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  • 51.
    Gurdal, Sevtap
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Children's agency in parent-child, teacher-pupil and peer relationship contexts.2018In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 13, no sup1, article id 1565239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine children's perception of their agency in different relationship contexts. Historically, most studies conducted in Sweden concerning children's agency, in relation to their self-efficacy and perceptions of their effectiveness as agents, have been carried out in school situations or other institutional organizations. Past research has shown that children'sagency has positive links to health, school achievement and/or adjustment. Method: Interviews were conducted with 103 10-year-old Swedish children to examine three relationship contexts: parent-child, teacher-pupil, and peer relations. Vignettes about the different contexts were presented to the children and their answers were analysed with thematic analysis. Results: The results show that children think of their agency differently depending upon which relationship context they find themselves in. Most perceived agency are found insituations with peers, and children perceive they have the least agency with teachers. In situations with parents, children think they would react with more resistance than with peers and teachers. It is mainly with other children that they would show assertiveness and try to find asolution together, while they would be more emotional and perceive less power with adults. Conclusion: We conclude that children make adistinction in their perception of agency depending upon the relationship context. These findings can be relevant for helping children receive more agency in all contexts, which might have apositive impact on health and adjustment.

  • 52.
    Joelsson, Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    E-kommunikation på arbetsplatsen: Medarbetares upplevelser av chefens e-postkommunikation2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Quick, technological development changed communication in the workplace. The virtual context contributed by digital means of communication, where e-mail is the most popular. The benefits are great. E-mail save time and is cost effective. According to early research organizations' performance was largely due to communication and relationships between managers and employees. In regard to the limited research on employees´ experience of the manager´s e-mail communication, this study´s purpose was based on the employee's perspective, highlighting how the virtual context influences the downward communication in the workplace. The study focused on the effects and affects e-mail has on communication, relationships, confidence and work performance. The study resulted in a qualitative design, which aim was to examine the descriptive data by individual experiences and create additional understanding. The selection was based on the criterion that the participants would work in a virtual context, where they would use e-mail communication with their manager as a tool. Based on a questionnaire guide, six semi-structured interviews were conducted. A thematic analysis resulted in four themes: cognitive abilities, interaction between employees and management, which affected as described, borderlines of time, space and labor. E-mail proved to be a complex concept. It was fast, while simultaneously a time thief. It contributed to a sense of belonging and participation, but also uncertainty and misunderstanding. We need e-mail skills in our organizations to minimize negative effects and affects.

  • 53.
    Johansson, Ingemar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Winman, Thomas
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Being a Rector: A Study of Knowledge Needs and Knowledge Development in Secondary Schools2015In: Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 357-368Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Five Factor Model-Based Personality Disorders across Sex and Age-groups (N=320,128)2017In: Personality and Personality Disorders:Foundations of Pathology, Pathways to Health, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Five Factor Model (FFM) with its 30 facet traits is proposed as a universal basis for PD (Personality Disorders). For instance, based on the FFM-count method (Miller et al., 2005), the disposition for Paranoid PD can be calculated by a validated set of FFM sub-traits: N2 + E1_R + E2_R + O4_R + O6_R + A1_R + A2_R + A3_R + A4_R + A6_R. Using a comprehensive open-source representation of FFM (IPIP-NEO-120; Johnson, 2014), we explored age and sex differences in the 10 DSM-IV PD categories with the presumably largest US sample to date (N = 320,128). The results showed differences of up to ½ SD in all PD categories across age-groups, as well as clear gaps between sexes. For example, the largest decline with age, as well as differences in sex, was seen in Antisocial PD. Also, interaction effects between age and sex could be seen in Schizoid and Schizotypal PDs. The present study presents tentative support for personality trait theory as a basis for psychopathology, and updated benchmarks on the scope and size of sex and age differences in PD dispositions in the community.

  • 55.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Honesty-Humility in contemporary students: manipulations of self-image by inflated IQ estimations2014In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 311-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The HEXACO model offers a complement to the Big-Five model, including a sixth factor, Honesty-Humility, and its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty). The four facets of Honesty-Humility and three indicators of intelligence (one performance-based cognitive ability test, one self-estimated academic potential, and one self-report of previous IQ test results) were assessed in students entering higher education (N = 187). A significant negative correlation was observed between Honesty-Humility and self-reported intelligence (r  = –.37), most evident in the Modesty facet. These results may be interpreted as tendencies of exaggeration, using a theoretical frame of psychological image-management, concluding that the Honesty-Humility trait captures students’ self-ambitions, particularly within the context of an individualistic, competitive culture such as Sweden.

  • 56.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. School of Health and Education and Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Honesty-Humility predicting self-estimated academic performance2016In: International Journal of Personality Psychology, E-ISSN 2451-9243, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has established relationships between the Big Five personality factors, cognitive ability, and aca-demic performance. A more recent personality trait, Honesty-Humility with its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty) is suggested to have predictive value especially in self-promoting behaviors. The aim of the present study was to find out whether lower Honesty-Humility would predict higher self-reported academic performance, and account for additional variance, after controlling for the Big Five and cognitive ability. The partic-ipants were Swedish 17-19 year-old students (N = 154) in late secondary high school. The results revealed a signifi-cant negative correlation between Honesty-Humility and self-estimated academic performance, mainly through low scores in the facets Sincerity and Modesty, as well as an additional 7% accounted for variance. The discussion con-cludes that the new trait Honesty-Humility may be a welcomed addition to the understanding of how students use self-promoting strategies in contemporary school

  • 57.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology, Sweden.
    Low Honesty-Humility gives high self-reported IQ2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The HEXACO model offers a complement to the Big-Five model, including a sixth factor, Honesty-Humility, and its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty). The four facets of Honesty-Humility and three indicators of intelligence (one performance-based cognitive ability test, one self-estimated academic potential, and one self-report of previous IQ test results) were assessed in students entering higher education (N = 187). A significant negative correlation was observed between Honesty-Humility and self-reported intelligence (r = –.37), most evident in the Modesty facet. These results may be interpreted as tendencies of exaggeration, using a theoretical frame of psychological image-management, concluding that the Honesty-Humility trait captures students’ self-ambitions, particularly within the context of an individualistic, competitive culture such as Sweden.

