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  • 51.
    Assmo, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    From Global to Local2014In: Uddevalla Symposium 2014. Geography of Growth. The Frequency, Nature and Consequences of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Regions of Varying Density: Revised papers presented at the 17th Uddevalla Symposium 12-14 June, 2014, Uddevalla, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2014, p. 85-96Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Assmo, Per
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Local alternative development through a time-spatial lens: A case study of Ydre inspired by Hägerstrand2012In: Entrepreneurship, Social Capital And Governance: Directions for the Sustainable Development and Competitiveness of Regions / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson, Roger R Stough, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, p. 378-391Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the contemporary market-oriented society, we seem to be more globally interdependent. The market economy system enhances large-scale production where search for increased productivity strives to 'compress' time. At the same time, the market economy tends to expand in space, for example sells products over longer distances. A result of this 'space expansion' and 'time compression' through the conventional economic market system is that local small-scale production and trade have increasing difficulty in competing and surviving (Assmo and Wihlborg, 2007). Even so, conventional economic growth (valued in monetary terms) is commonly seen as the only way to cure any development problem arising from poverty, unemployment, crime, pollution and depletion of natural resources. In a provocative manner similar to Daly (1992), one can argue that this conventional monetary valued growth perspective is trapped in a terminal state of 'growthmania'. People's organization of daily activities to improve or sustain their livelihood is much more than what is generally calculated and thereby shown in monetary values.

  • 53.
    Assmo, Per
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Wilhborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Local Policy Entrepreneurs and Sustainable Development in Rural Areas2015In: Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 59-74Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Axelsson, Adam
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Toftered, Johan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Är småhus övervärderade i Stockholm, Göteborg och Malmö?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 55.
    Aziz, Peter
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Erik
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Sveriges bostadsmarknad i kölvattnet av Coronapandemin: En jämförelse med tidigare kriser2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a report regarding the housing market’s development during the pandemic of Corona. Sweden has been in economic crises before and the fact that serious crises affect households, companies and the welfare are unequivocally. Despite that the pandemic of Corona has resulted in a downward going economy, the media has reported that more and more habitants of Sweden have a wish to buy a new home. The purpose of the study is to investigate and analyze, with the help of earlier financial crises, research, and economic theories how the pandemic of Corona has affected the housing market of Sweden. From a quantitative method, earlier essays, and data from 1981 to 2020 have been analyzed. Using statistics collected from SCB and a regression analysis we have been able to add up earlier studies with our study. The dependent variable “property price index” that shows the development for the housing market (the variable includes houses intended for permanent resident, condominiums as well as apartment-houses) has together with the independent variables such as Sweden’s population, mortgage rate, income, new constructions, GDP, and unemployment been the subjects for the regression analysis that has been made. The result we got showed that all variables except constructions had a high degree of explanation and by the help of this result we were able to answer ourquestions of issue whether how Sweden has been affected by the pandemic of Corona but also by earlier financial crises. The conclusion we came to was that the pandemic of Corona had a positive influence on the property prices and that the pandemic has not had the same impact as financial crises that has occurred. Other crises have affected the finance more at another level than the pandemic of Corona.

  • 56.
    Bahmiary, Minna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Vad förklarar skillnaden i skolbetyg mellan svenska kommuner?: Det genomsnittliga slutbetyget årskurs 92021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The grade differences between the municipalities are large, one municipality has students who perform at the top lever while other municipalities have students who peform significantly worse. According to the National Agency for Education, there must be several contributing factors to this, including segregation and the students parents level of education. This essay examines what explains the grade differences between the municipalities in Sweden. The method that has been used is OLS regression with data taken from the National Agency for Education from 2018/2019 with final grades from year 9. The results showed that the factor that affected students grades the most was the parents level of education, ie students whose parents have studied after high school. As previous studies have shown similar results, it was no surprise that we got this result. As there is great segregation between the municipalities, the conclusion is that the municipalities that have students whose parents have high level of education succeed best with their studies. This also results in the socio-economic factor being the biggest reason why there are such high differences in grades between the municipalities.

  • 57.
    Bahno, William
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Zymeri, Endrit
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Investmentbankernas avstånd från insolvens: En analys av USA:s investmentbanker fram till och efter finanskrisen 2008.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Financial crises in USA 2008 is seen as one of the worst crises in the last ninety years. Financial crises went hard on the American economy and abroad as a whole. Pressures under both administrations and rising house prices was one factor that led to the burst of house bubble in 2008. America has today eight financial institution seen as systemically important banks globally and holds a big market share in the US market. If one of these institution goes closer against bankruptcy, it can jeopardize the US and world economy as well. This thesis aims to analyze how the largest and systemically important investment banks operations could affect their distance from insolvency. With the data that is available, one has constructed and used a panel data to see and calculated Z-Score, with Z-Score as dependent and six independent variables over a time period of 17 years. In the panel regression the results show that comparing mean of Z-Score and predicted Z-Score, the values are similar and both follows a trend. This indicates that model used in thesis, belongs with Z-Score. The result showed that Z-Score for some banks were lower than normally under the financial crisis.

