processes that has implication for slower, more sustainable development. Based on in-depth case studies of municipal CCs we argue that they are tools towards improved sustainability and localism, and that they are “slowing up” administrative processes. In particular, we point out that e-government has a potential to plan for, and promote, sustainability and slow local development.

  • 53.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Policy entrepreneurs in networks: implementation of two Swedish municipal contact centres from an actor perspective2014In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 288-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to elaborate on the meanings of policy entrepreneursand through the conceptualisation analysing implementation of local municipalcontact centres – a Swedish local e-governmental initiative. The paper buildson qualitative case studies including interviews, observations and documentanalysis, all analysed through the perspective of policy entrepreneurs. Localpolicies are implemented in relation to local cultures, norms and economicstructures. The networked governance structure demands entrepreneurial actorsto combine resources and interests into a change. Here we identified boththeoretically and practical, two types of such entrepreneurial actors. The issueentrepreneur focuses on the issue as such and focuses on the solution to a singleproblem. The political entrepreneur, on the other hand, focuses on core valuesand long term structural changes. The emerging networked governancestructure asks for improved knowledge on policy entrepreneurship both foranalytical and practical improvements. The findings may provide usefulinformation for municipal e-government planning specifically when planningfor implementing contact centres. The study enriches the existing literature onpolicy entrepreneurs in networks expanding the roles to include also local e-government contexts.

  • 54.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Public E-servive as an Innovative Organisational Setting for Entrepreneurial Behavior2009In: Uddevalla Symposium 2009 The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2009, 1, p. 205-222Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public e-services are technical innovations leading to organisational changes. The basic pre-conditions of e-services in the public sector differ in several perspectives from the private sector and e-commerce. For example when the “customers” are citizens instead of consumers the distribution of, access to and use of the services are different. Thus there are demands for developing general models and approaches to analyse as well as promote public e-services. Governmental e-services bring out innovative organisational changes based on how the public sector can meet the e-society and bridge over formerly unseen divides. However, such changes demand an innovative behaviour among actors in usually strictly and formally defined roles. 

        The conceptual model developed in this paper will discuss the differences of e-services, e-administration and e-democracy. Following on to this model an illustrative case of a public e-service on the Internet is presented analysed through the model. The e-service extending the geographical reach of public organisations is the Common application system for upper secondary school, in the regions of West Sweden and Östergötland in Sweden.

  • 55.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Regional e-governance: Promoting Entrepreneurial Behavior in Public Administration2014In: Agglomeration, clusters and entrepreneurship: Studies in Regional Economic Development. / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson, Roger R. Stough, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, 1, p. 199-220Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public e-services are technical innovations which enable organizational changes. The basic pre-conditions for e-services in the public sector differ in several respects from e-commerce in the private sector. When the “customers” are citizens, the distribution of, access to and use of the services are not based on an open market distribution. Public e-services bring about innovative organizational changes for the new e-society and bridge formerly unseen digital divides. However, such changes demand an innovative behaviour among people in professional roles which are usually strictly and formally defined. 

        The conceptual model developed in this paper will discuss the differences of e-services, e-administration and e-democracy. Following this model, an illustrative case of a public e-service on the Internet will be presented and analyzed. The e-service extending the geographical reach of public organizations is the Common application system for upper secondary school in the regions of West Sweden and Östergötland in Sweden. The professionals in public administration acted as entrepreneurs and improved the intended benefits of the e-service. We therefore see a demand for developing general models to analyze as well as for promoting public e-services.

  • 56.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Trust in Safe Public E-services: Translating Policies into Use2011In: Uddevalla Symposium 2010. Innovation and Multidimensional Entrepreneurship - Economic, Social and Academic Aspects / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2011, 1, p. 107-124Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging information society challenges relations between public agencies and citizens in many ways. Such relations taking place on the Internet or in other specific systems are called public e-services, which is a basic component of e-government.  E-services as such are innovations – even if the service as such has been there before – it is a new way producing and organizing the service. For successful implementation of innovations in public contexts the innovations has to be considered as legitimate by all involved actors.

       On a European and national level there are some policies and emerging standardization regarding public e-services. Thus policies are translated both to other levels of governments in the multi-level governance chain and secondly from technical to administrative settings. Since the Swedish public administration rely on a double steering approach, with strong constitutional regional and local autonomy, such policies cannot be forced out into regional local public agencies. Instead European and national policy statements become soft policy instruments in the local context and the implications from them rely on the local uptake in the specific setting and the competences of the professionals in the local public administration. 

       Since this is a new emerging field of innovative practice our analysis will build on an inductive methodological approach. The theoretical framework of policy and technology translation opens for inclusion of this broad process of changes. Our focus here on the translation process is to highlight both translations over levels in multi-level settings and constructions of meanings of safety. The conclusion is that the translation over levels from policies to praxis appears to be more critical than the technological translation. In short: the organizational settings of multi-level governance are greater constraints than new technology for implementation of public e-services.   

  • 57.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Trust in Secure Public E-services: Translating Policies into Use2012In: Entrepreneurship, Social Capital and Governance: Directions for Sustainable Development and Competitiveness of Regions / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson, Roger R Stough, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, p. 241-262Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging information society challenges relations between public agencies and citizens in many ways. Providing e-services on the Internet and using other forms of information and communication technologies are basic components of e-government. E-services as such are innovations – even if the service itself existed before – as they are a new way of producing and organizing the service. For secure use and successful implementation of innovations in public contexts, the innovation must be considered legitimate and related to policies.

       The European Union and all other levels of government form policies, which are translated among the various levels to manage the useful, secure praxis of e-services. Translation in organisational terms takes place across governmental levels in the multi-level governance chain and secondarily from technical to administrative settings. Since the Swedish public administration relies on a dual steering approach, with strong, constitutionally mandated regional and local autonomy, such policies cannot be forced onto regional and local public agencies. Instead, European and national policy statements become soft policy instruments in the local context, and their implications rely on local uptake in the specific setting and on the competencies of the professionals in local public administration. 

       Since this is a new, emerging field of innovative policy and practice, our analysis will build on an inductive methodological approach. The theoretical framework of policy and technology translation allows inclusion of this broad process of changes. Our focus here on the translation process is to highlight translations both across levels in multi-level settings and as constructions of meanings of security. The conclusion is that the organizational settings of multi-level governance are greater constraints than new technology for implementation of public e-services.   

  • 58.
    Bernhard, Irène
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    The Role of Local Destination Management Organizations for Destination Development focusing on E-government and Networks. Case studies from Scandinavia2015In: Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 123-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on destination development from the perspective of the field of tourism, explored by a descriptive study comparing three local Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) focusing on e-government and networks. Local DMOs are often founded by local municipalities and enterprises in conjunction to promote the tourism industry. This study includes three cases in Scandinavia, having inland water areas in common, situated in regions that are undergoing structural change. The research method is based on case study methodology with use of qualitative in-depth interviews and document studies. This research provides insight into and deeper understanding of some important aspects regarding the use of e-government and networks that contribute to destination development in an Scandinavian context.

