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  • 501.
    Tjus, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Thompson, Pontus
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Gamification inom vården: att använda spel för lärande2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores a learning tool that uses gamification. Gamification refers to the act of using game elements for a process that is not typically related to gaming, for the purpose to enhance engagement and motivation of the user. It is a game called SIP-spelet and has been developed for the purpose of facilitating the handling and learning of Samordnad individuell plan (SIP) in a region called Västra Götalandsregionen in Sweden. The study also explores gamification as a learning method and the role of gamification in healthcare. The game has been tested and evaluated by a selected target group. The data collection method has been via a questionnaire. This study uses mostly qualitative questions but does also use some quantitative questions for the collection of data. The results show that SIP-spelet is considered a valuable learning tool and that when gamification is used in a correct way it is a useful learning method that makes users motivated and engaged in their learning. 

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  • 502.
    Tobiasson, Jesper
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Making Expenses: En kvalitativ studie med applicering av ADR i samband med utveckling av en mobilapplikation för att hantera ekonomiska utlägg2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored the development of a mobile application for managing financial expenses within a private company. The study was conducted using Action Design Research as a research method and aimed to develop an efficient and user-friendly application that reduced inaccurately documented expenses and increased employee productivity at a consulting firm collaborating with the study. Through two Building, Intervention, and Evaluation cycles, several problems related to expense management were identified, such as inaccuracies in information input, complex workflows, and unclear information. The researcher developed a mobile application from scratch to address these issues. From the results of the adapted ADR method, four main problems to be solved were generated. During the two development cycles, visual and actual prototypes were carried out in close collaboration with stakeholders from the company. From the development, four design principles were derived, intended to solve the identified problems. These design principles were created to provide general solutions for similar issues while simultaneously addressing the company's initial problems.

  • 503. Torkar, Richard
    et al.
    Mankefors-Christiernin, Stefan
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    Combining partition and random testing2006In: Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Software Engineering, as part of the 24th IASTED International Multi-Conference on APPLIED INFORMATICS, Innsbruck, 2006, p. 367-372Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we evaluate the potential in combining different testing methodologies. The evaluation indicates an increase in effectiveness when adding random testing to partition testing. At the same time, the increase in efficiency inevitably fades because of the added number of random test cases being executed. Nevertheless, the potential in an automation scheme for creating and executing test cases is visible, thus indicating that a future implementation combining the best of two worlds, i.e. partition and random testing could be pursued.

  • 504.
    Tran, Jonny
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Sökmotoroptimering: Vilka tekniker används inom on-pageoptimering för att synas på Google?2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is based on a literature study in Search Engine Optimization about the techniques used to make a website visable and ranked on Google. Search Engine Optimization is a practice for increasing the amount and quality of traffic (i.e., number of visitors) on a website and consists of on-page optimization and off-page optimization. The purpose of this essay is to describe and explain the central concepts that exists within on-page optimization. The term refers to measures and changes that the website owner has control over, for example code, image otimization and text content. The essay clarifies which techniques are essential and what is considered less good, so called "Black Hat" methods. The term uses unethical methods that do not follow Google's guidelines on how Search Engine Optimization should be applied. Furthermore, this essay will explain the risks and consequences that can arise if the guidelines are not followed.

  • 505.
    Ulasi, Micheal
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Engineering.
    IP surveillance comparison between a Banana Pi camera system and a Raspberry Pi B+ camera system2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report discusses the implementation of IP surveillance technology using a decentralized architecture. The research focuses on the comparison between a Banana Pi camera system and a Raspberry Pi B+ camera system. This implies testing both systems as decentralized camera system. Both Pi camera systems, are running Raspbian OS and on them a CSI camera module is attached, and use their VLC media player application that is configured with HTTP/RTSP protocol to send video streams to clients on the LAN. The configuration uses either CIF and 1080P video resolution with motion and without motion respectively, at different intervals in the experiment.

    Information obtained from the research analyzes, revealed that the Raspberry Pi B+ is most suitable as a decentralized camera system than the Banana Pi is. It was possible for the Banana Pi to stream video using HTTP protocol and 1080P resolution with motion and without motion, but it could not use RSTP protocol and CIF resolution. Furthermore, the system crashed whenever the number of remote video streams on the Banana Pi were above than one connection. Although, during this one connection, the CPU usage was 100% and the memory usage was above 200MB. The bandwidth consumption was low, and the video quality was acceptable.The Raspberry Pie B+, processed most remote video streams and had most acceptable video qualities during the use of CIF resolution with motion and without motion, in contrast with use of 1080P with motion and without motion.