  • 58.
    Bala Gaye, Ebrima
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    An investigation on the relationship between accrual-based earning management and Chief Financial Officer's market-based compensation in EU listed companies2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Accounting and finance literature have found that compensation package of an executives can be the motivation behind the engagement of earnings management. The study attempts to investigate the Chief Financial Officer as an executive since majority of research has been primarily focused on the top executive, the Chief Executive Officer. The CFO was chosen because their responsibilities which includes the overseeing the financial reporting. Specifically, the paper examined whether there is any relationship between the CFO's market-based compensation and accrual-based earning management. Using a sample of 54 European Union listed companies, the paper studies the effect on CFO's market-based executive compensation on earnings management using OLS regression models. The results show no significant relationship between CFO's marketbased compensation and earning management. Therefore, the findings are inconsistent with evidence found in prior research papers.

  • 59.
    Bengtsson Sohlman, William
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Ullaeus, Simon
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Amorteringskravets påverkan på bostadsmarknaden i Lidingö kommun: Vad hade amorteringskravet för påverkan på bostadsrättspriser i Lidingö kommun?2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will examine how house prices have been affected by the amortizing requirement. The paper will be limited to co-operative apartments in Lidingö municipality during the time period between 2013 and 2020. Studies done previously have mixed opinions about whether the amortizing requirements has affected the house prices or not.The studies tell us that the amortizing requirement has a negative effect on house prices but they do not agree on how much the requirement actually does affect the house prices. Some studies say that amortizing requirement have close to no effect on house prices and some studies say it has affected house prices. In this paper we have performed an ordinary least square regression where we have used SEK/sqm as our dependent variable. The reason for that is to be able to see if the price of co-operative apartments has been affected. We use SEK/sqm because the apartments have got different sizes. In this study the conclusion is that we cannot determine whether the amortizing requirement has had any impact on the house prices.Keywords: Amortizing requirement, Lidingö, Apartm

  • 60.
    Benoualia, Oumaima
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Londhe, Ravi Eknath
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    An Analysis of the Unbiased Forward Rate Hypothesis2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation aims to verify and explain the forward exchange rate unbiasedness hypothesis (UH). Since in most cases the unbiasedness hypothesis fails to hold. This hypothesis argues that the forward rate fully reflects the information regarding exchange rate expectations, so the forward spread predicts the direction change in future spot rates. We will be examining and analyzing developed economies – Europe & US Dollar (EURO & USD) and the emerging economies India & Morocco (INR and MAD) and Swedish krona SEK being the base currency for the forward exchange rate unbiasedness hypothesis for the long run and short run.

    In our research, we specifically focalize on the detainees of the unbiasedness hypothesis and why it fails to hold, this will be done using econometrics models like Unit Root (ADF), Cointegration, and Error Correction Model (ECM), to test the stationary or nonstationary between the spot rate and forward exchange rate. Unit root and cointegration is a statistical technique that will help us to test the correlation between the spot rate and forward exchange rate, and further according to previous research, ECM seems to be the best model to test UH because it takes short-run and long-run periods.

    It's our pleasure to thank all the University West Economic dept, for their kind instructions. 

  • 61.
    Bergendahl, Robin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Vad driver de svenska småhuspriserna?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate which factors affect the Swedish real estate prices of small house dwellings, and if so, how and to what extent. With the use of earlier studies, that coherently claims mortgage rate and household disposable income to be the most valuable factors to explain the Swedish real estate prices, this study will consider additional determinant factors with the respect to a stock-flow model. 1993-2013 time series data will be tested for unit roots and cointegration before its run in a regression as an "Error Correction Model", which considers both long- and short run equilibrium. The result confirms the short run rate and disposable income as two determinant key factors when it comes to explaining the long run Swedish housing prices, together with other factors such as GDP, household debt and unemployment rate. In the short run, the historical development of housing prices act as a key determinant, but disposable income, short term rate, GDP and household debt are also important explanatory factors. The study shows that the increased income, and the ability to increase household spending, will be reflected in the housing prices. A low loan rate will concurrently make it possible for more households than ever to loan at a market with an already very restricted housing supply

    Download full text (pdf)
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  • 62.
    Berisha, Leonora
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Flisiak, Simona Laura
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Pandemins påverkan på priserna för bostadsrätter i Sverige: Ur ett makroekonomiskt perspektiv2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Corona-pandemin slog till hårt på olika vis, den svenska ekonomin så väl som världsekonomin skakades om av pandemin, men även arbetslöshet, bostadsmarknaden och bostadsrättspriser har drabbats. För att hålla en stabil ekonomi i landet infördes det åtgärder av Riksbanken samt Finansinspektionen. De åtgärder som infördes var bland annat att hålla en låg reporänta och avskaffa amorteringskravet och detta resulterade till att priserna på bostadsrätter i Sverige ökade. Att corona skulle bli en kris hade varken experter eller forskare inte förväntat sig men i samband har Sverige upplevt liknande kriser innan som Finanskrisen. Syftet med studien är att undersöka om pandemin har haft en påverkan på priserna för bostadsrätter i Sverige. I studien har variabler som bostadsrättspris, arbetslöshet, BNP-förändring, inflation samt dummyvariabler för reporänta och amorteringskravet användas. Tidsperioden för studien är från januari 2018 till december 2021, eftersom det skall granskas om pandemin har haft en påverkan på bostadsrättspriserna eller inte. Vidare kommer det att finnas en regression i resultatet, för januari 2018 till december 2021, för att se hur bostadsrättspriserna såg ut innan corona-pandemin samt hur bostadsrättspriserna ser ut i samband med att corona-pandemin var som mest aktiv. För att undersöka datan användes inflation, arbetslöshet samt BNP-förändring som ekonometrisk modell. Medans teorin om rationella förväntningar används som ekonomisk teori. Det som redovisas är att Covid-19 har haft en påverkan på bostadsrättspriserna i samband med att de påverkande faktorerna för bostadspriserna påverkas också av corona-pandemin. 

