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  • 51.
    Jezierska, Katarzyna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Urban Planing and Development.
    Coming out of the liberal closet: Think tanks and de-democratization in Poland2022In: Democratization, ISSN 1351-0347, E-ISSN 1743-890X, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    De-democratization is a global trend, with an increasing number of governments gradually dismantling democratic institutions and norms in their countries. De-democratization can be seen as an incremental crisis that radically redraws the sociopolitical order. This article is among the first to highlight external knowledge producers in autocratizing contexts. Relying on a unique data set of 40 interviews with Polish think tankers conducted before and after the Law and Justice party came to power in 2015 and began pushing the country in an authoritarian direction, the article analyses how liberal think tanks handle de-democratization. The findings show that autocratization entails a reconfiguration of the think tank space; i.e. think tanks aligning with the government blossom and think tanks opposing the government are marginalized through a lack of public funding and access to policymakers. Second, significant changes in think tank tactics, strategies, and identities, especially among liberal organizations, are exposed. The doxic mode through which liberal think tanks produce analyses and provide policy advice as “nonpartisan experts” has shifted to the use of contentious tactics and the assumption of an openly political identity as “democracy defenders”

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  • 52.
    Jezierska, Katarzyna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Performing Independence. The Apolitical Image of Polish Think Tanks2018In: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 345-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Think tanksnon-governmental policy institutes engaged in both research and advocacyoccupy a position at the intersection of different societal fields. This interstitial position determines how they operate and what language they use. Their claim to expertise hinges upon their successful presentation as independent actors. In this endeavour, an apolitical image is crucial. This article studies the role of language in legitimising the position of think tanks. How do think tanks negotiate their apolitical image? What organisational and historical reasons sustain their claim to be apolitical? These questions will be addressed here, through original empirical material based on semi-structured interviews with Polish think tank leaders.

  • 53.
    Jezierska, Katarzyna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    With Habermas against Habermas: Deliberation without Consensus2019In: Journal of Public Deliberation, E-ISSN 1937-2841, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Habermas's conception of deliberative democracy combines two concepts—deliberation and consensus—which, I argue, draw his theory in two opposite directions. While deliberation and the focus on communication can be read as a predominantly open element of his theory, consensus stands for closure. The process of deliberation contrasts Habermas's normative aim of deliberation, i.e., consensus. In other words, a realized consensus (in the strong, monologic formulation that Habermas favors) would put an end to the idea of continuous public justification of validity claims, i.e., deliberation. The article argues that in order to fully use the potential of deliberation in politics, we should leave behind the notion of consensus through deliberation. Instead, understanding should be the telos of deliberation, and voting after deliberation is put forth as the optimal institutional design for decision-making settings.

  • 54.
    Jezierska, Katarzyna
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Sörbom, Adrienne
    Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Proximity and distance: Think tanks handling the independence paradox2021In: Governance. An International Journal of Policy, Administration and Institutions, ISSN 0952-1895, E-ISSN 1468-0491, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 395-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The credibility of think tanks is grounded in their image as independent experts. In order to gain authority to act, think tanks must be seen as independent, but in order to exert influence and gain funding, think tanks are forced to compromise this independent image. We focus on how think tanks handle this independence paradox. How do think tanks use different resources to construct an independent image? The aim of the article is conceptual, as we develop a theoretical model of the independence paradox. This conceptual work is based on empirical analysis of attempts by think tanks in Poland and Sweden to create independence while maintaining influence. The two desirables central for think tanks, independence and influence, force them to make strategic choices about their relations with various actors. We conclude that the processes of keeping distance and arranging proximity are at the core of the independence paradox. © 2020 The Authors. Governance published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.

  • 55.
    Jezierska, Katarzyna
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Towns, Ann
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Taming feminism?: The place of gender equality in the "Progressive Sweden" brand2018In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, ISSN 1751-8040, E-ISSN 1751-8059, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As prior work on nation branding in Japan, Canada and Iceland has shown, gender can be an important component in nation branding. This article looks at the evolution of the idea of gender equality as a “Swedish” trait, from the initial incorporation of gender equality in Swedish state identity in the 1990s to contemporary nation branding. Based on standard discourse analysis of branding documents, branding websites and social media presence administered by the public diplomacy agency, the Swedish Institute, we show that gender equality remains a central pillar in the “Progressive Sweden” brand. In contrast with other national brands, “Progressive Sweden” is devoid of the more androcentric narratives and sexually objectifying representations of women. However, the “Progressive Sweden” narrative sports its own peculiarities, as it presents a liberal dreamscape that slides between utopian ideals and generalizations about “Sweden” as a unified actor whose population shares behaviors and goals. Discord and political struggle are written out of this narrative. Despite its rhetorical centrality in Swedish foreign policy, feminism thus disappears from view in the “Progressive Sweden” brand. The article ends with some considerations for the future of Swedish nation branding.

  • 56.
    Johansson, Andrea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    En studie av innovation i arbetsintegrerat lärande (AIL) vid en akademisk institution2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the different descriptions of WIL (Work Integrated Learning) that exist within University West and how they can be understood. The concept of WIL within University West appears to be multifaceted and AIL has various meanings within the university. 

    The study is based on an empirical material, which consists of various strategic documents and decision documents that have been of significant importance for the development of WIL at University West. Furthermore, a theoretical framework is used to analyze the empirical material, and the framework is based on studies of research fields, investigations of various theoretical concepts, that relate to WIL as a concept. Different descriptions of WIL are inductively analyzed from through a content analysis. 