    Results also indicated that the Raspberry Pi B+ performed best with the use of CIF without motion, because it served all 50 remote video streams with 33.5% CPU usage. The Raspberry Pi B+, demonstrated poor performance during the 1080P with motion because it served just five remote video streams with 28.8% CPU usage. In overall, the bandwidth and memory usage increased simultaneously on the Raspberry Pi B+ as the number of remote video streams it served increased.

  • 506.
    Umbría Macarrón, Elena
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Rawat, Kalpana
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    An Approach to Cyber-Physical Systems Risk Assessment: Bridging the Gap between Standards and Real-World Applications2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis explores the field of Cyber-Physical Systems, which traditionally represents the integration of software, system hardware, and sensors through interconnected networks. CPS encompasses a wide range of applications and involves the convergence of physical and cyber components. These systems play a critical role in a country’s infrastructure, but their importance is accompanied by potential security threats, safety hazards, and challenges. To ensure the reliable and secure operation of CPS, it is imperative to encompass all potential threats and vulnerabilities that can lead to attacks. Addressing these security concerns is essential to safeguard the integrity and functionality of CPS systems. Recognizing the complexity introduced by the interconnection of the systems, the thesis argues that current risk assessment methods are insufficient to identify threats and vulnerabilities in CPS. It stresses the need for extensive research to effectively address these issues and extend the current risk assessment approach to encompass the physical, cyber, human, social components and other external elements of CPS. The thesis highlights the importance of incorporating external components into the risk assessment approach to address the dynamic nature of CPS. By considering various factors beyond the traditional ecosystem, the thesis aims to enhance the identification and analysis of potential threats and attacks. Organizations can better safeguard their CPS and maintain a robust security posture by addressing these challenges. To assess the effectiveness of the risk assessment approach, a simulation of a connected car is carried out. This simulation helps identify potential threats that pose risks to the CPS, particularly when external components are incorporated. This analysis provides insights into the current threat landscape surrounding modern CPS systems.

  • 507.
    Upara, Rossarin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Cybersecurity: Digital Twins in Automotive Industry: The Road Ahead – An Exploratory Study2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The digital twin is a concept that has attracted the attention of both industry and academia in the last decade with the advent of Industry 4.0 and the adoption of future technologies. Previous research has shown that the automotive industry is facing significant challenges as demand for advanced, connected systems increases, and with it, cybersecurity risks. As the automotive industry has evolved, this concept has become prevalent in many areas and is now applied to products and systems throughout their lifecycle, which also means that the digital twin plays a key role in many development processes. Therefore, it is important to investigate what the cybersecurity stands in terms of cybersecurity. This study takes an exploratory approach that primarily aims to investigate and gain a broader perspective on a relatively unexplored topic, namely cybersecurity for digital twins in the automotive industry. The application of digital twins in the automotive industry was explored to determine what security challenges exist and whether these challenges can be solved using existing security paradigms. Industrial use cases were developed to illustrate the digital twins that exist in the automotive industry. In addition, at an overall level, a threat analysis and risk assessment (TARA) is conducted, again using STRIDE, one of the most commonly used threat models, to identify potential risks and attacks that exist and how they might be addressed in each case. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with four experts working with digital twins and future innovations in the automotive industry to gain insight into how the experts view the digital twin in the context of cybersecurity, risks and threats of digital information. The results of the TARA analysis and the interviews showed that there are many different risks for digital twins that may vary between digital twins, and that there is a common denominator for all of them that can be defined as the biggest challenge for the digital twin, which is data and its related risks. Thus, it can be said that the security paradigms for solving the digital twin are based on the threats and risks of the individual digital twin.

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  • 508.
    Vogel-Rödin, Rasmus
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Blivande lärares perspektiv på nätmobbning: En studie baserad på transcendental fenomenologi2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of digital communication due the ever-expanding Internet, has made cyberbullying a more frequent focused on topic. Smartphones and tablets are today standard communication tools used by students. However, there are few policies or guidelines describing how the consequences of this use, should be handled, or approached. This transcendental phenomenological study focus on prospective teachers, experience and experiences of cyberbullying in school, were they play a critical role in working proactive. The prospective teachers described various different experiences regarding social network sites, Internet behavior, cyberbullying in school, and proactive work related to cyberbullying. The study shows that cyberbullying is a multidimensional phenomenon, were emotional, social and technical dimensions are described with detailed experiences. Finally, the study reveals prospective teachers common unawareness and insecurities generally in schools, due to lack of knowledge and education, on how they should act when faced with the problems cyberbullying creates.

