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  • 51.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics.
    Kristiansson, Lilia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Enhancing students creativity using project-based learning in engineering in higher education: Case study from Sweden2011In: World Conference on Education, Imagination and Creativity, WERA/International conference on education, TERA 2011: 5-9 dec 2011, Taiwan, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Ottosson, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Thermal spraying by HVAF as an environmentally friendly alternative to electrolytic hard chrome plating of piston rods2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 53.
    Persson, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Vinjegaard, Eric
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Undersökning av materialegenskaper för nytt segjärn i jämförelse med traditionellt2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes a study and comparison of two different types of ductile iron. Thetwo materials that have been studied have been the ductile iron used in Parker Hannifin'scurrent hydraulic motors and a new ductile iron, whose mechanical properties are said tobe more advantageous. The goal of this study was to obtain a reliable comparison of thedifferent materials and determine if there were clear grounds for initiating the process of achange of material in certain components of Parker Hannifin’s products.Comparisons between the mechanical properties of the materials were based partly oninformation that was already available and partly on data collected through machining trails.The wear on the tools after milling was studied along with the cutting force from variouskinds of cutting data. Residual stresses after the operation in both materials were measuredby an X-ray diffractometer.The results yielded no significant indication that a change of material would result in lowerproduction cost, however, analyses showed that the new material can withstand beingprocessed faster than the traditional ductile iron and that more studies should beconducted. After analyzing the mechanical properties, such as strength, hardness, hardnessvariation and stiffness, conclusions could be drawn. It turned out that the new ductile ironhad higher strength and more uniform hardness, but it also had lower stiffness. Thestiffness of the material is an important factor because if the materials do not havesufficient rigidity, leakage can occur in hydraulic motors. Measurements of the cutting forceof the two materials indicated that there could be a higher standard deviation, orfluctuation of the cutting force during milling of the traditional ductile iron. Since thesevariations only appeared a few times, it is difficult to conclude that the new ductile ironwould be more advantageous when it comes to machining. To be able to draw that kind ofconclusion would require more collected data.

  • 54.
    Ramjaun, T.
    et al.
    University of Cambridge.
    Stone, H. J.
    Unversity of Cambridge.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Kelleher, J.
    ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory.
    Moat, R. J.
    The Open University.
    Kornmeier, J. R.
    Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz.
    Kemellia, Dalaei
    ESAB AB, Lindholmsalln 9, 417 55 Göteborg.
    Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H.
    University of Cambridge.
    Effect of interpass temperature on residual stresses in multipass welds produced using low transformation temperature filler alloy2014In: Science and technology of welding and joining, ISSN 1362-1718, E-ISSN 1743-2936, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 44-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weld filler alloys that exploit transformation plasticity through low austenite to martensite transformation temperatures offer an effective method of reducing residual stresses in strong steel welds. However, in multipass welds, the heat input from later weld passes may be insufficient to retransform prior welding passes, leading to the accumulation of thermally induced strains and elevated residual stresses. In this work, the residual stress distributions produced around arc welds fabricated with a martensitic weld filler alloy that transforms at a low temperature have been studied as a function of the number of passes deposited and the interpass temperature. It is found that when the interpass temperature is above the transformation temperature of the weld metal, the entire multipass weld transforms as a single entity, thus permitting the optimum exploitation of the transformation plasticity. In contrast, the deposition of new metal with a relatively low interpass temperature leads to increased residual stresses in the underlying layers, reducing or eliminating the beneficial stress states previously created.

  • 55.
    Repo, Jari
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Condition Monitoring in Machining Using Internal Sensor Signals2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Condition monitoring of critical machine tool components and machining processes is a key factor to increase the availability of the machine tool and to achieve a more robust machining process. Any failure in the machining process and machine tool components may have negative effects on the final produced part. Instabilities in machining processes also shortens the life time of the cutting edges and the machine tool. The condition monitoring system may utilise information from several sources to facilitate the detection of disturbances in the machining process. To minimise additional complexity to the machining system, internal sensor signals for condition monitoring are used.

    The main contribution from this work is a further understanding of the measured responses from linear and angular position encoders during excitation of the machine tool structure. It is shown that the measured encoder responses contain the operational frequencies and this applies to both active and passive machine axes. The response from an active machine axis however, involves a more complex analysis. The fundamental principles on the extraction of the generated micro-vibrations (translational and torsional vibrations) from the linear and rotary encoders are presented. Various methods for their analysis in time domain, frequency domain and phase space domain are also presented. New extentions to the nonlinear numerical methods in order to facilitate the extraction of features from Poincaré sections are introduced.

