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  • 51.
    Grankvist, Gunne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Persson, Björn
    Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    The Relationship between Mind-Body Dualism and Personal Values2016In: International Journal of Psychological Studies, ISSN 1918-7211, E-ISSN 1918-722X, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 126-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dualists view the mind and the body as two fundamental different “things”, equally real and independent of each other. Cartesian thought, or substance dualism, maintains that the mind and body are two different substances, the non-physical and the physical, and a causal relationship is assumed to exist between them. Physicalism, on the other hand, is the idea that everything that exists is either physical or totally dependent of and determined by physical items. Hence, all mental states are fundamentally physical states. In the current study we investigated to what degree Swedish university students’ beliefs in mind-body dualism is explained by the importance they attach to personal values. A self-report inventory was used to measure their beliefs and values. Students who held stronger dualistic beliefs attach less importance to the power value (i.e., the effort to achieve social status, prestige, and control or dominance over people and resources). This finding shows that the strength in laypeople’s beliefs in dualism is partially explained by the importance they attach to personal values.

  • 52.
    Grankvist, Gunne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Lekedal, Hans
    Marmendal, Maarit
    Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Values and eco- and fair-trade labelled products2007In: British Food Journal, ISSN 0007-070X, E-ISSN 1758-4108, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 169-181Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Gurdal, Sevtap
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Children and Parents: Attributions, Attitudes and Agency2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Children and parents are both part of children’s development and research on children and on parenting are both areas that, in some way, have changed in recent decades. These changes are related to the new way of seeing children and that children are no longer seen as ‘becomings’ or adults in the making; rather, children are insteadregarded – and seen – as more active in their development and as social agents. With a new way of viewing children and childhood there is also a new way of explaining or understanding parenthood. The general aim of this thesisis to learn more about how parents think about their parenting and how this can be related to children’s agency. Inaddition, children’s own beliefs about their agency are studied. The aim of Study I was to investigate mothers’ and fathers’ (77 participants from each group) attributions and attitudes in Sweden. The results revealed thatSwedish parents are more polarized in their attitudes than in their attributions. Regarding attitudes, mothers and fathers reported more progressive than authoritarian attitudes. Fathers reported higher adult-controlled failure and child-controlled failure attributions than mothers. In Study II the aim was to assess whether mothers’ and fathers’self-reports of acceptance-rejection, warmth, and hostility/rejection/neglect of their children differ in the nine countries. A total of 1996 parents (998 mothers and 998 fathers) participated in the study. Mothers and fathers reported high acceptance and warmth and low rejection and hostility/rejection/neglect (HRN) of their children inall nine countries. Despite the high levels of acceptance and low levels of rejection across all countries, some systematic differences between countries emerged. In Study III Swedish mothers’ and fathers’ warmth towards their children was examined in relation to their children’s agency. It also studied the longitudinal relation between agency and children’s externalizing, internalizing, and school achievement. Swedish children’s parents (N = 93) were interviewed at three time points (when children were 8, 9, and 10 years old) about their warmth towards their children, children’s agency, children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors and school achievement. Results from this study indicate that Swedish parents’ warmth is directly related to children’s subsequent perceptions of their agency, which in turn are related to subsequently lower child externalizing and internalizing problems and higher academic achievement. Personal agency is studied in Study IV and the aim of this study was to examine how 10-year-old children perceive their agency in three different contexts, family, school and peer-situations. Interviews were conducted with 103 ten-year-old Swedish children. Vignettes concerning three different situations were presented to the children and their answers were written down for subsequent thematic analysis. The resultsshowed that children perceive their agency differently depending upon which context they find themselves in. The difference is not in how they think adults or peers would react to their agency, but in how they themselves would act if their agency was suppressed. It is mainly with other children that they would show assertiveness and try to find a solution together, while they would be more emotional and powerless with adults.In summary, parents in the studies report higher similarity about parenting in some cases, for example concerning acceptance and warmth and hostility/rejection/neglect, but lower in others, such as the Swedish parents’ reports about attributions. It is also revealed that parents’ warmth is related to children’s agency,and that children’s perceptions of their agency depend on whether they interact with adults or other children. Apossible contribution of this thesis is to generate additional knowledge about parental cognitions and the implications that parenting can have on child agency, but also the shedding of light on the ways in which, depending on the context, children’s beliefs of their agency differ.

  • 54.
    Gurdal, Sevtap
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Exempel 5: FöräldraResursen: att samverka för stöd till föräldrar2019In: Samverkansforskning: att främja barns och ungas välfärd / [ed] Lena Nilsson & Emma Sorbring (red.), Stockholm: Liber, 2019, p. 65-71Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Gurdal, Sevtap
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Psykologiska institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Parenting Across Cultures: Parental attributions, attitudes and behaviour2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previously studies in parenting have mainly been conducted in Western countries. Not uncommonly results from such studies are used to describe general, worldwide trends. In an attempt to make the field of parenting research more culturally heterogeneous, an international research project, Parenting Across Cultures, was started. The project includes nine participant countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and USA) and its purpose is to examine parenting across cultures. This thesis is based on reports from parent participants. The aim of Study I was to investigate mothers’ and fathers’ (77 participants from each group) attributions and attitudes in Sweden. The results revealed that Swedish parents are more polarized in their attitudes than in their attributions, they think more alike for parenting attitudes and there was greater variability for parenting attributions, particularly regarding uncontrollable success, as opposed to attributions regarding adult- or child-controlled failure. Regarding attitudes, mothers and fathers reported more progressive than authoritarian attitudes. Fathers reported higher adult-controlled failure and child-controlled failure attributions than mothers. In Study II the aim was to assess whether mothers’ and fathers’ self-reports of acceptance-rejection, warmth, and hostility/rejection/neglect of their children differ in the nine countries. A total of 1996 parents (998 mothers and 998 fathers) participated in the study. Mothers and fathers reported high acceptance and warmth and low rejection and hostility/rejection/neglect (HRN) of their children in all nine countries. Despite the overwhelmingly high levels of acceptance and low levels of rejection across all countries, and despite our use of statistical controls for parental age, education, social desirability, and child age, some systematic differences between countries emerged. In summary, parents in the studies report higher similarity about parenting in some cases, for example concerning acceptance and warmth and hostility/rejection/neglect, but lower in others, such as the Swedish parents’ reports about attributions.

  • 56.
    Gurdal, Sevtap
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    When it becomes a diagnosis: a study of professionals’ work after Internet Gaming Disorder, IGD, becomes a diagnosis2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today various professionals’ work involves diagnosing children and youth. This affects children and youth in different ways, among them, their performance in school. A new diagnosis can be both positive and negative. Those who support a diagnosis claim that without one, it is difficult to help people with problems or do research. But a negative aspect can be that people who receive a diagnosis can be stigmatised and suffer from lower self-esteem.

    In 2018, the World Health Organisation put out a statement clarifying that too much gaming would now be classified as Internet Gaming Disorder. 87 % of Swedish children aged 9-12 play different games on the Internet or in other settings every day. Excessive gaming has long been discussed and can be seen as a problem in itself or as a problem related to something else. There is not much research into gaming disorder and with this new diagnosis more knowledge is required.