  • 59.
    Bernhard, Irène
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The Role of Local E-government for Satisfied Citizens: Towards Sustainable Development?2015In: Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 141-153Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to study the role of local e-government regarding citizens view of municipality service, information and accessibility to municipality service. The main hypothesis was that municipalities with high degree of pro-activity regarding e-government are municipalities with high degree of satisfied citizens. Satisfaction among citizens was studied by using a national survey which is performed twice ever year. The survey normally includes roughly 130 municipalities out of the 290 municipalities in Sweden. The number of randomly selected individuals per municipality is usually 600 in smaller municipalities and 1200 in larger municipalities. In this study we focus on the following dimensions: Overall satisfaction, Satisfaction with response and accessibility and Satisfaction with influence and confidence.The results implies that e-government and satisfied citizens are correlated. The correlations between the e-variables: e-proactivity, e-strategy, e-information/transparency, e-interaction were all significantly correlated to the satisfaction indices. The correlations were generally of medium strength, i.e. around 0.2-0.4. There were no significant correlations between in real life interactions, strategy for democracy and the satisfaction indices.

  • 60.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Evaluation of Customer Centre and e-Services in a Swedish Municipality with Focus on the Citizens' Perspective2009In: 3rd European Conference on Management and Evaluation / [ed] Jan Ljungberg and Kerstin Grundén, Reading: Academic Publishing Limited , 2009, p. 34-41Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication and quality of service to the citizens are considered to be of utmost importance in today’s society. Even though the Swedish municipalities have a high level of self-regulation and freedom to organize communication and dialogue with their citizens in their own way, the Swedish government has expressed their demands of increased expectations by citing the potential of e-governance and high quality of service in order to increase the efficiency of the service to the citizens. To implement customer centres is one way to meet these demands. This paper offers a critical evaluation of consequences for Swedish citizens regarding the quality of service from the citizens’ perspective in a municipality where a new customer centre and e-services have been developed and established. The main research method is qualitative based upon analysis from interviews with different personnel categories of employees within the municipality. The results are also based on analysis of customer investigations. The results show that this implementation and developing of e-services are mostly positive for the quality of service to the citizens but there are also some weak aspects found.

  • 61.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Incentives for Inclusive E-Government: The Implementation of Contact Centers in Swedish Municipalities2019In: Open Government: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications / [ed] Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, Information Resources Management Association , 2019, p. 60-85Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the focus is on incentives for inclusive e-government. Five case studies of the implementation of contact centers in Swedish municipalities are described and discussed. The research methods used are mainly qualitative interviews with different categories of municipal personnel and with citizens. The main conclusion is that the implementation seems to contribute to increased accessibility of municipal services, even for those citizens who might have problems using Internet services. The study indicates a development towards increased equal treatment of citizens and a contribution to reducing problems related to the "digital divide." Municipal services became more adapted to citizens' needs by using citizen-centric methods during the development process and in the daily work of the contact centers. The implementation of municipal contact centers can thus be seen as indicating incentives for local e-democracy and a step towards inclusive e-government, although there is still a need to go further in this direction.

  • 62.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gustafsson, Mariana
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sefyrin, Johanna
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    A digital society for all?: Meanings, practices and policies for digital diversity2019In: Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2019, 2019, p. 3067-3076Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of digital divides has been on the agenda in research and policy making for at least the last 20 years. But it is still, a challenge to grasp this concept that is so elusive and transforming. Inclusion, access and equality are still key values for democratic governance and must be addressed in particular when forming and contributing to a digital government. This paper seeks to intervene in current debates on digital divides and digital inclusion by analyzing two cases of responses among street-level public administration in relation to e-government services in Sweden. The case studies are strategically chosen and conducted in national agencies and in local public libraries. Three lines of contributions are discussed, firstly thei mportance to care for equality secondly the need to seethe non-users, and thirdly to discuss the potential of putting focus on digital diversity.

  • 63.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Degree of Digitalization and Citizen Satisfaction: A Study of the Role of Local e-Government in Sweden2018In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 16, p. 59-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate whether there is a relationship between degree of e-government in Swedish municipalities and perceived satisfaction among citizens generally. This is a large-scale quantitative study based on validand reliable Swedish national surveys. Based on these surveys, a new comprehensive index for measuring "degree of digitalization" was constructed. Citizen satisfaction was measured using established indices covering three dimensions:satisfaction with living in the municipality, satisfaction with performance of government activities (delivered services), and satisfaction with transparency and influence. The results show that there is a relationship between the degree of digitalization in a municipality and the perceived satisfaction among its citizens. The degree of digitalization is related to all three dimensions of citizen satisfaction. Additionally, this study indicates that the strength of this relationship is in parity with or even stronger than the relationship between citizen satisfaction and other crucial factors such as educational level and median income

  • 64.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping Univeristy, Linköping.
    Automation of Digital Public Services: Challenges when Working with Automated Systems and Striving for Inclusion of End-Users2019In: Uddevalla Symposium 2019: Unlocking the Potential of Regions Through Entrepreneurship and Innovation. Revised papers presented at the 22nd Uddevalla Symposium, 27–29 June, 2019, L'Aquila, Italy / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2019, p. 91-105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of automated systems for decision making and decision supportin public administration is forming new practices and challenging public values. Automated decision-making systems are mainly used in administrative systems but require end-users of services to submit relevant data in correct ways to make the services functional. However, not all potential or intended users of these services have the competence and capacity to use them. There is a pressing need to uncover and analyze how professional staff at public agencies respond to users' problems caused by digitalization in general and automation in particular for those who have problems using the services since there is a legal requirement to provide impartial public services. The case study presented in this paper builds on a bottom-up qualitative study including in-depth interviews and observations at two Swedish authorities, the Swedish Public Employment Agency and the Swedish Social Insurance Agency, in two Swedish municipalities. The main contribution by the case study shows how challenges that the professional staff face when they have to support everyone when the main management method is to use automated systems. The first way of addressing risk of exclusion is improved personalized support by the professional "street-level" bureaucrats, and the second is the important support also provided by other citizens and users of the services that enhances inclusion. The study indicates the importance of forming new support structures when public services are digitalized with ambitions to be more efficient.