    The result of the analysis accounts for a variety of descriptions of WIL within University West and WIL can be understood as: a profile, a complete academic environment, a view of knowledge, an area of knowledge, a pedagogical approach, an area of examination, a subject, and an area of research.

    As a conclusion of the study's results, the need to anchor the subject WIL, at all levels, and ensure that a common image and understanding is created among all concerned at the University West is highlighted, among other things. Likewise, in cooperation with the academic world, to shed light on what the subject is about and what it can mean for the development of society.

  • 57.
    Karlsson, Erika
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Eyre, Joshua
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Gender (in)equality in the Swedish Radical Right: A Comparative Study of New Democracy and the Sweden Democrats2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to describe the use of gender symbols and gender equality ideas in contemporary nationalist parties in Sweden. Nationalism and national identity traditionally contain gendered ideas, symbols and identities, in which women are subordinate to men. Paradoxically, in Sweden, gender equality has become an intrinsic part of the national identity. Theories on gender and nationalism are applied and used in the quantitative and qualitative analysis in order to distinguish and describe the use of gender symbols and gender equality ideas in the two Swedish parties New Democracy and the Sweden Democrats. The findings show that the parties do rely on traditional nationalist gender roles, and that the Sweden Democrats emphasize these roles to a greater extent than New Democracy. The analysis also shows that both parties try to incorporate the Swedish gender equality into their ideologies but interpret the notion of gender equality in two different ways. 

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    Gender (in)equality in the Swedish Radical Right
  • 58.
    Karlsson, Erika
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Lundqvist-Westin, Wilma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Rudström, Hedvig
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Assmo, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Sunnemark, Fredrik
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Ungdomars vardag i Trollhättan: Ungdomars bildberättelser under coronapandemin2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport fokuserar på gymnasieungdomars egna upplevelser och rörelsemönster i Trollhättan, före och under coronapandemin. Rapporten använder en tidsgeografiskt inspirerad metod för datainsamling där ungdomarna använt sina mobiltelefoner för att under en veckas tid skapa en digital bilddagbok samt därtill besvara en digital intervjuenkät. Studien pekar på att ungdomarna under coronapandemin saknar att umgås med vänner och familj, att röra sig fritt i samhället samt att utöva sina fritidsaktiviteter. Studien visar också att ungdomarna i studien intar en ambivalent position i förhållande till de restriktioner och begränsningar som gäller under pandemin. De förväntas i hög grad fortsätta sin skolgång på ett relativt oförändrat vis, men samtidigt förväntas de ta eget ansvar för att begränsa smittspridningen i sitt vardagsliv. Ungdomarnas situation tenderar att skapa spänningar och förvirring i relation till hur de ska agera såväl privat som i det offentliga rummet.Rapporten avslutas med diskussionsfrågor ämnade att ge kommunens politiker och förvaltningar ökad förståelse för ungas möjligheter till deltagande på lika villkor i det offentliga rummet, både under och efter en pandemi, samt utgöra ett kunskapsunderlag för strategisk planering och beslutsfattande. 

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  • 59.
    Larsson, Johan
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Neo-liberal ideas in Social Democratic arguments?: A look at the privatization debate regarding the Swedish railway sector2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Privatization is said to be fundamentally a neo-liberal idea and deregulation is one form of privatization. The Swedish railway sector has been deregulated gradually over the years. Some of the policy changes towards more deregulation have been done with the Swedish Social Democrats in government. This thesis analyzes the arguments for and against privatization on two occasions, 2000 and 2009 with the Social Democrats in government and opposition respectively, to see if the party’s argumentation has been influenced by neo-liberal ideas and if that change depending on whether they are in government or not. The analysis shows that there has been influence of neo-liberal ideas on arguments from the Social Democrats and that their view on privatization and deregulation differed depending on whether they were in government or in opposition.

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  • 60.
    Lindquist, Annica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Sköld, Mathias
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    The paradox of municipal cooperation: Municipalities’ organizational culture and its effect on negotiation strategy   -The case of Northern Bohuslän2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to study if organizational culture affects the negotiation strategy in negotiation processes between municipalities in Sweden. Our cases are four municipalities involved in the municipal cooperation “Tillväxt Bohuslän”; a project which aims to foster cooperation.

    The question this thesis seeks to answer is: “Does the cultural attribute of organizational culture (ability for joint action) of the municipalities in ‘Tillväxt Bohuslän’ affect negotiation strategy in a negotiation process?”

    The municipalities’ ability for joint action has been classified as either strong or weak by a previous study. This thesis uses these already established classifications with the intention to test if they affect which negotiation strategy municipalities use. The negotiation strategy can either be of a competitive or a collaborative nature.

    The method to collect data about the municipalities’ negotiation strategies is semi-structured interviews with politicians who are actively involved in the negotiation in the municipal cooperation “Tillväxt Bohuslän”.

    Results from the analysis in this thesis show a zero result; the municipalities’ ability for joint action does not affect which negotiation strategy they use. However, interesting empirical findings are explored.