    The purpose of this study is to interview different professional groups who work with children and youths: student health professionals (e.g. school nurses), social services (e.g. family support) and child psychiatry. The aim is to gain more knowledge about how these professionals’ work changes when a new diagnosis is classified. What do they learn and how do they collaborate? Another aim is to study which approach they take in regard to children’s agency after a new diagnosis. 

  • 57.
    Gurdal, Sevtap
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Children's agency in parent-child, teacher-pupil and peer relationship contexts2018In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 13, no sup1, article id 1565239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine children's perception of their agency in different relationship contexts. Historically, most studies conducted in Sweden concerning children's agency, in relation to their self-efficacy and perceptions of their effectiveness as agents, have been carried out in school situations or other institutional organizations. Past research has shown that children'sagency has positive links to health, school achievement and/or adjustment. Method: Interviews were conducted with 103 10-year-old Swedish children to examine three relationship contexts: parent-child, teacher-pupil, and peer relations. Vignettes about the different contexts were presented to the children and their answers were analysed with thematic analysis. Results: The results show that children think of their agency differently depending upon which relationship context they find themselves in. Most perceived agency are found insituations with peers, and children perceive they have the least agency with teachers. In situations with parents, children think they would react with more resistance than with peers and teachers. It is mainly with other children that they would show assertiveness and try to find asolution together, while they would be more emotional and perceive less power with adults. Conclusion: We conclude that children make adistinction in their perception of agency depending upon the relationship context. These findings can be relevant for helping children receive more agency in all contexts, which might have apositive impact on health and adjustment.

  • 58.
    Gurdal, Sevtap
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Education and Parenting in Sweden2019In: School Systems, Parent Behavior, and Academic Achievement: An International Perspective / [ed] Sorbring, Emma; Lansford, Jennifer E., Springer, 2019, p. 95-109Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish children's rights to school and a childhood were discussed as early as 1900 and today nearly all (99.9%) Swedish children from the age of six attend comprehensive school for ten years. Comprehensive school, both private and public, is free of charge and compulsory for everyone. In general, Sweden is described as a country where young people are perceived as individuals with agency, both in the family and in school. It is expected that students should be treated with respect and taught about their rights and how to practice them. Teachers are supposed to encourage young people's agency by, for example, letting them take responsibility and be involved in decisions about the school work and their lives. This is related to the goal of teaching young people more about how to become citizens and about democratic values in society. Although Swedish schools have a high interest in students' own agency and their mental health, politics put pressure on the schools to achieve higher academic success among students. This chapter presents the current Swedish education system and its challenges when it comes to maintaining high values concerning students' mental health and, simultaneously, striving for better academic results, focusing particularly on families belonging to the lower socioeconomic class and with a migration background.

  • 59.
    Haas, Linda
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
    Hwang, Philip
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Policy is not enough: the influence of the gendered workplace on fathers' use of parental leave in Sweden2019In: Community, Work and Family, ISSN 1366-8803, E-ISSN 1469-3615, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 58-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paid parental leave for fathers is a promising social policy tool for degendering the division of labor for childcare. Swedish fathers have had the right to paid parental leave since 1974, but they take only one-fourth of leave days parents take. There are strong cultural norms supporting involved fatherhood, so couples typically want to share leave more than they do. This article explores how workplaces can constrain Swedish fathers' use of state leave policy, in ways that fathers can take for granted, a topic that has received less attention than individual or family-related obstacles. Based on interviews with 56 employees in five large private companies, we found that masculine workplace norms can make it difficult for fathers to choose to take much leave, while aspects of traditional workplace structure building on these norms can negatively affect fathers' capabilities of taking much leave. Workplace culture and structure seemed to be based on assumptions that the ideal worker should prioritize work and has limited caregiving responsibilities, setting limits to fathers' ability to share leave with mothers. Gender theorists suggest such assumptions persist because of male dominance at the workplace and the endurance of gendered assumptions about the roles of men and women.

  • 60.
    Haas, Linda
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, Indiana University,, Indianapolis, USA.
    Hwang, Philip
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. b Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Workplace support and European fathers' use of state policies promoting shared childcare2019In: Community, Work and Family, ISSN 1366-8803, E-ISSN 1469-3615, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 1-22Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social policies such as paternity leave and parental leave offer fathers the opportunity to be more involved in childcare than earlier generations of fathers. While such policies are increasingly offered by governments around the world, research by the International Network on Leave Policies and Research shows that many European fathers do not take advantage of these benefits, despite fathers' growing interest in participation in early childcare. This article introduces a special issue devoted to understanding how the workplace can impact European fathers' interest in and abilities to take leave, a topic that has received relatively little research attention. The articles in the special issue suggest that barriers to European fathers' leavetaking are deeply embedded in workplace culture and work practices and will be difficult to eradicate without a dramatic challenge to the concept of the male ideal worker, who prioritizes work above family.

  • 61.
    Helsing, Bo
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Work and Social Pedagogy.
    Problems in close relationships and risky sexual behavior among young men2019Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Joelsson, Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    E-kommunikation på arbetsplatsen: Medarbetares upplevelser av chefens e-postkommunikation2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Quick, technological development changed communication in the workplace. The virtual context contributed by digital means of communication, where e-mail is the most popular. The benefits are great. E-mail save time and is cost effective. According to early research organizations' performance was largely due to communication and relationships between managers and employees. In regard to the limited research on employees´ experience of the manager´s e-mail communication, this study´s purpose was based on the employee's perspective, highlighting how the virtual context influences the downward communication in the workplace. The study focused on the effects and affects e-mail has on communication, relationships, confidence and work performance. The study resulted in a qualitative design, which aim was to examine the descriptive data by individual experiences and create additional understanding. The selection was based on the criterion that the participants would work in a virtual context, where they would use e-mail communication with their manager as a tool. Based on a questionnaire guide, six semi-structured interviews were conducted. A thematic analysis resulted in four themes: cognitive abilities, interaction between employees and management, which affected as described, borderlines of time, space and labor. E-mail proved to be a complex concept. It was fast, while simultaneously a time thief. It contributed to a sense of belonging and participation, but also uncertainty and misunderstanding. We need e-mail skills in our organizations to minimize negative effects and affects.

  • 63.
    Johansson, Ingemar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Winman, Thomas
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Being a Rector: A Study of Knowledge Needs and Knowledge Development in Secondary Schools2015In: Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 357-368Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Five Factor Model-Based Personality Disorders across Sex and Age-groups (N=320,128)2017In: Personality and Personality Disorders:Foundations of Pathology, Pathways to Health, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Five Factor Model (FFM) with its 30 facet traits is proposed as a universal basis for PD (Personality Disorders). For instance, based on the FFM-count method (Miller et al., 2005), the disposition for Paranoid PD can be calculated by a validated set of FFM sub-traits: N2 + E1_R + E2_R + O4_R + O6_R + A1_R + A2_R + A3_R + A4_R + A6_R. Using a comprehensive open-source representation of FFM (IPIP-NEO-120; Johnson, 2014), we explored age and sex differences in the 10 DSM-IV PD categories with the presumably largest US sample to date (N = 320,128). The results showed differences of up to ½ SD in all PD categories across age-groups, as well as clear gaps between sexes. For example, the largest decline with age, as well as differences in sex, was seen in Antisocial PD. Also, interaction effects between age and sex could be seen in Schizoid and Schizotypal PDs. The present study presents tentative support for personality trait theory as a basis for psychopathology, and updated benchmarks on the scope and size of sex and age differences in PD dispositions in the community.

