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  • 51.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2014. Geography of Growth. The Frequency, Nature and Consequences of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Regions of Varying Density: Revised papers presented at the 17th Uddevalla Symposium 12-14 June, 2014, Uddevalla, Sweden2014Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grunden, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A Study of Small Enterprises with Focus on Entrepreneurship and E-government in a Regional Development Context2015In: A Nordic Perspective on Co‐Operation for Sustainable Destination and Regional Development / [ed] Iréne Bernhard & Anna Karin Olsson, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 59-75Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter aims to describe and analyze a sample of small enterprises located in a region undergoing structural change with focus on entrepreneurship and e-government and is a further development of a previous study that focused on how municipalities supported entrepreneurship and destination development. In this study the focus is extended to include small enterprises contributing to development of tourist destinations within the same region. In-depth qualitative interviews weremade with twelve managers from ten small enterprises. Based on a theoretical discussion of entrepreneurship, e-government and regional development, the results indicate that networks and strategic networking were important for these small enterprises both in terms of developing the enterprise butalso to develop entrepreneurship for regional development. The findings further indicate that municipal information, communication and competence development in order to support entrepreneurship and the development of small enterprises could be improved. The importance of face-to-face contacts was stressed. The use of local e-government was hitherto limited to e-services for public procurement. The entrepreneurs who used the e-services had mainly positive experiences, although despite the complexity of the e-services. The respondents did not ask for more municipal e-services, but that could be a consequence of their limited experience of the potential of local e-government. The use of social media among the enterprises was limited due to lack of time, competence and motivation for most of the enterprises, although the potential of social media for marketing was seen as extensive. A few of the respondents were on the other hand very skilled in their use ofdigital media, as a consequence of their professional knowledge and business orientation.

  • 53.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grunden, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Municipal Support of Entrepreneurship and Business Development from an e-government Perspective2015In: A Nordic Perspective on Co‐Operation for Sustainable Destination and Regional Development / [ed] Iréne Bernhard & Anna Karin Olsson, Uddevalla: University West , 2015, p. 44-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article will contribute to the debate about regional development in peripheral areas by examining the social capital in 14 villages in a Danish municipality, and particularly the influence of social media on the social capital.Contrary to the current public discourse in Denmark on peripheral communities and how they are falling apart because of demographic changes, economic cut backs, and structural changes, this study did not find one single village, where the social capital seems to be in any imminent danger. The article also proposes a different perspective on the operationalization of social capital. Social capital is typically measured in big international values surveys based on the variables network, trust and reciprocity. However, this study is based on a qualitative research with interviews in 14 villages in a peripheral Danish municipality. This in depth research shows that when examining the social capital of communities, the most valuable parameter is to look at the most typical proxy for network: associations and in particular the character of these associations. They furthermore give an indication of the kind of social capital they are building and maintaining.The study also shows that we might have to extend the notion of network to include that of social media as this type of network gets increasingly more important. However, the study cannot conclude that the communities not using the social media have less social capital then the one who does, nor that they are disconnected from the citizens.

  • 54.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A Study of Small Enterprises with Focus on Entrepreneurship and E-government in a Regional Development Context2014In: Uddevalla Symposium 2014. Geography of Growth. The Frequency, Nature and Consequences of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Regions of Varying Density: Revised papers first presented at the 17th Uddevalla Symposium, 12-14 June, Uddevalla, Sweden. / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2014, p. 165-183Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to describe and analyse a sample of small enterprises located in a region undergoing structural change with focus on entrepreneurship and e-government and is a further development of a previous study that focused on how municipalities supported entrepreneurship and destination development. In this study the focus is extended to include small enterprises contributing to development of tourist destinations within the same region. In-depth qualitative interviews were made with twelve managers from ten small enterprises.

       Based on a theoretical discussion of entrepreneurship, e-government and regional development, the results indicate that networks and strategic networking were important for these small enterprises both in terms of developing the enterprise but also to develop entrepreneurship for regional development. The findings further indicate that municipal information, communication and competence development in order to support entrepreneurship and the development of small enterprises could be improved. The importance of face-to-face contacts was stressed. The use of local e-government was hitherto limited to e-services for public procurement. The entrepreneurs who used the e-services had mainly positive experiences, although despite the complexity of the e-services. The respondents did not ask for more municipal e-services, but that could be a consequence of their limited experience of the potential of local e-government. The use of social media among the enterprises was limited due to lack of time, competence and motivation for most of the enterprises, although the potential of social media for marketing was seen as extensive. A few of the respondents were on the other hand very skilled in their use of digital media, as a consequence of their professional knowledge and business orientation.