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    The paradox of municipal cooperation
  • 61.
    Ljunggren, Rebecka
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Kunskap om platsen: En masteruppsats om deltagande, invånare och kunskap2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this essay is the research internship I carried out in the master's program Work-integrated political studies at the University West. The research internship and the collaboration with the research group at University West touched on topics such as the resident as possess or of knowledge, where the resident's experience of places can illustrate usage of public space and the developmental needs of the physical space. There, the purpose of this essay is developed, which is to investigate differences and similarities in the consideration and treatment of residents as holders of local and experiential knowledge in two separate processes, the research report "Stadsdelsexperter: Invånares röst i ett blandområde i Trollhättan" and in the planning program process for urban development at Hults Höjd. Furthermore, the essay also examines how methods of implementing participatory opportunities enable the residents to be able to share their knowledge.The theoretical composition of the several theoretical perspectives results in two theoretical approaches, firstly the resident as a knowledge holder of local and experiential knowledge and that the enabling of the individual's ability to participate and articulate his local and experiential knowledge as performed by the organizers of the participation. The analytical framework is presented based on these theoretical approaches. Data is collected from the two different cases through multiple methods, ethnographic method, semi-structured interviews and documents. The result shows that both processes consider and treat the resident as a knowledge holder of local and experiential knowledge, by inviting the participants from a limited local context where the goal of their participation is an increased knowledge of the physical place, and that the residents' subjective experience of the place is promoted. The result also shows that the design of the implementation is similar in that the implementation undergoes level movements and a competence development of the participants for different purposes. The processes also differ in representation, where the planning application process is more open to a wider group of residents and where the research report makes a representative sample. Finally, the result shows that the resident as a knowledge actor in both processes has the opportunity expand knowledge and create new knowledge.

  • 62.
    Lundmark, Sebastian
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Den fungerande stadsplaneringen: En studie i uppfattningar och effekter av torget och dess påverkan på demokrati2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this undergraduate thesis you will venture on a journey through the land of democratic values and urban planning. My research question is stated as: whether or not urban planning can show effects on democratic values and whether or not the municipalities in Sweden takes these possible effects into account when planning their city centres. You will in my theory part of this thesis be able to read about different views on urban planning and on democracy. Famous authors like Robert D. Putnam and Richard Florida will be examined as well as other theorists on democracy and urban planning. To be able to map whether or not urban planning matter I have done a thorough research on two cases of urban planning in two of Sweden’s smallest municipalities. Both of them have fairly recently rebuilt their urban centres and my research will try to show how this new urban planning has influenced the democracy in those regions. This research will show to you that thoughts, that urban planning affects the democracy, actually exist and affect the ones who execute and plan the urban centres in the municipalities. On the question whether or not there exist a correlation between urban planning and a well functioning democracy this research will show that no such link is recognizable and that urban planning, for the two cases, did not matter.

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  • 63.
    Löf, Cajsa
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Love is ours only in death: An analysis of how lesbian and bisexual relationships are stereotyped on Western television shows through the use of tropes2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Television is a mirror of society and in which we hope to see our lives and existence reflected. When the images shown marginalises your reflection through the use of stereotypes and common tropes it is hard to believe this does not affect the world around you and your perception about yourself. Television is vastly researched and this case study will add to it by analysing how lesbian and bisexual relationships are stereotyped through the use of tropes on Western television shows. Semiotics is used to decipher the underlying meanings of stereotypes and tropes; as stereotypes and tropes marginalise groups of people. By using visual analysis to watch episodes, the scenes analysed through qualitative content analysis proved that same-sex relationships are stereotyped through tropes and rarely challenge previous research. Social interaction based on representation theory solidify the perceptions through television images causing further harm to lesbians and bisexuals.

  • 64.
    Miller, Josh Aaron
    et al.
    Northeastern University (USA).
    Gandhi, Kutub
    Northeastern University (USA).
    Gander, Anna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Urban Planing and Development.
    Cooper, Seth
    Northeastern University (USA).
    A Survey of Citizen Science Gaming Experiences2022In: Citizen Science: Theory and Practice, ISSN 2057-4991, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Citizen science games (CSGs) are a valuable means for motivating citizen science participation. However, many CSGs still suffer from the recruitment and retention issues of traditional citizen science projects, despite much prior literature on what motivates CSG players. In this study, we take a Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) perspective to explore in what ways CSGs are still failing to provide motivating play experiences for players. Using Qualitative Content Analysis, we conducted and analyzed an online survey of 185 players from 9 citizen science games. This survey contributes insights to the current state of CSG experiences and next steps for developers to address these issues. We found that major concerns included scientific communication, instructional design, user interface and controls, task quality, and software issues. © 2022 Ubiquity Press. All rights reserved.

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  • 65.
    Mohamed, Ayan Hassan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Political instability and minority framing: How has the media framing of Kurds and Syrian refugees in Turkey changed over time?2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Turkey, a quasi-modern and secular state, has a vast media empire that is visibly being stifled by Erdogan’s AKP party. Despite the media pluralism, all media outlets have one thing incommon: they champion Erdogan’s sentiments. This thesis is conducted as a qualitative content analysis to demonstrate the empirical knowledge on the framing mechanism and power structures operating in the Turkish media landscape. The ontological foundation of this study emanates from social constructivism and Entman’s (1993) work on framing theory. Based on the implementation of the qualitative content analysis, 20 articles were analysed from five different newspapers based on their differences in political affiliation. The result ofthe analysis showed that the responsibility frame was used in connection to the Kurds and that the humanitarian frame was used in connection to the Syrian refugees. 