  • 63.
    Berlin, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Recension av: En illusion av frihet? Företag och organisationer i regelsamhället.2006In: Nordiske organisasjonsstudier, ISSN 1501-8237, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 113-117Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Entrepreneurs and Policy Networks: A Study of the Implementation of two Swedish Municipal Contact Centers2012In: Uddevalla Symposium 2012 : Entrepreneurship and Innovation Networks. Revised papers presented at the 15th Uddevalla Symposium 14-16 June, 2012, Faro, Portugal. / [ed] Bernhard, Irene, Trollhättan: University West , 2012, 1, p. 79-93Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to discuss lessons learned of policy entrepreneurs to analyze how local policy entrepreneurs are acting in setting up local municipal contact centers - a Swedish local e-governmental initiative. The increased interest in political entrepreneurship has both analytical and practical grounds and implications. The networked governance settings demand new roles of entrepreneurial actors, which are approached here in relation to their localization, how they act to expand action spaces for themselves as well as others in the local community.

    …This case study is based on qualitative field studies. The main methods used were interviews with key actors, document studies and observations. The results indicate two main implications of Contact Centers; they localize public services and combine different services into a one-stop operation, striving to provide a ‘holistic’ approach to the individual citizen in her local context. However, contact center implementation also includes an organizational change within the municipalities, facilitating a reorganization of back-office procedures in order to optimize the efficiency and quality aspects. The policy entrepreneurs forming the contact centers promoted them from different perspectives and with varying ambitions. In one of the studied cases the core values of inclusion and participation grounded the design of the contact center, while in the other case the issue as such was the key – a new organizational approach. This is here explained as two illustrations of different approaches of policy networks and entrepreneurial behavior.

  • 65.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    The Role of Innovation with Focus on its Relevance for Regional Development: A Selected Recent Literature Review2014In: Uddevalla Symposium 2014. Geography of Growth. The Frequency, Nature and Consequences of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Regions of Varying Density: Revised papers presented at the 17th Uddevalla Symposium 12-14 June, 2014, Uddevalla, Sweden / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2014, p. 145-164Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review of recent research theories and to draw some conclusions for a new tentative research agenda on the role of innovation with focus on its relevance for regional development in a European context. The paper is more policy-oriented than theory-oriented. The analysis is based on a literature review of 15 articles published in 2012 or 2013 and is a further study of a literature review analysis based on selected literature from 2011 and 2012. The method has an explorative approach that is primarily concerned with generating knowledge for building theory. Some tentative implications for a new research agenda are suggested although results imply that for some of the most innovative European regions, innovation does not always pay off.

        It is suggested to apply a broader view of the concept of regional innovation including not only technological but also other types such as social innovation. Further it is suggested that a region no longer should be viewed as a bounded territory with a set of characteristics but as a space of professionals and social networks. A more proactive role by regional governance is advocated. It is argued that there is an increasing role of regional policymakers, not least to develop policies for different types of knowledge that have not traditionally been considered central to their activities. A constructed regional advantage approach based more on the uniqueness of the capabilities of regions and not only on the basis of R&D efforts is still argued for. The importance of cross-sector knowledge interactions and the importance of combining different types of knowledge for driving innovation are suggested. Further, the concept of “learning region” is criticized and needs to be developed. A theoretical framework towards a suggestion for operationalization of the concept of “learning region” is presented.