  • 509.
    Voldberg, Jakob
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Zontho, Erica
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Alla är hetero tills motsatsen är bevisad?: En semiotisk innehållsanalys av homosexualitet och queer i fem animerade amerikanska mainstream-långfilmer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, films from the mainstream American animation companies have had an almost non-existent representation of homosexual characters. Previously, it has been proven that the heteronormative has had a strong dominance in these companies. Considering the companies constantly produce new films, we aim to explore if this is still accurate. Within this context, this research offers an updated perspective on current representation by analyzing five animated feature films: Zootopia (2016), ParaNorman (2012), Storks (2016), Finding Dory (2016) and Frozen (2013). We have, with semiotics as a foundation, conducted a qualitative inductive content analysis of these films. By diverging from the heteronormative perspective which is deeply rooted in society we have viewed these films with a different approach. This research shows that the inclusion of homosexual couples and queer characters in animated films has increased. However, despite this increase the characters remain in small roles which are only included for a short time. This shows that the heteronormative still dominates in American mainstream animation. The clues which are given about the characters’ sexuality are subtle, resulting in them being easily overlooked.

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  • 510.
    Waldefeldt, John
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Quist, Albin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Active Directory Self-Service Password Management: Designing a Secure and User-Friendly Platform for Organizations2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the development of a cost-effective, secure and privacy focused self-service password management system that integrates with Active Directory, aimed at addressing the growing need for efficient password management. The primary objective is to alleviate the workload on IT staff while simultaneously empowering employees with control over their passwords, improving the efficiency of the process. The importance of this system lies in its potential to reduce password-related help desk tickets, enhance security, and streamline password management in organizations.

    The system employs multifactor authentication using security questions, SMS-codes, and biometric authentication to ensure a high security level in the authentication process. This report discusses the system design, implementation, and the successful meeting of requirements, thus demonstrating its efficiency in addressing organizations needs in password management.

    The report provides a detailed description of the systems components and their functionalities, exploring the benefits of the developed solution, including its cost-efficiency, privacy-centered design, and potential for seamless integration with existing infrastructure. The system offers a reliable, secure, and user-friendly experience, enabling employees to change their AD-passwords as needed.

    In conclusion, the report demonstrates the successful meeting of system requirements and expectations. In addition, it highlights the importance of an efficient self-service password management system for organizations. It also explores potential future improvements, such as enhancing the user interface and using additional/alternative communication channels for authentication codes. The self-service password management system developed can contribute to increased efficiency and a more secure password management process for all users. 

  • 511.
    Wejnermark, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Hybrid med Frame Relay & MPLS2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 1989 the purpose of internet developed and the uses expanded [10]. Frame Relay was already in the 80's but was used as in the telecommunications industry. It was later developed substantially and started in the 90's standardized for computer communications [1,2]. Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) began to develop in 1997, but was completed in the early 2000’s [4]. These two protocols are based on the same technology in which data packets are switched instead of routed.

    The report addresses three scenarios that are entirely possible problems that could occur in institutional networks. To solve these problems, measurements and tests are used to determine differences between the protocols. The protocols are compared not only in performance but also technically in order to decide what protocol and implementation that work best. Based on the results of the project, the best solution will be found and later implemented for each scenario and are presented in the discussion part.

  • 512.
    Westmark, Alfred
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Granlund, Sebastian
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Relevanta metoder inom sökmotoroptimering: White hat & Black hat2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The two research questions are “What methods are used for higher ranking in Google?” and “What methods go against Google guidelines for ethical SEO?” . The Method of choice is reading scientific articles and by doing interviews with three people to understand what methods are the most popular ones and which methods give the most result from a SEO perspective. The result of the analysis we did from the data we collected shows that the most popular and most known methods are the ones that give the best optimization for SEO, this means that developers should focus mainly on these specific methods. These methods are content optimization, including keywords in the titles on each individual site and including keywords in the actual content and in main headings. If these methods are applied in a correct manner the website will climb in ranking on Google search results. 

  • 513.
    Wiberg, Olivia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and Informatics.
    Ström, Frida
    University West, Department of Economics and Informatics.
    Publish on-the-go: en studie av mobilt socialt nätverkande hos early adopters2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyzes mobile social networking, with the use of smartphones. The purpose is to illustrate what subjective user values there are for the user type known as "early adopters". We look deeper into how society is changing due to how technology is advancing, and what consequences these changes bring us. Furthermore, we study a specific group of people, professionally engaged within the IT and Media business and therefore progressive in adopting new technologies. We study their use of the social network Facebook combined with Apple’s iPhone, and analyze the result of interview research and observations, using the theoretical model Theory of Consumption Values. This model is used to clarify different types of user-experienced values, such as functional values, social values, emotional values, epistemic values and conditional values. By analyzing the result, we find that the prime values among our participants concern availability and information. Distinguishing how social networking among our participants focuses on personal approach, the value of the personal trademark, and how knowledge and accessibility with new technologies and trends come to be extremely important within their profession.