  • 65.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pineda, Maria Victoria
    De La Salle University.
    What Drives a Great Learning Experience for Millennial Learners: Swedish and Filipino Observations2012In: PeLS Online Journal, ISSN 2094-781X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 3-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Millennial learners are individuals born after 1985 with very wide exposure to various types of media enhanced by technology. They are persons who had listened to music while in the womb of their mothers and had watched television starting at age 0. Most of them would have had a music player or a game pad or a mobile phone at age 8. (Deterle, Dede and Schrier, 2008) These millenial learners grew up with constant web connectivity at their fingertips to assist them in their homeworks.The present pedagogies our academic institutions employ to support the learning style of the web generation of students may not be as suitable. Social constructivism, transformative learning or problem-based learning, while prevalent in the Asian context, may be more perfect for cognitively dynamic students. Our students nowadays are more adept to constructing knowledge, content (Attwell, 2007) and even more independent in their learning priorities. This study attempts to understand the new learning practices among our students. This study attempts to find out how college students define what a good learning experience is. It is also the intention of the study to explore new educational practices and hopefully drive ways of designing and developing the future of learning activities. The study was conceived in May 2011 and was planned to collect data in the form of short videos in a span of six months, from June to December. There will be two sets of samples, one from the students of De La Salle University of the Philippines (DLSU) and the other from the students of University West (UW) in Sweden.The experiment asked for a two minute video that will be created and expressed by an individual or group of students. This meant planning and organization to compose the thoughts, the message and the content of the video. Since this contains the expression of the students themselves, the self-expression equates to a great degree of authenticity. This paper will impart the results of this experiment, the Great Learning Experience. There weretwenty videos from DLSU and fifteen videos from UW. This paper will tell the methods used in the different classes and the findings. Comparison of the UW and DLSU videos is not includedin the paper.

  • 66. Bernheim, B-G.
    et al.
    Hattinger, Monika
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Informatics and Mathematics.
    Sharing Thoughts and Associations: Towards a Neural Metaphor Supporting Boundary Objects in Community Networks,2003In: IRIS 26, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Bernheim, Bo-Göran
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Ett förslag till en metod för konceptuell modellering2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vetenskapliga teorier och begreppsmodeller kan ses som representationer av kunskap om något fenomen. Teorier är alltid abstraktioner av ett fenomen, med syfte att; beskriva, förklara, förutse eller styra detta fenomen.

    I ett nummer av MIS Quarterly (2003 27(3) pp iii-xii), argumenterar Ron Weber (2003) för att forskare inom IS-domänen bör sträva efter bättre precision när man presenterar och diskuterar forskning och teorier.

    I den här uppsatsen analyseras Ron Webers artikel för att ta fram en konceptuell modell, en begreppsmodell, för vetenskapliga teorier.

    Syftet är att skapa en modell för vetenskapliga teorier som kan leda till bättre formalisering och tydliggörande av vetenskapliga teorier.

    Dessutom skapas en enhetlig och konsistent terminologi avseende de element (relationer mellan olika entiteter, dessas egenskaper, tillstånd och relaterade händelser) som kan ses som den minsta gemensamma nämnaren för att beskriva alla existerande fenomen. En instansiering av denna modell skulle kunna tjänstgöra som ett generiskt arkiv 1 för kunskap.

  • 68.
    Bernheim, Bo-Göran
    et al.
    Semcon Sweden AB, Department of Industrial Management, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Informatics and Mathematics.
    Towards Organizational Performance Understanding Management Mindsets and Work Practice2004In: Proceedings of IRIS27 2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the concept of Organizational Performance (OP). Werefer to OP as a management concept, which further develops the research andpractise within Knowledge Management (KM). Our implications suggest Empowerment as a complementary concept to KM. Based upon a practitioner'sreflections on different OP-related problems identified from different consultancy projects within Swedish Industry Bureaucracies we discuss the similarities and differences between different KM/OP management theories andpractises. In such settings, relations between knowledge workers and managersare not satisfactory matched. We discover that different management mindsets are applied from the understanding of work practise. We refer to these mindsetsas Controlling figures respective Managing Knowledge. As a result, we relate experienced-based stories to theoretical concepts within different management mindsets in order to identify implications for a sound organizational performance.

  • 69.
    Berntsson, Malin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Johansson, Anna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Ny trend för hjälporganisationer: viral video?: Hur hjälporganisationer kan dra lärdom av den virala videon "Kony 2012"2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats tar upp om hjälporganisationer skulle kunna använda sig utav viral video sommarknadsföringsmetod i sitt arbete att samla in pengar samt sprida sitt budskap. En fallstudiegjordes även på videoklippet “Kony 2012” från organisationen Invisible Children som är ettaktuellt exempel på en hjälporganisations användning av viral video. Klippet “Kony 2012” hardessutom blivit det snabbast sprida klippet någonsin (Wasserman 2012). Det gjordes enkvalitativ studie där tolv personer blev intervjuade. Studien kretsade kring tre huvudområden:spridning av videoklipp, “Kony 2012” och hjälporganisationer. Denna metod valdes för att fåfram hur användare sprider videoklipp, varför klippet “Kony 2012” samt vad de anser omhjälporganisations marknadsföring.För att få reda på om hjälporganisationer kan tänka sig att använda sig utav viral video iframtiden så mailade författarna ut frågor kring ämnet till elva stycken hjälporganisationer. Sexav dessa svarade. Av de svarade så sa alla att de kunde tänka sig att använda viral video sommarknadsföringsmetod i framtiden. Även i intervjuerna så visade att intervjudeltagarna idagsläget inte hade sett så mycket marknadsföring från hjälporganisationer på Facebook menatt det var positiva till att se mer av det i framtiden. Det visade sig även att klippet “Kony2012” väckte mycket känslor och fick många att engagera sig, något som andrahjälporganisationer kan dra nytta av i sin framtida marknadsföring.

  • 70.
    Björnberg, Hanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Coster, Marie
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Content marketing: En guide för digital marknadsföring på sociala medier2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this degree project is to explore how content marketing canbeused as a strategy in digital marketing in the limited area social media. The conclusion was brought together by our content analysis, along with some relevant theories in the subject. Our selection is based on fifty companies who each got positive attention for their content marketing. In addition we also conducted qualitative analyses on two of these companies content marketing. We realized when we went through the results that the companies have an entertainment value that relies on a strong customer relationship. A known deficiency was discovered about the companies results early on. We realized we would not be able to get an insight about the companies profits and increased traffic, because of this we where able to put in more effort in the other parts that comprises the full meaning of content marketing.Our conclusion is a graphic guide that shows the use of content marketing in digital marketing on social media.

  • 71.
    Blomgren, Marcus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Johansson, Victoria
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ljud och musik som marknadsföringsverktyg2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of our thesis is to examine how audio and music can be used for marketing purposes. To answer our purpose, we have conducted interviews with six respondents with experience and knowledge of using audio and music in marketing. The respondents came from three different specializations within the industry; producer, bureau and company. We have also analysed the respondents answers through theories such as content marketing, sensory marketing, musical fit and sonic branding. Our results show that knowledge of how audio and music affects us is of great importance to successfully use it in marketing. Further, our study indicates that audio and music tends to be used as a compliment rather than being in focus, which could risk that it instead becomes a deficient, rather than a winning concept.