  • 58.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    The Big Five Factors in Perceived Elderly Care Quality: An Evaluation Model in the Behavioral Sciences for User-Oriented Professions2016In: ViLär 2016, konferens 8-9 december, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Perceived care quality (i.e., how care is enacted by a care worker toward a client at the interpersonal level) is a strong predictor of satisfaction in a wide range of health care services. The present research aimed at compiling a model containing the basic elements of care quality from a behavioral science perspective. Specifically, such a model could help reveal how and why quality in user-oriented care professions vary.

    Design –We interviewed, observed, and took notes about care workers’ interactions with the older persons in both home care and nursing homes during two weeks.

    Findings – A model for categorising perceived quality variation, the Big Five of user-oriented care (Task-focus, Person-focus, Affect, Cooperation, and Time-use; T-PACT) was discerned with help of thematic analysis.

    Value – The proposed model may be useful for describing general user-oriented quality and its variations (see Table 1). These Big Five categories (TPACT) can be of relevance for future quality developments of user-oriented professions, as well as be implemented in educational programs.

  • 59.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    The Learning Organization (and the Not-Learning Organization) within the Context of Elderly Care2016In: ViLär 2016, konferens 8-9 december, Vänersborg, Sweden / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2016, p. 1-1Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Previous research has shown that user-oriented care quality predicts satisfaction with elderly care. What is yet to be researched is how management facilitates the user-oriented care process in the organization. The present study set out to investigate the learning principles and management climate characterizing successful elderly care.

    Design – The department in one highly ranked municipality was compared with a more average municipality. On-site, semi-structured in-depth interviews with department managers and participatory observations at managers’ meetings were conducted in both municipalities.

    Findings – The results revealed three important learning principles for a successful care organization: 1) organizing from the viewpoint of the needs and wants of the older person, 2) recruiting and training autonomous employees, 3) instilling a vision for the mission that guide operations in all situations.

    Using climate theory to interpret the material, the highly successful management was characterized by affective support and cognitive autonomy, in contrast to a more instrumental work climate primarily focusing on structure and doing things right, in the more average municipality.

    Discussion – We propose that management climate is intertwined with learning principles (see Table 1). These results can facilitate quality developments and increase understanding of the learning organization. 

  • 60.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    The Quality Agents Model: A Generalized Model for How to Evaluate Service Organizations2016In: ViLär 2016, konferens 8-9 december 2016, Vänersborg / [ed] Kristina Johansson, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Service-oriented quality (i.e., how a service is enacted by a worker toward a customer) is a strong predictor of satisfaction in a wide range of customer services. The present research aimed at describing the organization and impact of various levels of the service organization on customer satisfaction.

    Design –In an attempt to gain a deeper understanding of how and why perceived quality in terms of service-orientation varies, we conducted interviews with care workers and care unit managers in the context of elderly care.

    Results – A new model for understanding the impact of various levels of the organization on customer satisfaction, the Quality Agents Model, is proposed. Perceived reasons for quality variation suggest that service evaluations may be explained from at multiple levels (e.g., older person, care worker-, unit-, department-, and municipality-level; see Figure 1). The Quality Agents Model suggests that the closer the agent is to the center (i.e., the customer), the larger the impact on satisfaction evaluations.

    Discussion – The proposed model may be useful for describing customer-related service quality. The strength of the model is that it acknowledges the many contextual inputs involved in forming an opinion about service quality, and thus might be a useful tool for most service-organizations.

    Empirical testing – We subsequently were able to test the model empirically with 95,000 respondents from national care service surveys, statistically showing that the level (agent) closest to the customer has the most influence on service-satisfaction (50%), while the surrounding organization only 5% (See Figure 1).

  • 61.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Dåderman, Anna
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Conceptualizing the Structure of FFM Personality Disorders with Empathy2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The new section III in DSM-5 suggests pathological personality traits and impairments in personality functioning such as empathy to be used for identifying personality disorders (PDs). Previous research has also theoretically and empirically advocated that psychopathology is related to the general Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits. The objective of the present study was to investigate the hierarchical structure of the 10 DSM PD categories using the FFM count technique (Miller et al., 2008), and to conceptualize PDs with empathy dimensions. We measured PDs and 4 dimensions of empathy (emphatic concern, perspective-taking, fantasy, and distress) in a medium-sized community sample. The results showed that higher order factors such as externalizing and internalizing could be applied to PDs based on FFM scores. PD could furthermore be conceptualized using two of the empathy dimensions, low emphatic concern and high distress, and specific PD categories could be conceptualized by using distinct dimensions of empathy (e.g., histrionic PD with high fantasy, or dependent PD with high distress). The discussion concludes that PDs based on self-reported FFM show conceptual validity, and that the presence of symptoms of PDs potentially may be screened in the community population by using empathy measures.   

  • 62.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Exploring the Relationship Between Honesty-Humility, the Big Five, and Liberal Values in Swedish Students2014In: Europe's Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1841-0413, E-ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 104-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on the Five-Factor model (Big Five) reports a relationship between personality traits and liberal values, and the trait  Agreeableness has demonstrated the strongest relationship. The HEXACO model offers a complement to the Five-factor model with an additional sixth trait of Honesty-Humility. Previous research on the Honesty-Humility trait has reported mixed results with liberal values, and this study set out to resolve this. The work presented here explored the relationship between the Honesty-Humility trait on facet-level (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty) and liberal values (equality for women, minorities, and socio-economical groups). Data from Swedish students (N = 202), known for their individualistic and liberal mindset, were sampled. There was an overall positive correlation between Honesty-Humility and the strength of liberal values (r = .36), and Honesty-Humility predicted liberal values beyond Agreeableness. We discuss these results in terms of the significance of traits and values in a culture that promotes both individualism and equality.

