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  • 351.
    Wang, Yueyue
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production System.
    Theoretical experiment of GISSMO failure model for Advanced High Strength Steel2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    When developing an electric vehicle, it is essential to evaluate the deformation in and around the battery box for different crash scenarios, and it is necessary to develop a more advanced model that would take into account all the stress modes. Thanks to the excellent properties of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) combine with high strength for more safety and weight reduction for less exhaust emission, AHSS is more and more commonly used in automobile industry. The material employed in this project is DOCOL 900M and it is a martensitic steel with yield strength higher than 700MPa.  The focus of the current work is to describe the experimental setup for the GISSMO model used in LS-DYNA. A number of experimental methods and theories have been reviewed. Different geometries of the test specimens under different stress triaxialities have been discussed. The study also compares the accuracy and robustness of each of the testing methods and setups. The effect of anisotropy of materials on the mechanical properties was studied. Some summaries about how to reduce errors in the experiment under the conditions of low costing and high efficiency have been discussed. According to the stress-strain response of ductile materials, the parameters of plasticity model can be calibrated. The material can be implemented in finite element software to calibrate the parameters of damage and the prediction of material failure can be achieved. The experiment and simulation are always good to be used together in the research.

  • 352.
    Wanner, Bertil
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Strategies for Reducing Vibrations during Milling of Thin-walled Components2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors such as environmental requirements and fuel efficiency have pushed aerospace industry to develop reduced-weight engine designs and thereby light-weight and thin-walled components. As component wall thickness gets thinner and the mechanical structures weaker, the structure becomes more sensitive for vibrations during milling operations. Demands on cost efficiency increase and new ways of improving milling operations must follow.

    Historically, there have been two “schools” explaining vibrations in milling. One states that the entry angle in which the cutting insert hits the work piece is of greater importance than the exit angle. The other states that the way the cutter leaves the work piece is of greater importance than the cutter entry. In an effort to shed some light over this issue, a substantial amount of experiments were conducted. Evaluations were carried out using different tools, different tool-to-workpiece offset positions, and varying workpiece wall overhang. The resultant force, the force components, and system vibrations have been analyzed.

    The first part of this work shows the differences in force behavior for three tool-to-workpiece geometries while varying the wall overhang of the workpiece. The second part studies the force behavior during the exit phase for five different tool-to-workpiece offset positions while the overhang is held constant. The workpiece alloy throughout this work is Inconel 718.

    As a result of the project a spread sheet milling stability prediction model is developed and presented. It is based on available research in chatter theory and predicts the stability for a given set of variable input parameters.

  • 353.
    Wanner, Bertil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Eynian, Mahdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Pejryd, Lars
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Cutter Exit Effects during Milling of Thin-walled Inconel 7182012In: Advanced Materials Research, ISSN 1022-6680, E-ISSN 1662-8985, Vol. 590, p. 297-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During milling of thin-walled components, chatter vibrations give rise to process issues. These include dimensional inaccuracy, damaged and scrap parts, and damaged cutting tools. This, in turn, leads to loss of production time with increasing cost as a consequence. This paper identifies the force profile during a single cut milling process. It focuses on the exit and post-exit behavior of the cut and discusses the process dynamics. The force profiles of various tool-to-workpiece positions are analyzed as regards the exit and post exit phases. A standard on-the-market cutter and a specially designed zero rake cutter are used in the investigation. Finally, a time-domain simulation of the force is performed and compared to the experimental results. The study concludes that a small change in exit angle may result in a considerable improvement in cutting behavior. In addition, the tool position should be chosen so that the cutter exits in the least flexible direction possible for the workpiece.

  • 354.
    Westerlund, Christian
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Benchmark study: Sill concepts for electric vehicles2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The market for electric vehicles is expanding and the car manufacturer want to store as much energy as possible in the car. However, if the battery cells in the vehicle are damaged there is a risk that the battery could start a fire or explode. To avoid that the battery cells are damaged during a crash scenario, it is important to minimize the intrusion in the body structure. At the same time the car manufacturers do not want to increase the weight or manufacturing cost of the car more than necessary. The purpose of this study is to perform a benchmark study which compares the crashworthiness of different sill concepts used by various automotive companies.

