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  • 51.
    Johansson, Pierre E. C.
    et al.
    Volvo Group Trucks Operations, Gothenburg 405 08, Sweden.
    Enofe, Martin O.
    Volvo Group Trucks Operations, Gothenburg 405 08, Sweden.
    Schwarzkopf, Moritz
    Volvo Group Trucks Operations, Gothenburg 405 08, Sweden.
    Malmsköld, Lennart
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Fast-Berglund, Åsa
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg 412 96, Sweden.
    Moestam, Lena
    Data and Information Handling in Assembly Information Systems: A Current State Analysis2017In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 11, p. 2099-2106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Products become more complex as the general technology development reaches new levels. These new technologies enable manufacturing companies to offer better products with new functionalities to their customers. Complex products require adequate manufacturing systems to cope with changing product requirements. In general, manufacturing of this type of products entails complex structured and rigid IT systems. Due to the system’s complexity and comprehensive structure, it becomes challenging to optimize the information flow. There are improvement potentials in how such systems could be better structured to meet the demands in complex manufacturing situations. This is particularly true for the vehicle manufacturing industry where growth in many cases have occurred through acquisitions, resulting in increased levels of legacy IT systems. Additionally, this industry is characterized by high levels of product variety which contribute to the complexity of the manufacturing processes. In manual assembly of these products, operations are dependent on high quality assembly work instructions to cope with the complex assembly situations. This paper presents a current state analysis of data and information handling in assembly information systems at multiple production sites at a case company manufacturing heavy vehicles. On basis of a certain set of characterizing manual assembly tasks for truck, engine and transmission assembly, this work focuses on identifying what data and information that is made available to operators in terms of assembly work instructions and the importance of such data and information. This work aims to identify gaps in the information flow between manufacturing engineering and shop floor operations. © 2017 The Authors

  • 52.
    Kabranian, Léonardo
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Lindell, Ola
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Felhanteringmetoder och dess utveckling i fightingspel2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents tests that compare network latency between delay-based and rollback network error handling in fighting games. The purpose is to increase understanding of how these methods work and perform. The results show that rollback network error handling was more stable than delay-based error handling in unstable network environments. In stable network environments, the performance was similar. To conduct the tests, various tools were used which will be described in the report. These tools include different software, hardware, and video games that support the different methods. 

  • 53.
    Köhler, Veronica
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    Co-Creators of Scope of Action: An exploration of the dynamic relationship between people, IT, and work in a nursing context2006Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information Technology (IT) is today widespread in our work places, in our spare time and in our society overall. Implementations of IT in organizations come with high expectations on effectiveness, revenue, smoother work processes and so on. However, this simplified view on IT ignores the fact that it is the IT usage rather than the IT artifact per se that in the end decides the effect of an implementation of IT. Although the IT artifact certainly has been designed to support certain tasks and processes, the success or failure of the Information System (IS) in the end depends on the individuals' actions, which ultimately depend on their perceptions and interpretations of the IS. Thus, when technology is being implemented and becomes an IS in use, it becomes a part of work, and as such more of a social system than a technological one.

    The actual result of a design process does not solely consist of things or artifacts, but above all changed action patterns for the users. From this follows that we must consider design of artifacts as something more than merely the constructing of actual objects with functions and properties that are easily measured. Rather, a large part of all design activities has to do with design of conceivable social milieus, not artifacts. Thus, design may be defined as the suggesting and establishing of scope of action. The concept scope of action aims at describing the fact that the design of, and consequently the implementation of, a specific IT artifact always aims at creating a certain scope of action; some actions are made easier, others are made more difficult or even impossible. This scope of action has to some extent been deliberately designed, but these changes may on the other hand also be undesired and not predicted in advance. The complexity of this phenomenon is great and hard to grasp in advance. However, this does not mean that we can allow ourselves to ignore exploring this phenomenon more deeply. On the contrary, with a usage perspective on IS success or failure, scope of action becomes very important.

    Although the term scope of action may seem a rather intuitive concept, we need more concrete knowledge about its character in order to be able to understand IT usage, both when designing a new IT artifact and when studying or evaluating IT. Thus, our intuitive understanding of the concept needs to be complemented with theory on the ‘constituents’ and effects of this phenomenon. For this purpose, in this thesis nurses’ use of the Electronic Patient record (EPR) is being explored in order to gain an empirically derived understanding of the character of scope of action.

    The research findings highlight the emergent character of scope of action. It is obvious that an individual’s scope of action is not being created on one occasion, and above all not only by the IT artifact. Various co- creators such as the IT artifact, the usage and the social context create and re-create scope of action. Also, how the individual interprets and understands the IT artifact in IT usage will influence her scope of action. This since sensemaking and learning processes on both a personal and organizational level take place that are co-creators of the individual’s scope of action, at the same time as the individual’s knowledge and previous sensemaking and learning influences her use of the IT artifact.