  • 63.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Grankvist, Gunne
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    The Impact of Personality Traits, Values, and Abilities on the View of Uniqueness of Consciousness2015In: Towards a Science of Consciousness: Book of Abstracts, Helsingfors, 2015, p. 315-no. 284Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personality traits, including the well-known Big Five traits, the subclinical Dark Triad traits, as well as cognitive (IQ) and emotional abilities (EQ), are known to predict a number of attitudes, such as views of politics, importance of other people, or interest in self. This present study set out to research the impact of personality traits on the view of consciousness, the main question being whether consciousness sets mankind apart from the animal kingdom. A Swedish sample was tested on six different personality-related tests measuring traits, values, and abilities. The results showed that high scorers in emotional intelligence, openness and extraversion had a view of consciousness being unique for human beings only. Furthermore, people high on self-enhancing values and the tendency to manipulate others (Machiavellianism) also held a view of consciousness being unique for human beings, and which sets us apart from animals. Only self-transcending values, such as universalism, showed a negative association with the uniqueness of consciousness. The discussion extends to how the view on consciousness affects other outlooks on life, such as the view on one’s personal future or mankind’s environmental predicament. Motivational agendas stemming from personality traits, in terms of stable, genetical influences, might explain views on ontological questions to a greater degree than previously thought.

  • 64.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Kazemi, Ali
    School of Health and Education, University of Skövde.
    Cost and Satisfaction Trends in Swedish Elderly Home Care2016In: Home Health Care Management & Practice, ISSN 1084-8223, E-ISSN 1552-6739, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 250-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a widespread belief among the public and policy makers that quality of care in terms of user satisfaction can beimproved with increased spending. However, recent research indicates that structural resources (e.g., budget per elderly)in elderly home care do not predict quality of care in terms of older persons’ satisfaction with care. In the present study,we analyzed the longitudinal trends in costs and perceived quality of care across 3 years using nationwide data in Swedishelderly home care. The results showed that although costs have been steadily increasing, perceived quality of interpersonaltreatment in care has remained at the same level. An important implication is that future research and policy efforts toimprove quality should more directly target the mechanisms generating satisfaction.

  • 65.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University of Gothenburg; University of Skövde.
    Magnus, Roos
    University of Gothenburg; University of Skövde, Sweden.
    The Personality Map of Sweden2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that personality traits are unevenly distributed geographically, with some traits being more prevalent in certainplaces than in others. The majority of research in this field has focused on cross-national comparisons, while less attention has beengiven to variations in personality traits within countries (Rentfrow, Jokela & Lamb, 2015). More recently, regional personalitydifferences have been mapped in both United States and Great Britain (Rentfrow, Gosling, Jokela, Stillwell, Kosinki & Potter,2013; Rentfrow, Kokela & Lamb, 2015). The aim of the present study is to map regional personality differences in Sweden. Usinga representative sample of Swedish residents (N = 6154), we mapped the geographical distribution of the Big Five Personality traitsacross eight national areas (e.g. Stockholm, East Middle Sweden, South Småland and the Islands, South Sweden, West Sweden,North Middle Sweden, Middle Norrland and Upper Norrland). The result revealed statistically significant associations on nationalareas and the degree of agreeableness [F (7, 6154) = 4.63, p < .01, partial ƞ² =.005]. Employing the Bonferroni post-hoc test,significant differences (p < .01) were found between South Sweden (M = 2.74) and the Upper Norrland (M = 2.93), and betweenSouth Sweden and North Middle Sweden (M = 2.88). Descriptive statistics illustrate a stepwise change toward higher degree ofagreeableness, from the South of Sweden to the North of Sweden (Figure 1). The result revealed statistically significant associationson national areas and the degree of conscientiousness (F (7, 6164) = 2,51, p < .05, partial ƞ² =.003). Employing the Bonferronipost-hoc test, significant (p < .05) differences were found only between Stockholm (M = 2.94) and the Upper Norrland (M = 3.06).Insights about regional personality differences within a nation are useful, because such differences are associated with political,economic, social and health outcomes and thereby linked to a regions history, culture and ability to change.

  • 66.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Persson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Dark Values: the Dark Triad hiding in Schwartz’ value orientation2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dark Triad offers measurement and predictive validity of egotistic and anti-social dispositions, including the factors Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism. Based on the well established link between personality traits and values, this study proposes that the Dark Triad can be used to understand individuals’ propensity towards including or excluding other people in their social relationships. A group of 80 human resource management students whose future comptence among other things will be to cooperate with others were measured on the Dark Triad, Schwartz’ ten Value Orientations, and two versions of the Big Five personality traits (FIPI, BFI44). The results showed consistent negative correlations between the Dark Triad and the value dimensions of concern for generalized others, as well as positive correlations between the Dark Triad and the value dimensions of concern for self. The study also concluded that the Dark Triad works as a moderator of the relationship between personality traits (Big Five) and values (Schwartz’), and substantially adds additional explained variance especially on values of exclusion. The etiology of social in-group and out-group processes in everyday life is suggested to be individuals’ dispositions for dark values, a path towards deviant and negative behaviors. 

  • 67.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Persson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Jonason, Peter K.
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Achievement, Power, and Hedonism: Universal Values that Characterize the Dark Triad2015In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 77, p. 173-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a sample of Swedes and Americans (N = 385), we attempted to understand the Dark Triad traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) in terms of the universal social values. The Dark Triad traits correlated significantly with all 10 value types, forming a sinusoid pattern corresponding to the value model circumplex. In regression analyses, Machiavellianism and narcissism were positively associated with the values Achievement and Power, while psychopathy was positively associated with the values Hedonism, and Power. In addition, the Dark Triad traits explained significant variance over the Big Five traits in accounting for individual differences in social values. Differences between the Swedish and the US sample in the social value Achievement was mediated by the Dark Triad traits, as well as age. Given the unique complex of values accounted for by the Dark Triad traits compared to the Big Five traits, we argue that the former account for a system of self-enhancing “dark values”, often hidden but constantly contributing in evaluations of others.