  • 55.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Municipal Support of Entrepreneurship and Business Development from an e-Government Perspective2013In: Uddevalla Symposium 2013 Innovation, High-Growth Entrepreneurship and Regional Development: Revised papers presented at the 16th Uddevalla Symposium 13-15 June, 2013, Kansas City, MO, USA / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2013, 1, p. 177-193Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to describe and analyze municipal support of entrepreneurship and business development from an e-government perspective. We analyze two Swedish municipalities and a local tourism company partly owned by the municipalities located in a region undergoing structural change, focusing on efforts of municipalities to develop digital services to support entrepreneurship and business development to promote local and regional development. The research method is based on case study methodology. The case studies are part of the research project “Maritime Inlands – past, present and future strengths” (Marifus) financed by Interregional European Union Regional Development Fund (Interrreg). Based on theoretical discussions of entrepreneurship and e-government theories, the analyses of the two case studies show substantial variations in how they supported entrepreneurship. The findings indicated that e-government services so far have under-used potential for the studied municipalities and the tourism company in order to support efficient communication and information towards the entrepreneurs and businesses aiming at local and regional development.

  • 56.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Municipal Contact Centres: A Slower Approach Towards Sustainable Local Development by E-government2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 2292-2309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is Swedish government policy to use information and communication technologies to increase sustainability. This has implications for planning and local organization of communities. In the municipalities where most public services are provided, there are growing numbers of local contact centres (CCs) aiming to meet citizens’ needs for information and coordination of public services. The CCs localize public services and combine different services into a one-stop practice focusing on needs and demands of individual citizens and their unique situations. The municipalities hereby have to plan for service provision in new ways to meet more individualized needs that are also in line with improved sustainability. CCs are both local offices and advanced services on-line, as e-governmental services. E-government could be considered fast government, but this article aims to turn that obvious first impression upside down and discuss how e-government can slow down and make services more local, personalized and sustainable. Theoretically we take off from a time-geographical modelling of slow processes that has implication for slower, more sustainable development. Based on in-depth case studies of municipal CCs we argue that they are tools towards improved sustainability and localism, and that they are “slowing up” administrative processes. In particular, we point out that e-government has a potential to plan for, and promote, sustainability and slow local development.

  • 57.
    Bernhard, Irène
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross-border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Editorial2016In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 149-153Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Innovation focusing on regional development in a European context: towards a new research agenda2016In: International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development, ISSN 1753-0660, E-ISSN 1753-0679, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: This article presents a review of recent research in order to discuss a new research agenda on the role of innovation, with focus on its relevance for regional development in a European context. The research question addressed is: what are the theories in recent literature on innovation in the perspective of regional development in order to develop policy-oriented conclusions? The analysis is based on a literature review of 15 articles published in 2012-2013 and is a further literature review analysis from 2011 and 2012. Results are indicating that there is an increasing role for regional policymakers e.g. that policymakers must both recognize and develop policies for forms of knowledge that have not traditionally been considered central to their activities, and an increasing role due to existing multi-level governance. Furthermore; the learning region concept needs to be developed; a broader view and development of a heterodox approach to innovation including not only technological but also other types such as social and public innovation and the importance of networks and social capital for regional innovation are stressed.

  • 60.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2016: Geography, Open Innovation,Diversity and Entrepreneurship. Revised papers presented at the 19th Uddevalla Symposium, 30 June- 2 July, 2016, London, UK2016Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2017: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies: Revised papers first presented at the 20th Uddevalla Symposium 15-17 June, 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden2017Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2019: Unlocking the Potential of Regions Through Entrepreneurship and Innovation. Revised papers presented at the 22nd Uddevalla Symposium,27–29 June, 2019, L’Aquila, Italy2019Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    The Old Town District: Not Just a Scenic Backdrop - Stakeholders' Perspectives in Urban Re-generation2017In: Uddevalla Symposium 2017: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies: Revised papers first presented at the 20th Uddevalla Symposium 15-17 June, 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2017, p. 111-127Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes its point of departure from an urban place innovation study with focus on local stakeholders with particular interest in the Old Town District in a Norwegian community. The aim of this paper is to identify place innovation challenges among local community stakeholders and to discuss approaches to integrate stakeholders in urban regeneration. We have conducted qualitative interviews with 21 different stakeholders representing local entrepreneurs, non-profit organizations, the municipality, elected officials, tourism organization and residents with particular interest in the Old Town District. Additional observations and document studies were conducted. The results reveal stakeholders' views on challenges and opportunities related to how such regeneration collaboration might be conducted. The complex nature is characterized by strong cultural heritage and a mix of opinions and visions. We argue that urban regeneration requires an integrated approach based on stakeholder collaboration and engagement in order to develop the potential of an old town district into something that is more than a scenic backdrop. We discuss several implications as prerequisites for integrated collaborative approaches in place innovation (urban regeneration).