    Thus, reasoning, thinking, learning, and the IT artifact co-evolve over time in adaptation and appropriation processes. This means that IT as a mediational means constitutes an important co-creator of scope of action. From this also follows that work integrated learning is an important co- creator of scope of action when using IT in a work setting, at the same time as work integrated learning is being influenced by the individual’s scope of action.

    Finally, in order to understand how scope of action emerges in use, merely focusing on structures is insufficient. Scope of action emerges as a product of interplay between complex processes involving artifacts, usage and context. This means that the user’s scope of action is co-created by both static structures as well as dynamic processes relating to the IT artifact, the organization, and the work practice. Thus, the IT artifact, and subsequently scope of action, must be must be understood in relation to the multi-aspectual context of which it is a part instead of merely in relation to the properties of the IT artifact per se.

  • 54.
    Lajsner, Arnela
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Jansson, Vicktor
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Cybersäkerhet under en pandemi –påverkad av distansarbete och trenden BYOD2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Efter att pandemin slagit hårt i vårt samhälle, skede en del av förnedringar gällande levnadsvanor, både i privatliv och i arbetsliv. Många företag har, där tjänsterna hade tillåtit detta, gått över till distansarbete vilket ställde höga krav utifrån cybersäkerhets perspektiv.

    Denna uppsats undersöker pandemins inverkan på cybersäkerhet och hur cyberkriminella aktörer respektive organisationer hare agerat. Studien tar upp även dem risker som tillkommer med distansarbeten samt fenomenet ”Bring your own device” (BYOD).

    En kvalitativ datainsamling tillsammans med bred litteraturforskning ställs som grund för denna studie. Intervju respondenter som har IT tjänster inom kommunen har besvarat på en del frågor kring hur de upplever och anser att pandemin hade påverkat cybersäkerhet, samt deras upplevelse av tillkommande cyberhot och själva distansarbeten. Det har diskuterats även dem åtgärderna som har tagits in för att förhindra nya kommande cyberhot och förstärka cybersäkerheten.

    Resultaten av studie visar att cyberhot har ökat på vissa ställen och att detta har präglats mest kring Covid-19 relaterade webtjänster och e-post. Trots detta resultat av intervju ger en positiv återkoppling gällande cybersäkerhet där riktlinjer från diverse myndigheter har använts som grund för utformning av säkerhetspolicy som tillsammans med olika säkerhetsverktyghar bidragit till en ökad cybersäkerhet. 

  • 55.
    Lindmark, Rickard
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Johansson, Markus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Log4shell: Vad är det och hur har det påverkat oss?2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project focus on what the exploit Log4shell is, and how it has affected different organizations. Log4j is a logging-tool that is used wide within the company-world and when the exploit of the tool was discovered many people were affected.

    The purpose with this project is to figure out how organizations has been affected and how they have handled the exploit using a survey. A recreation of an attack has been done to get a deeper knowledge of how the exploit works and how hard it is to execute.

    The survey shows that the companies has handled the exploit quite similar to each other and the answers are analysed in this project. The recreation of the attack shows that it is not impossible for an unexperienced malicious person to utilize the exploit. This is shown with a step by step-list and a discussion on the subject.

  • 56.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Informatics and Mathematics.
    Blast From the Past: When Knowledge Met Computers2002In: Proceedings of IRIS25, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The motivation for this paper is driven by the fact that studies on knowledge management tend to be approached in a very generalised, or even, categorised way. The paper outlines the need to understand how knowledge and computers have met before in both research and practice. What lessons might be learned from these previous studies? What is the prevalent understanding of computer supported knowledge management? Are we now ready to acknowledge that computers serve as active tools for knowledge creation and business performance? The paper can be seen as a theoretical contribution to the general discussion of computer support and knowledge management in terms of presenting a historical review of knowledge system generations as well as future implications for research

  • 57.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    et al.
    University West, Department of Informatics and Mathematics.
    Barnheim, Bo-Göran
    Semcon Sweden.
    Hattinger, Monika
    University West, Department of Informatics and Mathematics.
    Towards a New Design Metaphor: Supporting Boundary Objects as Means of Knowledge Sharing in Community Networks2004In: ECIS 2004 Proceedings, 2004, article id 169Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working in the knowledge sector means dealing with increasing amounts of information, technology and people. Organizations as well as individuals in communities need to constantly maintain large repositories and networks of people, including colleagues, clients, experts, acquaintances and friends. This situation leads to complexity where person’s cognitive capability is insufficient when dealing with huge repositories of information and interaction. Viewing it as an individual problem has resulted in applications that highlight the need for structure and organization. We here define these applications in different levels where the first level is the office application generation, referring to “desktops” metaphors. The next generation, groupware applications, offers structure and process support for collaboration, but is still a rather limited “forum” metaphor. Our main argument is that current application generations and design metaphors are too limited when supporting the sharing of thoughts and associations in different community networks. We believe that a large portion of this problem is not related to information itself, but rather to processes of information categorization, navigation and interaction within and between communities. In our results we advocate the need for a new application generation and a new design metaphor, i.e. brainware applications based on “neural” metaphors. The result is a review of three application generations based on different design metaphors. We discuss several implications for a new design metaphor and suggest a design draft that supports boundary objects as means of knowledge sharing within and between communities.