  • 68.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Department of Social Psychology, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Persson, Björn N.
    Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden; Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosenberg, Patricia
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden; Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The (mis)measurement of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen: exploitation at the core of the scale2016In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background.

    The dark side of human character has been conceptualized in the Dark Triad Model: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. These three dark traits are often measured using single long instruments for each one of the traits. Nevertheless, there is a necessity of short and valid personality measures in psychological research. As an independent research group, we replicated the factor structure, convergent validity and item response for one of the most recent and widely used short measures to operationalize these malevolent traits, namely, Jonason’s Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. We aimed to expand the understanding of what the Dirty Dozen really captures because the mixed results on construct validity in previous research.

    Method. We used the largest sample to date to respond to the Dirty Dozen (N = 3,698). We firstly investigated the factor structure using Confirmatory Factor Analysis and an exploratory distribution analysis of the items in the Dirty Dozen. Secondly, using a sub-sample (n = 500) and correlation analyses, we investigated the Dirty Dozen dark traits convergent validity to Machiavellianism measured by the MachIV, psychopathy measured by Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire Revised, narcissism using the Narcissism Personality Inventory, and both neuroticism and extraversion from the Eysenck’s questionnaire. Finally, besides these Classic Test Theory analyses, we analyzed the responses for each Dirty Dozen item using Item Response Theory (IRT).

    Results. The results confirmed previous findings of a bi-factor model fit: one latent core dark trait and three dark traits. All three Dirty Dozen traits had a striking bi-modal distribution, which might indicate unconcealed social undesirability with the items. The three Dirty Dozen traits did converge too, although not strongly, with the contiguous single Dark Triad scales (r between .41 and .49). The probabilities of filling out steps on the Dirty Dozen narcissism-items were much higher than on the Dirty Dozen items for Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Overall, the Dirty Dozen instrument delivered the most predictive value with persons with average and high Dark Triad traits (theta > −0.5). Moreover, the Dirty Dozen scale was better conceptualized as a combined Machiavellianism-psychopathy factor, not narcissism, and is well captured with item 4: ‘I tend to exploit others towards my own end.

    Conclusion. The Dirty Dozen showed a consistent factor structure, a relatively convergent validity similar to that found in earlier studies. Narcissism measured using the Dirty Dozen, however, did not contribute with information to the core of the Dirty Dozen construct. More importantly, the results imply that the core of the Dirty Dozen scale, a manipulative and anti-social trait, can be measured by a Single Item Dirty Dark Dyad (SIDDD).

  • 69.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Mutual actions: developmental links between aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent risk behaviors2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescence is a critical time for the onset or intensification of engagement in risk behaviors, such as delinquency and alcohol use. Parents are often advised to supervise adolescents or set rules for behavior control in order to protect their adolescents from harm. But are such parenting strategies advantageous in preventing adolescents from engaging in risk behaviors? Little is known about what role adolescents play in the parent- adolescent relationship and their own psychosocial development? The overall aim of the dissertation was to investigate how parent- and adolescent-driven communication efforts occurring in the parent-adolescent relationship relate to risk behaviors in early to mid- adolescence.Findings show that adolescent-driven communication efforts (i.e. disclosure about their everyday activities) play a prominent role in the parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent engagement in risk behaviors. Adolescent disclosure is linked to parental knowledge of an adolescent's whereabouts, parent-adolescent emotional connectedness, and decreases in adolescent risk behaviors over time. While parental behavioral control of adolescent whereabouts can indeed be protective of adolescent engagement in risk behaviors, parents' soliciting efforts are related to higher levels of engagement in delinquency and substance use. This is particularly true for boys and adolescents with detached and fearless temperament. However, when adolescents are willing to communicate, parents can elicit more disclosure from their adolescents through soliciting efforts.This dissertation suggests that parents and adolescents both play important roles in parenting and parent-adolescent relationships. Parents can protect their adolescents from engagement in risk behaviors, especially when adolescents share information with their parents.

  • 70.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Göteborgs universitet.
    Skoog, Therese
    Gothenburg University, Department of Psychology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Gothenburg University, Department of Psychology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Structural relations between sources of parental knowledge, feelings of being overly controlled and risk behaviors in early adolescence2017In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we have investigated parental knowledge and its sources, namely adolescent disclosure, parental control, and parental solicitation; and how they relate to adolescents' feelings of being overly controlled, and to three types of adolescent risk behaviors, namely bullying, substance use, and delinquent behavior. This was studied in a sample of 1520 Swedish early adolescent boys and girls (M age = 13.0). A structural equation path model showed that adolescent disclosure and parental control were positively associated with parental knowledge, which in turn related to all three risk behaviors. Adolescent disclosure was related to lower levels of risk behaviors, while parental solicitation was linked to higher levels of adolescent engagement in risk behaviors, especially for boys, through feelings of being overly controlled. The findings support the idea of a functional role of open communication, as well as adequate levels of autonomy granting, for managing boys' and girls' risk behavior.

  • 71.
    Kerekes, Nora
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Apelqvist, Susanne
    Swedish Prison and Probation Services, R&E, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Fielding, Cecilia
    Swedish Prison and Probation Services, R&E, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The Prison Adjusted Measure of Aggression (PAMA): Psychometric Characteristics of a New Tool Measuring Change in Aggressive Behaviors in Correctional Settings2018In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 263, p. 130-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for instruments that can be used in correctional settings to measure changes in aggressive behaviors over a limited time period. This study aimed to validate an instrument (the Prison Adjusted Measure of Aggression, PAMA) that assesses specifically the past month’s aggressive behaviors and is adapted for use in correctional facilities. The psychometric properties of the self-rated and interview versions of the PAMA were explored and compared to those of two well-established measures of aggression: The Staff Observation Aggression Scale (SOAS); and the self-rate Aggression Questionnaire-Revised Swedish Version (AQ-RSV). The study group comprised 93 male and 59 female inmates, who were followed for two months. During the study, the prevalence of aggressive acts was observed and reported by SOAS. On two occasions, at monthly intervals, subjects reported their own aggressive behaviors using AQ-RSV and the self-report version of the PAMA; also, a psychologist conducted interviews according to PAMA. This study’s main finding was that the self-rated version of PAMA is a valid measure of different types and dimensions of aggression (physical and verbal aggression, hostility) and has acceptable psychometric properties. Therefore, PAMA could potentially be of value for use in correctional services evaluating aggression managing treatment interventions.