  • 66.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2009 The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Revised papers presented at the 12th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June 2009, Bari, Italy2009Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2011. Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions: Revised papers presented at the 14th Uddevalla Symposium, 16-18 June, 2011, Bergamo, Italy2011Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This proceedings consists of  thirty-nine revised papers, first presented at the fourteenth Uddevalla Symposium & the Third International Symposium of Entrepreneurship of E-Lab at University of Bergamo, June, 16-18, 2011 , held at University of Bergamo, Italy. The overall theme was “Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions”. The symposium was hosted by the E-Lab, University of Bergamo, Italy. The purpose of the symposium was to contribute to an increased understanding of the role of entrepreneurial knowledge and technology for the transformation of regions by means of the entry, growth and exit of firms.      Except for the overall theme there were twelve special sub-themes, chaired by invited scholars from the Uddevalla Symposium Network: “Work-integrated learning in transforming regions” “Entrepreneurship, family business and innovation”, “Slow city movement and sustainable local development”, “Shrinking urban regions”, “Entrepreneurship, networking and regional development”, “Resilience capacity of firms and new forms of innovation”, “Cluster development and regional transformation in an economic perspective”, “Entrepreneurship policy in comparative perspective”, “Learning and knowledge transfer processes in small firms’ clusters”, “The spatial agglomeration of business services”, “Entrepreneurship, creativity and the brain”, and “Productivity and financing of regional infrastructure.      Ten keynote-speakers gave presentations during these three days; Prof. Shaker A. Zahra, Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, USA. Assoc. Prof.  Charlotta Mellander, Jönköping International Business School, Sweden, Prof. David Audretsch, Indiana University, USA, Assoc. Prof. Johan Klaesson Jönköping International Business School & CenSE, Sweden, Prof. Andrés Rodriguez-Pose, London School of Economics, UK, Prof. Hans Westlund, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm & Jönköping International Business School, Sweden,  Prof. Maryann P. Feldman, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA,  Prof. Giovanna Dossena, University of Bergamo, Italy,  Prof. Hans Lööf, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden,  and Prof. Zoltan J. Acz, George Mason University, USA.      To stimulate high quality papers a Best Paper Award as well as a Best PhD Can¬didate Paper Award was announced and financially supported by the municipality of Uddevalla, Sweden. The winners of the Best Paper were Johan Klaesson & Sofia Wixe, Jönköping International Business School and CEnSE (Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics), Jönköping, Sweden. The winner of the Best PhD Can¬didate Paper Award was Mattias Örnerheim, Linköping University, Sweden.         Organizers of this 14th Uddevalla Symposium were the University West, Sweden and the E-Lab at University of Bergamo, in co-operation with Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), and George Mason University, School of Public Policy, USA. The symposium was also financial supported by the Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE), Jönköping International Business School, Sweden and Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovations Studies (CESIS), Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.         This symposium would not have been possible without a lot of work and support also from certain individuals. The editor expresses sincere gratitude to all participants, participating organizations, not at least the local organizers at the University of Bergamo, and especially to Dr. Christina Bettinelli.          Also I thank all members of the Uddevalla Symposium Organising Committee and all colleagues at University West. A special thank goes to Rebecca Olsson, University West not at least for editorial help.

    Trollhättan, Sweden in December 2011 Department for Economics & IT, University West

    Iréne BernhardEditor   

    Download full text (pdf)
    Abstract; Uddevalla Symposium 2011. Entrepreneuril Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions
  • 68.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2012: Entrepreneurship and Innovation Networks: Revised papers presented at the 15th Uddevalla Symposium 14-16 June, 2012, Faro, Portugal2012Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research report consists of forty-four revised papers, first presented and discussed at the fifteenth Uddevalla Symposium held at University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal, June, 14-16, 2012[1] and hosted by Research Centre for Spatial and Organisational Dynamics (CIEO), University of Algarve. The overall theme was Entrepreneurship and Innovation Networks”.  The purpose of the symposium was to contribute to an increased understanding of the role of entrepreneurship and innovation networks for the transformation of regions. Hundred researchers from various fields, such as economic geography, entrepreneurship, international business, management, political science, regional economics, small business economics and urban and regional planning, from more than 20 countries took part. Except for the overall theme there were the following six sub-themes, chaired by invited scholars from the Uddevalla Symposium Network: Learning in Organizational Networks, Chair: Assoc. Prof. Lars Svensson, Research Director, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden. Learning Networks for Entrepreneurial and Regional Development, Chair: Prof. Stefan Lagrosen, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden. Demythologising the Entrepreneurial University, Chair: Prof. David Charles, European Policies Research Centre, University of Strathclyde, UK. Regional Innovation Systems and Innovation Networks, Chair: Prof. Christina Ponsiglione, University of Naples Federico II, Italy. Mobility and Innovation Flows, Chair: Prof. Teresa de Noronha, Research Centre for spatial and Organizational Dynamics (CIEO), University of Algarve, Portugal and Academics Entrepreneurship and Innovation – bridging perspectives and pushing the frontier, Chairs: Prof. Martin Andersson and Prof. Åsa Lindholm-Dahlstrand, Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Lund University, Sweden. Uddevalla Symposiumis a yearly international scientific symposium ran by University West (former University of Trollhättan-Uddevalla), Sweden and established in 1998 in Uddevalla, Sweden. The primary objective is to foster research collaboration and bring together leading-edge views between experts, researchers and insightful practitioners from various fields of regional science, international business, economics, entrepreneurship and small business economics as well as from regional economics, regional planning, economic geography/economic history/political science and sociology in order to increase our knowledge as regards research questions related to “Entrepreneurship  and Regional Development".

            Organizers of this 15th Uddevalla Symposium were the University West, Sweden and the CIEO, at University of Algarve, in co-operation with Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), and George Mason University, School of Public Policy, USA. The symposium was also financial supported by the Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovations Studies (CESIS), Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden and Jönköping International Business School; the Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Lund University, Sweden and the Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE), Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.