  • 58.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    et al.
    University West, Department of Informatics and Mathematics.
    Gunnarsson, Maj
    University West, Department of Informatics and Mathematics.
    Lindroth, Tomas
    University West, Department of Informatics and Mathematics.
    Magnusson, Maria
    University West, Department of Informatics and Mathematics.
    Knowman: To Go Where No Man Has Gone Before2000In: Proceedings of WebNet World Conference on the WWW and Internet 2000, San Antonio, Texas: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE) , 2000, p. 815-816Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IT-support for knowledge work should be designed to support and enhance the human interaction and knowledge sharing processes. The specific usage of web-based technology gives the possibilities of putting crucial, knowledge-related interaction on-line. For example, sharing bookmarks among knowledge workers seems to be a necessary and useful activity. Important and valuable bookmarks often mirror what kind of information and knowledge people are looking for and also what kind of forum they use to go to on the world wide web. In this work we have developed a prototype, KNOWMAN, which manages bookmarks on the world wide web. The prototype is designed as a user-friendly "pad-interface" in which bookmarks can be collaboratively collected, shared and further annotated and explored by other knowledge workers.

  • 59.
    Mallous, Elias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Asa, Leo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Communication Protocols Comparison For Industrial IoT2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the cornerstones of Industry 4.0 and the state-of-the-art industrial shop floor connectivity is the use of standardized communication protocols. With the development of communications today and its use in industries, the need to transfer information quickly becomes more urgent. In this thesis common IIoT communication protocols have been evaluated for their performance for data transfer rate between systems.

    The communication protocols that are analyzed are OPC-UA, MQTT, AMQP, and ROS. The test bench for evaluating the protocols is made up of two computers connected by a switch. The tests consist of sending three types of data, an image in the form of a bytearray, a JSON file and integers.

    The results of the test will be compared by seeing how fast the protocols can send these types of data concurrently. The results will then be analyzed to propose a suitable protocol for a distributed system sending these types of data. 

  • 60.
    Mark, Emil
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Usability: Through the use of guidelines and user participation2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Department of Engineering Science at University West in Trollhättan was in need of a new system for scheduling personnel, as the existing system is based upon an Excel-file and is hard to work with and does not provide an easy way for the users to collaborate.The purpose of this study was to examine how existing principles and guidelines regarding interface design can be used to create a new web based system with a high usability. The purpose is also to examine how participatory design affects the design process and outcome.To create a system with a high grade of usability, a number of existing rules and guidelines regarding usability and a number of subjects regarding interaction design, were used by the development team as tools.Even though the study showed that usability guidelines can be a valuable tool and provide a good foundation it is important to emphasize the use of other techniques. For example the use of participatory design, which in the study was found to be of great value to the development team.

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  • 61.
    Monneret, Denis
    et al.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, South Lyon Hospital Group, Hospices Civils de Lyon (HCL), 165 Chemin du Grand Revoyet, Pierre-Bénite, 69495, France.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Roche, Frédéric
    Department of Clinical and Exercise Physiology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne, France; EA 4607 SNA-EPIS, PRES Lyon, Saint-Etienne, France .
    Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique
    Department of Metabolic Biochemistry, La Pitié Salpêtrière-Charles Foix University Hospital (AP-HP), Paris, France; CNRS UMR8258, INSERM U1022, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France.
    Outlier removal methods for skewed data: Impact on age-specific high-sensitive cardiac troponin T 99th percentiles2019In: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, ISSN 1434-6621, E-ISSN 1437-4331, Vol. 57, no 10, p. E244-E247Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Namaki, Nima
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Exhaustion Dominated Performance: Methodology, Tools and Empirical Experiments2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Namaki, Nima
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    de Blanche, Andreas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Mankefors-Christiernin, Stefan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics. University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    A Tool for Processor Dependency Characterization of HPC Applications2009In: Proceedings for the HPC Asia & APAN 2009, Hsinchu, Taiwan: National Center for High-Performance Computing , 2009, p. 70-76Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we have implemented and verified Cpugen, a tool for characterization of processor resource utilization of HPC applications .Toward this end we implemented Cpugen, an application with good accuracy for processor load generation. Cpugen was verified through three different phases of passive, active and real world application measurements. The measurement results show that our implemented method is a viable option for non-intrusive, stable and robust load generation. The error range for all generated target loads are between 0.00% minimum and 1.04% maximum, with a median deviation of 0.11%. We can conclude that the method utilized in this investigation provides the ability to generate stable and robust processor load.