  • 64.
    Bigsten, Arne
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet Handelshögskolan. Centrum för globalisering och utveckling (GCGD).
    Isaksson, Ann-Sofie
    Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik, Gothenburg University, Department of Economics.
    Tengstam, Sven
    The Changing Structure of Swedish Foreign Aid2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigates how the composition and character of aid of Swedish aid has changed over time, and what effects these changes have had for the potential to realize key aspects of the Paris agenda such as ownership, alignment, harmonisation, and accountability and the ability to deliver aid efficiently. We analyse the changes in Swedish aid flows since 1990 and compare with changes in the global pattern in terms of purpose, country allocation, channels, and modalities. We discuss how these changes are likely to have affected the efficiency of Sweden as a donor. We conclude with a discussion about the future direction of Swedish aid.

  • 65.
    Bigsten, Arne
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet Handelshögskolan. Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Tengstam, Sven
    International Coordination and the Effectiveness of Aid2015In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 69, p. 75-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to quantify the effects of improved donor coordination on aid effectiveness. Empirical estimates are first provided of the reductions in transaction costs that can be achieved by better donor coordination via concentration to fewer partner countries and a shift from project aid to program-based approaches. Further estimates are presented showing how much could be gained in terms of poverty reduction by optimizing aid allocation across countries. The potential poverty reduction would be huge, but there are severe political implementation constraints. The paper concludes that much could be gained in terms of aid effectiveness from improved donor coordination.

  • 66. Bigsten, Arne
    et al.
    Tengstam, Sven
    International Coordination and the Effectiveness of Aid2012Report (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Bigsten, Arne
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet Handelshögskolan. Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik..
    Tengstam, Sven
    Renewed Growth and Poverty Reduction in Zambia2010In: Zambia Social Science Journal, ISSN 2079-5521, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Bigsten, Arne
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet Handelshögskolan. Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Tengstam, Sven
    Smallholder Diversification and Income Growth in Zambia2011In: Journal of African Economies, ISSN 0963-8024, E-ISSN 1464-3723, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 781-822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses nationally representative panel data to analyse the relationship between income diversification and incomes for Zambian smallholder households.We show that shifting to a higher degree of diversification is generally associated with higher incomes. We find that diversification is driven by endowments and access to markets and finance. Education opens up opportunities for well-paid non-agricultural activities, while land shortage forces distress diversification into agricultural wage work.

  • 69.
    Bigsten, Arne
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet Handelshögskolan. Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Tengstam, Sven
    The Aid Effectiveness Agenda: The benefits of going ahead' - A commentary on the final report2012Report (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Bilén, Julia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Lagergren, Jessica
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    En analys av svenska fonders prestationer och deras samband med avgifter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study the performance of twenty mutual funds on the Swedish market for the period 2010-2015. The data on which the study was based on is monthly and therefore include 60 observations for each mutual fund. We use Capital Asset Price Model, Jensen's alpha and the Sharpe ratio to estimate the performance of these funds. In addition to this we also study the relation between fees and performance using correlation coefficient. The result indicates that on average the funds have outperformed the market but it turned out to be non-significant and therefore we cannot rely on that conclusion. We also find a negative relationship between mutual fund fees and their performance, but this result is also non-significant.

  • 71.
    Bjurenlind, Alexander
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Boström, Elias
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Sveriges hushållsskuld: inriktning på finanspolitik och makroekonomiska aspekter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of the three fiscal policies, interest rate deduction, the mortgage cap and the amortization requirement and what their effect has been on the household debt in Sweden. Have the policies resulted in the desired effect that the authorities were trying to achieve? To further investigate what is affecting the household debt, the report also answers a secondary issue in which a study of macroeconomic aspects is in focus.

    To answer the purpose of this empirical essay, OLS regressions on a selection of relevant variables has been performed. The purpose of the regressions is to see how much the impact of the various fiscal measures and macroeconomic conditions has affected our dependent variable, the household debt. The time intervals examined in the report are 1981 – 2016 for the fiscal measures and 1996-2018 for the macroeconomic. Based on these findings and other facts, a conclusion has been made.

    The conclusion that can be made is that the fiscal policies have had a certain effect on house prices and thus the debt ratio. However, it cannot be determined that these measures solely affect the debt ratio. There are probably additional variables that also affect, that we believe are embedded in the macroeconomic aspects. This conclusion is based on the fact, that the macroeconomic aspects have a certain degree of explanation of the household debt. However, it is also possible to see clear indications and trends that support the thesis we have chosen to answer regarding the fiscal measures and their impact on household debt.