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  • 514.
    Wikström, Henrik
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Björk, Linus
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    DevOps inom ett stort industriföretag: utmaningar inför DevOps-implementering: En kvalitativ studie om utmaningar i implementeringen av DevOps i industriell IT-miljö2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    DevOps was introduced in 2009 as a method for delivering software quickly through automated stable software releases. Important aspects within DevOps include automated testing and releases, as well as collaboration between different project teams. Despite the advantages of DevOps, the implementation is considered a challenging task because of a demanding transition from previously used systems to the new ones. The purpose of this study was to identify the challenges, with the aim of supporting a large industrial company that faces the DevOps implementation. For this study, six respondents were interviewed. The respondents consisted of developer- and project manager roles, all of which were involved in the software development. In the conclusion it is suggested that the biggest challenges are the lack of automated processes and the lack of DevOps knowledge and experience.

  • 515.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge: A Review of Empirical Studies Published From 2011 to 20162018In: Journal of educational computing research (Print), ISSN 0735-6331, E-ISSN 1541-4140, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 315-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) has been introduced asa conceptual framework for the knowledge domains teachers need to master to teach successfully using technology, and has drawn much attention across the educational field. Yet, the framework has been criticized for not being practically useful, due to inaccurate and insufficient definitions. To better understand the critics and the usefulness of the framework, an investigation of how the framework has been applied to show teacher TPACK is needed. This study is a systematic literature review of107 peer-reviewed journal articles concerning the use of TPACK in empirical studies published from 2011 to 2016. The study supplements previous review studies with more recent work on general characteristics of TPACK studies as well as contributes an analysis of how the framework has been applied to identify teacher TPACK inrecent literature. Findings show a variety of approaches and instruments to examine teacher TPACK. Most common is to identify teacher TPACK via self-reporting, while performance evaluations of teaching activities are rare. Additionally, the ways TPACK is operationalized as a measuring instrument are often implicit and make comparison of results difficult. Future directions for research are discussed.

  • 516.
    Willermark, Sara
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Högberg, Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Real Estate, Economics and Society.
    An institutional logics Perspective: An institutional logics Perspective2022In: AMCIS 2022 PROCEEDINGS 1 / [ed] Davis, Gordan, AIS Electronic Library (AISeL) , 2022, p. 1-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The outbreak of the global pandemic COVID-19 meant an extreme intensification of digitalization in education. Around the world, technology became a prerequisite for continuing education, as schools were to switch to distance education. Drawing on an institutional logics perspective, this paper aims to explore school leaders' experiences and insights from running a virtual school overnight. Data includes a survey of105 school leaders in Swedish high schools. The results show clear challenges for schools as institutions, yet most of the school leaders perceived that the shift to virtual classrooms went well and can lead to lasting value for the school. Still, when facing a new situation, organizational problems are uncovered, and the importance of brick-and-mortar schools becomes visible. Contributions include analyzing an extreme case of digitization in schools and conceptualizing two faces of digitalization, that constitute both a preservative and disruptive force in institutional logic.

  • 517.
    Willermark, Sara
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Islind, Anna Sigridur
    Reykjavik Univ, Dept Comp Sci, Reykjavik (ISL).
    Seven educational affordances of virtual classrooms2022In: Computers and Education Open, ISSN 2666-5573, Vol. 3, p. 1-9, article id 100078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For many teachers, the COVID-19 pandemic meant an instant shift from teaching in traditional to a virtual classroom to reduce the spread of infection. It represents a widespread and intensive case of digitalization of teaching practice and many stakeholders are asking the imminent question of which transformations that ‘will stick’ and become a constant in the ‘new normal’ onwards. However, research of online teaching in a high school context remains limited. In this study, we analyze what happens when teaching is redirected from the traditional to the virtual classroom and explore what characterizes educational affordances in the virtual classroom. The context is 15 high schools in Sweden and the empirical data includes a survey with a total of 1109 teachers. Educational affordances are used as an analytic lens to conceptualize what teaching activities that the virtual classroom afford. The main contribution includes theorizing about what activities, interactions, and procedures that the virtual classroom affords by presenting seven educational affordances and contrast these with teaching in traditional classrooms. The affordances consist of (1) Structure (2) One-to-one communication (3) Formalized reconciliations (4) Peace and quiet (5) Hidden back channels (6) Right time and (7) Reaches certain students. The seven affordances can make a foundation for reflection and discussions of how to create a didactic design adapted for different classrooms. Furthermore, we contribute with implications to teachers and school leaders.