  • 72.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Gurdal, Sevtap
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Social mobilisering och organisering via sociala medier2016In: Socialt arbete och internet: att förstå och hantera sociala problem på internet. Liber förlag. Bokkapitel / [ed] K. Daneback & E. Sorbring, Stockholm: Liber, 2016, 1, p. 122-135Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Borg, Margareta
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    "It´s Not For Real": The Tablet as Palette in Early Childhood Education2019In: International Journal of Education and the Arts, ISSN 1529-8094, E-ISSN 1529-8094, Vol. 20, no 14, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study investigated how a group of three-year-old preschool children use the drawing application Doodlecast on iPads. The smoothness, rapid response, and distinctive digital visual expressions of the tablet provided visual feedback that influenced the children's preferences for colors. Doodlecast seemed to encourage the children to explore colors and superimpose and fill-in the iPad's screen. In addition, they painted very precise shapes and lines, which seemed to facilitate pattern making and discovery of signs and relations. The children used the eraser tool to correct, reveal, remove, and create shapes. Irrespective of the method –erasing, superimposing, or filling-in the screen – the clear and professional result seemed to provide a visual confirmation that the children were able to master formulas.

  • 74.
    Boström, Tina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Holmberg, Niklas
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    "Bilderna som jag lägger upp, ja de betyder väl kanske ingenting": En kvalitativ intervjustudie om bilddelning i sociala medier och privat kommunikation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how we use photo sharing in a communicative purpose, where social media is used as a tool for information and documentation of what we experience. This study tries to answear the following research questions;

    ■ What thoughts do our respondents have regarding image sharing and the desire to document with images?

    ■ What is the attitude towards social media?

    ■ How do one choose social medium in both private and public photo-sharing?

    ■ What can likes and comments in connection with a shared photo create?

    ■ How does one protect the integrity in photo sharing and social media?

    Method: Qualitative in-depth interviews.

    Results: We came to the conclusion that the image plays a very complex and important role in how our respondents communicate with pictures of family, friends and society. There was a standard for how to share information and images, most of the respondents were conscious in what parts should and should not be shared publicly. The image was used to save a memory and for documentation, and works as a communicatively medium to consciously or nconsciously send messages to their friends, families and acquaintances. We saw that image sharing is about sharing, documenting, promoting and communicating, but also about group membership, affirmation and integrity.

  • 75.
    Brandes, Erika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Det mobila arbetslivet: Beredskapsanalys och planering inför organisatorisk förändring2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have examined how mobile work processes can be integrated into organizations from a business-oriented perspective, and among organizations there’s a lack of long-term strategies, and understanding, for internal business mobility.

    This study examines how an organization can prepare itself for change towards a mobile work life. In order to do this a literature review and case study involving document studies and interviews at an organization with specifically developed methodologies were conducted.

    The results showed that the state of maturity is still relatively low, and there is a need to focus on developing a more thorough understanding of mobility, where challenges involve handling attitudes, organizational culture and leadership. Mobility-related needs involve task-oriented and social aspects, where different technological solutions were suggested to maintain the connections between individuals and the organization.

    There is also a need for more longitudinal studies due to the results showing how the significant changes occur over a longer period of time. An important part of the development of knowledge concerning mobility also involves learning from others’ examples, where this study is a contribution.

  • 76.
    Brocker, Kristina
    et al.
    Strömstads kommun, Strömstad, Sverige.
    Dalenius, Martin
    Strömstad kommun, Strömstad, Sverige.
    Spante, Maria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Producing digital stories for language learning and digital competence across generations and positions of learners in municipalities2019In: VILÄR 5-6 december 2019, University West, Trollhättan: Abstracts / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2019, p. 3-4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: There is a strong need for methods how to develop language learning and digital competence through all levels of education, and in particular for adult immigrants. In Sweden, the responsible organization for such adult education is called Swedish For Immigrants (SFI), hosted in municipalities. Our paper will describe and analyze a specific effort to create innovative models to not only enhance language learning but also digital competence, something that is emphasized in all levels in the Swedish educational system ranging from kindergarten to adult educations in which SFI is part of. Furthermore, it will also describe how future digital divide between new arrivals and their children growing up in a digital society can be prevented.

    Method and process: The study is framed as an action design research study incorporating initial trials in classroom practice of first translating stories from the mother tongue into Swedish and then later make a digital production using voice and pictures freeware functions in an app on surf tablets. These digital folk tales were then made accessible with QR codes in both Swedish and mother tongue. The latter with the aim of spreading digital folk tales in different mother tongues for children at kindergartens. In order to create an authentic situation for the adult learners in the SFI class, the teacher arranged for the learners to present their stories at kindergartens for both children and staff. At each visit there were 4 students, meeting 8-10 children and 8 staff. This turned out to be a true learning experience for all involved participants.

    Result: In a short period of time the immigrants learnt how to produce digital stories and QR-codes. The children were able to use their tablets and find different stories on different languages on laminated printed QR-code. After listening to the stories, the children could ask questions directly to the producer of the story what it was about including additional questions linked to the specific country the adult person came from. After the round of different stories in Swedish the immigrants hold a presentation for the kindergarten staff about how they had worked with the process of the making of the digital production. Inspired by the immigrants in combination of the response from the children, the staff became enthusiastic in relation to work with digital competence more related to their own work practice rather than a top-down demand, as they had previously experienced curriculum driven need to develop digital competence for their young children.

    Conclusion and future plans: In this case, we could clearly see promising effects from the combined effort of involving actors from children to top management of the municipality interlinked by the curriculum demand of developing digital competence and language learning combined with 21 century skills in life-long learning. Our argument is that story driven digital production combined with co-located presentations and cross generational meetings and talk, is a fruitful way of collaborative effort to empower both children, immigrant adult learners and professional practice of education. The next step is to enlarge the number of participant and have more kindergartens involved in this collaborative model of supporting lifelong learning to find out more about the positive effects seen so far in the design process as well as its problems.

  • 77.
    Broeren, Jurgen
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Jalminger, J
    Västra Götaland County.
    Johansson, L-Å
    Alkit Communications, Mölndal.
    Parmerud,, A
    Alkit Communications, Mölndal.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Rydmark, Martin
    Gothenburg University.
    Information and communication technology: a person-centered approach to stroke care2012In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies / [ed] P M Sharkey, E Klinger, Readings: University of Readings , 2012, p. 329-335Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the possibilities of information and communication technology (ICT) in stroke care, addressing a person-centered care (PCC) approach. Attention is paid to user involvement, design, videogames, and communication between health care professionals mutually as well as with patients, and how to share performance data with an electronic health record. This is the first step towards a supportive ICT system that facilitates interoperability, making healthcare information and services available to citizen’s across organizational boundaries. 