  • 66.
    Nilsson, Sanna
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Trohne, Sabina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Local government officials’ interpretation of circular economy: A study about interpretations and the importance of collaborative platforms2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to analyse the interpretation of circular economy (CE) by local government officials. The secondary focus of the thesis is whether that interpretation differs whether they have a collaborative platform/symbiosis network with the specific aim to promote CE. In this thesis, CE is defined based on core elements from the theories of industrial ecology and cradle-to-cradle: product life cycle and waste management. The analysis is anchored in the theory of local government officials, the power of language, and the before mentioned theories on circular economy and placed within the theoretical framework of “reality, strategy,utopia”. The data gathering is conducted by interviewing two local officials at three different municipalities; one with a collaborative platform (municipality 1), one that is on the way of establishing a platform (municipality 2), and one with no platform (municipality 3), and asking questions rooted in our theories and theoretical framework. The results show no significant differences between the three municipalities. A slight difference was found between the role the interviewees occupied within the municipalities, and thus there was also a small difference between the municipalities as Municipality 3 did not have any people working specifically with the subject of CE. People worked with it more indirectly, which meant they did not have the same knowledge on the subject, and the person who did had a wider range of responsibilities. 

  • 67.
    Olsson, Anders
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Heder Brandt, Petter
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    An industry under pressure - the future of Swedish forestry: A comparative longitudinal case study of the forest industry’s PR framing of the Swedish forestry model and alternative management practices2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigated how the Swedish forest industry, here represented by three of the biggest forest companies in Sweden, have framed the current primary Swedish forestry Model and alternative forestry models. Specifically, we look at respective company magazines targeted at forest owners between 2019 and 2022 to examine if they have changed over time based on economic, environmental and social aspects. The theoretical approach is based on the social constructivist theory of Public Relations framing with the economic, environmental and social aspects acting as frames. We conduct a comparative longitudinal case study combined with a mixed-method content analysis by coding the data and then supplementing our qualitative findings with quantitative counting of codes and frames. The main findings are that the industry did not consider alternative methods as viable options to replace the Swedish forestry Model. The biggest changes are observed in the environmental frame which for both management options saw an increase throughout the whole period. The companies, with some individual variations, respond to the alternative methods by becoming increasingly explicit and detailed about the benefits, mainly environmental, of the Swedish Model

  • 68.
    Osman, Osman Kalefa
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Bulhan, Hanad
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    The Egyptian Government’s framing of the New Administrative Capital2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis will attempt to clarify further, explore, and analyse the New Administrative Capital (NAC) case of Egypt. What will be discussed here is whether the new city is built with the Egyptian people in mind or rather to emulate Dubai and create a ‘world city’ meant only for the elites. This thesis will be using a qualitative approach where the Egyptian government is mainly analysed through their statements regarding the NAC. Previous research surrounding similar topics is used as a point of departure and then put in the case of the new Egyptian capital. Framing theory is the leading theory used in the thesis where Entman’s four framings are used, problem definition, causal analysis, moral judgement, and solution. This thesis aims to understand how the Egyptian government is framing the construction of the NAC and what this tells us about whether the city is built for the elites or the masses. The political puzzle in our thesis is to examine which actors (elites or masses, or maybe both) will benefit the most from this construction. To answer this, we will utilise these two research questions, “How does this framing reflect the interests of money and power?” & “How does the framing speak to issues of affordable housing, socio-economic segregation, and affordable transport?”. This thesis will follow a qualitative descriptive case study designwith the content analysis method. With all these pieces of the puzzle, we concluded that the NAC is a city constructed with the elites in mind more than the average Egyptian.

  • 69.
    Papane M, Boitumelo
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Developing Intercultural Understanding through Internationalised Work-Integrated Learning: A dialectic account of culturally embedded perceptions of ‘support’2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of an increasingly globalized workplace environment, there has been a great need for professionals who “demonstrate intercultural competences” and a sense of global awareness (Dimitrov et al., 2014:87).Despite graduates of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) possessing theoretical and technical skills, there has been a prevailing concern as the struggle to adapt to cultural difference in their respective professions (MacRaeand Reinhard, 2019). As organisations gravitate towards ‘internationalisation’ to establish new resources and capabilities, the salience of these competences become more apparent. In response, HEIs have employed the principle of internationalisation themselves premised on the belief that an internationalised curriculum, pedagogical approach and/or organisational structures may facilitate an intercultural experience (Knight, 2017;Deaton, 2015). However, there have been significant challenges in 1) adequately facilitating these intercultural experiences and 2) assessing the successes of their respective outcomes. Drawing from insights gained through an internationalised Work-Integrated Learning (WIL) program at theUniversity West (Sweden), the following argues that WIL’s auto-ethnographic methodology is both effective inbuilding intercultural competences within graduates as well as providing grounds for assessment. In the attempt to prove this claim, it employs Freirean dialectics to understanding culturally relative perceptions of ‘support’ during international work and learning. 

  • 70.
    Redjepagic, Valeria
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Widerberg, Mikaela
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Framing Refugees: Swedish Media Representations in 1992 and 20152019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During 1992 and 2015 there were two of the biggest refugee crises in Sweden. Debates on refugees flourished within media. Media have had a big impact on how refugees have been framed. Media have essential power to influence public views on different issues. Media framed refugees in different ways, both in negative and positive context.

    The thesis analyse how media have framed refugees during both crises in Sweden. This paper investigates how the newspapers 'Svenska Dagbladet' and 'Aftonbladet' have framed refugees during the crises in 1992 and 2015. The theoretical approaches that have been used are Framing theory and Bensons 'frames' which are victim, hero, and threat. The study has used a comparative two case study. This study aims to get a deeper knowledge about how Swedish media framed refugees during the two refugee crises in 1992 and 2015 and compare them to see if these framings are different. The result showed that the years differentiate quite much in which frames are dominant. In 1992 the dominant frame used by media was by far the threat frame which talked about refugees being criminals and causing problems for the Swedish economy.