    The experimental work shows that encoders are sensitive to small disturbances in the machining process. The possibility to use the proposed measurement method and numerical methods for tool wear detection in a milling operation has therefore been investigated. It is shown that tool wear can be detected and quantified by utilising the signals already available in machine tools.

  • 56.
    Repo, Jari
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Pejryd, Lars
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Measurement method for the identification of individual teeth in milling operations2012In: CIRP - Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, ISSN 1755-5817, E-ISSN 1878-0016, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 26-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internal sensors already available in the machine tools may prove to be an interesting approach to monitor the machining process. Accurate determination of the position of the individual tooth on a milling cutter is important to be able to correlate the measured responses from the machine tool position encoders to the tooth or teeth that may be the cause of the response.

    The aim of the work presented in this paper is to develop a measurement method to identify the individual tooth on a milling cutter by their angular position relative to a specified 0-degree direction. If the lower and upper bounds of the cutting zone are known, together with the actual spindle position and the starting time of the cut, it will be possible to track and identify which teeth are within the cutting zone at a given time in the following off-line analysis of the responses. This may simplify the task of finding potential correlations between the state of individual teeth on the milling cutter with measured responses from various sensors during the milling process. The proposed method is based on a reflectance detector and uses accurate position information provided by the position encoders.

    A validation of the measurement method is also presented which shows that the error of the estimated angular position is approximately +/- 0.15 degrees for the validation setup used in this case.

  • 57.
    Runnemalm, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Appelgren, Anders
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Evaluation of non-destructive testing methods for automatic quality checking of spot welds2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Car bodies are today more often made of high strength steel. In high strength steel spot welds are more friable and it is necessary to have higher demands on the inspections of spot welds. Quality control of spot weld can be either destructive or non-destructive. Destructive testing is still the most common method to test spot weld. The non-destructive methods that are investigete in this project are visual inspektion (VT), penetrant testing (PT), eddy current testing (ET), ultrasonic testing (UT), magnetic paticle testing (MT) and X-ray testing (RT). Other NDT methods are acoustic emission (AE), digital sheargraphy and IR-termography (IRT). These methods are investigated with focus on the possibility to detect Lens Diameter, stick welds, expulsions, porosity and cracks. And the possibility to automation of the method with focus on size and weight of the system, protection equipment, contact or contactless, one or two sided, position accuracy, and result in real-time.

    Only tree NDT methods, UT, RT and IRT, can detect all discontinuities that we looking for in RSW. The thermography system has the largest potential to be a NDT system for spot weld in the future, mainly because the method is non-contact, which helps when you have the opportunity to searching on a surface instead of a specific position. The main problem with this method is that there is no software for analysing the results to obtain lens diameter.

  • 58.
    Runnemalm, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Appelgren, Anders
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Ahlberg, Jörgen
    Termisk Systemteknik AB.
    Lundevall, Åsa
    SWEREA IVF.
    Albinsson, Ola
    SWEREA IVF.
    Automated NDT cell for quality checking of spot welds2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is written within Spotlight WP5 financed by the FFI programme within Vinnova.

    Thermography is a non-destructive testing method based on measurement of the heat distribution by an infrared camera. The method is suitable for automatic inspection since it is a full filed and non-contact method.

    A thermography system with an analysis tool developed by Termisk Systemteknik AB is investigated as an inspection method for spot weld. The system is able to detect spot welds, measure the diameter and separate a spot weld from a stick weld. The algorithms used in the analysis are rather simplified and the development opportunities are significant.

    A fully automated NDT-cell for spot weld inspection is presented. The automation includes a six axis industrial robot and communication for handling the information flow. This comprised the identification of the inspected spot weld and the reporting to the overall system as to the operator.

    A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of the automated NDT-cell is accomplished and the most important actions are reported

    A business case for implementing a automated NDT-cell was included in the project. In this business case the most promising quality check concepts for NDT spot weld will be presented and compared with the other identified methods.

  • 59.
    Runnemalm, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Broberg, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Appelgren, Anders
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production System.
    Possibilities and Limitations of Automated Non-Destructive Testing of Welds2012In: Proceedings of the 5th International Swedish Production Symposium: 6th-8th of November 2012 Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Mats Björkman, Linköping, 2012, p. 3-9Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Sadeghimeresht, Esmaeil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Environment Production Technology West. Amirkabir University of Tehran, Tarbiat Modares University of Tehran.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Corrosion performance of bi-layer Ni/Cr2C3–NiCr HVAF thermal spray coating2016In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 369, p. 470-481Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The corrosion behavior of three HVAF thermal spray coating systems (A: single-layer Ni, B: single-layer Cr2C3–NiCr coatings, and C: bi-layer Ni/Cr2C3–NiCr coating) was comparatively studied using immersion,salt spray, and electrochemical tests. Polarization and EIS results showed that the corrosion behavior of Cr2C3–NiCr coatings in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was significantly improved by adding the intermediate layer of Ni. It was illustrated that the polarization resistance of the bi-layer Ni/Cr2C3–NiCr and singlelayerCr2C3–NiCr coatings were around 194 and 38 k cm2, respectively. Microstructure analysis revealed that the bond coating successfully prevented the corrosion propagation toward the coating.