  • 78.
    Broeren, Jurgen
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Akademin, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Johansson, Britt
    NU-sjukvården, Uddevalla kommun.
    Ljungberg, Christer
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Rydmark, Martin
    Sahlgrenska Akademin, Götebrog Universitet.
    Stroke rehabilitation using m-Health Care and 3D virtual environments: work in progress2010In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies / [ed] Sharkey, Paul & Sánchez, Jaime, 2010, p. 115-122Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     We have now started testing a telehealth system for stroke rehabilitation in a rural area in Sweden (NU- Hospital Group Area). For collection of assessments and audiovisual communication, the telehealth system has bidirectional contact with the home-based units. To date, three stroke subjects’ participated; they were instructed to play 3D computer games with the hemiplegic upper extremity. The intervention led to clinical changes for all subjects. The analysis of the audiovisual communication revealed that the both stroke subjects and therapists were not yet effective in regulating their turn taking process. The data suggests the feasibility of a distance based approach using 3D virtual environments for upper extremity rehabilitation after stroke.

  • 79.
    Bäckström, Albin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Larsson, Anton
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Föräldrars upplevelser med webbsidan neonatalvard.se: En webbsida för prematurer och deras familjer under tiden de är i behov av vård2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and evaluate the parents’ experiences with the webpage neontalavard.se. It also aims to contribute with any suggestions for improvement to the webpage that arises during the study. The study applied method combination and triangulation to build up the results. Both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was used. The quantitative data was collected from a survey and the qualitative was from interviews. An analysis model was created. The analysis model (UTAM) is a further development of TAM.  The results of the surveys and the interviews conducted are presented in the same section. It is done to put words on the numbers by weaving the questionnaire and quotes from the interviews. It results in a greater understanding why someone felt like they did. The analysis was conducted on the basis of the analysis model, UTAM, indicating that the idea is good and the need for a webpage as this is great. But the parents feel that the health care staff are not sufficiently committed to experience the benefit of the webpage. This study shows that the parents’ want better and greater commitment from the health care staff. They also thought it was a good idea and they felt the need for the webpage was great but that is wasn’t necessary this webpage that was the solution. 

  • 80.
    Bäckström, Emelie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Classon, Sandra
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    ÅH! Vad trendigt: Inspirationssökning, inställning till design, trender och plagiering hos designers och studenter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our essay is based on qualitative interviews that we have carried out with professional designers and students who are new to the field of design. From now on, we do only refer to these as "students". We have also collected literature studies to our work and reported these. The reason why we have chosen to interview designers who work professionally with design and design students is that we wanted to be able to compare the answers from these both groups with each other to see what parts they agree on and disagree on when it comes to inspiration, trends and ethics.Our result that we have retrieved in this essay shows that professional designers and students both agree and disagree in different parts when it comes to inspiration, trends and ethics. Both of these groups use, for instance, the social network Pinterest to find inspiration. The professional designers are rather looking for inspiration through portfolio pages where they know they will find materials of good quality than by Google. The students, however, do often search for inspiration by Google by using keywords. When it comes to design trends the professional designers consider trends as important in order to develop the society and themselves as designers. The students on the other hand have a desire that all design should feel timeless and that we should focus on creating sustainable design instead. When it comes to where the line between being inspired by a design and to copy it outright goes, both professional designers and students agrre on that it is permissible to copy some elements from other design work that they then use to create something own. But they agree on that a design has become a plagiarism of something else if an entire layout or design has been copied without any modifications were made

  • 81.
    Carlsson, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Johansson, Jenny
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Inte helt med på noterna?: En kvalitativ studie kring kommunernas tonalitet på Facebook2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of our degree project is to create an increased understanding of what tonality municipalities use in their posts on Facebook. The aim of the work is that afterwards there should be clearer guidelines for how a municipality should express itself on Facebook in order to promote the commitment that arises. Our questions are: What tonality does municipalities use in their posts on Facebook? And how does the municipality's tonality on Facebook affect the commitment that occurs? Research will be limited to the four municipalities: Munkedal, Trollhättan, Uddevalla, and Vänersborg, all of which have different degrees of commitment to their Facebook publications (SKL, 2010). The reasons behind the choice of municipalities are that it gives us a wide range of urban and rural municipalities as well as the spread of size between these municipalities. As a method, we used a case study and a content analysis. We categorize the ways we see that municipalities use Facebook. The categories we could distinguish were encouraging, inviting, authoritative and informative. In addition, we saw how the municipalities could express themselves either personally or impersonally.   When it comes to our first issue, we saw that in many places an informative and impersonal tonality is used. It was also that the tonality of posts shifted from posts to posts within the same municipality, which gave the impression that they had no strategy behind how to express themselves on Facebook.

    When it comes to our second issue, we can see much earlier research suggesting that personal tonality is more inviting than neutral (Zavattaroa, Frenchb and Mohantyc, 2015, Kellher and Miller, 2006). Much of the communication that takes place is of typical state-of-the-art design. It is one-way communication that does not call for discussion and creates significantly less commitment than two-way communication (Liu and Horsley, 2007). We therefore recommend municipalities to strive for a two-way communication which gives rise to a greater degree of feedback from the followers (Moonhee et al. 2014).

  • 82.
    Carlén, Urban
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Maivorsdotter, Ninitha
    University of Skövde.
    Understanding athlete's online participation: a ticket to qualitative research of online arenas in sport2017In: Digital qualitative research in sport and physical activity / [ed] Bundon, Andrea, London: Routledge, 2017, p. 59-79Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 83.
    Carstensen, Peter H.
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Center for Tele-Information, Denmark.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Informatics and Mathematics.
    "Here is the knowledge-where should I put it?": Findings from a study of how knowledge spaces are used within a support group1999In: Proceedings. IEEE 8th International Workshops on Enabling Technologies:: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises (WET ICE'99), IEEE, 1999, p. 223-231Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to design useful knowledge media spaces to knowledge workers it is essential that we understand the nature of the work conducted and the knowledge applied in real settings. This paper reports from a study of how a group of quality assurance specialists gather, structure and distribute information and knowledge. Based on the findings a number of overall requirements for knowledge mediaspaces are identified and discussed. The essential findingswere that information and knowledge are created and  handled in many different ways and have many differentforms. The core issues of our lessons learned so far are that we carefully need to consider knowledge media spaces both in terms of communication channels and knowledge archives. Knowledge media spaces should be seen as spaces in which knowledge and information is exchanged, filed,retrieved, presented and refined by actors having different vocabulary and perspectives on the knowledge. These characteristics must be taken into account when designing IT and multimedia based knowledge media spaces.