  • 71.
    Reznik, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Safedof, Secil
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Intersectionality between Gender and Class in Modern Culture: An Analysis of the Sex and the City movies2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to explore how gender and socioeconomic class is portrayed in the two

    Sex and the City movies. The underlying purpose is to critically assess the celebration of emancipated women, as the movies allegedly portray. The intersection between gender and class will enable to analyse the depiction of different femininities and their power relationships. The uniqueness of the thesis is that the two movies have until today by large been ignored by the academia therefore it will hopefully commence a discussion which is long overdue. The result of analysing from an intersectional perspective will include a wider range of factors and provide a comprehensive interpretation of contemporary society as well as its interrelation with movies.

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  • 72.
    Said, Zanyar
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Aziz, Pavel
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Total Defence and Sweden’s Foreign Policy Roles in the Post-Crimea Annexation Era2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The annexation of Crimea in 2014 has relentlessly leaned the Swedish security policy toward a return to the Cold War-era policy of total defence. While the Swedish government is acting as regional leaders, regional protectors and bridge-builders in the Nordic and European circuit, the threats posed by Russia towards Ukraine has further elevated Sweden’s defence strategy. This era has therefore widened the question of whether the total defence policy has influenced Sweden’s foreign policy roles. This thesis applied a single-case study where role theory is used as the theoretical basis for analysing how the current policy of total defence in Sweden has influenced their foreign policy roles in the European geopolitical arena after the 2014 Crimea annexation. Qualitative content analysis is used to research different governmental statements and activities taken from the official web page of the Swedish government and articles and literature that were relevant for this thesis. The analysis showed that the Swedish government has opted for a stronger alliance with the Nordic regions. From the observed period, Sweden has strengthened their security partnership in the Nordic-Baltic regions while cooperating closely on security measures with the EU. For that reason, this thesis aims to contribute to a discussion on Sweden’s foreign policy behaviour after the Crimea annexation while analysing how the total defence policy has affectedSweden’s foreign policy roles in terms of regional leader, regional collaborator, and bridge-builder.

  • 73.
    Segerlind, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Feldt, Jennifer
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Municipalities and the effect of politics2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to investigate how political leadership in municipalities affect policy design, specifically the political effect on immigration policy on the municipal level. To facilitate the study we created a rudimentary framework that allows for the identification of external influences, codes statements and policy positions as belonging to either of the two parties. This framework utilizes Multi-level Governance (MLG) theory as a basis. Further a method to facilitate a neutral choice in municipalities is created with conditions imposed in accordance with the findings of Lidén and Nyhlén, specifically their findings regarding receptiveness of migrants. The two municipalities lacked official documentation so a semistructured interviews with relevant and knowledgeable white-collar workers were conducted to enhance and deepen the available material. What we find during this study is that the available literature focus on either a deep language analysis of political language and communication, and make connections to possible consequences, or focuses on the way policy were implemented without tying in the politics. Further we note that our two comparison municipalities with different political leadership do not diverge significantly in their receptions of migrants. We do find that the assertions that white-collar workers within organisations create work documents that fulfil a similar function to official policy documentation when none exist hold true. 

  • 74.
    Sunnemark, Fredrik
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Knowledge and Negotiation: Theoretical Observations in Relation to the Development of a Master Program in Work Integrated Political Studies and Beyond.2019In: VILÄR 5-6 december 2019, University West, Trollhättan: Abstracts / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: University West , 2019, p. 20-21Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The term Work Integrated Learning (WIL) is connected to knowledge production. It is as central in organizing ways of combining academic studies with working life as in abstract reasonings on how knowledge in itself should be understood. Any facilitation of WIL-based education carries an idea of knowledge production and its relation to what knowledge is, while any theory of knowledge and knowledge production include, implicitly or explicitly, understandings of what processes knowledge and knowledge production are related to. Even though it may not always make it to the surface, the negotiation between these different strands is unavoidable in any WIL endeavor.

    This presentation is concerned with such a negotiation over time. It concerns the development and construction of a master program in work integrated political studies. The program is a collaboration between University West in Sweden and the University of the Western Cape in South Africa. After several years of work, both collaborative and independently, the program is set to be launched in the fall of 2020. In this sense we now have a result of the first part of the negotiation (it will naturally continue in the actual realization of the program). But how did we get to where we are? Why did we get to where we are? What was involved in the construction of WIL in the field of political studies?

    From the theoretical perspective of the social construction and character of science, I analyze – through participatory observations and close readings of documents – both how definitions and understandings came to be and what these definitions came to include. The analysis shows that a multilayered collective process, not even always made conscious or manifest, is involved and that it is set in everyday surroundings. This discussion is then taken a step further. WIL has now been installed as a discipline in which you can receive a doctoral degree at University West. I argue that the process behind the establishment of this degree and WIL's disciplinary status as well as content constitute a relevant and fruitful case from the perspective of theory of science. Big questions often loom large in small proceedings.