     

  • 69.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2013. Innovation, High-Growth Entrepreneurship and Regional Development: Revised papers presented at the 16th Uddevalla Symposium 13-15 June, 2013, Kansa City, MO, USA2013Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2014. Geography of Growth. The Frequency, Nature and Consequences of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Regions of Varying Density: Revised papers presented at the 17th Uddevalla Symposium 12-14 June, 2014, Uddevalla, Sweden2014Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grunden, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A Study of Small Enterprises with Focus on Entrepreneurship and E-government in a Regional Development Context2015In: A Nordic Perspective on Co‐Operation for Sustainable Destination and Regional Development / [ed] Iréne Bernhard & Anna Karin Olsson, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 59-75Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter aims to describe and analyze a sample of small enterprises located in a region undergoing structural change with focus on entrepreneurship and e-government and is a further development of a previous study that focused on how municipalities supported entrepreneurship and destination development. In this study the focus is extended to include small enterprises contributing to development of tourist destinations within the same region. In-depth qualitative interviews weremade with twelve managers from ten small enterprises. Based on a theoretical discussion of entrepreneurship, e-government and regional development, the results indicate that networks and strategic networking were important for these small enterprises both in terms of developing the enterprise butalso to develop entrepreneurship for regional development. The findings further indicate that municipal information, communication and competence development in order to support entrepreneurship and the development of small enterprises could be improved. The importance of face-to-face contacts was stressed. The use of local e-government was hitherto limited to e-services for public procurement. The entrepreneurs who used the e-services had mainly positive experiences, although despite the complexity of the e-services. The respondents did not ask for more municipal e-services, but that could be a consequence of their limited experience of the potential of local e-government. The use of social media among the enterprises was limited due to lack of time, competence and motivation for most of the enterprises, although the potential of social media for marketing was seen as extensive. A few of the respondents were on the other hand very skilled in their use ofdigital media, as a consequence of their professional knowledge and business orientation.

  • 72.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grunden, Kerstin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Municipal Support of Entrepreneurship and Business Development from an e-government Perspective2015In: A Nordic Perspective on Co‐Operation for Sustainable Destination and Regional Development / [ed] Iréne Bernhard & Anna Karin Olsson, Uddevalla: University West , 2015, p. 44-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article will contribute to the debate about regional development in peripheral areas by examining the social capital in 14 villages in a Danish municipality, and particularly the influence of social media on the social capital.Contrary to the current public discourse in Denmark on peripheral communities and how they are falling apart because of demographic changes, economic cut backs, and structural changes, this study did not find one single village, where the social capital seems to be in any imminent danger. The article also proposes a different perspective on the operationalization of social capital. Social capital is typically measured in big international values surveys based on the variables network, trust and reciprocity. However, this study is based on a qualitative research with interviews in 14 villages in a peripheral Danish municipality. This in depth research shows that when examining the social capital of communities, the most valuable parameter is to look at the most typical proxy for network: associations and in particular the character of these associations. They furthermore give an indication of the kind of social capital they are building and maintaining.The study also shows that we might have to extend the notion of network to include that of social media as this type of network gets increasingly more important. However, the study cannot conclude that the communities not using the social media have less social capital then the one who does, nor that they are disconnected from the citizens.

  • 73.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A Study of Small Enterprises with Focus on Entrepreneurship and E-government in a Regional Development Context2014In: Uddevalla Symposium 2014. Geography of Growth. The Frequency, Nature and Consequences of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Regions of Varying Density: Revised papers / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2014, p. 165-183Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to describe and analyse a sample of small enterprises located in a region undergoing structural change with focus on entrepreneurship and e-government and is a further development of a previous study that focused on how municipalities supported entrepreneurship and destination development. In this study the focus is extended to include small enterprises contributing to development of tourist destinations within the same region. In-depth qualitative interviews were made with twelve managers from ten small enterprises.

       Based on a theoretical discussion of entrepreneurship, e-government and regional development, the results indicate that networks and strategic networking were important for these small enterprises both in terms of developing the enterprise but also to develop entrepreneurship for regional development. The findings further indicate that municipal information, communication and competence development in order to support entrepreneurship and the development of small enterprises could be improved. The importance of face-to-face contacts was stressed. The use of local e-government was hitherto limited to e-services for public procurement. The entrepreneurs who used the e-services had mainly positive experiences, although despite the complexity of the e-services. The respondents did not ask for more municipal e-services, but that could be a consequence of their limited experience of the potential of local e-government. The use of social media among the enterprises was limited due to lack of time, competence and motivation for most of the enterprises, although the potential of social media for marketing was seen as extensive. A few of the respondents were on the other hand very skilled in their use of digital media, as a consequence of their professional knowledge and business orientation.

  • 74.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Municipal Support of Entrepreneurship and Business Development from an e-Government Perspective2013In: Uddevalla Symposium 2013 Innovation, High-Growth Entrepreneurship and Regional Development: Revised papers / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2013, 1, p. 177-193Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to describe and analyze municipal support of entrepreneurship and business development from an e-government perspective. We analyze two Swedish municipalities and a local tourism company partly owned by the municipalities located in a region undergoing structural change, focusing on efforts of municipalities to develop digital services to support entrepreneurship and business development to promote local and regional development. The research method is based on case study methodology. The case studies are part of the research project “Maritime Inlands – past, present and future strengths” (Marifus) financed by Interregional European Union Regional Development Fund (Interrreg). Based on theoretical discussions of entrepreneurship and e-government theories, the analyses of the two case studies show substantial variations in how they supported entrepreneurship. The findings indicated that e-government services so far have under-used potential for the studied municipalities and the tourism company in order to support efficient communication and information towards the entrepreneurs and businesses aiming at local and regional development.