  • 84.
    Carstensen, Peter H.
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Informatics and Mathematics.
    On knowledge management: a field study2000In: Internet-Based Organisational Memory and Knowledge Management, IPG Group Publishing , 2000, p. 170-198Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely acknowledged that knowledge is one of the most important assets of today's organizations. According to Davenport and Prusak (1998), knowledge is often a company's greatest competitive advantage in a global economy. How to support the company's knowledge-intensive work processes (e.g., quality support, product design or strategic planning) is therefore becoming a vital issue in many organizations worldwide. Identification, analysis and characterization of the knowledge-intensive work processes become essential in order to qualify a discussion of how to support knowledge management processes. This chapter presents, discusses and reflects upon findings from a study of how highly skilled actors manage information and knowledge, i.e., how information is gathered from a wide range of sources, structured according to needs and relevance for the users, and disseminated to the relevant suppliers in the organization. The aim of the chapter is two-folded: first, to contribute to the general empirical body of knowledge about knowledge-intensive work, especially focusing on the central characteristics of the knowledge management processes; secondly, to initiate a discussion of which overall requirements we must set up for how knowledge management processes could be supported by means of information and communication technology. Knowledge-intensive work processes often concern collaborative problem-solving and mutual support that require effective ways of handling information and knowledge between different people, both in short-term and long-term situations. The distributed and dynamic nature of knowledge management work also imposes a high degree of complexity involving many different actors with different conceptualizations, interpretations, perspectives, needs, etc. of the knowledge produced and approached. The various actors have different perspectives on the concept of knowledge. The work needed to articulate knowledge and make information and knowledge accessible becomes extremely demanding and complex. Often face-to-face interaction is required. However, in complex and collaborative work settings the problem of articulating knowledge by rich interaction and communication is obvious. The actors are distributed both geographically and temporally. There is a need for computer-based mechanisms for interaction and coordination of information and knowledge (cf. e.g., Carstensen and Wulf, 1998).

  • 85.
    Cerna, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Education, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Weilenmann, Alexandra
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Education, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Jonas
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Education, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rysedt, Hans
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Education, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Islind, Anna Sigridur
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lundin, Johan
    University of Gothenberg, Department of Applied IT, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nurses' work practices in design: managing the complexity of pain2020In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand the activities in nurses' work practices in relation to the design process of a self-monitoring application. Design/methodology/approach: A design ethnographic approach was applied in this study. Findings: To solve the problem of translating highly qualitative phenomena, such as pain, into the particular abstract features of a self-monitoring application, design participants had to balance these two aspects by managing complexity. In turn, the nurses'€™ work practices have changed because it now involves a new activity based on a different logic than the nurses’ traditional work practices. Originality/value: This study describes a new activity included in nurses’ work practices when the nurses became part of a design process. This study introduces a novel way on how to gain a deeper understanding of existing professional practice through a detailed study of activities taking place in a design process. This study explores the possible implications for nurses’ professional practices when they participate in a self-monitoring application design process. Â2020, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 86. Christie, Michael
    et al.
    Ferdos, Fariba
    Spante, Maria
    Chalmers tekniska högskola Centrum för kunskapsbildning och kommunikation (CKK).
    Axelsson, A
    Online collaborative learning: a case study2005In: Proceedings of the ALE conference, Amsterdam, Nederlands, 6-11 June 2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Christie, Michael
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ferdos, Fariba
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Spante, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Axelsson, Ann-Sofie
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    The Task Takes Over: Assuming Too Much in Online Collaborative Learning2005In: Research and Practice of Active Learning in Engineering Education / [ed] E. de-Graaf, G. Saunders-Smith and M. Nieweg (eds.), Amsterdam: Pallas Amsterdam University Press , 2005, p. 12-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Cukur, Adnan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Adoption of ERP system for operations management in SMEs2016In: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, p. 1-10Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The fast development of the IT in the society of today has led to that more SMEs rely on ERP systems. Especially, IT has facilitated the management of the flow of goods within and between organizations and have made lead times more effective and also have increased the overview of the flow of goods. This will help SMEs obtain a competitive advantage. The aim of this paper is analyze the factors influencing SMEs adoption of ERP systems. A qualitative case study is conducted within a company which both is engaged in manufacturing and project work. The company runs service projects for its customers and at the same time they produce articles both for sale and for use within the service projects. An ERP system can also serve as an overall system for the administration, the production and inventory management in the company. However, there are important factors to take into account in the adoption phase, related to the technological infrastructure, the organizational challenges as well as environmental relations in order to decide on an implementation on an ERP system. It is of a critical importance that the SME really change their routines in order to follow the processes implemented in the ERP system. Otherwise, the company runs the risk to be stuck in its previous and ineffective inventory management processes, regardless of investments in the ERP system and the technological infrastructure.

  • 89.
    Danielsson, John
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lokomotion i ett gyllene snitt: En observationsstudie av naturtrogna och uttryckslösa kroppsrörelser med en metod designad för naturalistisk karaktärsanimation.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In aspiration to achieve naturalistic character animation, some difficulty does show up, both in 3D-CGI, 2D-CGI as in traditional handmade animation. The reason why difficulty appears in the task of achieving naturalism is for instance because of the simulated natural laws in the digital world which cannot affect the characters cinematic movement. The result of illustrating the natural law manually by hand can affect the illusion of the movement as not naturalistic or inconsistent, which can result in that the spatial adaptation to space is not perceived as naturalistic. It is most often up to the animator to make a believable illusion of the natural laws. This study examines a deeper understanding of the human way to behave and to adapt to the physical reality and through that, apply this movement on character animation.

    The purpose of a deeper understanding of movement's phenomena is to find a clearer method dedicated to naturalistic movement that can be adapted to all forms of character animation, regardless of the character anatomy. Unfortunately, it would not be possible to study all aspects of the physically adaptive behaviors as to the size of the topic. This study will therefore orbit the human locomotion, also known as walking. Focus will therefore be on the bottom part of the body, from the pelvis down to the ankles. There are scientists that do argue about a connection between the golden ratio and the human locomotion. This study is an attempt to apply the golden ratio on 3D-characters.

    This study has been devoted to a different approach in the character animation, where its starting point will be mathematical equations. For this study, it has meant an application of the golden section in a temporary form, that is in motion.

    The result is therefore a mathematically based method dedicated to imitating naturalistic movement in terms of time, that is to say human locomotion. The method has been proved to be useful even in the imitation of characters movements that do not possess human proportions.