  • 72.
    Björk, Jessica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bergström, Rebecka
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Hushållens skuldkvot i Sveriges kommuner2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Household debt has steadily climbing over the past decade and the development of increasing concern. Consumption levels also show a continuing upward trend. Explanation lies part in the consumption financed by households increase their debt ratio to maintain the same level of consumption as before. The purpose of this study is to investigate which factors that affect the household debt ratio at the regional level. Previous studies indicate interest rates, housing prices and disposable income as the factors that have an impact on the debt ratio in Sweden. Although the effects of demographics, the difference in age distribution among regions, can lead to different degrees of household borrowing, accordance within the life cycle hypothesis. Data from 2007 over Sweden's 290 municipalities are estimated in a regression analysis in the form of a cross-sectional regression. The results show that market price coefficient and population age as important factors in explaining the regional debt ratio, together with other factors such as education, the municipalities' size in terms of population and the share acquisitions workers in agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing.

  • 73.
    Bohne, Eberhard
    et al.
    German Research Institute for Public Administration, Speyer.
    Karlsson, CharlieUniversity West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Repositioning Europe and America for Growth. The Role of Governments and Pri­vate Actors in Key Policy Areas2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Bååth, Lovisa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Novenius, Jennifer
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Svensk immigration: På vinst eller förlust?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Immigration has for a long time been a central issue in politics and in society but today it is more topical than ever. Media has always played a large part in the forming of individuals opinions, but these opinions tends to become shrewd, especially in social media and especially when talking about the cost of immigration for a country. In a world where media has a major impact, it may be difficult either to be critical to the content but also to be completely neutral, when the issue is very complex and involves many people.

    How does the immigration really affect the economic growth of Sweden? Does it come at a profit or a loss?

    In order to arrive at a conclusion on this much mentioned issue, the Solow-Swan model is used as a theoretical base to allow for the capturing of labor, capital and technological advances. A multiple regression is used as an empirical model to obtain any statistical correlation between real GDP per capita in working age (dependent variable) and the independent variables; immigration, employment rate and repo interest rate. Year 2001 to 2014 make out the time period being investigated, and the data is based on each quarter.

    From this study we can deduce a positive impact of immigration after already a quarter. The more time the study examines, the more positive impact on real GDP per capita in working age.

  • 75.
    Börjesson, Daniela
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Trillkott, Emma
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Påverkande faktorer på bostadspriser i Sverige2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses cointegration techniques and Error correction methodology to investigate the determinants of the Swedish real house prices, for the period 1986-2016. Previous studies have shown that real disposable income, dwelling completed (that is the supply of completed buildings on the market) and real interest rate are factors that affects housing prices. These factors will therefore be used as the basic parameters in this report. A survey will also be carried out with additional parameters such as population and unemployment, selected with the support of Claussens (2013) model.Time series data with the parameters mentioned above as explanatory variables, and house price as a dependent variable, are examined for unit roots and co-integration tests to be estimated in a regression analysis with an Error correction model. This is done to investigate a short and long run relation. The results show that the real interest rate after taxes and real disposable income has key-roles when it comes to explaining the long run relationship with the Swedish house prices. The results also show that ATMR (real interest rate after tax) and real disposable income have an impact on the house prices in the short run but that the housing market is not in a residential bubble. A conclusion can be drawn that when income increases, it will increase the household consumption, which will reflect on house prices. Low interest rate will cause more people to lend money on a market, that already has a very low supply of housing.

  • 76.
    Chabanole, Olivia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Pålsson, Paula
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    En empirisk granskning av korrelationen mellan aktiefonders avkastning och avgifter på den svenska marknaden.: Bidrar högre fondavgift till högre avkastning?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to analyze if a relationship between equity fund fees and the average return or risk-adjusted return exists. The fund management and placement targeting is also taken into account. The study is based on monthly data for Swedish equity funds during the period 2008 to 2018. Both correlation and regression analysis were conducted to study the connection. The theoretical basis consists of portfolio selection theory. The result indicates a positive correlation, that a higher fee contributes to a higher average return, risk adjusted international excess return (Jensen's alpha) and risk adjusted performance (Sharpe Ratio), which supports to some of the previous research. The result also implies that a higher annual fee is associated with a lower Swedish risk adjusted excess return. Since desired significance was not fulfilled the conclusion is that the annual fee or fund management does not seem to affect the return. Funds with only Swedish investments shows a determined positive relation to higher returns.

  • 77. Coulter, John E.
    et al.
    Lei, Shi
    Tsinghua University, Beijing, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering.
    Jenkins, Samantha
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    Environment as the stage for economic actors2007In: Chinese Journal of Population, Resources and Environment, ISSN 1004-2857, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 3-8Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The relative importance of economics and environment in debate may soon be reversed due to the influence of three factors. Firstly, in the global economy it is hard to hide the unwanted products of economic processes. Secondly, huge advances in science will reduce the imperfect knowledge of markets, making some monitoring and analyzing tools show the design of sensible and equitable livelihood in communities, which is more important than the motivation of maximising profits for some individuals or firms. Thirdly, China, as the last major player on the planet to take on economic growth, comes from traditions fundamentally different from those economies that have experienced the Industrial Revolution previously. Its challenges with sustainability and environmental conservation predate Western economics by millennia, and it is implementing policies domestically and starting to work on the world stage that acknowledges that the surroundings are the host for any economic and socio-political system.