  • 75.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Municipal Contact Centres: A Slower Approach Towards Sustainable Local Development by E-government2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 2292-2309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is Swedish government policy to use information and communication technologies to increase sustainability. This has implications for planning and local organization of communities. In the municipalities where most public services are provided, there are growing numbers of local contact centres (CCs) aiming to meet citizens’ needs for information and coordination of public services. The CCs localize public services and combine different services into a one-stop practice focusing on needs and demands of individual citizens and their unique situations. The municipalities hereby have to plan for service provision in new ways to meet more individualized needs that are also in line with improved sustainability. CCs are both local offices and advanced services on-line, as e-governmental services. E-government could be considered fast government, but this article aims to turn that obvious first impression upside down and discuss how e-government can slow down and make services more local, personalized and sustainable. Theoretically we take off from a time-geographical modelling of slow processes that has implication for slower, more sustainable development. Based on in-depth case studies of municipal CCs we argue that they are tools towards improved sustainability and localism, and that they are “slowing up” administrative processes. In particular, we point out that e-government has a potential to plan for, and promote, sustainability and slow local development.

  • 76.
    Bernhard, Irène
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross-border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Karlsson, Charlie (Editor)
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University; Industrial Economics, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Diversity, Innovation and Clusters: Spatial Perspectives2020Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Editorial2016In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 149-153Article in journal (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Bernhard_Editorial IJESB Vol 29_2016
  • 79.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Innovation focusing on regional development in a European context: towards a new research agenda2016In: International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development, ISSN 1753-0660, E-ISSN 1753-0679, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: This article presents a review of recent research in order to discuss a new research agenda on the role of innovation, with focus on its relevance for regional development in a European context. The research question addressed is: what are the theories in recent literature on innovation in the perspective of regional development in order to develop policy-oriented conclusions? The analysis is based on a literature review of 15 articles published in 2012-2013 and is a further literature review analysis from 2011 and 2012. Results are indicating that there is an increasing role for regional policymakers e.g. that policymakers must both recognize and develop policies for forms of knowledge that have not traditionally been considered central to their activities, and an increasing role due to existing multi-level governance. Furthermore; the learning region concept needs to be developed; a broader view and development of a heterodox approach to innovation including not only technological but also other types such as social and public innovation and the importance of networks and social capital for regional innovation are stressed.

  • 80.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2016: Geography, Open Innovation,Diversity and Entrepreneurship. Revised papers presented at the 19th Uddevalla Symposium, 30 June- 2 July, 2016, London, UK2016Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2017: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies: Revised papers first presented at the 20th Uddevalla Symposium 15-17 June, 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden2017Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2019: Unlocking the Potential of Regions Through Entrepreneurship and Innovation. Revised papers presented at the 22nd Uddevalla Symposium,27–29 June, 2019, L’Aquila, Italy2019Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping (SWE).
    Editorial2021In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 42, no 1-2, p. 1-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 84.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping.
    Introduction to Unlocking Regional Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Potential for Increasing Capacities2021In: Unlocking Regional Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Potential for Increasing Capacities / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Urban Gråsjö and Charlie Karsson, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2021, p. 1-13Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 85.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gråsjö, UrbanUniversity West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.Karlsson, CharlieJönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping.
    Unlocking Regional Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The potential for increasing capacities2021Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 86.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    The Old Town District: Not Just a Scenic Backdrop - Stakeholders' Perspectives in Urban Re-generation2017In: Uddevalla Symposium 2017: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies: Revised papers first presented at the 20th Uddevalla Symposium 15-17 June, 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2017, p. 111-127Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes its point of departure from an urban place innovation study with focus on local stakeholders with particular interest in the Old Town District in a Norwegian community. The aim of this paper is to identify place innovation challenges among local community stakeholders and to discuss approaches to integrate stakeholders in urban regeneration. We have conducted qualitative interviews with 21 different stakeholders representing local entrepreneurs, non-profit organizations, the municipality, elected officials, tourism organization and residents with particular interest in the Old Town District. Additional observations and document studies were conducted. The results reveal stakeholders' views on challenges and opportunities related to how such regeneration collaboration might be conducted. The complex nature is characterized by strong cultural heritage and a mix of opinions and visions. We argue that urban regeneration requires an integrated approach based on stakeholder collaboration and engagement in order to develop the potential of an old town district into something that is more than a scenic backdrop. We discuss several implications as prerequisites for integrated collaborative approaches in place innovation (urban regeneration).