  • 518.
    Willermark, Sara
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Islind, Anna Sigridur
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Appelgren, Therese
    Eklund Taavo, Mia
    The Polite Pop-Up: An Experimental Study of Pop-Up Design Characteristics and User2020In: Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences: Human-Computer Interaction in the Digital Economy, 2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pop-up boxes have been widely used to catch users' attention and highlight specific information. Yet, according to previous research, there is a high degree of perceived irritation and dissatisfaction related to pop-ups. In this study, we explore the user experience of what is referred to as "polite pop-up," i.e., a modal pop-up, created based on click events. The intention was to eliminate negative perceptions that pop-ups usually generate. The research method involves a constructed user test of a prototype of a website where polite pop-ups were placed in the interface. Thirteen users participated, where most of the users noticed the polite pop-up and voluntarily chose to access the information within the pop-up. The contribution includes increased insight into the relation between polite pop-up and user satisfaction, as well as design implications for user-centered design.

  • 519.
    Willermark, Sara
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Islind, Anna Sigridur
    Department of Computer Science, Reykjavik University (ISL).
    Vallo Hult, Helena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics. Department of Planning and Development, NU-Hospital Group, Trollhättan.
    Norström, Livia
    Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg.
    Getting the Job Done: Workarounds in Complex Digital Infrastructures2022In: Exploring Digital Resilience / [ed] Cuel, R., Ponte, D., Virili, F., Springer, 2022, Vol. 57, p. 118-132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work today consists of complex arrangements of loosely interrelated digital tools that shape work and form digital infrastructures. These digital infrastructures can either support or hinder the workers in their daily tasks. Working in an environment where some digital tools are designed for work purposes, and others without the proposed end-users in mind creates a need for improvisation. The consequence for workers may include finding various types of workarounds when shifting between digital tools. These workarounds become important for how work is performed. Through a multiple case study, this paper explores how workarounds are manifested in different work settings through four cases in the public sector. We conceptualize workarounds as practices of flexibility, efficiency, and responsibility, and show how workarounds result in new and innovative ways of working, which can be understood as a form of infrastructuring.

  • 520.
    Willermark, Sara
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Unpacking the Role of Boundaries in Computer-Supported Collaborative Teaching2020In: Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing and Work Practices, ISSN 0925-9724, E-ISSN 1573-7551, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 743-767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we explore the role of boundaries for collaborative learning and transformation of work practices to occur. We report from a three-year action research project including well over 1800 h of participation by the authors. The empirical data are based on project participation work including observations and field notes, project reports, interviews and a questionnaire, within a school development project in Nordic elementary school. In the project, teachers and researchers from three Nordic countries, Norway, Sweden and Denmark, collaborated to develop novel, on-line teaching models for a Nordic Virtual Classroom. The virtual classroom refers to an educational setting where teaching and learning activities are conducted collaboratively in cross-national teams "in the cloud" by means of information technology. During the project, teachers were challenged in their current teaching practices and the project resulted in collaborative learning and transformation of work practice. In this paper, we explore underlying reasons for such transformation to occur by unpacking how and why boundaries can play a role in computer-supported collaborative teaching and stimulate a transformation towards digitalized teaching practices. The paper contributes with an explanation of how the composition of boundaries of a technological, organizational, and cultural nature operates and constitutes a resource for learning and principles for how boundaries can be used for such purpose.

  • 521.
    Wissmach, Toni
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Engineering.
    USB 3 jämfört med 2.0: En jämförande studie om bulköverföringar2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fokuset i denna studie ligger huvudsakligen på en av de fyra överföringstyper som USB 2 och 3 använder sig av, bulköverföringar. Från den valda typen av överföring kommer tider och hastighet mätas i tolv testfall. Alla testfall delas in i två grupper ett där mätningarna genomförs under tiden media strömmas ifrån en annan USB-enhet för att belasta USB-bussen. Och ett annat där bussen är obelastat. Värden visas och jämförs sedan med hjälp av grafer och histogram där medelvärden, standardavvikelser samt variationskoefficienten har tagits fram.

    Resultatet i denna studie visar att USB 3 en högre variationskoefficient i vissa lägen. Mätvärden visar att USB 3 har ett lägre variationskoefficientvärde när testdatan består av många små filer än vad det gör för USB 2. Dock ökar variationskoefficienten för USB 3 när filstorleken blir större jämfört med USB 2 som påvisar en sjunkande variationskoefficient.