  • 72.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Konkret om mental styrketräning: [Bokrecension av boken Tänk låsningar och lösningar av Kjell Enhager]2016In: Kvalitetsmagasinet, ISSN 1104-1579, no 5, p. 58-58Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    et al.
    Duke University.
    Bornstein, Marc H.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and HumanDevelopment.
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    University of Massachusetts Amherst.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University and Emirates College for Advanced Education.
    Bacchini, Dario
    Second University of Naples.
    Bombi, Anna Silvia
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Faculty of Pschology, Italy..
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau.
    Chen, Bin-Bin
    Fudan University.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Duke University.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza.
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University and King Abdulaziz University; Sombat Tapanya, Chiang Mai University.
    Alampay, Liane P.
    Ateneo de Manila University.
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana M.
    Universidad San Buenaventura.
    Zelli, Arnaldo
    University of Rome Foro Italico, Italy..
    How International Research on Parenting Advances Understanding of Child Development2016In: Child Development Perspectives, ISSN 1750-8592, E-ISSN 1750-8606, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 202-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    nternational research on parenting and child development can advance our understanding of similarities and differences in how parenting is related to children's development across countries. Challenges to conducting international research include operationalizing culture, disentangling effects within and between countries, and balancing emic and etic perspectives. Benefits of international research include testing whether findings regarding parenting and child development replicate across diverse samples, incorporating cultural and contextual diversity to foster more inclusive and representative research samples and investigators than has typically occurred, and understanding how children develop in proximal parenting and family and distal international contexts.

  • 74.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    et al.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Godwin, Jennifer
    Duke University, Durhamn, USA.
    Bornstein, Marc H.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology, China.
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Faculty of Psychology, Rome, Italy.
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Consultorio Psicológico Popular, Medellín, Colombia .
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan.
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Naples “Federico II”, Department of Psychology, Italy.
    Parenting, culture, and the development of externalizing behaviors from age 7 to 14 in nine countries2018In: Development and psychopathology (Print), ISSN 0954-5794, E-ISSN 1469-2198, Vol. 30, no SI, p. 1937-1958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using multilevel models, we examined mother-, father-, and child-reported (N = 1,336 families) externalizing behavior problem trajectories from age 7 to 14 in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). The intercept and slope of children's externalizing behavior trajectories varied both across individuals within culture and across cultures, and the variance was larger at the individual level than at the culture level. Mothers' and children's endorsement of aggression as well as mothers' authoritarian attitudes predicted higher age 8 intercepts of child externalizing behaviors. Furthermore, prediction from individual-level endorsement of aggression and authoritarian attitudes to more child externalizing behaviors was augmented by prediction from cultural-level endorsement of aggression and authoritarian attitudes, respectively. Cultures in which father-reported endorsement of aggression was higher and both mother- and father-reported authoritarian attitudes were higher also reported more child externalizing behavior problems at age 8. Among fathers, greater attributions regarding uncontrollable success in caregiving situations were associated with steeper declines in externalizing over time. Understanding cultural-level as well as individual-level correlates of children's externalizing behavior offers potential insights into prevention and intervention efforts that can be more effectively targeted at individual children and parents as well as targeted at changing cultural norms that increase the risk of children's and adolescents' externalizing behavior.

  • 75.
    Molin, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Löfgren-Mårtenson, Lotta
    Centre for Sexology and Sexuality Studies, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    New emancipatory (em@ncipatory) landscapes?: Young people with intellectual disabilities, Internet use and identification processes2016In: Transitions Across the Life Course of People with Disabilities: Experiences, Opportunities and Strategies, Off- and Online Workshop information and contributions by the delegates (with abstracts, pamphlets and papers), 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Molin, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Work and Social Pedagogy.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Mårtenson-Löfgren, Lotta
    Particip@tion on Internet?: Young people with intellectual disabilities and identification processes on Internet2018In: 23rd annual CyberPsychology, CyberTherapy & Social Networking Conference (CYPSY23),June 26 to 28, 2018, Hotel Hilton LacLeamy in Gatineau, Canada.: Complete program, 2018, p. 42-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although research on young people's identification processes on the Internet is a growing field, there are few studies that illustrate conditions for young people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Previous studies have shown that young people with ID are worried about being marginalized, and that many in fact are lonelier than other young people. Internet and social networking sites might be of vital importance as a space for exploring alternative and less stigmatized identities. Scandinavian research has shown that a new generation of young people with ID is emerging who have developed somewhat new ways of relating to issues of participation and identity. Mainly these strategies concern the possibilities of expressing alternative self-presentations, which are not necessarily connected to a specific functional impairment or a certain welfare institutional belonging (e.g., special need student or care user). One such strategy can concern attempts to, in an online setting, present a preferred identity (e.g. that of a hockey fan or a musician), which may differ from their disabled identity, which would be apparent in an offline setting. A Swedish research project—Particip@tion on Internet? Pupils with intellectual disabilities and identification processes on Internet—aims to describe and analyse how young people (age 16-20) with a mild ID interacts and participate on the Internet. More precisely, drawing upon the perspectives of young people with ID, parents and school staff, we want to study self-presentations, social relations and participation within different kinds of Internet communities. Therefore, the goal of the project is to generate knowledge concerning these complex processes, which could be useful for the nearest surrounding of adults in order to support and help young people with ID with their Internet use.