  • 90.
    Darell, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Henriksson, Matilda
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Min smartphone & jag: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om det emotionella bandet till smartphones2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Smartphones implements many user areas, and it is an artifact that reflects and reshapes our society. During the year 2013, over a billion smartphones were sold around the world, and that was the first time more smartphones than traditional cellphones was sold (Westlund, 2014, s. 103). Smartphones let the user engage in activities that satisfies their needs and is therefore ranked as the most valuable artifact (Turner & Turner, 2011).

    The study uses qualitative group interviews with respondents between ages 20 to 25. The empirical research has analyzed how these experienced users are affected by and perceive their smartphones. Theory shows that all people act based on their life goals and user experience. By examining these aspects user values can be distinguished regarding smartphones. Smartphones possess the ability to satisfy three user themes: social, utilitarian and hedonic. It’s when one or more of these user needs are satisfied an emotional attachment to the artifact is created. The emotional attachment affects users in such a way that they tolerate the eventual negative aspects of smartphones

  • 91.
    Davoud, Ivan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Khadem Haghighi, Sam
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Att bättra på användarupplevelse: En fallstudie på Högskolan Västs nylanserade webbplats användbarhet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are today few websites that can fully meet a user's requirement. A reason for this could be because you either do not know your target audience enough or that you try to make your business cost-effective. University West has recently relaunched their website. The response from the target audience, the university students, was negative, but unclear. This study has researched how the existing students are experiencing the new website from a usability perspective. To collect empirical data, a questionnaire was sent out to the students. 230 students responded and answered the questionnaire. The results were later categorized in categories that should be improved, from the students view of point. The empirical data was then transformed into usability requirements which in turn was applied into a prototype. The approach of this study did conclude on a few usability aspects that needs to be re-worked to satisfy the users. Among other things navigation, efficiency and appearance.

  • 92.
    de Blanche, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering. Institutionen för data- och informationsteknik, Datorteknik (Chalmers.
    A Slowdown Prediction Method to Improve Memory Aware Scheduling2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific and technological advances in the area of integrated circuits have allowed the performance of microprocessors to grow exponentially since the late 1960's. However, the imbalance between processor and memory bus capacity has increased in recent years. The increasing on-chip-parallelism of multi-core processors has turned the memory subsystem into a key factor for achieving high performance. When two or more processes share the memory subsystem their execution times typically increase, even at relatively low levels of memory traffic. Current research shows that a throughput increase of up to 40% is possible if the job-scheduler can minimizes the slowdown caused by memory contention in industrial multi-core systems such as high performance clusters, datacenters or clouds. In order to optimize the throughput the job-scheduler has to know how much slower the process will execute when co-scheduled on the same server as other processes. Consequently, unless the slowdown is known, or can be fairly well estimated, the scheduling becomes pure guesswork and the performance suffers. The central question addressed in this thesis is how the slowdown caused by memory traffic interference between processes executing on the same server can be predicted and to what extent. This thesis presents and evaluates a new slowdown prediction method which estimates how much longer a program will execute when co-scheduled on the same multi-core server as another program. The method measures how external memory traffic affects a program by generating different levels of synthetic memory traffic while observing the change in execution time. Based on the observations it makes a first order prediction of how much slowdown the program will experience when exposed to external memory traffic. Experimental results show that the method's predictions correlate well with the real measured slowdowns. Furthermore, it is shown that scheduling based on the new slowdown prediction method yields a higher throughput than three other techniques suggested for avoiding co-scheduling slowdowns caused by memory contention. Finally, a novel scheme is suggested to avoid some of the worst co-schedules, thus increasing the system throughput.

  • 93.
    De Castro Emerick, Agatha
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Utveckling av e-tjänster med hjälp av processbaserad verksamhetsutveckling ur medarbetarnas perspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government requires municipalities to provide their services via new channels. These requirements come from an EU directive. What is expected from municipalities is that they provide their services electronically, so called e-services. The municipalities have different ways of developing e-services. The city of Trollhättan uses processes to develop eservices, through process-based business development. This means that employees in addition to dealing with a new information system also sometimes need to participate in an organizational change. Literature studies show that research about municipal e-services has grown while researchers have spent less time researching on how e-services affects the public administration work. There is a growing interest in how the change affects the individual employee's daily work. The purpose of this study is to gain knowledge about the experiences of the employees involved, partly by the way in which different e-services are created, and how these affects and changes the working situation of the employees. In order to fulfill the purpose of the study, a qualitative approach was chosen. The survey is based on four deep interviews with employees from the city of Trollhättan. E-service development through a process-based business development is perceived as complex, instructive and constructive. It leads to a transition from an individual perception to a holistic view of the organization, which means greater understanding of the employee's own work in conjunction with the goals of the organization. The effects that have been found with the introduction of e-services are a more efficient way of working that leads to easier handling of incoming cases and better control over them; Time saving where manual work is replaced by direct communication computer to computer and an increased workload when e-services are not the primary application method.

  • 94.
    Dervisevic, Adnan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Oskarsson, Tobias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Seshat: A sync system for Audiobooks and eBooks2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this degree project we present a way to construct a synchronization system that is able to create a timings file, which is the file the system uses to know how to sync the eBook and audiobook, using speech recognition and estimation algorithms. This file is then used by the system to let the user select a sentence and have the audiobook start reading from that sentence, or vice versa. This system can create these files with a mean offset from a manu-ally timed file which is within our expectations for the system.

    We use estimation algorithms to fill in the blanks where the speech recognition falls short. Speech recognition accuracy is typically between 40-60%, sometimes dipping lower, so there are blanks to fill in. Using basic algebraic principles of calculating velocity we can ex-trapolate the speed of a reader, using the duration of the audiobook as the time and the amount of characters written as the distance. For increased accuracy we derive this value on a per-chapter basis.

    Using this method we are able to create accurate files, which the user can use to freely sync any location in the book. Our system is designed to work for any book in the world that does not have an audiobook which cuts off between sentences in the audio files.

    We manually create timings files for four different books with widely varying publishing dates, author styles, reader style and gender to create as wide and representative a testing pool as possible for the project

  • 95.
    Diehl, Catarina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Kuzet, Stanko
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Immersion och checkpoints inom Singelplayerspel: Bidrar spelets checkpointsystem till immersionen?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our intent was to examine the checkpoint system in Witcher 3; The Wild Hunt to see if it creates a better experience for the user but the results also show how immersion is generally perceived. With greater understanding of key factors to the game and checkpoints in general based on interviews and an online survey, our goal is to aid game developers during their process. The interviews are supplemented with the survey to compare our results to ensure a reliable report. The participants gave us an interesting insight to what makes a checkpoint system a contributing factor. Our result shows that checkpoints can contribute to immersion but it can also counteract with it when the game autosaves before a larger event. Yet our participants consider the checkpoints to be a positive factor. The majority of our participants consider playing without checkpoints to increase the immersion but it is has a negative effect to the gameplay. Our solution benefits all participants and the design is to let the users design their own personal checkpoint system, including visual indicators, not to reveal key moments throughout the game.