  • 87.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna KarinUniversity West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    A Nordic Perspective on Co‐Operation for Sustainable Destination and Regional Development2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research report contributes to a Nordic perspective on co-operation for sustainable destination- and regional development based on studies conducted within a Swedish-Danish Interreg project 2012-2014 (MARIFUS). An introduction chapter with major themes initiates this report followed by five chapters1 written by researchers from Aalborg University, Denmark (Incevida) and University West, Sweden (School of Business, Economics and IT). The purpose of this report is to give deeper nsights in Nordic destination and regional development by empirical case studies. These studies have been presented and discussed at seminars during international scientific conferences within regional science (the 16th Uddevalla Symposium 2013 in Kansas City, USA and the 17th Uddevalla Symposium 2014 in Uddevalla, Sweden) organized by University West. The contributions are nterdisciplinary in that sense that they are written by scholars from different scientific disciplines such as business administration, informatics, planning and culture studies. However, all scholars have a destination and/or regional perspective as a point of departure in the case studies conducted. The three-year project offered great opportunities to cross-border learning and applied research in close co-operation (Work integrated learning) with project partners and students.The studies are partly supported by the project MARIFUS “Maritime Inlands – past, present and future strengths” financed by the European Union Regional Development Fund (Interreg IV A). The editors express sincere gratitude to all authors and all partners of the MARIFUS project. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 88.
    Bidlis, Avi
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Duman, DoganCan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Sharing economy: Airbnb’s impact on the housing market in Stockholm City.2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sq]

    The thesis aims to investigate and analyze the parallel lines between Airbnb and the housing market in Stockholm City for the period of May of 2019 to April 2022 in order to find their common and separate factors. To investigate these factors, we used the model developed by Todd, Musah and Cheshire (2021). We only used one model, and that was the Cointegration model to check for cointegration. The results show that this paper could not apply specific methods since this research encountered a spurious regression. This led to whether Airbnb affects the housing market in Stockholm City or not being inconclusive.

  • 89.
    Bigsten, Arne
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet Handelshögskolan. Centrum för globalisering och utveckling (GCGD).
    Isaksson, Ann-Sofie
    Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik, Gothenburg University, Department of Economics.
    Tengstam, Sven
    The Changing Structure of Swedish Foreign Aid2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigates how the composition and character of aid of Swedish aid has changed over time, and what effects these changes have had for the potential to realize key aspects of the Paris agenda such as ownership, alignment, harmonisation, and accountability and the ability to deliver aid efficiently. We analyse the changes in Swedish aid flows since 1990 and compare with changes in the global pattern in terms of purpose, country allocation, channels, and modalities. We discuss how these changes are likely to have affected the efficiency of Sweden as a donor. We conclude with a discussion about the future direction of Swedish aid.

  • 90.
    Bigsten, Arne
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet Handelshögskolan. Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Tengstam, Sven
    International Coordination and the Effectiveness of Aid2015In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 69, p. 75-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to quantify the effects of improved donor coordination on aid effectiveness. Empirical estimates are first provided of the reductions in transaction costs that can be achieved by better donor coordination via concentration to fewer partner countries and a shift from project aid to program-based approaches. Further estimates are presented showing how much could be gained in terms of poverty reduction by optimizing aid allocation across countries. The potential poverty reduction would be huge, but there are severe political implementation constraints. The paper concludes that much could be gained in terms of aid effectiveness from improved donor coordination.

  • 91. Bigsten, Arne
    et al.
    Tengstam, Sven
    International Coordination and the Effectiveness of Aid2012Report (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Bigsten, Arne
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet Handelshögskolan. Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik..
    Tengstam, Sven
    Renewed Growth and Poverty Reduction in Zambia2010In: Zambia Social Science Journal, ISSN 2079-5521, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 93.
    Bigsten, Arne
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet Handelshögskolan. Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Tengstam, Sven
    Smallholder Diversification and Income Growth in Zambia2011In: Journal of African Economies, ISSN 0963-8024, E-ISSN 1464-3723, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 781-822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses nationally representative panel data to analyse the relationship between income diversification and incomes for Zambian smallholder households.We show that shifting to a higher degree of diversification is generally associated with higher incomes. We find that diversification is driven by endowments and access to markets and finance. Education opens up opportunities for well-paid non-agricultural activities, while land shortage forces distress diversification into agricultural wage work.

  • 94.
    Bigsten, Arne
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet Handelshögskolan. Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Tengstam, Sven
    The Aid Effectiveness Agenda: The benefits of going ahead' - A commentary on the final report2012Report (Other academic)
  • 95.
    Bilén, Julia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Lagergren, Jessica
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    En analys av svenska fonders prestationer och deras samband med avgifter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study the performance of twenty mutual funds on the Swedish market for the period 2010-2015. The data on which the study was based on is monthly and therefore include 60 observations for each mutual fund. We use Capital Asset Price Model, Jensen's alpha and the Sharpe ratio to estimate the performance of these funds. In addition to this we also study the relation between fees and performance using correlation coefficient. The result indicates that on average the funds have outperformed the market but it turned out to be non-significant and therefore we cannot rely on that conclusion. We also find a negative relationship between mutual fund fees and their performance, but this result is also non-significant.

  • 96.
    Bjurenlind, Alexander
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Boström, Elias
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Sveriges hushållsskuld: inriktning på finanspolitik och makroekonomiska aspekter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of the three fiscal policies, interest rate deduction, the mortgage cap and the amortization requirement and what their effect has been on the household debt in Sweden. Have the policies resulted in the desired effect that the authorities were trying to achieve? To further investigate what is affecting the household debt, the report also answers a secondary issue in which a study of macroeconomic aspects is in focus.

    To answer the purpose of this empirical essay, OLS regressions on a selection of relevant variables has been performed. The purpose of the regressions is to see how much the impact of the various fiscal measures and macroeconomic conditions has affected our dependent variable, the household debt. The time intervals examined in the report are 1981 – 2016 for the fiscal measures and 1996-2018 for the macroeconomic. Based on these findings and other facts, a conclusion has been made.