  • 75.
    Sunnemark, Fredrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Berg, Magnus
    Politikens riktning och livets gång: Erfarenheter och förståelser av systemskiftet i svensk politik2006Book (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Sunnemark, Fredrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    Åberg, Martin
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    How 'the politics of retrenchment' was said and done: remodelling of concepts and roles in Swedish welfare state discourse2004Report (Other academic)
  • 77.
    Sunnemark, Ludvig
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Sunnemark, Fredrik
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Assmo, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Segregationen i Trollhättan: en lägesrapport2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trollhättan är en av Sveriges mest segregerade kommuner. Det har bekräftats och diskuterats gång på gång, såväl i studier som i media och i offentlig och politisk debatt. Rapporter om våld, kriminalitet och ekonomisk ojämlikhet, liksom skillnader i tillgången till service, utbildning och resurser, har presenterats upprepade gånger. Som en konsekvens har Trollhättans stad tilldelats medel av DELMOS (Delegationen mot segregation, en statlig myndighet med uppdrag att undersöka och minska segregation) för att i samarbete med Högskolan Väst undersöka segregationen i två forskningsprojekt. Den här rapporten presenterar det första av dessa projekt.I syfte att vara kort och lättfattlig fokuserar rapporten på de variabler som är att betrakta som allra mest centrala för förståelsen av segregation. För det första handlar det om ekonomisk standard, presenterad utifrån hur varje områdes befolkning fördelas över de riksövergripande inkomstkvartilerna. Detta ger en övergripande bild av de boendes ekonomiska ställning och klasstillhörighet. För det andra handlar det om etnisk bakgrund, presenterad utifrån hur stor del av befolkningen i varje område.

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  • 78.
    Sörbom, Adrienne
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi, Stockholm.
    Jezierska, Katarzyna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Urban Planing and Development.
    Bridging or Bonding?: Think Tanks in a Polarized Context2021In: Swedish Political Science Association Annual Conference, 2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social capital is still often presumed as having positive consequences for societies and communities, less benign aspects are frequently overlooked. Nevertheless, scholarship distinguishes between bridging and bonding social capital to mark that social ties might have very different effects. In this paper, we study the “darker sides” of social capital, arguing that to understand the mechanisms that may propel benign and less benign formations of social capital we need to analyze these variations in context. We focus on think tanks, i.e., policy advice institutions, who are often described as organizations bridging various social fields and brokering contacts between various individuals. We argue, however, that a sharply polarized context turns think tanks to bonding, rather than bridging institutions. Our data consists of 40 interviews with representatives from Polish think tanks, collected in two waves (in 2013 and in 2020/2021), which allows us to trace changes over time. Since the radical right wing Law and Justice came to power in 2015, Polish politics and society are deeply polarized along the axis of the socio-cultural dimension (for or against liberal democracy). The analysis indicates that the networks Polish think tanks use for their activities have transformed from bridging between various groups of organizations, to bonding between similar types of organizations.

  • 79.
    Towns, Ann
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Are Relative Norms More Persuasive Than Absolute Standards?2011In: Workshop on Moral Entrepreneurship in International Politics / [ed] Robert Keohane and Kathryn Sikkink, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Towns, Ann
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Civilization2016In: The Oxford Handbook of Feminist Theory / [ed] Lisa Disch and Mary Hawkesworth, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016, p. 79-99Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses the treatment of civilization as a concept and phenomenon in feminist scholarship from the late 1970s until the present. How have feminist scholars understood and approached civilization and its relation to gender and/or women? In what ways have these interventions contributed to and challenged more mainstream scholarship on civilization, particularly on the West and Islam? The chapter begins with a discussion of feminist treatments of civilizations as bounded sociocultural entities and the role of women and men therein. It then continues with a longer analysis of the alternative feminist understanding of civilizations as discourses that are contextually unfolding. In this understanding, gender and the status of women are implicated in the production as well as challenging of civilizational boundaries and hierarchies. The chapter ends with suggestions for the direction of future research, including a call to more directly engage central civilizations scholarship that is inattentive to gender.

  • 81.
    Towns, Ann
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Manning the State: Negotiating Masculinity in the New Norway of 18142014In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 116-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender historians have identified the period around 1800 as a crucial time for transforming elite masculinities in Europe: there were shifts away from ideals of polite gentlemen towards more martial forms of manhood; and this was a transition period away from more fluid notions of masculinity and an emphasis on the mixing of male and female towards a period of upholding stricter binaries between male and female. This article contributes to scholarship on the intersection of masculinities and states by centring on the formation of a new, partially independent Norway around 1814, when the Norwegian constitution was crafted. I use the analysis of Norway as an entry to exploring broader European trends at that time. As this article will show, Norwegian ideals of masculinity suitable for state office are a good illustration of more general interpretations of elite manhood in northern Europe. Norwegian constructions did offer a twist, however, as they idealized the Norwegian elite male as rough, unsophisticated, and natural.

    In contrast with other forms of elite state-bearing European masculinity, which emphasized

    advancement and cultivation, Norwegian masculinity was celebrated for its lack of refinement.