  • 65.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Honesty-Humility in contemporary students: manipulations of self-image by inflated IQ estimations2014In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 311-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The HEXACO model offers a complement to the Big-Five model, including a sixth factor, Honesty-Humility, and its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty). The four facets of Honesty-Humility and three indicators of intelligence (one performance-based cognitive ability test, one self-estimated academic potential, and one self-report of previous IQ test results) were assessed in students entering higher education (N = 187). A significant negative correlation was observed between Honesty-Humility and self-reported intelligence (r  = –.37), most evident in the Modesty facet. These results may be interpreted as tendencies of exaggeration, using a theoretical frame of psychological image-management, concluding that the Honesty-Humility trait captures students’ self-ambitions, particularly within the context of an individualistic, competitive culture such as Sweden.

  • 66.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. School of Health and Education and Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Honesty-Humility predicting self-estimated academic performance2016In: International Journal of Personality Psychology, E-ISSN 2451-9243, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has established relationships between the Big Five personality factors, cognitive ability, and aca-demic performance. A more recent personality trait, Honesty-Humility with its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty) is suggested to have predictive value especially in self-promoting behaviors. The aim of the present study was to find out whether lower Honesty-Humility would predict higher self-reported academic performance, and account for additional variance, after controlling for the Big Five and cognitive ability. The partic-ipants were Swedish 17-19 year-old students (N = 154) in late secondary high school. The results revealed a signifi-cant negative correlation between Honesty-Humility and self-estimated academic performance, mainly through low scores in the facets Sincerity and Modesty, as well as an additional 7% accounted for variance. The discussion con-cludes that the new trait Honesty-Humility may be a welcomed addition to the understanding of how students use self-promoting strategies in contemporary school

  • 67.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology, Sweden.
    Low Honesty-Humility gives high self-reported IQ2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The HEXACO model offers a complement to the Big-Five model, including a sixth factor, Honesty-Humility, and its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty). The four facets of Honesty-Humility and three indicators of intelligence (one performance-based cognitive ability test, one self-estimated academic potential, and one self-report of previous IQ test results) were assessed in students entering higher education (N = 187). A significant negative correlation was observed between Honesty-Humility and self-reported intelligence (r = –.37), most evident in the Modesty facet. These results may be interpreted as tendencies of exaggeration, using a theoretical frame of psychological image-management, concluding that the Honesty-Humility trait captures students’ self-ambitions, particularly within the context of an individualistic, competitive culture such as Sweden.

  • 68.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    The Big Five Factors in Perceived Elderly Care Quality: An Evaluation Model in the Behavioral Sciences for User-Oriented Professions2016In: ViLär 2016, konferens 8-9 december, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Perceived care quality (i.e., how care is enacted by a care worker toward a client at the interpersonal level) is a strong predictor of satisfaction in a wide range of health care services. The present research aimed at compiling a model containing the basic elements of care quality from a behavioral science perspective. Specifically, such a model could help reveal how and why quality in user-oriented care professions vary.

    Design –We interviewed, observed, and took notes about care workers’ interactions with the older persons in both home care and nursing homes during two weeks.

    Findings – A model for categorising perceived quality variation, the Big Five of user-oriented care (Task-focus, Person-focus, Affect, Cooperation, and Time-use; T-PACT) was discerned with help of thematic analysis.

    Value – The proposed model may be useful for describing general user-oriented quality and its variations (see Table 1). These Big Five categories (TPACT) can be of relevance for future quality developments of user-oriented professions, as well as be implemented in educational programs.

  • 69.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    The Learning Organization (and the Not-Learning Organization) within the Context of Elderly Care2016In: ViLär 2016, konferens 8-9 december, Vänersborg, Sweden / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2016, p. 1-1Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Previous research has shown that user-oriented care quality predicts satisfaction with elderly care. What is yet to be researched is how management facilitates the user-oriented care process in the organization. The present study set out to investigate the learning principles and management climate characterizing successful elderly care.

    Design – The department in one highly ranked municipality was compared with a more average municipality. On-site, semi-structured in-depth interviews with department managers and participatory observations at managers’ meetings were conducted in both municipalities.

    Findings – The results revealed three important learning principles for a successful care organization: 1) organizing from the viewpoint of the needs and wants of the older person, 2) recruiting and training autonomous employees, 3) instilling a vision for the mission that guide operations in all situations.

    Using climate theory to interpret the material, the highly successful management was characterized by affective support and cognitive autonomy, in contrast to a more instrumental work climate primarily focusing on structure and doing things right, in the more average municipality.

    Discussion – We propose that management climate is intertwined with learning principles (see Table 1). These results can facilitate quality developments and increase understanding of the learning organization. 

  • 70.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    The Quality Agents Model: A Generalized Model for How to Evaluate Service Organizations2016In: ViLär 2016, konferens 8-9 december 2016, Vänersborg / [ed] Kristina Johansson, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Service-oriented quality (i.e., how a service is enacted by a worker toward a customer) is a strong predictor of satisfaction in a wide range of customer services. The present research aimed at describing the organization and impact of various levels of the service organization on customer satisfaction.

    Design –In an attempt to gain a deeper understanding of how and why perceived quality in terms of service-orientation varies, we conducted interviews with care workers and care unit managers in the context of elderly care.

    Results – A new model for understanding the impact of various levels of the organization on customer satisfaction, the Quality Agents Model, is proposed. Perceived reasons for quality variation suggest that service evaluations may be explained from at multiple levels (e.g., older person, care worker-, unit-, department-, and municipality-level; see Figure 1). The Quality Agents Model suggests that the closer the agent is to the center (i.e., the customer), the larger the impact on satisfaction evaluations.

    Discussion – The proposed model may be useful for describing customer-related service quality. The strength of the model is that it acknowledges the many contextual inputs involved in forming an opinion about service quality, and thus might be a useful tool for most service-organizations.

    Empirical testing – We subsequently were able to test the model empirically with 95,000 respondents from national care service surveys, statistically showing that the level (agent) closest to the customer has the most influence on service-satisfaction (50%), while the surrounding organization only 5% (See Figure 1).