  • 96.
    Eborn, Hanna
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Jönsson, Nklas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Välfärdstjänster med stöd av IT: Införandet av IT-stöd gällande vård och omsorgs verksamhet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Welfare technology is a constant recurrent topic that concerns big parts of society, not least the health sector. The topic aims at enhancing the independence, safety and activity of people in need of care and their relatives through technology. As medical research is constantly moving forward and the world population is getting bigger and lives longer, the pressure on activities and in the healthcare is increasing as a sanction. One of the pieces that requires more and more resources is the elderly care. They have a challenge to keep up with the increasing amount of people who want and need their services. In parallel, the technical solutions to make the healthcare more efficient is presented. Society is becoming increasingly digital and new technical IT solutions are presented to facilitate the way in which businesses operate.

    The purpose of this report is to handle the question of how the work changes municipal activities when IT is introduced in the daily healthcare activities. Vänersborg municipality in western Sweden has been studied using the introduction of a technical platform as a first step in the process of introducing IT support in elderly care. The technical platform is an independent platform that is not dependent on a specific supplier, which gives a free choice to adapt the platform to the business. By applying the platform, which in this study is termed an independent service platform, free communication with other IT solutions can be made possible.

    The following study is based on a qualitative approach which aims to interpret and understand the data collected through empirical studies. In order to design the theoretical frame of reference for the study, an extensive literature review has been conducted to gather knowledge relevant to the subject before the interviews were conducted. The analysis of the collected data shows that Vänersborg's municipality can extract benefits by implementing an independent service platform in the business to change the way in which IT support is introduced.

    The conclusion of the study shows that there is a strong and clear vision of the municipality of Vänersborg to improve the efficiency of care by introducing an independent service platform. The working environment thus becomes easier with smaller external IT solutions that benefit from future procurement, which is the main goal of the welfare technology.

  • 97.
    Ekblad, Lovisa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Findley, Hannah
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Sociala mediers roll i centrumutveckling: Kommunikation mellan Trollhättans Stad och dess invånare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urban development is a part of a municipality’s responsibility in offering its citizens a good living environment. A crucial aspect for a municipality to succeed with urban development is to include the needs and opinions of its citizens. Social media, as a part of e-government, can be used to increase involvement and participation from citizens in a municipality's work with urban development. When the public sector uses social media, they need to actively encourage communication with citizens to be able to understand and ascertain their needs and opinions and not only use social media to distribute information. The purpose of this study was to understand how large municipalities in Sweden work with social media to increase involvement and participation from citizens and how social media can promote urban development. The study was conducted with a qualitative approach using mixed methods. The findings of the study show that the participating municipality primarily uses social media to distribute information about cultural and entertainment events, which is also what the citizens of this municipality are requesting. Social media is not used to ascertain the opinions and suggestions from citizens, however social media is used to advertise occasions when citizens are invited to participate and influence the work with urban development. Municipalities need to develop common strategies and definitions when working with social media to facilitate their work and to provide their citizens with a better understanding of what they can expect from the municipalities social media accounts.  

  • 98.
    Ekholm, Sara
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Falk Friberg, Linn
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Personlig eller professionell?: Konsumenters tillit för svenska modeföretag på Facebook2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Communication in the context of social media has created new opportunities for companies to interact with their customers. There are several business categories available on these platforms where fashion companies playing an important part. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that contribute to the reliability of Swedish companies Facebook pages in fashion for women. This research examines companies Facebook post by looking at patterns in consumers perceptions. The study applies a qualitative approach where our primary data collection consists of twelve interviews. With the support of theoretical concepts such as brand awareness, corporate communication, electronic word-of-mouth and trust we created a base for strengthening our results. In our research, we describe how brand awareness and individuals reviews are distinguished in an aspect of trust. According to these subjects we discovered that consumers experiences is in a greater importance than other customers perception of a product or company. Furthermore, we describe whether the company’s communication and tonality matters in an aspect of creating credibility on brand pages. The result of our survey shows that respondents have shared sentences about which tonality companies should apply to confirm their seriousity. This research also explains how consumers use Facebook posts different dimension in terms of comments and reactions, to investigate whether the post is reliable or not. Reactions are used by customers to investigate whether individuals interpretation reflects on what themselves are experiencing. Likewise, the comment field is used as a place where consumers can create reviews about the content in a specific post. Lastly, we present how the design of images is important for the perception of the company’s credibility and seriousity.   

  • 99.
    Eklund Taavo, Mia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Appelgren, Therese
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Popup-rutor på eget initiativ: En kvalitativ studie om implementering av click-popups i webbgränssnitt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, alternative popup windows have been investigated from a user perspective by being implemented in the web interface of an e-commerce website. This was done with the aim of improving the interaction and user experience on websites where popup windows are applied as a marketing tool. The intention was to eliminate a negative suser experience that popup windows cause when they occur in the form of internal or external events that interrupt the user and leads the attention away from the main focus. A website prototype for e-commerce was designed where popup windows were placed in the interface, in the shape of so-called click-popups. The prototype was then used as a tool for implementing a user test, where 13 participants were allowed to navigate the site, thereby giving the opportunity to interact with the click-popups found in the interface. A subsequent questionnaire then answered what the participants thought about their experience. The result of our study showed that the click-popups reformed both interaction and user experience in a positive direction. This could be distinguished because the majority of participants interacted with several click-popups and we received positive response regarding their experience, which is different from previous research regarding other types of popup windows where similar results could not be found. We could conclude that the reason for this was the possibility of making own decisions as well as the lack of interruption. It was thus found that the disapproved properties that popup windows usually are associated with in fact can be reduced.

  • 100.
    Ekman, Karin
    et al.
    Department of Applied IT, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lundin, Johan
    Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg Sweden.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Attitudes towards IT and use of LMS in Teacher Education: A Swedish case study2015In: Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, Mar 02, 2015 in Las Vegas, NV, United States / [ed] David Slykhuis; Gary Marks, Chesapeake, VA, 2015, p. 900-906Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore the relation between attitude and use of a university-wide Learning Management System (LMS) among faculty members engaged in teacher education at a large Swedish University. We compare the findings with a control group of educators from the same university, not involved in teacher education. The results reveal that all teachers fail to provide evidence for a correlation between attitude and use, which contest established assumptions in, for instance, the technology acceptance model (TAM). Still we can detect significant differences between teacher educators and other faculty members: Teacher educators are more positive to the potential for IT in general (p<0.1), and in particular more positive to (i) how IT develop their pedagogy, and (ii) that time spent on communicating with students through IT is time well spent. Furthermore, teacher educators use the LMS significantly more frequently, and with a wider scope of used functionality compared to other faculty.

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