    The project comprises qualitative interviews with young people with ID (n=27), parents of young people with ID (n=22) and professionals in special schools (n=17). The transcribed interviews were analyzed, using a thematic content analysis. A prominent finding in the study concerned the young informants being well aware of both risks and opportunities using Internet and Social Networking Sites. Consequently, the more they interacted with non-disabled peers, the more they experienced negative consequences of Internet use. One conclusion was that these circumstances rather lead to downsizing than upsizing Internet use, and as prolongation, less participation on Social Networking Sites. Although the Internet can be a 'free-zone' where the young person can develop social bonds and construct their identity away from adult oversight, parents and professionals are highly present. Young people mostly feel confident but also in no need of support. Professionals and parents do consider the Internet an arena for positive opportunities, but also with risks. The professionals seemed to be more worried about the risks than the parents who state that the opportunities outweigh the disadvantages. For parents, the real risk is described as the risk of loneliness and social isolation. That parents consider the Internet to be an arena for relationships is an interesting change compared to previous research where both parents and professionals are worried about the risks of abuse etc. Overall, the young people with ID are described as a more heterogeneous group by both parents and professionals compared to previous research. Considering young people's need for autonomy, it is of great importance that parents and professionals balance their level of support depending on the needs of the young person. We recommend that professional practitioners reflect upon the ways that support can be arranged in order to empower young people with ID to participate on the Internet. The experiences of the informants are discussed in a conceptual framework of social identity, participation, sexuality and emancipation.

  • 77.
    Nilsson, Lena A.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Du äger ditt liv: Vad vill du med ditt liv?2018Report (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Nilsson, Lena A.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Barns och ungas välfärd och ett kunskapsbaserat arbetssätt2019In: Samverkansforskning: att främja barns och ungas välfärd / [ed] Lena Nilsson & Emma Sorbring (red.), Stockholm: Liber, 2019, p. 25-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Persson, Björn
    et al.
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden, Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden, Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy, University of Skövde, Sweden, Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden, Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge, County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden, Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Testing construct independence in the Short Dark Triad using Item Response Theory2017In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 117, p. 74-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy) is a popular construct for describing socially aversive personality traits. In recent years, the Short Dark Triad (SD3; Jones & Paulhus, 2014) has become a popular measure for assessing the Dark Triad constructs. However, recent research has called the supposed dissimilarity between the Dark Triad constructs into question. In particular, theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that a distinction between Machiavellianism and psychopathy may not be tenable. In order to investigate this issue further, we analyzed the SD3 in a large sample (N = 1983) using Item Response Theory. We establish item response parameter estimates for each Dark Triad construct and further test whether the Dark Triad constructs can be modelled together. Results show that Machiavellianism and narcissism could not be modelled together, but the combinations Machiavellianism and psychopathy, and narcissism and psychopathy, yielded acceptable model fit. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of how the Dark Triad constructs may be interpreted and studied in the future.

  • 80.
    Persson, B.N.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dark and bright values: The Dark Triad and empathy relating to universal values2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an emphasis on self-enhancing values in present-day society. Empathy is shown to be declining and callousness increasing. This two-study research set out to analyze dark personality traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and bright personality traits (emotional and cognitive empathy), and their predictive validity on universal value types. Using a sample of Swedes and Americans (N = 385), the Dark Triad (SD3) correlated significantly with all value types (Schwartz’s 10 values), forming a sinusoid pattern which aligned with the circumplex value model. Machiavellianism and narcissism were positively associated with the self-enhancing values Achievement and Power, while psychopathy was positively associated with the self-enhancing values Hedonism and Power. Using a middle-aged US sample, cognitive and emotional empathy (IRI) were positively related to the selftranscending values of Universalism and Benevolence and negatively with the self-enhancement values of Achievement and Power.

    In addition, both the dark and bright personality traits explained significant variance over the basic Big Five traits in universal values. Given the complex of values accounted for, we argue that these results account for a system of self-enhancing “dark values” and self-transcending “bright values”. This research highlights that certain universal values of individual and societal relevance can be predicted by personality traits.

  • 81.
    Prochnow, Annette
    et al.
    University of Würzburg, Germany.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Hesse, Volker
    Children’s Hospital Berlin-Lindenhof, and Charité – Institute for Experimental Paediatric Endocrinology, Germany.
    Wermke, Kathleen
    University of Würzburg, German.
    Does a 'musical' mother tongue influence cry melodies?: A comparative study of Swedish and German newborns2019In: Musicae scientiae, ISSN 1029-8649, E-ISSN 2045-4147, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 143-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The foetal environment is filled with a variety of noises. Among the manifold sounds of the maternal respiratory, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems, the intonation properties of the maternal language are well perceived by the foetus, whose hearing system is already functioning during the last trimester of gestation. These intonation (melodic) features, reflecting native-language prosody, have been found to shape vocal learning. Having had ample opportunity to become familiar with their mother's language in the womb, newborns have been found to exhibit salient pitch-based elements in their own cry melodies. An interesting issue is whether an intrauterine exposure to a maternal pitch accent language, such as Swedish, in which emphatic syllables are pronounced typically on a higher pitch relative to other syllables will affect newborns' cry melody (fundamental frequency contour). The present study aimed to answer this question by quantitatively analysing and comparing the melody structure in 52 Swedish compared with 79 German newborns. In accordance with previous approaches, cry melody structure was analysed by calculating a melody complexity index (MCI) expressing the share of cries exhibiting two or more (well-defined) arc-like substructures uttered during the recording sessions. A low MCI reflects a dominance of cries with a 'simple', i.e. single-arc melody. A significantly higher MCI was found in the Swedish infant group, which further corroborates the assumption that the well-known foetal sensitivity for musical (melodic) stimuli seems to shape infants' cry melody.