  • 71.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. University of Skövde, Sweden .
    The Short Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and its Conjoined structure with the Common Five-Factor Model2017In: International Journal of Testing, ISSN 1530-5058, E-ISSN 1532-7574, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 372-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research is currently testing how the new maladaptive personality inventory for DSM (PID-5) and the well-established common Five-Factor Model (FFM) together can serve as an empirical and theoretical foundation for clinical psychology. The present study investigated the official short version of the PID-5 together with a common short version of FFM, reflecting the time-constraints often imposed in all types of assessment. The objective was to model the dependency of maladaptive traits on common traits, hypothesized to show a mutual structure of latent higher order factors. A Swedish adult community sample was surveyed. The results showed that all five maladaptive traits shared a conjoint higher order organization with all the five common traits through the higher order factors of positive and negative emotion, and internalizing and externalizing. In conclusion, the study results support the nascent theory and practice in section III in DSM-5 basing psychopathology on personality traits. 2017 Copyright © International Test Commission

  • 72.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. University of Gothenburg,Department of Psychology, Sweden;University of Skövde, Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Sweden .
    Björkman, Therese
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Individuals with dark traits have the ability but not the disposition to empathize2020In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 155, article id 109716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empathy is fundamental to social cognition and societal values. Empathy is theorized as having both the ability as well as the disposition to imagine the content of other people’s minds. We tested whether the notorious low empathy in dark personalities (Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism; the Dark Triad) is best characterized by a lack of capacity (ability) or lack of disposition (trait). Data was collected for 278 international participants through an anonymous online survey shared on the online platform LinkedIn, consisting of trait-based Dark Triad personality (SD3) and empathy (IRI), and cognitive ability (ICAR16) and ability-based empathy (MET). Dark personality traits had no relationship with ability-based empathy, but strongly so with trait-based empathy (β = -0.47). Instead, cognitive ability explained ability-based empathy (β = 0.31). The finding is that dark personalities in a community sample is normally cognizant to empathize but has a low disposition to do so. This finding may help shed further light on how personality is interlinked with ability.

  • 73.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Dåderman, Anna
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Conceptualizing the Structure of FFM Personality Disorders with Empathy2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The new section III in DSM-5 suggests pathological personality traits and impairments in personality functioning such as empathy to be used for identifying personality disorders (PDs). Previous research has also theoretically and empirically advocated that psychopathology is related to the general Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits. The objective of the present study was to investigate the hierarchical structure of the 10 DSM PD categories using the FFM count technique (Miller et al., 2008), and to conceptualize PDs with empathy dimensions. We measured PDs and 4 dimensions of empathy (emphatic concern, perspective-taking, fantasy, and distress) in a medium-sized community sample. The results showed that higher order factors such as externalizing and internalizing could be applied to PDs based on FFM scores. PD could furthermore be conceptualized using two of the empathy dimensions, low emphatic concern and high distress, and specific PD categories could be conceptualized by using distinct dimensions of empathy (e.g., histrionic PD with high fantasy, or dependent PD with high distress). The discussion concludes that PDs based on self-reported FFM show conceptual validity, and that the presence of symptoms of PDs potentially may be screened in the community population by using empathy measures.   

  • 74.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Conceptualizations of Personality Disorders with the Five Factor Model-count and Empathy Traits2017In: International Journal of Testing, ISSN 1530-5058, E-ISSN 1532-7574, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 141-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has long advocated that emotional and behavioral disorders are related to general personality traits, such as the Five Factor Model (FFM). The addition of section III in the latest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) recommends that extremity in personality traits together with maladaptive interpersonal functioning, such as lack of empathy, are used for identifying psychopathology and particularly personality disorders (PD). The objective of the present study was to measure dispositions for DSM categories based on normal personality continuums, and to conceptualize these with empathy traits. We used a validated FFM-count method based on the five personality factors (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), and related these to 4 empathy traits (emphatic concern, perspective-taking, fantasy, and personal distress). The results showed that FFM-based PD scores overall could be conceptualized using only two of the empathy traits, low emphatic concern and high personal distress. Further, specific dispositions for personality disorders were characterized with distinct empathy traits (e.g., histrionic with high fantasy, and paranoid with low perspective-taking). These findings may have both theoretical and practical implications in capturing potential for personality disorders with ease and efficiency. © 2017, Copyright © International Test Commission.

  • 75.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Exploring the Relationship Between Honesty-Humility, the Big Five, and Liberal Values in Swedish Students2014In: Europe's Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1841-0413, E-ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 104-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on the Five-Factor model (Big Five) reports a relationship between personality traits and liberal values, and the trait  Agreeableness has demonstrated the strongest relationship. The HEXACO model offers a complement to the Five-factor model with an additional sixth trait of Honesty-Humility. Previous research on the Honesty-Humility trait has reported mixed results with liberal values, and this study set out to resolve this. The work presented here explored the relationship between the Honesty-Humility trait on facet-level (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty) and liberal values (equality for women, minorities, and socio-economical groups). Data from Swedish students (N = 202), known for their individualistic and liberal mindset, were sampled. There was an overall positive correlation between Honesty-Humility and the strength of liberal values (r = .36), and Honesty-Humility predicted liberal values beyond Agreeableness. We discuss these results in terms of the significance of traits and values in a culture that promotes both individualism and equality.

  • 76.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Grankvist, Gunne
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    The Impact of Personality Traits, Values, and Abilities on the View of Uniqueness of Consciousness2015In: Towards a Science of Consciousness: Book of Abstracts, Helsingfors, 2015, p. 315-no. 284Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personality traits, including the well-known Big Five traits, the subclinical Dark Triad traits, as well as cognitive (IQ) and emotional abilities (EQ), are known to predict a number of attitudes, such as views of politics, importance of other people, or interest in self. This present study set out to research the impact of personality traits on the view of consciousness, the main question being whether consciousness sets mankind apart from the animal kingdom. A Swedish sample was tested on six different personality-related tests measuring traits, values, and abilities. The results showed that high scorers in emotional intelligence, openness and extraversion had a view of consciousness being unique for human beings only. Furthermore, people high on self-enhancing values and the tendency to manipulate others (Machiavellianism) also held a view of consciousness being unique for human beings, and which sets us apart from animals. Only self-transcending values, such as universalism, showed a negative association with the uniqueness of consciousness. The discussion extends to how the view on consciousness affects other outlooks on life, such as the view on one’s personal future or mankind’s environmental predicament. Motivational agendas stemming from personality traits, in terms of stable, genetical influences, might explain views on ontological questions to a greater degree than previously thought.

  • 77.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology, Gothenburg, Sweden; University of Skövde, Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Johnson, John A.
    Pennsylvania State University, State College, Department of Psychology, United States.
    Assessing the structure of the five factor model of personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the public domain2019In: Europe's Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1841-0413, E-ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 260-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of individual differences in personality traits is arguably one of the hallmarks of psychological research. Testing the structural validity of trait measurements is paramount in this endeavor. In the current study, we investigated 30 facet traits in one of the accessible and comprehensive public-domain Five Factor Model (FFM) personality inventories, IPIP-NEO-120 (Johnson, 2014), using one of the largest US samples to date (N = 320,128). We present structural loadings for all trait facets organized into respective FFM-trait domain (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Both hierarchical second-order and bi-factor models showed tolerable model fit indices, using confirmatory factor analysis in a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework. Some facet traits were substantially more representative than others for their respective trait domain, which facilitate further discussions on FFM-construct content. We conclude that IPIP-NEO is sufficiently structurally robust for future use, for the benefit of research and practice in personality assessment. © 2019, PsychOpen. All rights reserved.