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  • 522.
    Wynn, Eleanor
    et al.
    Ronin Institute, USA.
    Vallo Hult, Helena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Qualitative and Critical Research in Information Systems and Human-Computer Interaction: Divergent and Convergent Paths2019In: Foundations and Trends® in Information Systems, ISSN 2331-1231, Vol. 3, no 1-2, p. 1-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information Systems (IS) and Human Computer Interaction(HCI)–including Computer-Supported Cooperative Work(CSCW)–address the development and adoption of computingsystems by organizations, individuals, and teams. Whileeach has its own emphasis, the timelines for adopting qualitativeand critical research differ dramatically. IS used bothin the late 1980s, but critical theory appeared in HCI onlyin 2000. Using a hermeneutic literature review, the papertraces these histories; it applies academic cultures theoryas an explanatory framework. Institutional factors includeepistemic bases of source disciplines, number and centralityof publication outlets, and political and geographic contexts.Key innovations in IS are covered in detail. The rise ofplatformization drives the fields toward a common scopeof study with an imperative to address societal issues thatemerge at scale.

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  • 523.
    Yako, Aram
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Dahl, Isak
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Factors that affect usage intention towards mobile augmented reality in fashion e-commerce.: A quantitative study using UTAUT2 model2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today e-commerce is growing more and more popular. It might be because of the easy access directly from the home or workplace. It might also have to do with the continuous smartphone evolution allowing more people internet access than ever before. Augmented reality (AR) is a technology that can generate virtual objects and integrate them into the real world. When new technology such as AR enters the field of ecommerce, it is difficult to predict the consumers' response. This study will focus on the factors that are important for consumers' usage intentions towards mobile AR in fashion e-commerce. A few of these factors are how well technology provides benefits in performing certain activities, how easy it is to use technology and how enjoyable it is to use it. Based on past research, an acceptance model (UTAUT2) was adopted to examines what factors affect user's intention to use mobile AR in fashion e-commerce. PLS-SEM was used to estimate the relationship between factors in the UTAUT2 model. With the help of social media, a survey was distributed with the "snowball technique" to gather information. To limit the data, only those between the ages of 16 and 38 were allowed to participate in the survey. Towards the end of the timeframe of collecting data, there were 120 participants. Only two out of the six investigated factors had a positive impact on user's usage intentions: habit and performance expectancy.

  • 524.
    Yan Lin, Wu
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    A Lightweight Framework for Tracing andVisualizing Real-Time Operating Systems2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    System tracing is a helpful method for engineersand users to know exactly what happens in an operating system,especially in real-time operating systems (RTOS), because forreal-time system, it is normally more difficult to know theperformance of hardware and software than for desktopcomputers. Although this kind of tracing tools already exist forsome commercial RTOS, it is fairly hard to see those tools forsmall or open source RTOS. Moreover, because the structure andimplementation of different RTOS varies, it is rare to find aframework that can easily be ported to those platforms. In thisthesis, a solution is presented to this general tracing problem ondifferent platforms. By using the portable framework, it ispossible to implement tracing component into a real timeoperating system by some simple reconfigurations. This platformportability feature is accomplished by separating the specificplatform logic from the logic of the tracing part. Finally, adeployment of this framwork onto a small open source real-timeoperating system—AtomThreads, running on an AVRATmega1650 – is used as a demonstration of this framework.

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  • 525.
    Yohannes, Betiel
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Wrede, Gabriel
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Effektivisera VR-träning med interaktion och realism: Virtual reality som utbildningsverktyg inom metallurgi och robotsvetsning2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) are techniques that can be used to perform simulated training in areas such as welding and metallurgy training. VR and AR technology is used to create as lifelike an experience as possible in the simulated environment and can be a good training tool. The problem is that there is not much research where VR and AR are used as educational tools in welding and metallurgy. Both VR and AR are within a spectrum called mixed reality (MR). The purpose of this study is to investigate how it is possible to improve welding and metallurgy education with the help of Mixed Reality (MR) to get the most realistic experience possible. To investigate the purpose, a qualitative study was conducted with semi-structured interviews to identify which materials and tools are used in the fields in welding and metallurgy areas. In the qualitative study, eight people in the field of welding and metallurgy were interviewed.

    This study shows that the respondents have a favorable view of using AR and VR technology and that there is a need to use VR and AR for educational purposes. MR is a complementary tool to the theoretical in the education and can complement existing training. Elements that can be considered very dangerous can be replaced to make education a safer environment. The study further discusses how the materials and tools that have been identified can be designed to have the most realistic experience possible with techniques such as Substitutional Reality (SR) and Smart Substitutional Reality (SSR) for AR. One conclusion is that SR and SSR can create an "Aha experience" and a transparent interface between the participant and the MR simulation to improve AR as a training tool.

  • 526.
    Zellaya, Ibrahim
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Brushwood, William
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Examining the performance of AR technologies to provide instructions for operators: a study at Siemens2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB is interested in digitizing their current work processes. Therefore, the reason for this study is to examine if AR performs better than paper as an instruction method for operators at Siemens in Trollhättan. In order to answer the question "How well does Augmented Reality (AR) technology perform compared to physical papers as an instruction method for operators in a production environment?", two qualitative methods have been applied. Data was collected by using observations and semi-structured interviews for the analysis of this study.