  • 82.
    Putnick, Diana L
    et al.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Child and Family Research, Bethesda .
    Bornstein, Marc H.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology, China.
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Faculty of Psychology, Rome, Italy.
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Consultorio Psicológico Popular, Medellín, Colombia .
    Zelli, Arnaldo
    University of Rome Foro Italico, Italy..
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan and Emirates College for Advanced Education.
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Naples “Federico II”, Department of Psychology, Italy.
    Bombi, Anna Silvia
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Faculty of Pschology, Italy..
    Parental acceptance–rejection and child prosocial behavior: Developmental transactions across the transition to adolescence in nine countries, mothers and fathers, and girls and boys.2018In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 54, no 10, p. 1881-1890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Promoting children’s prosocial behavior is a goal for parents, healthcare professionals, and nations. Does positive parenting promote later child prosocial behavior, or do children who are more prosocial elicit more positive parenting later, or both? Relations between parenting and prosocial behavior have to date been studied only in a narrow band of countries, mostly with mothers and not fathers, and child gender has infrequently been explored as a moderator of parenting–prosocial relations. This cross-national study uses 1,178 families (mothers, fathers, and children) from 9 countries to explore developmental transactions between parental acceptance–rejection and girls’ and boys’ prosocial behavior across 3 waves (child ages 9 to 12). Controlling for stability across waves, within-wave relations, and parental age and education, higher parental acceptance predicted increased child prosocial behavior from age 9 to 10 and from age 10 to 12. Higher age 9 child prosocial behavior also predicted increased parental acceptance from age 9 to 10. These transactional paths were invariant across 9 countries, mothers and fathers, and girls and boys. Parental acceptance increases child prosocial behaviors later, but child prosocial behaviors are not effective at increasing parental acceptance in the transition to adolescence. This study identifies widely applicable socialization processes across countries, mothers and fathers, and girls and boys. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)

  • 83.
    Reaidy, Vanessa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Jensen, Jennifer
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Rekrytering med digitala verktyg: Rekryterarens upplevelse av digitala verktygs påverkan2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization is today a controversial subject that affects us all. Both at an organizational and individual level but also both private and at work. The digitalization has also acclimated in the recruitment industry an presents itself in different kinds of ways. For example, selection is today performed with the help of AI, interviews by video tools and reference taking by web forms. This study is conducted with a qualitative method and the aim is to examine the recruiter's experience of digital tools in the recruitment process from a two perspectives: efficiency and ethically. Through conducting a thematic analysis, collected data has been reviewed and then presented with the support of three representative themes: the use of digital tools and their effect on recruitment; ethical perspectives on using digital tools in recruitment; and the room for digital tools today and in the future. The results shows that digital tools has a crucial importance for the recruiter's perceptions of their work. The tasks becomes more effective, flexible and structured with the help of digital tools but there is also a problem regarding digital management of candidates. The recruiter's experiences a risk in using digital tools in all contact with the candidates since it may result in an impersonal recruitment process and lack of crucial information. The results also showed that the recruiter's experiences a common fear regarding that digital tools will take too much space in the recruitment process in the future. Though, they are relying on the tools in their work today and shows that they are motivated and willing to develop their skills within the area.

  • 84.
    Roos, J.M
    et al.
    Veryday, Universities of Gothenburg, Borås, and Skövde, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Universities of Skövde and of Gothenburg.
    Toward a non-verbal personality scale, based on facial expressions and body language2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 85. Roos, John Magnus
    et al.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Big Five Manga: a non-verbal pathway to personality?2016In: 31st International Congress of Psychology, Yokohama, Japan, 24-29 July: Diversity in Harmony : Insights from Psychology, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 86.
    Sarzynska, Joanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Lipcsey Moberg, Helena
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Personalens upplevelse av att arbeta med ensamkommande flyktingbarn: En kvalitativ studie ur ett personalperspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka vilka upplevelser personalen har som behandlar och bemöter de ensamkommande flyktingbarnen som kommer till Sverige. Vi har använt oss av en kvalitativ metod, där vi har utgått ifrån semistrukturerade intervjuer. Vi har även tillämpat litteraturstudier för att få mer djupgående svar på vårt arbetes frågeställningar. De semistrukturerade intervjuerna har genomförts med 10 deltagare. Det samlade materialet har sedan analyserats med hjälp av en fenomenologisk metod, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Resultaten har sedan presenterats i sex teman: "Förundran över barnens kapacitet till läkning", "Att skapa mening i arbete", "Dålig samverkan mellan myndigheterna", "Stödjande miljö", "Egna behov" och "Ovisshet". De huvudteman som framkom under intervjuerna och i analysen var hur personalen upplever barnens situation och vilka förutsättningar de har för att få en bra framtid i det nya landet, Sverige. Ytterligare ett tema som framkom var hur komplex barnens situation är samt barnens förmågor att hantera denna komplexitet. Personalen lyfte fram en beundran inför barnens förmågor att klara av flyktens svåra omständigheter samt förmågan till återhämtning efter traumatiska upplevelser. Vidare betonade personalen även barnens förmåga att skapa relationer till nya människor. Studien lyfter även fram problematiken kring ovissheten. En oviss situation omkring barnen gör det svårt att tillfredsställa deras behov av trygghet, tillit och framtidstro. Det lyfts upp i intervjuerna att den långa asylprocessen samt bristande samarbete mellan olika myndigheter är ett stort hinder i återhämtningsprocessen. Deltagarna lyfte fram att det är viktigt att skapa mening i sitt arbete, ha tillgång till kunskap samt känna sig trygg i sin roll. Vår studie visade även att handledning kring arbetet med ensamkommande barn är av stor betydelse och tas väl tillvara på av personal, där kunskap och utveckling har en betydande roll.

  • 87.
    Severinsson, Louise
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Åkesson, Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Samband och könsskillnader mellan kriminalvårdares personlighetsdrag och upplevelse av säkerhetsklimat2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The prison Hall near Södertälje has safety class A. This means that prisoners constitute a high risk to the public and the employees have a great respons­ibility in maintaining security at the prison. The purpose of this study was to explore possible relationships and differences between the prison officers’ views on safety climate and their personal traits. Furthermore gender differences in personality traits and experience of safety climate were studied. The security form NOSACQ-50 and Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP) were used. A total of 30 participants were included in the analysis. Significant correlations were found between the personality traits mistrust, embitterment, somatic trait anxiety, social desirability and verbal trait aggression in relation to how the employees experienced the safety climate. Significant differences in personality traits were found between male and female only in somatic trait anxiety, where women had distinctively higher values then men. When it came to perceptions of safety climate between the sexes some differences could be seen, but these were not significant. The results suggest that men and women working in prisons are quite similar and that personality traits may to some extent affect the experience of the workplace safety climate. As the number of participants is limited, however, care should be taken when making conclusions.