  • 78.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Kazemi, Ali
    School of Health and Education, University of Skövde.
    Cost and Satisfaction Trends in Swedish Elderly Home Care2016In: Home Health Care Management & Practice, ISSN 1084-8223, E-ISSN 1552-6739, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 250-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a widespread belief among the public and policy makers that quality of care in terms of user satisfaction can beimproved with increased spending. However, recent research indicates that structural resources (e.g., budget per elderly)in elderly home care do not predict quality of care in terms of older persons’ satisfaction with care. In the present study,we analyzed the longitudinal trends in costs and perceived quality of care across 3 years using nationwide data in Swedishelderly home care. The results showed that although costs have been steadily increasing, perceived quality of interpersonaltreatment in care has remained at the same level. An important implication is that future research and policy efforts toimprove quality should more directly target the mechanisms generating satisfaction.

  • 79.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology, Gothenburg, Sweden. Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Mac Giolla, Erik
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Personality traits across countries: Support for similarities rather than differences2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, article id e0179646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current climate of migration and globalization, personality characteristics of individuals from different countries have received a growing interest. Previous research has established reliable differences in personality traits across countries. The present study extends this research by examining 30 personality traits in 22 countries, based on an online survey in English with large national samples (NTotal = 130,602). The instrument used was a comprehensive, open-source measure of the Five Factor Model (FFM) (IPIP-NEO-120). We postulated that differences in personality traits between countries would be small, labeling this a Similarities Hypothesis. We found support for this in three stages. First, similarities across countries were observed for model fits for each of the five personality trait structures. Second, within-country sex differences for the five personality traits showed similar patterns across countries. Finally, the overall the contribution to personality traits from countries was less than 2%. In other words, the relationship between a country and an individual's personality traits, however interesting, are small. We conclude that the most parsimonious explanation for the current and past findings is a cross-country personality Similarities Hypothesis.

  • 80.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University of Gothenburg; University of Skövde.
    Magnus, Roos
    University of Gothenburg; University of Skövde, Sweden.
    The Personality Map of Sweden2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that personality traits are unevenly distributed geographically, with some traits being more prevalent in certainplaces than in others. The majority of research in this field has focused on cross-national comparisons, while less attention has beengiven to variations in personality traits within countries (Rentfrow, Jokela & Lamb, 2015). More recently, regional personalitydifferences have been mapped in both United States and Great Britain (Rentfrow, Gosling, Jokela, Stillwell, Kosinki & Potter,2013; Rentfrow, Kokela & Lamb, 2015). The aim of the present study is to map regional personality differences in Sweden. Usinga representative sample of Swedish residents (N = 6154), we mapped the geographical distribution of the Big Five Personality traitsacross eight national areas (e.g. Stockholm, East Middle Sweden, South Småland and the Islands, South Sweden, West Sweden,North Middle Sweden, Middle Norrland and Upper Norrland). The result revealed statistically significant associations on nationalareas and the degree of agreeableness [F (7, 6154) = 4.63, p < .01, partial ƞ² =.005]. Employing the Bonferroni post-hoc test,significant differences (p < .01) were found between South Sweden (M = 2.74) and the Upper Norrland (M = 2.93), and betweenSouth Sweden and North Middle Sweden (M = 2.88). Descriptive statistics illustrate a stepwise change toward higher degree ofagreeableness, from the South of Sweden to the North of Sweden (Figure 1). The result revealed statistically significant associationson national areas and the degree of conscientiousness (F (7, 6164) = 2,51, p < .05, partial ƞ² =.003). Employing the Bonferronipost-hoc test, significant (p < .05) differences were found only between Stockholm (M = 2.94) and the Upper Norrland (M = 3.06).Insights about regional personality differences within a nation are useful, because such differences are associated with political,economic, social and health outcomes and thereby linked to a regions history, culture and ability to change.

  • 81.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Persson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Dark Values: the Dark Triad hiding in Schwartz’ value orientation2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dark Triad offers measurement and predictive validity of egotistic and anti-social dispositions, including the factors Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism. Based on the well established link between personality traits and values, this study proposes that the Dark Triad can be used to understand individuals’ propensity towards including or excluding other people in their social relationships. A group of 80 human resource management students whose future comptence among other things will be to cooperate with others were measured on the Dark Triad, Schwartz’ ten Value Orientations, and two versions of the Big Five personality traits (FIPI, BFI44). The results showed consistent negative correlations between the Dark Triad and the value dimensions of concern for generalized others, as well as positive correlations between the Dark Triad and the value dimensions of concern for self. The study also concluded that the Dark Triad works as a moderator of the relationship between personality traits (Big Five) and values (Schwartz’), and substantially adds additional explained variance especially on values of exclusion. The etiology of social in-group and out-group processes in everyday life is suggested to be individuals’ dispositions for dark values, a path towards deviant and negative behaviors. 

  • 82.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Persson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Jonason, Peter K.
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Achievement, Power, and Hedonism: Universal Values that Characterize the Dark Triad2015In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 77, p. 173-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a sample of Swedes and Americans (N = 385), we attempted to understand the Dark Triad traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) in terms of the universal social values. The Dark Triad traits correlated significantly with all 10 value types, forming a sinusoid pattern corresponding to the value model circumplex. In regression analyses, Machiavellianism and narcissism were positively associated with the values Achievement and Power, while psychopathy was positively associated with the values Hedonism, and Power. In addition, the Dark Triad traits explained significant variance over the Big Five traits in accounting for individual differences in social values. Differences between the Swedish and the US sample in the social value Achievement was mediated by the Dark Triad traits, as well as age. Given the unique complex of values accounted for by the Dark Triad traits compared to the Big Five traits, we argue that the former account for a system of self-enhancing “dark values”, often hidden but constantly contributing in evaluations of others.

  • 83.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Department of Social Psychology, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Persson, Björn N.
    Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden; Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosenberg, Patricia
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden; Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The (mis)measurement of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen: exploitation at the core of the scale2016In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background.

    The dark side of human character has been conceptualized in the Dark Triad Model: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. These three dark traits are often measured using single long instruments for each one of the traits. Nevertheless, there is a necessity of short and valid personality measures in psychological research. As an independent research group, we replicated the factor structure, convergent validity and item response for one of the most recent and widely used short measures to operationalize these malevolent traits, namely, Jonason’s Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. We aimed to expand the understanding of what the Dirty Dozen really captures because the mixed results on construct validity in previous research.

    Method. We used the largest sample to date to respond to the Dirty Dozen (N = 3,698). We firstly investigated the factor structure using Confirmatory Factor Analysis and an exploratory distribution analysis of the items in the Dirty Dozen. Secondly, using a sub-sample (n = 500) and correlation analyses, we investigated the Dirty Dozen dark traits convergent validity to Machiavellianism measured by the MachIV, psychopathy measured by Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire Revised, narcissism using the Narcissism Personality Inventory, and both neuroticism and extraversion from the Eysenck’s questionnaire. Finally, besides these Classic Test Theory analyses, we analyzed the responses for each Dirty Dozen item using Item Response Theory (IRT).

    Results. The results confirmed previous findings of a bi-factor model fit: one latent core dark trait and three dark traits. All three Dirty Dozen traits had a striking bi-modal distribution, which might indicate unconcealed social undesirability with the items. The three Dirty Dozen traits did converge too, although not strongly, with the contiguous single Dark Triad scales (r between .41 and .49). The probabilities of filling out steps on the Dirty Dozen narcissism-items were much higher than on the Dirty Dozen items for Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Overall, the Dirty Dozen instrument delivered the most predictive value with persons with average and high Dark Triad traits (theta > −0.5). Moreover, the Dirty Dozen scale was better conceptualized as a combined Machiavellianism-psychopathy factor, not narcissism, and is well captured with item 4: ‘I tend to exploit others towards my own end.