    The conclusion that can be made is that the fiscal policies have had a certain effect on house prices and thus the debt ratio. However, it cannot be determined that these measures solely affect the debt ratio. There are probably additional variables that also affect, that we believe are embedded in the macroeconomic aspects. This conclusion is based on the fact, that the macroeconomic aspects have a certain degree of explanation of the household debt. However, it is also possible to see clear indications and trends that support the thesis we have chosen to answer regarding the fiscal measures and their impact on household debt.

  • 97.
    Bjurklint, Linda
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bjärestig, Linnéa
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Prisutvecklingen på småhus: En undersökning av Göteborgs kommun och Borås kommun2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The prices on the Swedish housing market have been growing with an positive trend for the past 30 years. Because of the rising house prices the housing market is a debated topic in many ways. The same trend has been seen in the regional markets in Sweden, like in the municipality of Borås and Gothenburg. In this paper we will therefore examine which factors that have been affecting the housing prices in the municipality of Gothenburg and Borås between 1999 and 2018. Previous articles and studies have been complied in order to create an econometric model adapted to our choice of subject. To distinguish the constant difference in the house prices of the municipalities we included a dummy variable in the equation. Before running OLS-regressions we tested our collected data for various problems that may arise and produce a misleading result. Multicollinearity arose. Therefore we decided to merge the variable supply and population to a new variable called "overcrowding". The results of this paper showed that 99,6 percent of the variation in the independent variables can explain the growth in house prices in Gothenburg and Borås. We then moved forward to study the independent variables separately. The results, which also answered the research question of this paper, showed that income, unemployment, interest rate, overcrowding and the dummy variable Municipality can explain the changes in the house prices. Finally, we concluded the differences in these regional factors have created the differences in house prices.

  • 98.
    Björ, Anna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Aktiv förvaltning av fonder: Mer pengar I dina eller fondbolagens fickor?2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Actively managed funds are often presented to investors like you and me by most financial institutes. When investing your money in an active managed fund you're paying a higher fee to cover the increased cost due to active management. The fact that higher fees has an impact on the return on capital and that it results in increased revenues to the financial institutes is not argued. Whether the costumer who chooses to pay the higher fees in faith that it will generate a greater return on the investment is often argued. The efficient market hypothesis is a greatly recognized theory in the area of economics that argues that the only variable significant to greater returns are risk. Based on that statement the conclusion that active management of funds will not result in greater return can be made.

    In this thesis 16 actively managed funds in Sweden have been analyzed. Data for those funds have been collected for the time period 20150101 – 20191231. In this study measures of performance have been used to evaluate the performance of the actively managed funds by calculating the risk adjusted return. Measures of performance that has been used in the thesis are Sharpe ratio, M2, Treynor ratio and Jensens Alpha. By calculating the risk adjusted return it is possible to decide if the fund has outperformed or underperformed the market. The 16 funds that the analytical part of the thesis is built on have been evaluated individually compared to a market index. Statistical test has been used to analyze the performance of the funds based on the risk adjusted return. Statistical tests that has been used are linear regression and Wilcoxon. Among the funds that was evaluated in the study had only one of the funds outperformed the market. The result confirms both theories in economics and earlier studies in the area. Out of the 16 funds evaluated could only one of the funds be concluded to have outperformed the market.

  • 99.
    Björk, Jessica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bergström, Rebecka
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Hushållens skuldkvot i Sveriges kommuner2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Household debt has steadily climbing over the past decade and the development of increasing concern. Consumption levels also show a continuing upward trend. Explanation lies part in the consumption financed by households increase their debt ratio to maintain the same level of consumption as before. The purpose of this study is to investigate which factors that affect the household debt ratio at the regional level. Previous studies indicate interest rates, housing prices and disposable income as the factors that have an impact on the debt ratio in Sweden. Although the effects of demographics, the difference in age distribution among regions, can lead to different degrees of household borrowing, accordance within the life cycle hypothesis. Data from 2007 over Sweden's 290 municipalities are estimated in a regression analysis in the form of a cross-sectional regression. The results show that market price coefficient and population age as important factors in explaining the regional debt ratio, together with other factors such as education, the municipalities' size in terms of population and the share acquisitions workers in agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing.

  • 100.
    Björkman, Hampus
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Wahlqvist, Viktor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    ESG Funds Performance In The Energy Sector: A comparative study between ESG funds and conventional funds within the energy sector2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the risk adjusted return for ESG and Conventional funds in the energy sector during 2018-2023, by comparing them against the MSCI World Index as a benchmark. The methodology employed follows previously established approaches utilized in previous studies, employing the CAPM and analyzing risk adjusted return using Sharpe and Treynor ratios. The pooled regression without fixed effects, displayed a negative significant value for the sustainability dummy variable. The panel data regression with fixed effects, a dummy variable for sustainability and the market excess return, resulted in insignificant values for all variables except market excess return. The results from the performance measurements determined that the Conventional funds had performed a better risk-adjusted return. Consequently, the findings collected in this thesis suggests that Conventional funds in the energy sector have outperformed ESG funds in the energy sector. 

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