  • 64.
    Namaki, Nima
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    de Blanche, Andreas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Mankefors-Christiernin, Stefan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics. University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    Exhaustion dominated performance: a first attempt2009In: SAC '09: Proceedings of the 2009 ACM symposium on Applied Computing, ACM , 2009, p. 1011-1012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a first attempt to an analytical method to discover and understand how the available resources influence the execution time. Our method is based on a piecewise linear model for dominating execution limitations and black-box observations. We verify this analysis method by a set of real-world experiments. Finally, we conclude that the different effects follow a linear superposition within a certain range.

  • 65.
    Namaki, Nima
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    de Blanche, Andreas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Mankefors-Christiernin, Stefan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics. University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    Exhaustion dominated performance: an empirical method evalutationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Namaki, Nima
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    Jiresjö, Christian
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    Aspects of Distributed File Systems Considering CPU Performance with Lustre2006In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Applied Computing: San Sebastian, Spain. Feb 25-28, 2006, p. 130-136Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Norr Wass, Hampus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Belal, Yaman
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Säkerhetsutvärdering av SDN med OpenFlow: Analys av attacker och skyddsmekanismer2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software-Defined Networking is becoming increasingly more popular in the market due to its smooth and efficient management capabilities. Software Defined Networking can be described as the concept of separating the control plane from the data plane - allowing for centralized control from a management unit, as well as easier scalability and flexibility. However, the growth of the use regarding the SDN network architecture is not an exception from the threats and challenges traditional networks face, therefore it is important to increase understanding of how to handle these threats.

    The purpose of this report is to provide a theoretical understanding of Software Defined Networking and everything that the concept is regarding, combined with practical experiments aimed at an SDN network, and offer insights into how these threats can be mitigated or eliminated.

    A network based on VMWare ESXI is set up, including virtual machines that simulate the SDN network. Two virtual machines are controlled, where one consists of Mininet simulating clients, and the other acts as a host for the SDN controller, the "Floodlight Controller". From this network, security and performance are evaluated under pressure in form of attacks, and the report aims to present solutions and ways to mitigate these threats.

  • 68.
    Överengen, Anders
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Lundgren, Axel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Applikationers påverkan av belastning och dess förändring av QoS2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen har utforskat Quality of Service påverkan på applikationers funktionalitetsprestanda i nätverk med och utan högbelastning. Applikationerna som använts för att utföra mätningarna var Microsoft Teams, Zoom Video Communications, StarTrinity HTTP Test Tool och FileZilla. Teams och Zoom användes för realtidstrafik medan FileZilla och StarTrinity användes för TCP-baserad trafik. Resultaten har sedan jämförts för att kontrollera vilket eller vilka applikationer som påverkats mest vid hög belastning och om skillnader uppstod i applikationernas funktionalitetprestanda med eller utan Quality of Service. Dem mätbara värdena för realtidsapplikationerna har fokuserats på latens, jitter och delay, även användarupplevelsen (Quality of Experience) har undersökts med bilder per sekund (FPS) och upplösningsvärden.

    Realtidsapplikationer påverkas mest under högbelastning i nätverket med en paket förlust på ca 40% för både röst och videotrafik. Latens för röst och videotrafik uppgick till ca 190ms. Teams påverkades mest med ett jitter-värde på ca 105ms för all realtidstrafik, medan zoom besatt ett jitter värde på ca 30ms för rösttrafik och ett jitter värde mindre än 1ms för videotrafik.

    Implementation av QoS är problematiskt för applikationen Zoom på grund av att applikationen inte följer någon konkret operation inom nätverket och brukar ett spann av 49000-portar medan Teams har en tydlig struktur i kommunikation över nätverket som stödjs av mätningar i Wireshark, samt Microsofts officiella dokumentation.HTTP och HTTPS kommunikation påverkas negativt på ett nätverk med högbelastning och har en genomsnittlig svarstid på 240 sekunder, respektive 303 sekunder. FTP påverkas minst av alla applikationer under högbelastning och fortsatte besitta en hög nedladdningshastighet. Däremot kunde nedladdning avbrytas på grund av långsamt TCP-svar.

  • 69. Persson, R.
    et al.
    Mankefors-Christiernin, Stefan
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    Boklund, Andreas
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    Concept Model of an Object Detecting Mobile Robot in an Indoor Environment2006In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Applied Computing: San Sebastian, Spain. Feb 25-28, 2006, p. 130-136Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Rundström, Ludwig
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Pettersson, Dennis
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Jämförelse mellan verktyg för trådlös nätverkskartläggning2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless networks are sensitive to interference, and it is not always obvious what causes these, or where the signal strength is at its weakest. Therefore, there are tools to find this out, through a so-called wireless site survey. Many different programs exist that can perform such surveys, and this report examines the differences in usability that exist between two of them. These two programs are TamoGraph Site Survey from TamoSoft and Acrylic Heatmaps from Acrylic Suite, both available in trial version at no cost. Two premises in University West, lab rooms B118 and B114, were selected for this study. The survey was carried out by systematically passing a computer with the two installed measuring tools in turn through the two premises, after which the programs' visualization of the results was compared and assessed. A conducted wireless network mapping with TamoGraph and Acrylic using this model suggests that TamoGraph has more relevant features than Acrylic and is easier to use.