    Conclusion. The Dirty Dozen showed a consistent factor structure, a relatively convergent validity similar to that found in earlier studies. Narcissism measured using the Dirty Dozen, however, did not contribute with information to the core of the Dirty Dozen construct. More importantly, the results imply that the core of the Dirty Dozen scale, a manipulative and anti-social trait, can be measured by a Single Item Dirty Dark Dyad (SIDDD).

  • 84.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Mutual actions: developmental links between aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent risk behaviors2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescence is a critical time for the onset or intensification of engagement in risk behaviors, such as delinquency and alcohol use. Parents are often advised to supervise adolescents or set rules for behavior control in order to protect their adolescents from harm. But are such parenting strategies advantageous in preventing adolescents from engaging in risk behaviors? Little is known about what role adolescents play in the parent- adolescent relationship and their own psychosocial development? The overall aim of the dissertation was to investigate how parent- and adolescent-driven communication efforts occurring in the parent-adolescent relationship relate to risk behaviors in early to mid- adolescence.Findings show that adolescent-driven communication efforts (i.e. disclosure about their everyday activities) play a prominent role in the parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent engagement in risk behaviors. Adolescent disclosure is linked to parental knowledge of an adolescent's whereabouts, parent-adolescent emotional connectedness, and decreases in adolescent risk behaviors over time. While parental behavioral control of adolescent whereabouts can indeed be protective of adolescent engagement in risk behaviors, parents' soliciting efforts are related to higher levels of engagement in delinquency and substance use. This is particularly true for boys and adolescents with detached and fearless temperament. However, when adolescents are willing to communicate, parents can elicit more disclosure from their adolescents through soliciting efforts.This dissertation suggests that parents and adolescents both play important roles in parenting and parent-adolescent relationships. Parents can protect their adolescents from engagement in risk behaviors, especially when adolescents share information with their parents.

  • 85.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Göteborgs universitet.
    Skoog, Therese
    Gothenburg University, Department of Psychology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Gothenburg University, Department of Psychology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Structural relations between sources of parental knowledge, feelings of being overly controlled and risk behaviors in early adolescence2017In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we have investigated parental knowledge and its sources, namely adolescent disclosure, parental control, and parental solicitation; and how they relate to adolescents' feelings of being overly controlled, and to three types of adolescent risk behaviors, namely bullying, substance use, and delinquent behavior. This was studied in a sample of 1520 Swedish early adolescent boys and girls (M age = 13.0). A structural equation path model showed that adolescent disclosure and parental control were positively associated with parental knowledge, which in turn related to all three risk behaviors. Adolescent disclosure was related to lower levels of risk behaviors, while parental solicitation was linked to higher levels of adolescent engagement in risk behaviors, especially for boys, through feelings of being overly controlled. The findings support the idea of a functional role of open communication, as well as adequate levels of autonomy granting, for managing boys' and girls' risk behavior.

  • 86.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Boson, K.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Differences in parents' and adolescents' reports on parental knowledge and longitudinal associations to adolescents' psychological problems2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthy parent-adolescent relationships are central for positive adolescent development. However, parents and their adolescentchildren often perceive the aspects of their relationship differently. This could stem from underlying problems in parentadolescent relationship, which in turn is related to poor adolescent behavior or health. In this study, we investigate in what waydisagreement between parents' and adolescent reports on adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation, control and knowledgeare longitudinally related with psychological problems (internalizing and externalizing) and well-being in adolescence.Data from matching parent and child dyads (n=477), from the research program LoRDIA were included. The adolescents' meanage was 13.0 years (SD = 0.56) at T1 and 14.30 years (SD = 0.61) at T2, evenly distributed between boys (51.6%) and girls (48.4%)at baseline. Discrepancy score was calculated by subtracting child's score from the parent's score, meaning that higher scoreindicated that a parent responded with a higher number than the child.Structural analyses showed that higher levels of adolescent disclosure discrepancy were related to higher levels of adolescentinternalizing problems and lower levels of adolescent well-being over time. Higher levels of parental solicitation discrepancywere related to higher levels of adolescent externalizing problems over time and lower levels of well-being. Parental controldiscrepancy was related to lower levels of externalizing and internalizing problems at T1. Parental knowledge discrepancy wasrelated to higher levels of adolescent well-being over time and to higher levels of adolescent externalizing problems at T1.Discrepancies in parents' and adolescents' reports of aspects in their relationship matter in terms of healthy adolescentdevelopment. Adolescent healthy development is harmed when parents overestimate the level of knowledge of adolescentwhereabouts and parent-adolescent communication. However, when parents rate their behavioral control higher than theiradolescents, the adolescents tend to show less psychological problems.

  • 87.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Jönköping University, Sweden .
    Skoog, Therese
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gerdner, A.
    Jönköping University, Sweden .
    Does one size fit all?: Linking parenting wirh adolescent substgance use and adolescent temperament2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Parenting strategies, such as solicitation and behavioral control, as well as adolescent voluntary disclosure of their everyday activities can be protective of adolescent substance use involvement. But is that true for all adolescents? In this study, we explore whether adolescent temperament moderates the longitudinal associations between adolescent disclosure, parental knowledge, parental solicitation, parental control and adolescent substance use. We used longitudinal data from (N = 1373) early-adolescent Swedish youth of 13.02 years of age at the baseline (51.6 % girls). We performed cluster analysis to identify temperament configurations (of novelty seeking, harm avoidance and reward dependence) and conducted cross-lagged panel design to test the reciprocal associations between the constructs. Multi-group analyses were used to test moderation by temperament. Main results showed five distinct temperament clusters: detached and fearless, unstable, avoidant, sociable thrill-seekers, social and content. The bidirectional, negative associations between adolescent disclosure and substance use, and the positive longitudinal link between parental solicitation and adolescent substance use were moderated by temperament cluster. The link between T1 adolescent disclosure and T2 substance use was significant for adolescents in the detached and fearless and the unstable cluster, whereas the negative link between T1 adolescent substance use and T2 adolescent disclosure and the positive link between T1 parental solicitation and T2 substance use were significant for adolescents in the detached and fearless cluster. Individuals and their contexts, in this case adolescents and their parents, are dynamically interactive in the process of an individual's development. We suggest that parental soliciting efforts may be disadvantageous, while open communication between parents and adolescent is beneficial for adolescent psychosocial development, especially for adolescents who rate high in thrill-seeking, fearlessness, and low in sociability, thus detached and fearless adolescents.