  • 78.
    Dahlberg, Henric
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The role of investor sentiment in small-cap stock valuations: In the OMX30 Stockholm2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    This study seeks to answer whether the ex post investor sentiment proxy of Baker and Wugler (2006, 2007) has a similar effect on the Swedish stock market, and if there is a varying sectoral dependency of this proxy. The paper considers firm-level data from 38 small-cap firms listed on the OMXS30, in a comparison to 137 small-cap firms listed on the NYSE to draw conclusions on whether the dependency structures are similar on the firm-level. To investigate the sectoral level, 27 market-wide sector indices are considered. The result points towards there being national differences in the firm-level adoption of the proxy between Sweden and the U.S. but also that there are sectoral differences as to whether the sentiment proxy is more or less useful. The conclusions drawn are based upon the proxy’s effect on segmented regressions.

  • 79.
    Dahlberg, Henric
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Ravanbakhsh, Desirée
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The Underlying factors of Consumer Sentiment: How much is Sweden affected by the US sentiment?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Financial stress is often defined as the issues of trust towards financial institutions. According to the established doctrine, financial stress is able to cause a decline in economic activity and is proven to have a Granger causal relationship with consumption. This study is aiming to examine whether the sentiment indexes of a larger nation is a dependent factor to a change in the sentiment indexes of a smaller nation, and thus Granger-causing a change in consumption in the smaller nation. In finding a regressive pattern between the sentiment indexes, we are going to assume the consumer confidence index of Sweden as a dependent variable of the consumer sentiment index of the US along with other determinant factors. This can give us enough information to measure the proportion of Sweden's consumer stress caused by the US consumer stress. Our results have proven that the US sentiment has some explanatory power over the Swedish sentiment, even though other factors such as the variations of stock market prices are of greater importance. Other underlying factors such as the consumer price index may be useful for other countries if it has a high volatility. However, it was found not to be significant for Sweden.

  • 80.
    Dalin, Jonas
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Samuelsson, Fredrik
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Hur har reporäntan påverkat prisutvecklingen på fastigheter?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect the repo rate has had on real estate price index in Sweden. During the past years, the repo rate has been lowered to record low rates, now even negative rates. During the period 1994-2017 the real estate prices on average increased by 440%, compare this with the consumer price index which increased by 130% during the same period. The definitive reason behind this massive increase in real estate prices is not quite clear. Previous research does not show the exact same results. Some consider the repo rate being the greatest factor in real estate price index while some consider other factors plays a greater part in describing the price increase. To find out how much the real estate price index has been affected by the record low repo rates a regression analysis have been used. In the regression analysis the mortgage rate has been used instead of the repo rate. This has been considered okay because of the high correlation (98%) between the repo rate and the mortgage rate. The results of the regression analysis show that an increase by one percent in the mortgage rate, would on average tend to decrease the value of real estate prices in Sweden by 0,12928%.

  • 81.
    Danhard-Rundquist, Robert
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Aminzadeh, Pouya
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Statsskuldens inverkan på den ekonomiska tillväxten i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examine the relationship between government debt and economic growth using quarterly Swedish data for the period 2000 Q2 to 2014 Q2. We use OLS regression and the model developed by Splitio & Vamoukas (2014) to test if there is a negative relation between the growth of GDP and the government debt in Sweden. The result show that government debt in Sweden is not the major factor that affects the GDP, instead it’s the interest rate and savings.

  • 82. Ejermo, Olof
    et al.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Invention, Innovation and Regional Growth in Swedish Regions2011In: Innovation, Technology and Knowledge: Their Role in Economic Development / [ed] Johansson, B., Karlsson, C. and Stough, R, London: Routledge, 2011, p. 187-208Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 83.
    Ejermo, Olof
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Invention, Innovation and Regional Growth in Swedish Regions2009In: Uddevalla Symposium 2009. The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Revised papers presented at the 12th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June 2009, Bari, Italy / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2009, p. 449-467Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the link between invention and innovation on the one hand and the level of economic activity and economic growth in Sweden by using patents granted and the quality of patens as our indicators of invention and innovation respectively. Our results indicate that both types of measures are able to explain the level and the changing levelof economic activity equally well. However, an important difference is that the economic activity is affected differently by the two measures. We find that inventions have the strongest marginal effect in regions where economic activity is the highest. Instead, innovations have similar marginal effects across regions with different economic activity. Our interpretation is that quality-adjusted patents sort out "bad" from "good" patents in a manner which reflect economic importance.