    The different sill concepts that are being benchmarked in this thesis are Tesla Model S, BMW I3, Mercedes S-Class and Volkswagen E-golf. To be able to compare the sill structures from these different cars, some modifications must be done to their original geometry. A standardized cross section is created and the material thickness is adjusted until all concepts has the same mass. When the geometries have been designed, a nonlinear finite element calculation is performed to evaluate the crashworthiness of each sill concept. The finite element analysis is based on the standardized load case: side pole impact. The result shows that the concept inspired by Tesla Model S has the best performance when considering intrusion. However, if the concept inspired by Tesla Model S does not get enough support from the floor structure, it will lose its ability to absorb energy after a certain amount of time. And therefore, the BMW I3 concept could be a good alternative to the Model S concept if it is not possible to provide this additional support.

  • 355.
    Wiklund, Daniel
    et al.
    Swerea IVF, Box 104, Mölndal, SE-431 22, Sweden.
    Larsson, Mats
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Phenomenological friction model in deep drawing of aluminum sheet metals2018In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-8981, E-ISSN 1757-899X, Vol. 418, no 1, p. 1-8, article id 012097Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Friction is an important parameter in sheet metal forming since it influences the flow of material in the process. Consequently, it is also an important parameter in the design process of new stamping dies when numerical simulations are utilized. Today, the most commonly used friction model in forming simulations is Coulomb’s friction which is a strong simplification of the tribological system conditions and a contributory cause of discrepancy between simulation and physical experiments. There are micromechanical models available but with an inherent complexity that results in limited transparency for users. The objective in this study was to design a phenomenological friction model with a natural level of complexity when Coulomb’s friction is inadequate. The local friction model considers implicit properties of tool and sheet surface topography, lubricant viscosity, sheet metal hardness and strain, and process parameters such as sliding speed and contact pressure. The model was calibrated in a Bending-Under-Tension test (BUT) and the performance was evaluated in a cross shaped geometry (X-die). The results show a significant improvement of the simulation precision and provide the user a transparent tribological system. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 356.
    William, Omar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Development of waste sorting system2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis is a mechanical engineering project done in cooperation with Swedish Innovators. The aim of this project has been to develop and design a waste sorting system in order to enhance the waste sorting process.

    After the first meeting with the client, it was understood that the product needs to be developed in aspects like design and functionality to make it suited for marketing. A number of demands was also established, in order to ensure that the redesigned product will fulfil its purpose.

    The project started with a product definition process that included studying existing products, search for relevant articles and a survey research to gather customer needs and ideas. After defining the product and gathering all possible information regarding the subject, a number of customer requirements were gathered.

    A number of concepts were generated according to the customer requirements and four of them was chosen by the client and the student for further development. And in order to choose the best concept of the four, selection matrices were used.

    The result of the project was one concept that satisfied almost all the requirements. The concept contains three main parts: a frame, a drawer and a container. The concept fulfils almost all the established demands by the client like ergonomic design and easy to install and assemble. After assembling the concept, the user should have a product that contains seven parts: one frame, two drawers and four containers, and the product should enhance the process of waste sorting with its practicality and ergonomic design.

  • 357.
    Xin, Zhu
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production System.
    Improvement of Automated Guided Vehicle's image recognition: Object detection and identification2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Automated Guided Vehicle(AGV) as a kind of material conveying equipment has been widely used in modern manufacturing systems. [1] It carries the goods between the workshop along the designated paths. The ability of localization and recognizing the environment around themselves is the essential technology. AGV navigation is developed from several technologies such as fuzzy theory, neural network and other intelligent technology. Among them, visual navigation is one of the newer navigations, because of its path laying is easy to maintain, can identify variety of road signs. Compared with traditional methods, this approach has a better flexibility and robustness, since it can recognition more than one path branch with high anti-jamming capability. Recognizing the environment from imagery can enhance safety and dependability of an AGV, make it move intelligently and brings broader prospect for it. University West has a Patrolbot which is an AGV robot with basic functions. The task is to enhance the ability of vision analysis, to make it become more practical and flexible. The project is going to add object detection, object recognition and object localization functions on the Patrolbot. This thesis project develops methods based on image recognition, deep learning, machine vision, Convolution Neural Network and related technologies. In this project Patrolbot is a platform to show the result, we can also use this kind of program on any other machines. This report generally describes methods of navigation, image segmentation and object recognition. After analyzing the different methods of image recognition, it is easy to find that Neural Network has more advantages for image recognition, it can reduce the parameters and shorting the training and analyzing time, therefore Convolution Neural Network was introduced detailly. After that, the way to achieve image recognition using convolution neural network was presented and in order to recognize several objects at the same time, an image segmentation was also presented here. On the other hand, to make this image recognition processes to be used widely, the ability of transfer learning becomes important. Therefore, the method of transfer learning is presented to achieve customized requirement.