  • 88.
    Kerekes, Nora
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Apelqvist, Susanne
    Swedish Prison and Probation Services, R&E, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Fielding, Cecilia
    Swedish Prison and Probation Services, R&E, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The Prison Adjusted Measure of Aggression (PAMA): Psychometric Characteristics of a New Tool Measuring Change in Aggressive Behaviors in Correctional Settings2018In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 263, p. 130-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for instruments that can be used in correctional settings to measure changes in aggressive behaviors over a limited time period. This study aimed to validate an instrument (the Prison Adjusted Measure of Aggression, PAMA) that assesses specifically the past month’s aggressive behaviors and is adapted for use in correctional facilities. The psychometric properties of the self-rated and interview versions of the PAMA were explored and compared to those of two well-established measures of aggression: The Staff Observation Aggression Scale (SOAS); and the self-rate Aggression Questionnaire-Revised Swedish Version (AQ-RSV). The study group comprised 93 male and 59 female inmates, who were followed for two months. During the study, the prevalence of aggressive acts was observed and reported by SOAS. On two occasions, at monthly intervals, subjects reported their own aggressive behaviors using AQ-RSV and the self-report version of the PAMA; also, a psychologist conducted interviews according to PAMA. This study’s main finding was that the self-rated version of PAMA is a valid measure of different types and dimensions of aggression (physical and verbal aggression, hostility) and has acceptable psychometric properties. Therefore, PAMA could potentially be of value for use in correctional services evaluating aggression managing treatment interventions.

  • 89.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Konkret om mental styrketräning: [Bokrecension av boken Tänk låsningar och lösningar av Kjell Enhager]2016In: Kvalitetsmagasinet, ISSN 1104-1579, no 5, p. 58-58Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    et al.
    Duke University.
    Bornstein, Marc H.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and HumanDevelopment.
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    University of Massachusetts Amherst.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University and Emirates College for Advanced Education.
    Bacchini, Dario
    Second University of Naples.
    Bombi, Anna Silvia
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Faculty of Pschology, Italy..
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau.
    Chen, Bin-Bin
    Fudan University.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Duke University.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza.
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University and King Abdulaziz University; Sombat Tapanya, Chiang Mai University.
    Alampay, Liane P.
    Ateneo de Manila University.
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana M.
    Universidad San Buenaventura.
    Zelli, Arnaldo
    University of Rome Foro Italico, Italy..
    How International Research on Parenting Advances Understanding of Child Development2016In: Child Development Perspectives, ISSN 1750-8592, E-ISSN 1750-8606, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 202-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    nternational research on parenting and child development can advance our understanding of similarities and differences in how parenting is related to children's development across countries. Challenges to conducting international research include operationalizing culture, disentangling effects within and between countries, and balancing emic and etic perspectives. Benefits of international research include testing whether findings regarding parenting and child development replicate across diverse samples, incorporating cultural and contextual diversity to foster more inclusive and representative research samples and investigators than has typically occurred, and understanding how children develop in proximal parenting and family and distal international contexts.

  • 91.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    et al.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Godwin, Jennifer
    Duke University, Durhamn, USA.
    Bornstein, Marc H.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology, China.
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Faculty of Psychology, Rome, Italy.
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Consultorio Psicológico Popular, Medellín, Colombia .
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan.
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Naples “Federico II”, Department of Psychology, Italy.
    Parenting, culture, and the development of externalizing behaviors from age 7 to 14 in nine countries2018In: Development and psychopathology (Print), ISSN 0954-5794, E-ISSN 1469-2198, Vol. 30, no SI, p. 1937-1958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using multilevel models, we examined mother-, father-, and child-reported (N = 1,336 families) externalizing behavior problem trajectories from age 7 to 14 in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). The intercept and slope of children's externalizing behavior trajectories varied both across individuals within culture and across cultures, and the variance was larger at the individual level than at the culture level. Mothers' and children's endorsement of aggression as well as mothers' authoritarian attitudes predicted higher age 8 intercepts of child externalizing behaviors. Furthermore, prediction from individual-level endorsement of aggression and authoritarian attitudes to more child externalizing behaviors was augmented by prediction from cultural-level endorsement of aggression and authoritarian attitudes, respectively. Cultures in which father-reported endorsement of aggression was higher and both mother- and father-reported authoritarian attitudes were higher also reported more child externalizing behavior problems at age 8. Among fathers, greater attributions regarding uncontrollable success in caregiving situations were associated with steeper declines in externalizing over time. Understanding cultural-level as well as individual-level correlates of children's externalizing behavior offers potential insights into prevention and intervention efforts that can be more effectively targeted at individual children and parents as well as targeted at changing cultural norms that increase the risk of children's and adolescents' externalizing behavior.

  • 92.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    et al.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Education and Parenting: Conclusions and Implications2019In: School Systems, Parent Behavior, and Academic Achievement: An International Perspective / [ed] Sorbring, Emma; Lansford, Jennifer E., Springer, 2019, p. 139-151Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter begins by providing an overview of key points raised in the preceding chapters regarding education and parenting in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. We then highlight similarities and differences in education and parenting across the nine countries. For example, many countries have increased access to education in the last decades, but questions of quality remain; socioeconomic and geographic disparities in access and quality characterize many countries. Examples are provided of ways that education systems in different countries have attempted to build bridges between home and school contexts, such as through "mother tongue" education and interventions to increase parent involvement. Countries differ in the extent to which curricula are nationally standardized versus variable within the country and the extent to which learning is primarily teacher- versus student-directed. The countries included in this volume range from those performing among the best to those performing among the worst on international tests of student achievement. Many of the countries have high-stakes testing and entrance exams at different levels of education, which has implications for how parents attempt to help their children succeed in school. Parental education-related involvement, expectations, goal-orientation, and supportiveness are all importantly related to students' academic achievement. The chapter discusses implications for policy and practice, particularly in relation to the Sustainable Development Goals that are guiding the international development agenda through 2030. Understanding how different countries' education systems operate, steps countries have taken to improve access to and quality of education, and how parenting can promote students' academic achievement in the context of different education systems offers the potential for countries to learn from one another to offer quality education to all.

  • 93.
    Mac Giolla, Erik
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. University of Skövde, Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Skövde, Sweden.
    Sex differences in personality are larger in gender equal countries: Replicating and extending a surprising finding.2019In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 705-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex differences in personality have been shown to be larger in more gender equal countries. We advance this research by using an extensive personality measure, the IPIP-NEO-120, with large country samples (N > 1000), from 22 countries. Furthermore, to capture the multidimensionality of personality we measure sex differences with a multivariate effect size (Mahalanobis distance D). Results indicate that past research, using univariate measures of effect size, have underestimated the size of between-country sex differences in personality. Confirming past research, there was a strong correlation (r = .69) between a country's sex differences in personality and their Gender Equality Index. Additional analyses showed that women typically score higher than men on all five trait factors (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness), and that these relative differences are larger in more gender equal countries. We speculate that as gender equality increases both men and women gravitate towards their traditional gender roles.