    Our choice of theoretical framework was not only applied for evaluating the performance, but also the operators' willingness to adopt AR as a form of instruction method.

    The findings from the results show that AR performs better as an instruction method and that the operators had a positive attitude when using AR. However, it is still unclear how well this technology will be accepted. This is mainly due to the fact that future improvements still need to be made to the hardware and the lack of customized applications for the operators' needs.

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  • 527.
    Åkesson, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Svensson, Jimmie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Nydesign av kommunalt corenät2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is covering a couple of problems within the municipality of Uddevalla and their core network. Today the network consists entirely of layer-2 links and routing which is divided between three multilayer switches. These switches main purpose is routing. They are configured with all static routs. To divide the routing in such a way means suboptimal routing, which in turn encumbers all links and network devices unnecessary. Since it is time to upgrade and replace all key components within the core network, this project resulted in a solution witch solves these problems.

    The design of the new core has been evolving through numerous tests in a lab environment, comparing two different types of routing. On one hand, todays model where the routing is distributed on a couple of different switches, and on the other, a routing solution where the routing is taking place as close to the source as possible. Through the results of these tests, a new design has been proposed to both optimizing the routing and the traffic flows within the network.

    The new net design is built upon the Cisco hierarchy (hierarchical) model. It is a model which describes how a scalable and redundant network should be built. In this model, the network is divided into three logical layers; core, distribution and access. In this proposal, the routing is more effective due to the fact that is has been moved to the distribution layer. This change will also optimize the flow of traffic within the network. On top of it all, the dynamic routing protocol OSPF, which is divided in four different areas, is suggested to be implemented

  • 528.
    Öman, Anne
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied IT.
    Sofkova Hashemi, Sylvana
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Design and redesign of a multimodal classroom task: implications for teaching and learning2015In: Journal of Information Technology Education, ISSN 1547-9714, E-ISSN 1539-3585, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 139-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital technologies are increasingly implemented in Swedish schools, which impact on education in the contemporary classroom. Screen-based practice opens up for new forms and multiplicity of representations, taking into account that language in a globalized society is more than reading and writing skills. This paper presents a case study of technology-mediated instruction at the primary-school level including an analysis of the designed task and how the teacher orchestrated the digital resources during three introductory classes. The aim was also to explore the pupils’ redesigning of advertising films based on teacher’s instructions and available digital resources. Sequences of a learning trajectory were video recorded and analysed from a multimodal perspective with a focus on the designed task and the processes of how pupils orchestrate meaning through their selection and configuration of available designs. The findings show a distinction between the selection of design elements in the teacher’s orchestration of the laptop resources during instruction and the pupils’ redesigning of the task. Pupils’ work developed from the linguistic design provided by the teacher towards visual design and the use of images as the central mode of expression in the process of creating advertising films. The findings also indicate a lack of orientation towards subject content due to the teacher’s primary focus on introducing the software.

  • 529.
    Öman, Anne
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied IT.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Similar products different processes: Exploring the orchestration of digital resources in a primary school project2014In: Computers and education, ISSN 0360-1315, E-ISSN 1873-782X, Vol. 81, p. 247-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, teachers and pupils are interacting with digital devices during different types of activities in theclassroom context. During such activities, dialogic interaction has a particular value as a pedagogicalpractice that helps to develop pupils' understanding. This study has explored the question: In what waysdo digital resources support dialogic and synergistic interaction?In order to explore primary schoolpupils' interaction within group activity and how they make use of the features of the laptops, theempirical material was collected through video recordings and further analysed with the interactivityanalysis framework (IAF) developed by Beauchamp and Kennewell (2010). The findings show thatalthough the products produced by the different groups of pupils were similar in a technological way (i.e.the pupils used the same modes of expression), the patterns of interaction during the group processesvaried. Two out of six groups used the digital resource as an 'object of interaction', where the tool had amore passive role during the group collaboration. The other four groups used the ICT resource as a 'toolfor interaction', where the resource became more of an interaction partner during the meaning-makingprocesses, which opened up opportunities for learning. The findings also indicate that the interplay inthese four groups between the group members and the laptop features seems to have developed thepupils' understanding of ICT resources as well as their understanding of the subject content during thegroup work. Synergistic interaction with ICT was rather rare but was observed in one of the groups