  • 84.
    Ekdahl, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bodin, Oskar
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    21 Svenska fondförvaltares prestation mot index OMX302015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the performance of 21 Swedish funds in relation to the OMXS30. We use two measures of performance: the CAPM model and Jensen's ALPHA. Our results suggest that, on average, only 14 equity funds produces higher gross monthly rate of return than OMXS30. After subtracting the expense ratio, the results suggest that all Swedish mutual funds included in our data underperforms their bench- marks, net of costs, with an exception of two mutual funds. The conclusion of the study is then that some of the funds are shows positive results but cannot pay for their own costs.

  • 85.
    Emami, Sam
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Nyberg, Lisa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Immigrationens påverkan: Hur påverkar flyktinginvandringen i Sverige landets ekonomiska tillväxt mätt i BNP per capita?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to study how the immigration in Sweden affects the economic growth between 1990-2016. The study will answer how immigrants affect Sweden's GDP per capita in the long run. We have chosen to limit this study to immigrants, which is asylum seekers and how they affect the GDP per capita. In order to make our conclusions we have used the researchers Muysken and Ziesemers model and theory based on the Solow-Swan model. With a multiple regression our results confirm the impact on GDP per capita, with our explanatory variables: immigrants, employment rates, education and interest rates. The conclusion is that over time immigrants contribute to a positive development of GDP per capita, when immigrants are integrated into Sweden.

  • 86.
    Engberg, Lisa
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Spajic, Monika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Hushållens sparande: Vilka faktorer påverkar hushållens sparande och på vilket sätt?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Savings can be defined as the portion of income that is not consumed and can be explained in different ways: the need to build a buffer with assets to finance future consumption, future uncertainty, save for next generation, and perhaps the most important example: saving to be able to consume during the retirement years. The purpose of this study is to highlight what factors affect Swedish households savings and how. This study deals with selected variables, and the purpose is to find out the impact of variables on Swedish households' savings. The chosen variables are based on the Sebastian Edward model of the researcher, presented in 1995. One factor that gives increased interest in studying household savings is the introduced amortization requirement from 2016, and the recently tightened amortization requirement from March 2018. To investigate this, methods such as cointegration analysis as well as a error correction model were used. Theories chosen to support this study's analysis are life cycle theory, the income and substitution method and the ricardian equivalence. Previous studies in private savings have shown that per capita GDP, inflation and economic growth are two explanatory variables that have a positive impact on household savings. The study's results show that the current account and inflation have the greatest impact on household savings. The results indicate that increases in income through a positive current account balance are what largely explain saving. Variables that generate higher income for households will have a positive impact on the saving of Swedish households. The study also reveals that amortization behavior is becoming increasingly positive and will have a positive effect on the savings.

  • 87.
    Engström, Gabriella
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Wessberg, Linnea
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Rörligheten på bostadsmarknaden: Amorteringskravets påverkan på bostadsmarknaden2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gothenburg is a city under constant development. The city is an attractive point in western Sweden for both companies and students. In order to continue to develop and attract new residents, a functioning housing market is required, where the chains operate as they should in theory. Daily news is that there is housing shortage, it is built too slowly or that we are a residential bubble.

    The essay will describe how mobility is influenced by various laws, rules and requirements that the government and various institutions set up in one way or another to try and regulate the housing market. In some cases it should be cooled down to counteract a rise in prices on housing and in other cases accelerate the construction of new housing.

    A regression will be made if the amortization requirement has had a signaling effect, as the increase in mobility should be increased by the press release until it became operational. The essay will also investigate whether there is any effect of the amortization requirement today. We will let supply and demand show how mobility is changing with increased demand through the 4Q model, which will also interconnect the various submarkets in a housing market.

    There will also be drawn parallels to other studies, reports, debates and scientific articles in order to draw a conclusion about the amortization requirement had an impact on the number of sales and thus affect the mobility of the housing market.