  • 71.
    Safdari, Jafar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Från monolit till mikrotjänster: En proof-of-concept-implementation med hjälp av AWS Lambda2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More and more companies want to refactor their monolithic applications into microservice applications. Transitioning from a monolithic architecture to a microservices architecture requires significant technical work to improve performance, user experience, and scalability. This thesis presents the implementation of the transition from a monolithic to a microservices architecture using tools and platforms such as AWS Lambda, IPFS, Plytix, Pinata, Ethereum smart contracts, TypeScript, and Node.js.

    By studying over 20 articles on methods and techniques for the transition, the process flow model was followed to carry out the refactoring. Through a thorough analysis of previous application and with knowledge of microservices architecture, various parts of the application were identified that could function as independent services. APIs were designed both within the application and for the API Gateway after the workflow had been established. The microservices were implemented according to the defined interfaces, with each service developed as a separate unit with its own functionality and responsibility. Finally, tests were conducted to ensure proper functionality and communication.

    The previous monolithic application was refactored using AWS Lambda, resulting in a functional application with a microservices architecture. This solved the fundamental problem of the previous monolithic application - users had to keep the browser open until the entire process was completed, otherwise they had to start over from the beginning. The application is executed on AWS Lambda and performs the entire process asynchronously, which means that users no longer need to keep the browser open during the process. 

  • 72.
    Sandberg, Freddy
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Hellman, Robert
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Parallel Computing: Performance of a clustered Raspberry Pi environment vs desktop processors2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study wanted to find out if a company was spending unnecessary recourses on its equipment by installing big servers when they would actually manage just fine on a cluster of Raspberry Pis. Raspberry Pis performance have never been powerful enough to be implemented in a company network, but with the latest generation that was changed. The authors then wanted to know if the technology was ready to be used in a production network.

    The equipment used in this study comprised of a total of nine Raspberry Pi 4s and a selection of different processors under different kinds of loads. The different processors had been given the task of rendering the classic BMW-render in Blender Render, after which they’ve been investigating how many prime numbers they could find between 2 and one million. This was done using both on single thread, and multithread. After this, compared how long it took for the different processors to complete the task. The cluster proved to be slower than expected. The quickest processor in the study completed the rendering of a frame in one third of the time it took for the cluster to do the same. When benchmarking the clusters ability to calculate primes, it took about six times as long as the Ryzen 9 when the AMD had access to all its threads.

    To test the clusters response intensive performance a webserver application was installed and then stress tested with the help of three other stronger computers. One of the machines that was stress testing also collected the response time to determine how much impact that was made. With Apache2 installed the cluster stopped responding after 500 open sockets. With NGINX installed the impact was not big enough to notice any difference in the performance, no matter how long and strong the test ran for.

  • 73.
    Schüler, Martin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Försvarshögskolan, Stockholm (SWE).
    Human and machine learning2023In: Collection Of Abstracts Nato In The Nordics, August 30-31, 2023. Conference Organized By The Scandinavian Journal Of Military Studies (Sjms) & The Swedish Centre For Studies Of Armed Forces And Society (Csms) / [ed] Lome, Ragnild, Swedisch Centre for Studies of Armed Forces and Society; Scandinavian Journal of Military Studies , 2023, p. 9-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the potential effects of machine learning and artificial intelligence on military organizations, on a general basis. ChatGPT, has sparked a debate in universities all over the world, and language model software’s are likely to impact how military personnel conduct their work – several officers work on tasks that could benefit from machine learning integration, such as logistics, healthcare, maintenance, intelligence, and others. However, officers will need to develop skills to ask relevant questions to extract information from the algorithm and train the algorithm to process relevant information with sufficient quality. That is, the military organization needs to develop different methods of learning. Exercises, particularly two-sided field exercises with a friendly and a hostile side, now have two additional learners, the friendly and the hostile algorithm. The potential risks of learning faults and errors from exercises are always present, and introducing algorithms increases these risks. Humans learn by facing different situations and Collection of Abstracts NATO in the Nordics10 reflecting on their actions, while algorithms learn by classifying available data. Understanding the learning needs of humans and algorithms has strategic implications. 