  • 82.
    Towns, Ann
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Manning the State: Negotiating Masculinity in the New Norway of 18142012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 83.
    Towns, Ann
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Prestige, Immunity and Diplomats: Understanding Sexual Corruption2015In: Elites, Institutions and the Quality of Government / [ed] Carl Dahlström, Lena Wängnerud, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 49-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Diplomacy is an institution of prestige and political weight. In a discussion of cabinet rankings, Krook and O'Brien (2011, p. 14) designate foreign affairs as an elite and high-prestige area as it offers individuals the potential for sustained "visibility and significant control over policy." It is also an institution that has traditionally been populated by an elite political class – such as the nobility in Europe – which continues to provide diplomacy with an air of exclusivity. Diplomats thus occupy a position which carries considerable prestige and esteem, often more so than other public positions. Diplomacy is interesting for corruption research in other respects as well. To ensure that diplomacy functions even in situations of international enmity and competition, diplomats need to be shielded from politically motivated persecution and harassment by foreign states. Diplomats thus enjoy privileges of immunity from the host country's laws and are not susceptible to prosecution unless diplomatic privileges are waived, which is very rare. Compared with other political elites analyzed in this volume, diplomats therefore enjoy more unchecked power and less accountability for criminal actions. While perhaps necessary, such protections can obviously be abused, turning immunity into impunity.

  • 84.
    Towns, Ann
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Sandholtz, Wayne. (2007). Prohibiting plunder: how norms change. New York: Oxford University Press2010In: Perspectives on Politics, ISSN 1537-5927, E-ISSN 1541-0986, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 991-993Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 85.
    Towns, Ann
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The Inter-American Commission of Women and Women’s Suffrage, 1920-19482010In: Journal of Latin American Studies, ISSN 0022-216X, E-ISSN 1469-767X, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 779-807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In studies of the international dimensions of women's suffrage, the role of international organisations has been overlooked. This article examines the suffrage activities of the Pan-American Union (PAU), and in particular those of the Inter-American Commission of Women (IACW), between 1920 and 1945. Attentive to historical context, the examination suggests that international organisations can be both bearers of state interests and platforms for social movement interests. The article also argues that while not independent bureaucracies, the PAU and IACW nevertheless had some importance for suffrage that cannot be attributed either to their state members or to the suffragist movements. 

  • 86.
    Towns, Ann
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Women and states: Norms and Hierarchies in International Society2010Book (Other academic)
  • 87.
    Towns, Ann E.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Norms and social hierarchies: Understanding international policy diffusion "from below"2012In: International Organization, ISSN 0020-8183, E-ISSN 1531-5088, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 179-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to rethink the operation of norms in international policy diffusion. Norms do not simply standardize state behaviors, as is conventionally argued; norms also draw on and set up hierarchical social orders among states. Through a conceptual rethinking we gain a better understanding of where-among which states-new policies may first emerge: social hierarchies create incentives for new policies to develop at the margins of international society so that policies may diffuse "from below." We also get a better grasp of how policy advocates frame the appropriateness or benefits of a new state practice: they must frame policy demands in terms of the international standing and rank of the targeted state. This article's empirical aspiration is to use these insights to help account for the international policy diffusion of legal sex quotas, a policy to increase the level of female legislators that developed first among "developing" states rather than among the so-called core of international society. By pointing to the link between norms and social hierarchy, the article helps account for policy diffusion "from below." © 2012 The IO Foundation.

  • 88.
    Towns, Ann E.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Erika
    Linköping University.
    Eyre, Joshua
    Göteborg University.
    The equality conundrum: Gender and nation in the ideology of the Sweden Democrats2014In: Party Politics, ISSN 1354-0688, E-ISSN 1460-3683, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 237-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the gender ideology of the parliamentary radical right populist party (RRPP) – the Sweden Democrats. More specifically, the article analyses how the party integrates old nationalist ideas about the importance of traditional gender roles and male superiority for the stability and welfare of the nation with new nationalist ideas about Sweden as the most gender-equal nation in the world. Prior studies suggest that RRPPs have integrated gender equality as a policy measure against multiculturalism and immigration. Our analysis shows this to be true also of the Sweden Democrats. However, unlike prior scholarship, we argue that the integration of gender equality is a tenuous and difficult one, as nationalist ideologies generally rest on ideas of sexual difference and male superiority. While the Sweden Democrats claim to support gender equality in discussions of multiculturalism and immigration, the party is a fierce critic of gender equality in all other contexts.

  • 89.
    Towns, Ann
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Niklasson, Birgitta
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Gender, International Status, and Ambassador Appointments2016In: Foreign Policy Analysis, ISSN 1743-8586, E-ISSN 1743-8594, Vol. 0, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Focusing on ambassador appointments, the aim of this pioneering article is to address some fundamental questions about where men and women are positioned in diplomacy. Most of the gender-related diplomacy studies are limited to individual Ministry of Foreign Affairs and say little about diplomacy as an aggregate set of practices. We draw on theories of gender and positional status to ask whether there are gender patterns in ambassador appointments—with men occupying positions of higher military and economic status than women—much like the ones found in other institutions. Our analyses are based on a unique data set containing almost 7,000 ambassador appointments, made by the fifty highest ranked countries in terms of GDP in 2014. The results show that female ambassadors are less likely to occupy high-status ambassadorships than men. In short, gender patterns, linked to power and status, are present also in ambassador appointments. Diplomacy studies need to do much more to address the presence and impact of gender in international affairs.