  • 88.
    Enlund, Pernilla
    et al.
    University West, Department of Studies of Work, Economics and Health.
    Johansson, IréneUniversity West, Department of Studies of Work, Economics and Health.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2000: entrepreneurship, firm growth and regional development in the new economic geography : papers presented at the Uddevalla Symposium 2000, 15-17 June, Trollhättan, Sweden2001Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 89.
    Enlund, Pernilla
    et al.
    University West, Department of Studies of Work, Economics and Health.
    Johansson, IréneUniversity West, Department of Studies of Work, Economics and Health.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2001: regional economies in transition : papers presented at the Uddevalla Symposium 2001, 14-16 June, Vänersborg, Sweden2002Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Eriksson, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Hülphers, Charlotta
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Vad påverkar storbankernas listutlåningsräntor på bolån?: En empirisk studie om hur storbankernas listutlåningsräntor för bolån påverkas av deras finansieringskostnader2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have indicated that following the financial crisis 2007-2009 the repo rate has had a lower affect on banks' pricing of mortgage rates. The purpose of this study is to see what other factors in place of the repo rate that are affecting the mortgage rates from the four largest banks' in Sweden. Further the study will test if an empirical model tested by Enzo Cassino can be applied in Sweden. Based on the previous study done by Enzo Cassino, data from Sweden is collected for three explanatory variables for banks' funding costs; deposit rate, treasury bill rate and credit default swap rate. Time series data from November 2008 to March 2017 have been analysed and tested for unit roots and cointegration to be able to continue with further tests of a regression analysis in the form of an error correction model. Through the error correction model, long-term and short-term relationships can be estimated. The study's results show that, using the error correction model, it can be confirmed that the same factors affecting the mortgage rates in Enzo Cassinos study also have the same affect on mortgage rates in Sweden. It's clear that the banks' funding costs can explain the average mortgage rates in the short and long term.

  • 91.
    Eriksson, Hanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Berntsson, Daniel
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    E-handelns inverkan på inflationen i USA: En tidsserieanalys2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We are moving towards a time when digitalization is now, companies are forced to push prices against extremely price-conscious consumers. This essay, the impact of e-commerce on inflation, aims to find out how increased e-commerce affects inflation. The statement is based on Yiping Huang, Xun Wang and Xiuping Huas (2010) article that explores what determines China's inflation, then this essay will focus on the United States and taking into account the new variable, e-commerce. Using economic models to analyze selected variables is the method of this quantitative study. Through the quarterly data from January 2000 to December 2016, the change in the consumer price index, CPI, will measure inflation as a dependent variable. The independent variables are output gap, export growth, liquidity, change in national house price index, stock price index, base lending rate, change of real effective exchange rate index and e-commerce. Through the inflation, consumer-, producer- and marketlevel we have chosen to explain effects of e-commerce. In these three levels we deal with theories linked to competition, which in turn show how inflation may be affected by increased e-commerce. The theories for the paper are thus, increased competition and inflation, consumer and search-costs, company level and reduced profit margins, market-level influence, perfect competition with perfect information and then e-commerce effects in a macro perspective.The variables that have a positive impact on inflation, which can be read in the ECM model, are the constant, house price index, exports, stock price index and interest rate. The variables that show a negative impact on inflation are the error correction term, e-commerce, output gap, liquidity and exchange rate. The result for R2, the degree of explanation, is high. The explanation rate indicates that 73.1 % of the variation in the CPI can be explained by the variation in our independent variables.

  • 92.
    Eriksson, Julia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Jansson, Emma
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Fondförvaltning: En analys av skillnaden i avkastning mellan aktivt förvaltade fonder och indexfonder2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will examine and compare the return in actively managed funds and index funds. Many of the earlier studies has been done on American funds and we want to see what similarities and differences there are to the Swedish market. The study is based on monthly listing of 22 Swedish funds, 17 of them are actively managed and five of them are index funds. The benchmark used is OMXS30. The time period is 2011-2015 and only those funds which has existed the whole period has been included. To be able to evaluate the funds we have used Jensens alpha and the Sharpe ratio. The result is comparable with many of the earlier studies which tells us actively managed funds do not generate higher return than index funds. The fees are therefore not justified.

  • 93.
    Eriksson, Lisa
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Jakobsson, Johanna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Amorteringskravet: Hur har det påverkat priset på småhus i Göteborgs kommun?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the purpose is to analyze whether the price of single-family houses was affected by the amortization requirement introduced in June 1, 2016. The data collected is expressed quarterly and extends between 2001Q1 and 2017Q4. It will be presented with a National Economics Model, developed by Xu and Tang (2014), which can be applied to the housing market and may assist in answering the issue regarding the effect of the amortization requirement. In order to get results, a number of tests have been conducted, where we look for unit root through a Dickey-Fuller test and cointegration through an Engel-Granger test. In addition, an Error Correction Model has been used to study the short-term behavior between the variables, as well as how repo rate, income and population influenced the prices of singlefamily houses. The result shows that the amortization requirement had a positive effect on house prices, while repo rate, population and income had a negative effect on prices in Gothenburg. However, we can not ensure the results for the population and the amortization requirement as they do not show significance.

  • 94.
    Evegård, Julia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Lundin, Emma
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bostadsbrist och byggande: en nutidsanalys av bostadsinvesteringar i Sverige2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most of Swedish municipalities suffer from a shortage in housing. The last few years the population growth has increased more than expected and is not expected to decrease during the next couple of years. More residentials must be built. In this study we highlight the problem with housing shortage and the factors that mainly affect the level of housing construction. A statistic analysis is performed based on an empirical model. The model contains two equations – one for price of housing and another for residential investment.