  • 74.
    Seal, M. K.
    et al.
    Clean Energy Research Group, Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Pretoria,Hatfield (ZAF).
    Noori Rahim Abadi, Seyyed Mohammad Ali
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Mehrabi, M.
    Clean Energy Research Group, Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Hatfield (ZAF).
    Meyer, J. P.
    Clean Energy Research Group, Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Hatfield (ZAF).
    Machine learning classification of in-tube condensation flow patterns using visualization2021In: International Journal of Multiphase Flow, ISSN 0301-9322, E-ISSN 1879-3533, Vol. 143, article id 103755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying two-phase flow patterns is fundamental to successfully design and subsequently optimize highprecision heat transfer equipment, given that the heat transfer efficiency and pressure gradients occurring in such thermo-hydraulic systems are dependent on the flow structure of the working fluid. This paper shows that with visualization data and artificial neural networks, the flow pattern images of condensation of R-134a refrigerant in inclined smooth tubes can be classified with more than 98% accuracy. The study considers 10 classes of flow pattern images acquired from previous experimental works for a wide range of flow conditions and the full range of tube inclination angles. Although not the focus of this paper, the use of a Principal Component Analysis allowed feature dimensionality reduction, dataset visualization, and decreased associated computational cost when used together with multilayer perceptron neural networks. In addition, the superior two-dimensional spatial learning capability of convolutional neural networks allowed improved image classification and generalization performance. In both cases, the classification was performed sufficiently fast to enable real-time implementation in two-phase flow systems.

  • 75.
    Spante, Maria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Talking heads on the internet: social interaction in a multi-user voice based 3d graphical environment2011In: Proceedings of IRIS 2011.: TUCS Lecture Notes  No 15, October 2011 / [ed] Leino, Timo, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the finding from a qualitative study which investigated how long-term

    users of Traveler, a voice-based 3D online graphical environment launched in 1996 and still

    running, experience their social relations in relation to this specific cue-rich communication

    technology. The paper describes the subjective perceptions of the technology-mediated social

    experience such as the experience of social atmosphere in the community, of online

    friendship, of the meaning of the online social interaction in the users' offline lives. The paper

    also discusses the importance of these subjective experiences for motivation to regularly use

    Traveler. Conclusions drawn from the study suggest that it is crucial for users to have the

    ability to handle the technical functions of the program in order to function socially in the

    environment such as using the functions of the graphical program and using the voice channel

    in a social significant way. As a result, in order to have a positive and meaningful social

    experience in online it is critical for users to adapt to technical as well as to social factors.

    This process of adaptation is very important since the way functions are used was interpreted

    as social signals by users suggesting that social and technical aspects are intertwined in social

    practice. The paper describes this process of adaptation and the positive social effects of a

    successful adaptation. 

  • 76.
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Instructional-design theories applied on a web-based learning application2008In: Proceedings - International Conference on Information Technology: New Generations, ITNG 2008,  Fifth International Conference on7-9 April 2008, 2008, p. 845-850Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 77.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Improving Performance in Flexible Manufacturing by a P-sop Approach2014In: Proceedings of the 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014 / [ed] Stahre, Johan, Johansson, Björn & Björkman, Mats, 2014, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper present a Part oriented Sequence of Operation (P-SOP) approach that address flexibility, robustness and deployment in manufacturing cells up to plant level. A P-SOP description language has been formulated where the control strategy based on actual circumstances easily can be defined. Furthermore, a P-SOP multi-agent generator has been created that compiles the strategy description to multi-agents that control the manufacturing. Deadlock free IEC 61131-3 PLC code are directly generated from the description language. The code is not optimised for a specific scenario since the general description contains all possible routing paths and all resources available.

  • 78.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    P-SOP -€“ A multi-agent based control approach for flexible and robust manufacturing2015In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 36, p. 109-118, article id 1301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a truly flexible manufacturing system the description of the control strategy must be updated every day. Hence, a new way to handle changes in the environment down to control system deployment and production is required. This paper presents a novel approach, based on P-SOP, to handle multi-agent based control and verification. The P-SOP approach addresses flexibility, robustness and deployment in the best possible manner with the least waste of time and effort. P-SOP includes a description language where the control strategy based on actual circumstances easily can be defined. Based on the description multi-agents, to control the manufacturing, are automatically generated. An industrial advantage is that the multi-agent generator creates IEC 61131-3 PLC code that can be executed on standard PLC’s. This feature eliminates the need for experts in PLC programming and reduce deployment time to become more efficient. Hence, this flexibility enables small series down to one off production in a competitive way. With multi-agent control it is also possible to handle rebalancing due to market changes, scheduling of available humans, introduction of new part types, and rerouting due to a machine break down or planned service. The generated agents are not optimised for a final solution with specific timings. All decisions are made on-line and the generated solution adapts to the circumstances that arise. With the P-SOP multi-agents it is easy to manually remove or introduce parts to the manufacturing cell without disturbing the system, e.g. for manually random inspections, removal of parts due to restart. The formulated description language and the multi-agent generator has been successfully tested and evaluated in an industrial environment.