  • 88.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Dejtingvåld: våld och kränkningar mellan ungdomar i parrelationer2014In: Barnbladet, ISSN 0349-1994, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 6-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 89.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Föräldraskap i olika kulturer2014In: Barnbladet, ISSN 0349-1994, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 20-23Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Sorbring, Emma
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Löfgren-Mårtenson, Lotta
    Malmö Universitet, Malmö, Sverige.
    Molin, Martin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Work and Social Pedagogy.
    Relationships and the Internet2018In: Sexuality and Learning Disabilities: A handbook / [ed] Claire Bates, Hove, UK: Pavilion Publishing and Media , 2018, 2, p. 133-142Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 91. Trygg, Linda
    et al.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    Stockholms universitet.
    Wiklund, Nils
    Örebro universitet.
    Wirsén Meurling, Ann
    Lunds universitet.
    Lindgren, May
    Lunds universitet.
    Lidberg, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Levander, Sten
    Universitetssjukhuset MAS, Malmö.
    Projektiva test inom rättspsykiatrin medför risker för rättssäkerheten: Endast metoder med god empirisk förankring bör användas2001In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 98, no 26-27, p. 3118-3123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    En rättspsykiatrisk utredning innebär ett etiskt och juridiskt ansvar mot den enskilde och samhället. Därför måste de test som används av psykologer vid rättspsykiatriska utredningar vara väl prövade. Ändå användes projektiva test med ifrågasatt tillförlitlighet när man vid rättspsykiatriska avdelningen i Stockholm (Huddingeenheten) genomförde psykologiska utredningar av en grupp män med multipla psykiatriska diagnoser. Empiriskt utprövade neuropsykologiska testbatterier (t ex Halstead-Reitan eller Luria-Nebraska) användes trots detta inte. Utifrån vetenskapliga kriterier måste nuvarande utbredda användning av projektiva test och psykodynamiska bedömningar av patienter med omfattande neuropsykologiska funktionsnedsättningar ifrågasättas. De mest frekvent använda metoderna ger utrymme för omfattande subjektivt baserade tolkningar.

  • 92.
    Tryggvason, Nina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Work and Social Pedagogy.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Samuelson, Gösta
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    Unga föräldrar: identitet, möjligheter och utmaningar2012 (ed. 1. uppl.)Book (Other academic)
  • 93.
    Zouini, Btissame
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Senhaji, Meftaha
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Self-reported aggressive and antisocial behaviors in Moroccan high school students*2019In: Psihologija, ISSN 1451-9283, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the present study were to map the level and distribution of aggressive and antisocial behaviors in a sample of Moroccan high school students and to define the level of these behaviors in adolescents who reported parental alcohol use problems and/or experienced abuse. In total, 375 high school students completed the "Mental and Somatic Health without borders (MeSHe)" survey that includes the Life History of Aggression scale. Male students had significantly higher scores for aggression and antisocial behaviors than female. The students who reported experience of abuse or parental alcohol use problems scored significantly higher for aggression, self-directed aggression, and antisocial behaviors compared to students not reporting these negative psychosocial factors. Previously shown gender-specific patterns in aggressive and antisocial behaviors, but not in self-harm behaviors were confirmed in these Moroccan high school students. Reported experience of abuse and/or parental alcohol use problems were associated with increased frequency of aggressive and antisocial behaviors.

  • 94.
    Zouini, Btissame
    et al.
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Sfendla, Anis
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Senhaji, Meftaha
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Råstam, Maria
    Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences,Lund, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Somatic health and its association with negative psychosocial factors in a sample of Moroccan adolescents2019In: SAGE Open Medicine, E-ISSN 2050-3121, Vol. 7, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adolescence is a distinct developmental phase characterized by multiple physical and psychological changes andby an increased vulnerability to somatic and mental health problems. These risk and vulnerability factors are part of a complexbiopsychosocial matrix, encompassing multiple factors, such as inherited biological determinants and psychological, societal,and cultural influences, which affect an adolescent's overall wellbeing. In Morocco, similar to other developing countries,adolescents (young people aged from 15 to 19years) constitute a substantial proportion of the population (almost 9%).However, studies about adolescents' health in developing countries are scarce. In this study, we describe adolescents' somatichealth in a sample of high school students from the city of Tetouan, Morocco, and investigate how negative psychosocialfactors, such as parental alcohol use problems and/or the experience of abuse, may influence them.Methods: The study sample included 655 adolescents (315 boys and 340 girls, M=16.64years, range=15–18years) fromconviniently selected classes of four high schools in the city of Tetouan in Morocco. The students responded to a survey thatassessed the prevalence of somatic complaints/disorders. They also indicated whether they had ever experienced physicaland/or psychological abuse and whether they had parents with alcohol use problems.Results: More than half of the adolescents suffered from headaches and one-third had substantial problems with diarrhea orconstipation. Both problems were more common in female students. The third most frequent somatic problem, affecting onein four in both genders, was allergy. Almost one-third of Moroccan adolescents (significantly more boys than girls; p=0.004)reported no somatic complaints. In adolescents who reported parental alcohol use problems and/or experience of physicaland/or psychological abuse, the prevalence of several somatic complaints (epilepsy, migraine, headache, diarrhea/constipation,gluten intolerance, allergy, and skin or thyroid disease) increased highly significantly compared to the adolescents whoreported no such psychosocial environmental factors.Conclusion: The results suggest that only 3 in 10 urban-living Moroccan adolescents are free of somatic complaints, whilethe majority suffer from some somatic problems, most often headaches and diarrhea/constipation. The association of certainnegative psychosocial factors with adolescents' somatic health suggests the need of a holistic approach to the treatment of affectedadolescents.

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