  • 94.
    Molin, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Löfgren-Mårtenson, Lotta
    Centre for Sexology and Sexuality Studies, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    New emancipatory (em@ncipatory) landscapes?: Young people with intellectual disabilities, Internet use and identification processes2016In: Transitions Across the Life Course of People with Disabilities: Experiences, Opportunities and Strategies, Off- and Online Workshop information and contributions by the delegates (with abstracts, pamphlets and papers), 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 95.
    Molin, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Work and Social Pedagogy.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Mårtenson-Löfgren, Lotta
    Particip@tion on Internet?: Young people with intellectual disabilities and identification processes on Internet2018In: 23rd annual CyberPsychology, CyberTherapy & Social Networking Conference (CYPSY23),June 26 to 28, 2018, Hotel Hilton LacLeamy in Gatineau, Canada.: Complete program, 2018, p. 42-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although research on young people's identification processes on the Internet is a growing field, there are few studies that illustrate conditions for young people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Previous studies have shown that young people with ID are worried about being marginalized, and that many in fact are lonelier than other young people. Internet and social networking sites might be of vital importance as a space for exploring alternative and less stigmatized identities. Scandinavian research has shown that a new generation of young people with ID is emerging who have developed somewhat new ways of relating to issues of participation and identity. Mainly these strategies concern the possibilities of expressing alternative self-presentations, which are not necessarily connected to a specific functional impairment or a certain welfare institutional belonging (e.g., special need student or care user). One such strategy can concern attempts to, in an online setting, present a preferred identity (e.g. that of a hockey fan or a musician), which may differ from their disabled identity, which would be apparent in an offline setting. A Swedish research project—Particip@tion on Internet? Pupils with intellectual disabilities and identification processes on Internet—aims to describe and analyse how young people (age 16-20) with a mild ID interacts and participate on the Internet. More precisely, drawing upon the perspectives of young people with ID, parents and school staff, we want to study self-presentations, social relations and participation within different kinds of Internet communities. Therefore, the goal of the project is to generate knowledge concerning these complex processes, which could be useful for the nearest surrounding of adults in order to support and help young people with ID with their Internet use.

    The project comprises qualitative interviews with young people with ID (n=27), parents of young people with ID (n=22) and professionals in special schools (n=17). The transcribed interviews were analyzed, using a thematic content analysis. A prominent finding in the study concerned the young informants being well aware of both risks and opportunities using Internet and Social Networking Sites. Consequently, the more they interacted with non-disabled peers, the more they experienced negative consequences of Internet use. One conclusion was that these circumstances rather lead to downsizing than upsizing Internet use, and as prolongation, less participation on Social Networking Sites. Although the Internet can be a 'free-zone' where the young person can develop social bonds and construct their identity away from adult oversight, parents and professionals are highly present. Young people mostly feel confident but also in no need of support. Professionals and parents do consider the Internet an arena for positive opportunities, but also with risks. The professionals seemed to be more worried about the risks than the parents who state that the opportunities outweigh the disadvantages. For parents, the real risk is described as the risk of loneliness and social isolation. That parents consider the Internet to be an arena for relationships is an interesting change compared to previous research where both parents and professionals are worried about the risks of abuse etc. Overall, the young people with ID are described as a more heterogeneous group by both parents and professionals compared to previous research. Considering young people's need for autonomy, it is of great importance that parents and professionals balance their level of support depending on the needs of the young person. We recommend that professional practitioners reflect upon the ways that support can be arranged in order to empower young people with ID to participate on the Internet. The experiences of the informants are discussed in a conceptual framework of social identity, participation, sexuality and emancipation.

  • 96.
    Nilsson, Lena A.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Du äger ditt liv: Vad vill du med ditt liv?2018Report (Other academic)
  • 97.
    Nilsson, Lena A.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Barns och ungas välfärd och ett kunskapsbaserat arbetssätt2019In: Samverkansforskning: att främja barns och ungas välfärd / [ed] Lena Nilsson & Emma Sorbring (red.), Stockholm: Liber, 2019, p. 25-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 98.
    Persson, Björn
    et al.
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden, Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden, Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy, University of Skövde, Sweden, Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden, Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge, County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden, Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Testing construct independence in the Short Dark Triad using Item Response Theory2017In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 117, p. 74-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy) is a popular construct for describing socially aversive personality traits. In recent years, the Short Dark Triad (SD3; Jones & Paulhus, 2014) has become a popular measure for assessing the Dark Triad constructs. However, recent research has called the supposed dissimilarity between the Dark Triad constructs into question. In particular, theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that a distinction between Machiavellianism and psychopathy may not be tenable. In order to investigate this issue further, we analyzed the SD3 in a large sample (N = 1983) using Item Response Theory. We establish item response parameter estimates for each Dark Triad construct and further test whether the Dark Triad constructs can be modelled together. Results show that Machiavellianism and narcissism could not be modelled together, but the combinations Machiavellianism and psychopathy, and narcissism and psychopathy, yielded acceptable model fit. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of how the Dark Triad constructs may be interpreted and studied in the future.

  • 99.
    Persson, B.N.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dark and bright values: The Dark Triad and empathy relating to universal values2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an emphasis on self-enhancing values in present-day society. Empathy is shown to be declining and callousness increasing. This two-study research set out to analyze dark personality traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and bright personality traits (emotional and cognitive empathy), and their predictive validity on universal value types. Using a sample of Swedes and Americans (N = 385), the Dark Triad (SD3) correlated significantly with all value types (Schwartz’s 10 values), forming a sinusoid pattern which aligned with the circumplex value model. Machiavellianism and narcissism were positively associated with the self-enhancing values Achievement and Power, while psychopathy was positively associated with the self-enhancing values Hedonism and Power. Using a middle-aged US sample, cognitive and emotional empathy (IRI) were positively related to the selftranscending values of Universalism and Benevolence and negatively with the self-enhancement values of Achievement and Power.

    In addition, both the dark and bright personality traits explained significant variance over the basic Big Five traits in universal values. Given the complex of values accounted for, we argue that these results account for a system of self-enhancing “dark values” and self-transcending “bright values”. This research highlights that certain universal values of individual and societal relevance can be predicted by personality traits.

  • 100.
    Prochnow, Annette
    et al.
    University of Würzburg, Germany.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Hesse, Volker
    Children’s Hospital Berlin-Lindenhof, and Charité – Institute for Experimental Paediatric Endocrinology, Germany.
    Wermke, Kathleen
    University of Würzburg, German.
    Does a 'musical' mother tongue influence cry melodies?: A comparative study of Swedish and German newborns2019In: Musicae scientiae, ISSN 1029-8649, E-ISSN 2045-4147, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 143-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The foetal environment is filled with a variety of noises. Among the manifold sounds of the maternal respiratory, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems, the intonation properties of the maternal language are well perceived by the foetus, whose hearing system is already functioning during the last trimester of gestation. These intonation (melodic) features, reflecting native-language prosody, have been found to shape vocal learning. Having had ample opportunity to become familiar with their mother's language in the womb, newborns have been found to exhibit salient pitch-based elements in their own cry melodies. An interesting issue is whether an intrauterine exposure to a maternal pitch accent language, such as Swedish, in which emphatic syllables are pronounced typically on a higher pitch relative to other syllables will affect newborns' cry melody (fundamental frequency contour). The present study aimed to answer this question by quantitatively analysing and comparing the melody structure in 52 Swedish compared with 79 German newborns. In accordance with previous approaches, cry melody structure was analysed by calculating a melody complexity index (MCI) expressing the share of cries exhibiting two or more (well-defined) arc-like substructures uttered during the recording sessions. A low MCI reflects a dominance of cries with a 'simple', i.e. single-arc melody. A significantly higher MCI was found in the Swedish infant group, which further corroborates the assumption that the well-known foetal sensitivity for musical (melodic) stimuli seems to shape infants' cry melody.

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