  • 358.
    Yan, Nannan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production System.
    Safe Human Robot Collaboration: By using laser scanners, robot safety monitoring system and trap routine speed control2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, robot is commonly used to perform automation tasks. With the trend of low volume and customised products, flexible manufacturing is introduced to increase working efficiency and flexibility. Therefore, human robot collaboration plays an important role in automation production and safety should be considered in the design of this kind of robot cell. This work presents the design of safe human robot collaboration by equipping an industrial robot cell with SICK laser scanners, safety monitoring system and trap routine speed control. It also investigates the reliability of RGB-D camera for robot safety. This work aims to find a safety robot system using standard industrial robot for human robot collaboration. The challenge is to ensure the operator's safety at all times. It investigates safety standards and directives, safety requirements of collaboration, and related works for the design of collaborative robot cell, and makes risk assessment before carrying out the valuation. Based on literature review, it gives the concept of layout design and logic for slow down and resume of robot motion. The speed will be first reduced to manual speed and then zero speed depending on the distance between the human and the robot. Valuation and verification are made in the proposed safe solution for human robot collaboration to test the reliability and feasibility. This project realizes the automatic resume that the robot can con-tinue working without manually pressing reset button after the operator leaves the robot cell if there is no access to the prohibited area. In addition, it also adopts the manual reset at the same time to ensure the safety when people access the prohibited area. Several special cases that may happen in the human robot collaboration are described and analysed. Furthermore, the future work is presented to make improvements for the proposed safety robot cell design.

  • 359.
    Zachrisson, Jan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Börjesson, J
    ESAB AB.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Role of inclusions in formation of high strength steel weld metal microstructures2013In: Science and technology of welding and joining, ISSN 1362-1718, E-ISSN 1743-2936, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 603-609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of high strength weld metals with varying Al content are studied. The inclusions are characterised using energy dispersive X-ray analysis and electron diffraction. The tendency for alignment of the microstructure is characterised quantitatively using electron backscatter diffraction and a recently developed post-processing technique. Correlation is found between the inclusion phases present and the amount of aligned neighbouring grains in the microstructure. It is shown that amorphous Si-Al oxides form at low Al weld metal contents and an Mg-Al spinel at higher contents. The former is associated with less alignment of the microstructure and therefore higher impact toughness. The effect of these inclusions on the formation of the microstructure is discussed.