    The results in this study show that house prices and population growth have the biggest positive impact on residential investments. The study confirms the long shown market pattern; that high house prices and high residential investments are strongly related.

  • 95.
    Ferraz-Nunes, Jose
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Burden of stroke in a large county in Sweden Sickness cost and potential development2013In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 35, no Supplement: 3, p. 469-469Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Ferraz-Nunes, Jose
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The importance of health capital in an ageing population: a QALY approach2012In: International journal of behavioural and healthcare research, ISSN 1755-3539, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 106-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of health capital, especially in relation to an aged population, is discussed. The value of health as a stock is important because it may contribute to the well-being and individual independence that influences the expectations and desires of humans for activities. Expected depreciation of health capital between two points in time may imply a demand for investments in health, which corresponds to flows of health services and activities performed by individuals. An efficient allocation of resources in this area demands measurement of health that is connected with analysis of activities that promote health in different age groups and activities. This paper presents the use of QALY in several empirical studies that have dealt with different ways to increase health capital. All of the cases illustrate the importance of new technologies to improve cost efficiency in services used by aged people.

  • 97.
    Fjugstad, Nadine
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Cerić, Amina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Påverkande faktorer på svensk varuexport: En empirisk analys på makronivå med tillämpning av gravitationsmodellen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the gravity model is used to examine the determinants of the Swedish exports of goods to Sweden's five largest trade partners; Germany, Norway, Denmark, Finland and the United States for the period 2000-2014. Exports are an important foundation for economic growth in Sweden. The purpose was to gain knowledge about what affects the Swedish export of goods. The export of goods has in this study been explained with the help of GDP, population, distance, free trade agreements, common language, common land border and the financial crisis. This study did not succeed to account for which variables that impact the trade of goods in the Swedish economy by using the configuration of the gravity model. This study has therefore not contributed to an increased understanding of which factors that had led to increased trading conditions within the Swedish exports.

  • 98.
    Forsman, Denize
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Krause, Amanda
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Skillnader i prisutvecklingen på den svenska fastighetsmarknaden: En empirisk utvärdering av bestämningsfaktorernas påverkan på olika delmarknader2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the determinants of Swedish housing prices between 1996Q1 and 2017Q4. We use three different housing price indices namely, prices for one- or twodwelling buildings, vacation home prices, and rental house prices- along with an error correction model and an Autoregressive Distributed Lag model (ADL). The results show that the price increase for one - and two dwelling buildings and rental apartment buildings were due to lower interest rates, while the higher price of holiday houses mainly depended on rises in income.

  • 99.
    Franzén, Josefine
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bränfeldt, Veronica
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Har Sveriges handel gynnats av valutaunionen trotsatt Sverige står utanför?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is part of the internal market within European Union (EU), but remains outside the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). Sweden is a highly export-dependent country and exported goods and services with a value of 44.6 % of GDP, where three-quarters of exports go to countries within Europe. We have in our study had the intention to examine how exports and import developed for Sweden since the euro was introduced in 1999. Have the Swedish trade benefit from the currency union, despite the exclusion? We have been using an expanded gravity model and constructed a time series analysis using dummy variables including export flows between countries within the EU and EMU to see how the monetary union could have affected trade. A positive export developments have occurred over the years for Sweden, based on our results, we cannot see that the introduction of the European currency have contributed to the development of trade for Sweden.

  • 100.
    Franzén, Rebecca
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Allansson, Matilda
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Genererar kvinnliga fondförvaltare en högre eller lägre avkastning?: En empirisk studie i fondavkastning mellan kön2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The financial industry in Sweden is overrepresented by men and has been for a long time. A common gender stereotype assumption in the financial sector is that men generally take more risk compared to women and that they are more confident in their financial investments and that, in return, that may lead to higher returns. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there are any differences in behavior between male and female fund managers and if it leads to different returns. This has been tested using the CAPM and Fama French threefactormodel, in which a gender dummyvariable has been added, to test if it is a dependent variable for a fund's return. To test the fund managers' performance, the measures Sharperatio, Treynorratio and Jensen’s Alfa has also been used. Other factors that has been analyzed includes: Tracking Error, fund capital, number of assets and standard deviation. The result can not prove that gender is an dependent variable in a fund's return. In addition to this, the study does show some differences between male and female managers, the men in this study has a higher average return. This study can not prove though, if this is a coincidence or not since it is not statistically significant. Some more differences that the thesis’ result can prove are, among other things, that the male managers hold more assets in their funds and that the female managers generally manage funds that have lower capital.

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