  • 61.
    Segerstark, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Weld head motion control of girth and tubular joint welding simulations in LS-DYNA2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The basis for performing a thermo-mechanical staggered coupled heat source analysis of a welding simulation is implemented into LS-DYNA. In this report, three methods for initiating the heat source’s mechanical motion during girth and tubular joint welding are developed and evaluated. The first method is a reformulation of the equations used at Det Norske Veritas, the second is an incorporation of the equations into excel and the third is a standalone third party software. The most efficient of the developed methods turned out to be the software which creates k-files which are implemented into the main k-file using LS-PrePost. All methods have been visually and numerically evaluated using Excel, LS-DYNA and LS-PrePost.

  • 62.
    Steffenburg-Nordenström, Joachim
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. GKN Aerospace Sweden.
    Larsson, Mats
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Simulation of the influence of forming on residual stresses and deformations after welding and heat treatment in Alloy 7182014In: / [ed] E. Oñate, J. Oliver and A. Huerta, International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE), 2014, p. 1657-1666Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing of components in aero engines requires attention to residual stress and final shape of the product in order to meet high quality product standards. This sets very high demands on involved manufacturing steps. The manufacturing of a V-shaped leading edge of a vane is simulated. It is made of Alloy718, which is a nickel based heat resistant material commonly used in aerospace components. The manufacturing process chain consists of forming, welding and heat treatment. The results show that the remaining residual stresses after a manufacturing process chain are affected when the residual history from the formingprocess is considered. The residual stress decrease after heat treatment is about 55-65%. Moreover, the von Mises stress profile through thickness at the centre of the radius at the weld joint is about 25% higher when full forming history is considered.

  • 63.
    Stenbacka, Nils
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Choquet, Isabelle
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Hurtig, Kjell
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Review of Arc Efficiency Values for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to review the literature that specifies arc efficiency values for gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and, if possible, propose a plausible value range. The literature review covered the years between 1955 and 2011, and showed that the arc efficiency values published lie in a wide range. Values between 0.36 and 0.90 were found for GTAW DCEN. Only a few studies covered DCEP and AC current welding. Specific information about the reproducibility of calorimetric studies was scarce (considering both random and systematic errors). A plausible arc efficiency range (95% confidence) for GTAW DCEN was estimated to be 0.73 – 0.82 with an average value of 0.78. The arc efficiency is lowered by longer arcs (increased arc gap). Reports describing the influence of arc current and travel speed, however, conflict. The GTAW process with DCEN is an efficient welding method.

  • 64.
    Tano, Ingrid
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Nylen, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Wigren, Jan
    Gupta, Mohit Kumar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Curry, Nicholas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Relationships between Coating Microstructure and Thermal Conductivity in Thermal Barrier Coatings – A modelling Approach2010In: International Thermal Spray Conference and Exposition, ITCS Singapore 2010: 3-5 May 2010,  Singapore, Düsseldorft: DVS Media , 2010, p. 66-72Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fundamental understanding of relationships between coating microstructure and thermal conductivity is important to be able to understand the influence of coating defects, such as delaminations and pores, on heat insulation in thermal barrier coatings. Object-Oriented Finite element analysis (OOF) has recently been shown as an effective tool for evaluating thermo-mechanical material behaviour, because of this method's capability to incorporate the inherent material microstructure as an input to the model. In this work, this method was combined with multi-variate statistical modelling. The statistical model was used for screening and tentative relationship building and the finite element model was thereafter used for verification of the statistical modelling results. Characterisation of the coatings included microstructure, porosity and crack content and thermal conductivity measurements. A range of coating architectures was investigated including High purity Yttria stabilised Zirconia, Dysprosia stabilised Zirconia and Dysprosia stabilised Zirconia with porosity former. Evaluation of the thermal conductivity was conducted using the Laser Flash Technique. The microstructures were examined both on as-sprayed samples as well as on heat treated samples. The feasibility of the combined two modelling approaches, including their capability to establish relationships between coating microstructure and thermal conductivity, is discussed.