  • 90.
    Wenander, Ellinor
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Sandberg, Madeleine
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Framing of Covid-19 vaccine mandate by liberal and conservative media in the U.S.2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to describe how two different media outlets MSNBC and Fox News, frame the controversy on mandatory vaccination for Covid-19 with opinion articles. This study will further examine if their description of the debate corresponds with their two different ideological beliefs. MSNBC lean more towards the liberal ideology, with an emphasis on equality, although Fox News corresponds more to the conservative ideology, and focus more on freedom. The theoretical approaches in this thesis derives from social constructivism and framing theory. Further, with the use of the “what is the problem represented to be” (WPR) approach, we addressed two frames from previous literature. These themes, public health as an equality issue and public health as a freedom issue, combined with the three selected WPR question created our analytical framework. We constructed a small-N case study that was analysed through a qualitative content analysis. The findings of this study demonstrate how MSNBC frames vaccine mandates as a good solution for saving lives and adopts the equality aspect and the common good to not harm other individuals. Fox News, on the other hand, frames the vaccine mandate as not the solution to end the pandemic since freedom to choose is their main standpoint. While we found that the two media’s arguments roughly correspond with their ideological focus on the concepts of freedom and equality, the data also demonstrates that the politicisation of these medias are apparent, and they stretch ideological concepts and even science to make it fit their ideological positions. 

  • 91.
    Yemane, Yoel
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    The Ethiopian conflict in the eyes of the media: Case study: How Al-Jazeera news agency represents and frame the Tigray war of 20202022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's world, mass media plays a key role in shaping public opinion and influencing foreign policies of states. Global news agencies have become powerful entities in this aspect; not only by reporting but also by the way they represent and frame events such as conflict situations and wars. They have the potential to create or construct the understanding of the spectator, by the way they represent events of significance. Representation, which is done through the use of language, can be considered as the production of the meaning in the minds of the spectators, while news framing is used by the media to place the facts inside a frame that provides clarity and consistency to the news.This thesis attempted to analyse how Al-Jazeera English news site represented the on-going Tigray war in Ethiopia. A qualitative approach was adopted in achieving the overall research objective, whereas 46 news reports published within one month since the outbreak of the war were subjected to discourse analysis. In addition, six news reports that were published exactlyone year after its commencement were analysed to explore whether there is any difference inAl-Jazeera’s representation on the Tigray war.From the beginning and even after one year, Al-Jazeera defines the problem within two frames; i) a political conflict between two groups followed by military confrontation, and ii) human interest associated with the problem or the humanitarian consequences of the problem. The major cause for the problem or the Tigray war is represented as political disputes between Ethiopia’s federal government and Tigray’s regional government. The moral judgment of the war is conveyed by way of a covert ‘blame judgement’ directed at the Prime Minister and the leader of the federal government. From the beginning and even one year after, Al-Jazeera has strongly represented dialogue and negotiation as the solution to the problem. The need for a third-party intervention in peace making has been represented throughout. 

  • 92.
    Åberg, Linnéa
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Work and Social Pedagogy.
    Standardiseringsarbetets kollektiva praktik: En studie om att kvalitetssäkra integrationssatsningen Samhällsorientering för nyanlända2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Societal efforts to support the integration of newly arrived immigrants have been repeatedly highlighted in the political debate in Sweden and they are described as inadequate and ineffective. Demands have been made for improvements and one of the designated efforts is Civic Orientation (CO). The Civic Orientation programme is a course about Swedish society, targeting newly arrived refugees and their relatives who have received a residence permit. It provides basic information about Swedish society to aid and expedite integration (SFS 2010:1138). The criticism has led to the production of written, national instructions containing correct information that should be provided by the civil servants in CO. The aim is that quality should be high and equal across the country. The overall aim of the dissertation is to deepen the understanding and knowledge of the work-process to develop standard guidelines, that will be used in a welfare sector, where it is difficult to establish definitive knowledge. The dissertation's purpose is also to deepen the understanding and knowledge of instruction work as a collaborative activity. The term 'instruction work' covers both work that experts and managers undertake when they develop written guidelines, and work done when implementing these guidelines in local practice. The thesis is rooted in activity theory where work is viewed as a collaborative activity aimed at taking on a task, event or object, such as interpreting, paying attention, participating, thinking, and performing. The study involves five different categories of actors: a representative from the county administrative board, experts from various authorities and universities, coordinators and the head of a unit from a management group in a municipality, and integration workers, who are the local civil servants. The study is based on a field study where video recorded observations of meetings, lectures and workshops have been conducted. Semi structured interviews and written communication have also been used. The result shows that there are different perceptions of what work needs to be done to ensure that the instructions are correct. A variety of, sometimes contradictory, tasks developed: to make the information scientifically correct with multiple perspectives on social phenomena, to make educational simplification, to provide an ideal image of Sweden according to policy, or to describe Swedish society as irrational with hinders and obstacles (papers 1- 3). Another major task was to make the instructions politically neutral which meant producing information that was not offensive for external readers such as politicians and the general public (paper 1). When guideline models have been used for other welfare activities, the work is usually based on analysis of the needs of the target groups. That task took on an obscured role and was first noticed as important by the civil servants in the latter part when the material was used during implementation (papers 1, 3). A further result concerns the work of developing standard guidelines. The study shows that there is formal instruction work (paper 1) which is the planned work, most often done by experts and/or researchers, and informal instruction work (paper 2) often hidden and performed by civil servants in the implementation phase. This informal work is about transforming the instructions to be useful for the individual in the local situation. But the study also shows a third type of work - semi-formal instruction work (paper 3) that is also carried out by the local civil servants, where they, with their biographical and informal instruction work experience, try hard to influence formal instruction work. One conclusion is that it is more fruitful and accurate to perceive standardized instructions as dynamic and integrated in the practical work, than to see them as fixed by an externally controlled process. Developing standards to be used to improve practice is an ongoing fluid process that never ends, and that involves tensions and conflicts that need to be addressed.

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