  • 79.
    Svensson, M
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Ydenius, A
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Christiernin, Linn
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Christiernin, Stefan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics. University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    UML: How to model user interfaces - An exploratory study2009In: Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference Informatics 2009, Part of the IADIS Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems, MCCSIS 2009, Algarve, 2009, p. 59-66Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    When creating software, people from many different areas are involved. To make them work efficiently together they need to communicate but communication requires a common language and common understanding. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is often used as a common ground for understanding when modeling and designing software products. However, after practically working with many large projects we have found UML to have shortcomings in the area of modeling Graphical User Interface (GUI). There are many other ways to model GUIs but it could be beneficial to use a modeling method that the more technical developers are familiar with and also beneficial to be able to put in the interface into the framework of UML when it comes to drawing applications and code generation. In this study we first of all have investigated the possibility of adding GUI design to UML and then we have explored different solutions for what a GUI UML-diagram could look like and what problems there are with diagrams when it comes to visualizing objects. We have then put forward an idea for a GUI diagram or an UML extension; a graphical element diagram, and discussed its benefits and drawbacks. © 2009 IADIS.

  • 80. Torkar, Richard
    et al.
    Mankefors-Christiernin, Stefan
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    Combining partition and random testing2006In: Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Software Engineering, as part of the 24th IASTED International Multi-Conference on APPLIED INFORMATICS, Innsbruck, 2006, p. 367-372Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we evaluate the potential in combining different testing methodologies. The evaluation indicates an increase in effectiveness when adding random testing to partition testing. At the same time, the increase in efficiency inevitably fades because of the added number of random test cases being executed. Nevertheless, the potential in an automation scheme for creating and executing test cases is visible, thus indicating that a future implementation combining the best of two worlds, i.e. partition and random testing could be pursued.

  • 81.
    Umbría Macarrón, Elena
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Rawat, Kalpana
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    An Approach to Cyber-Physical Systems Risk Assessment: Bridging the Gap between Standards and Real-World Applications2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis explores the field of Cyber-Physical Systems, which traditionally represents the integration of software, system hardware, and sensors through interconnected networks. CPS encompasses a wide range of applications and involves the convergence of physical and cyber components. These systems play a critical role in a country’s infrastructure, but their importance is accompanied by potential security threats, safety hazards, and challenges. To ensure the reliable and secure operation of CPS, it is imperative to encompass all potential threats and vulnerabilities that can lead to attacks. Addressing these security concerns is essential to safeguard the integrity and functionality of CPS systems. Recognizing the complexity introduced by the interconnection of the systems, the thesis argues that current risk assessment methods are insufficient to identify threats and vulnerabilities in CPS. It stresses the need for extensive research to effectively address these issues and extend the current risk assessment approach to encompass the physical, cyber, human, social components and other external elements of CPS. The thesis highlights the importance of incorporating external components into the risk assessment approach to address the dynamic nature of CPS. By considering various factors beyond the traditional ecosystem, the thesis aims to enhance the identification and analysis of potential threats and attacks. Organizations can better safeguard their CPS and maintain a robust security posture by addressing these challenges. To assess the effectiveness of the risk assessment approach, a simulation of a connected car is carried out. This simulation helps identify potential threats that pose risks to the CPS, particularly when external components are incorporated. This analysis provides insights into the current threat landscape surrounding modern CPS systems.

  • 82.
    Waldefeldt, John
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Quist, Albin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Active Directory Self-Service Password Management: Designing a Secure and User-Friendly Platform for Organizations2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the development of a cost-effective, secure and privacy focused self-service password management system that integrates with Active Directory, aimed at addressing the growing need for efficient password management. The primary objective is to alleviate the workload on IT staff while simultaneously empowering employees with control over their passwords, improving the efficiency of the process. The importance of this system lies in its potential to reduce password-related help desk tickets, enhance security, and streamline password management in organizations.

    The system employs multifactor authentication using security questions, SMS-codes, and biometric authentication to ensure a high security level in the authentication process. This report discusses the system design, implementation, and the successful meeting of requirements, thus demonstrating its efficiency in addressing organizations needs in password management.

    The report provides a detailed description of the systems components and their functionalities, exploring the benefits of the developed solution, including its cost-efficiency, privacy-centered design, and potential for seamless integration with existing infrastructure. The system offers a reliable, secure, and user-friendly experience, enabling employees to change their AD-passwords as needed.

    In conclusion, the report demonstrates the successful meeting of system requirements and expectations. In addition, it highlights the importance of an efficient self-service password management system for organizations. It also explores potential future improvements, such as enhancing the user interface and using additional/alternative communication channels for authentication codes. The self-service password management system developed can contribute to increased efficiency and a more secure password management process for all users. 