  • 65.
    Wanner, Bertil
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Strategies for Reducing Vibrations during Milling of Thin-walled Components2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors such as environmental requirements and fuel efficiency have pushed aerospace industry to develop reduced-weight engine designs and thereby light-weight and thin-walled components. As component wall thickness gets thinner and the mechanical structures weaker, the structure becomes more sensitive for vibrations during milling operations. Demands on cost efficiency increase and new ways of improving milling operations must follow.

    Historically, there have been two “schools” explaining vibrations in milling. One states that the entry angle in which the cutting insert hits the work piece is of greater importance than the exit angle. The other states that the way the cutter leaves the work piece is of greater importance than the cutter entry. In an effort to shed some light over this issue, a substantial amount of experiments were conducted. Evaluations were carried out using different tools, different tool-to-workpiece offset positions, and varying workpiece wall overhang. The resultant force, the force components, and system vibrations have been analyzed.

    The first part of this work shows the differences in force behavior for three tool-to-workpiece geometries while varying the wall overhang of the workpiece. The second part studies the force behavior during the exit phase for five different tool-to-workpiece offset positions while the overhang is held constant. The workpiece alloy throughout this work is Inconel 718.

    As a result of the project a spread sheet milling stability prediction model is developed and presented. It is based on available research in chatter theory and predicts the stability for a given set of variable input parameters.

  • 66.
    Wanner, Bertil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Eynian, Mahdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Pejryd, Lars
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Cutter Exit Effects during Milling of Thin-walled Inconel 7182012In: Advanced Materials Research, ISSN 1022-6680, E-ISSN 1662-8985, Vol. 590, p. 297-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During milling of thin-walled components, chatter vibrations give rise to process issues. These include dimensional inaccuracy, damaged and scrap parts, and damaged cutting tools. This, in turn, leads to loss of production time with increasing cost as a consequence. This paper identifies the force profile during a single cut milling process. It focuses on the exit and post-exit behavior of the cut and discusses the process dynamics. The force profiles of various tool-to-workpiece positions are analyzed as regards the exit and post exit phases. A standard on-the-market cutter and a specially designed zero rake cutter are used in the investigation. Finally, a time-domain simulation of the force is performed and compared to the experimental results. The study concludes that a small change in exit angle may result in a considerable improvement in cutting behavior. In addition, the tool position should be chosen so that the cutter exits in the least flexible direction possible for the workpiece.

  • 67.
    Zachrisson, Jan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Quantitative Characterisation of packet Crystallography in high strength steel weld metals2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Zachrisson, Jan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Börjesson, J
    ESAB AB.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Role of inclusions in formation of high strength steel weld metal microstructures2013In: Science and technology of welding and joining, ISSN 1362-1718, E-ISSN 1743-2936, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 603-609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of high strength weld metals with varying Al content are studied. The inclusions are characterised using energy dispersive X-ray analysis and electron diffraction. The tendency for alignment of the microstructure is characterised quantitatively using electron backscatter diffraction and a recently developed post-processing technique. Correlation is found between the inclusion phases present and the amount of aligned neighbouring grains in the microstructure. It is shown that amorphous Si-Al oxides form at low Al weld metal contents and an Mg-Al spinel at higher contents. The former is associated with less alignment of the microstructure and therefore higher impact toughness. The effect of these inclusions on the formation of the microstructure is discussed.

  • 69.
    Zaikovska, Liene
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Simulation of a sheet metal leading edge for a three piece vane using bending and deep-drawing2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 70.
    Zou, Zhonghua
    et al.
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced High-temperature Materials and Precision Forming, Shanghai 200240, China .
    Donoghue, Jack
    University of Manchester, School of Materials, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS, UK .
    Curry, Nicholas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Yang, Lixia
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced High-temperature Materials and Precision Forming, Shanghai 200240, China .
    Guo, Fangwei
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced High-temperature Materials and Precision Forming, Shanghai 200240, China .
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Zhao, Xiaofeng
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced High-temperature Materials and Precision Forming, Shanghai 200240, China .
    Xiao, Ping
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced High-temperature Materials and Precision Forming, Shanghai 200240, China .
    A comparative study on the performance of suspension plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings with different bond coat systems2015In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 275, p. 276-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of suspension plasma sprayed (SPS) yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) after isothermal treatment at 1150. °C was investigated. The NiCoCrAlY bond coats were applied by air plasma spray (APS) and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) techniques. It was found that the microstructure of SPS TBCs depends on the surface morphology of the bond coat. The SPS TBCs with a rough APS bond coat exhibited a longer lifetime than those with a smooth HVOF bond coat. To understand this phenomenon, the evolution of the microstructure, mechanical properties and the residual stresses in the TBCs and TGO were systematically studied. Results showed that the surface roughness and oxidation behavior of the bond coat play dominant roles in the SPS TBC failure. © 2015.

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