  • 530.
    Östlund, Christian
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    E-learning use patterns in the workplace: Web logs from interaction with a web based lecture2012In: International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning, E-ISSN 1867-5565, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 4-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When designing for e-learning the objective is todesign for learning i.e. the technology supporting thelearning activity should aid and support the learningprocess and be an arena where learning is likely to occur. Toobtain this when designing e-learning for the workplace theauthor argue that it is important to have knowledge on howusers actually access and use e-learning systems. In order togain this knowledge web logs from a web lecture developedfor a Scandinavian public body has been analyzed. During aperiod of two and a half months 15 learners visited the weblecture 74 times. The web lecture consisted of streamingvideo with exercises and additional links to resources on theWWW to provide an opportunity to investigate the topicfrom multiple perspectives. The web lecture tookapproximately one hour to finish. Using web usage miningfor the analysis seven groups or interaction patternsemerged: peaking, one go, partial order, partial unordered,single module, mixed modules, non-video modules.Furthermore the web logs paint a picture of the learningactivities being interrupted. This suggests that modulesneeds to be fine-grained (e.g. less than 8 minutes per videoclip) so learners’ do not need to waste time having to watchparts of a video clip while waiting for the part of interest toappear or having to fast forward. A clear and logicalstructure is also important to help the learner find their wayback accurately and fast.

  • 531.
    Östlund, Christian
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Jobe, William
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    E-training through web lectures2014In: Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2014 / [ed] M. Searson & M. Ochoa, Chesapeake, VA: AACE , 2014, p. 397-402Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper sets out to inform how technology can be designed to support formal workplace training by acknowledging the context of every day work. The research in this paper follows the approach of design science research and a design theory for e-training through web lectures emerged in collaboration with members of the county administration through four designcycles of problem awareness: conceptual suggestion, system development, and evaluation. Aframework called authentic e-learning with nine design principles was chosen as a kernel theory.The design principles were then evaluated in the context of workplace learning and after four design cycles some of the original design principles was still unaltered, some was adapted to the conditions of workplace learning and new principles emerged from the evaluation process.

  • 532.
    Östlund, Christian
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Kautz, Karlheinz
    Copenhagen Business School.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Towards adapting authentic learning for formal workintegrated e-learning2009In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology, DESRIST '09, 2009, p. Aricle 29-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This poster reports from the initial steps of formulating a prescriptive design theory to support the development of scholastic/formal work-integrated e-learning systems. For this purpose a framework for authentic learning, developed andevaluated in a school setting and the eight components of design theories by Gregor and Jones has been used to guide two elearning activities in a work setting. Adapting authentic learning to a formal work-integrated e-learning context calls for a simplification of the framework where some elements of authentic learning become peripheral whereas others become more central. Copyright 2009 ACM.

  • 533.
    Överengen, Anders
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Lundgren, Axel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Evaluating ZigBee and Thread Security in Smart Home Consumer Products: An Analysis of the ZigBee and Thread Protocols with a Proposed Firewall Implementation2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Popularity for consumer IoT products has risen, and today IoT products have become a more integrated part of home's environment and functionality. With the rise in popularity for IoT products there has also been an interest in new light-weight protocols for IoT and OT devices. While ZigBee is a well-established protocol in the field, it has been researched countless times and several security issues have been acknowledged. Thread is a newer protocol and is in direct competition with ZigBee and was released in 2015. Thread has native IPv6 support and does not require a dedicated hub to communicate with existing IP based networks. ZigBee and Thread are based on layer 1 and 2 of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. This report aimed to evaluate the possibility to implement a traditional firewall to protect IoT networks on the IP based network. Furthering to evaluate the security of ZigBee and Thread protocols against eavesdropping attacks and if it was possible to craft and transmit a malicious packet from a rogue device not part of the established ZigBee or Thread network. Results show that the most proficient method for implementing a firewall is with transparent mode, operating on the layer 2 of the OSI-model, since the products used in this testbed utilises layer 2 protocol for discovery and pairing and was successful in traversing over layer 3 boundaries. By eavesdropping on the ZigBee network during the pairing process of devices it was possible to compromise the network key and view all further communication in clear text. Information gathered was used to craft a custom-made packet for disruption of ZigBee operation. However, this attack was not successful with the nRF52840 series used in the testbed. Eavesdropping was not successful in compromising any valuable information from the Thread network. Drawback of using consumer products is being locked to the designed pairing process of IoT products. Pairing of the Nanoleaf lightbulb required initial pairing over Bluetooth and later shifting to a Thread network. If a pre-shared network key is utilised and shared over Bluetooth was not assessed. However, the Nanoleaf application presents PAN ID and the network key in plain text, this is considered a severe security vulnerability. The network key could be used to decrypt 6LoWPAN And CoAP packets. Thread packets were not successful in being decrypted. Due to the full Thread stack not being decrypted, the traffic information could not be compromised and used to create a custom-made packet.

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