  • 83.
    Willermark, Sara
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Högberg, Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Real Estate, Economics and Society.
    An institutional logics Perspective: An institutional logics Perspective2022In: AMCIS 2022 PROCEEDINGS 1 / [ed] Davis, Gordan, AIS Electronic Library (AISeL) , 2022, p. 1-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The outbreak of the global pandemic COVID-19 meant an extreme intensification of digitalization in education. Around the world, technology became a prerequisite for continuing education, as schools were to switch to distance education. Drawing on an institutional logics perspective, this paper aims to explore school leaders' experiences and insights from running a virtual school overnight. Data includes a survey of105 school leaders in Swedish high schools. The results show clear challenges for schools as institutions, yet most of the school leaders perceived that the shift to virtual classrooms went well and can lead to lasting value for the school. Still, when facing a new situation, organizational problems are uncovered, and the importance of brick-and-mortar schools becomes visible. Contributions include analyzing an extreme case of digitization in schools and conceptualizing two faces of digitalization, that constitute both a preservative and disruptive force in institutional logic.

  • 84.
    Willermark, Sara
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Islind, Anna Sigridur
    Department of Computer Science, Reykjavik University (ISL).
    Vallo Hult, Helena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics. Department of Planning and Development, NU-Hospital Group, Trollhättan.
    Norström, Livia
    Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg.
    Getting the Job Done: Workarounds in Complex Digital Infrastructures2022In: Exploring Digital Resilience / [ed] Cuel, R., Ponte, D., Virili, F., Springer, 2022, Vol. 57, p. 118-132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work today consists of complex arrangements of loosely interrelated digital tools that shape work and form digital infrastructures. These digital infrastructures can either support or hinder the workers in their daily tasks. Working in an environment where some digital tools are designed for work purposes, and others without the proposed end-users in mind creates a need for improvisation. The consequence for workers may include finding various types of workarounds when shifting between digital tools. These workarounds become important for how work is performed. Through a multiple case study, this paper explores how workarounds are manifested in different work settings through four cases in the public sector. We conceptualize workarounds as practices of flexibility, efficiency, and responsibility, and show how workarounds result in new and innovative ways of working, which can be understood as a form of infrastructuring.

  • 85.
    Yan Lin, Wu
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    A Lightweight Framework for Tracing andVisualizing Real-Time Operating Systems2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    System tracing is a helpful method for engineersand users to know exactly what happens in an operating system,especially in real-time operating systems (RTOS), because forreal-time system, it is normally more difficult to know theperformance of hardware and software than for desktopcomputers. Although this kind of tracing tools already exist forsome commercial RTOS, it is fairly hard to see those tools forsmall or open source RTOS. Moreover, because the structure andimplementation of different RTOS varies, it is rare to find aframework that can easily be ported to those platforms. In thisthesis, a solution is presented to this general tracing problem ondifferent platforms. By using the portable framework, it ispossible to implement tracing component into a real timeoperating system by some simple reconfigurations. This platformportability feature is accomplished by separating the specificplatform logic from the logic of the tracing part. Finally, adeployment of this framwork onto a small open source real-timeoperating system—AtomThreads, running on an AVRATmega1650 – is used as a demonstration of this framework.

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  • 86.
    Överengen, Anders
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Lundgren, Axel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Evaluating ZigBee and Thread Security in Smart Home Consumer Products: An Analysis of the ZigBee and Thread Protocols with a Proposed Firewall Implementation2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Popularity for consumer IoT products has risen, and today IoT products have become a more integrated part of home's environment and functionality. With the rise in popularity for IoT products there has also been an interest in new light-weight protocols for IoT and OT devices. While ZigBee is a well-established protocol in the field, it has been researched countless times and several security issues have been acknowledged. Thread is a newer protocol and is in direct competition with ZigBee and was released in 2015. Thread has native IPv6 support and does not require a dedicated hub to communicate with existing IP based networks. ZigBee and Thread are based on layer 1 and 2 of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. This report aimed to evaluate the possibility to implement a traditional firewall to protect IoT networks on the IP based network. Furthering to evaluate the security of ZigBee and Thread protocols against eavesdropping attacks and if it was possible to craft and transmit a malicious packet from a rogue device not part of the established ZigBee or Thread network. Results show that the most proficient method for implementing a firewall is with transparent mode, operating on the layer 2 of the OSI-model, since the products used in this testbed utilises layer 2 protocol for discovery and pairing and was successful in traversing over layer 3 boundaries. By eavesdropping on the ZigBee network during the pairing process of devices it was possible to compromise the network key and view all further communication in clear text. Information gathered was used to craft a custom-made packet for disruption of ZigBee operation. However, this attack was not successful with the nRF52840 series used in the testbed. Eavesdropping was not successful in compromising any valuable information from the Thread network. Drawback of using consumer products is being locked to the designed pairing process of IoT products. Pairing of the Nanoleaf lightbulb required initial pairing over Bluetooth and later shifting to a Thread network. If a pre-shared network key is utilised and shared over Bluetooth was not assessed. However, the Nanoleaf application presents PAN ID and the network key in plain text, this is considered a severe security vulnerability. The network key could be used to decrypt 6LoWPAN And CoAP packets. Thread packets were not successful in being decrypted. Due to the full Thread stack not being decrypted, the traffic information could not be compromised and used to create a custom-made packet.

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