  • 360.
    Zaikovska, Liene
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering.
    Simulation of a sheet metal leading edge for a three piece vane using bending and deep-drawing2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 361.
    Zhao, Y.
    et al.
    University of Manchester, School of Materials.
    Shinmi, A.
    University of Manchester, School of Materials.
    Zhao, X.
    University of Manchester, School of Materials.
    Withers, P. J.
    University of Manchester, School of Materials.
    Van Boxel, S.
    University of Manchester, School of Materials.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Nylén, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Xiao, Ping
    University of Manchester, School of Materials.
    Investigation of interfacial properties of atmospheric plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings with four-point bending and computed tomography technique2012In: Surface and Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, Vol. 206, no 23, p. 4922-4929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A modified four-point bending test has been employed to investigate the interfacial toughness of atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) after isothermal heat treatments at 1150°C. The delamination of the TBCs occurred mainly within the TBC, several to tens of microns above the interface between the TBC and bond coat. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the TBC was mainly tetragonal in structure with a small amount of the monoclinic phase. The calculated energy release rate increased from ~50J/m -2 for as-sprayed TBCs to ~120J/m -2 for the TBCs exposed at 1150°C for 200h with a loading phase angle about 42°. This may be attributed to the sintering of the TBC. X-ray micro-tomography was used to track in 3D the evolution of the TBC microstructure non-destructively at a single location as a function of thermal exposure time. This revealed how various types of imperfections develop near the interface after exposure. The 3D interface was reconstructed and showed no significant change in the interfacial roughness after thermal exposure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  • 362.
    ZhongYang, Gong
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Manufacturing Processes.
    Bottleneck detection through simulation software2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bottleneck detection in production is essential to improve the overall manufacturing capacity. The common bottleneck detection methods have drawbacks of either practicability or accuracy. There is a recent manual methodology called bottleneck walk which is simple, accurate and easy to implement. Though it is a reliable and practical manual method, other more automated non-manual methods for detecting bottlenecks should be considered in the future. In this paper, the simulation models were built in a discrete event simulation software named Plant simulation. The models are based on real production cases where the bottleneck walk methodology had been tested. In the first case, the particular result shows that machine 2 has been the bottleneck for a long period, which is what is found in the real production. In the second case, the bottlenecks are found and the potential improvements are made on it. Though two improvement plans are made, neither of them solves the bottleneck and im-proves the system output. The plan of reducing buffer size might probably have an improve-ment on financial aspect. And further improvements on all findings remain available on models built in this paper.

  • 363.
    Åstrand, Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Environment Production Technology West. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. Volvo Construction Equipment, Carl Lihnells väg, Braås, Sweden .
    A new innovative toolbox for lean welding of fatigue loaded structures2015In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 81, no 1-4, p. 635-643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Welding is a key manufacturing technology in the production of heavy steel structures, but it is likewise a weak link in the production chain since fatigue fractures in welds is a common cause of failures. This paper proposes several changes in the process to make the manufacturing more efficient and to improve the fatigue properties. The idea is to adopt the weld quality demands for the purpose of the weld and to connect them to the welding procedures. This approach ensures that the primary focus during welding is at the critical characteristics which add value to the welded structure through an enhanced fatigue life. These fatigue life-critical properties have been found to be related to the local weld geometry in the weld toe and at the weld root. Traditional demands related to the good workmanship of welding can often be neglected, due to its limited effect to the fatigue life. The research presented in this paper has contributed to the development of welding procedures for improved fatigue life properties at the critical points of the weld. Results indicate a considerable potential for enhanced fatigue life of fillet welds. The idea is to replace the standard fillet welds with a new toolbox containing three different welds: (i) welds with optimized penetration, (ii) welds with optimized weld toe, and (iii) welds with a low cost. Right usage of these weld types contributes to an efficient production that offer a long fatigue life. This paper describes a holistic view of the subject and highlights issues with the traditional way of working. The challenge and the novelty in the paper are the connection between the welding process, weld demands, and fatigue life properties. This connection is necessary for the development of welding procedures that can contribute to the fabrication of weight optimized welded structures with a predictable life. © 2015 Springer-Verlag London

  • 364.
    Åstrand, Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Environment Production Technology West.
    Key Changes in the Welding of Fatigue Loaded Structures2014In: Proceedings of the 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014 / [ed] Stahre, Johan, Johansson, Björn & Björkman, Mats, 2014, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses welding problems of today and the possibilities for tomorrow for companies in the welding industry. By leaving old welding procedures based on traditions and applying new scientifically developed welding demands and procedures there is a vast potential to improve strength performance of the structures and increased competitiveness regarding weld work for the companies. Unfortunately, no changes are done easily and quickly and this paper gives proposals how changes can be done efficiently.

  • 365.
    Åstrand, Erik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West. Volvo Construction Equipment AB, Braås, Sweden .
    Stenberg, T.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Department of Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Division of Lightweight Structures, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Jonsson, B.
    Volvo Construction Equipment AB, Braås, Sweden .
    Barsoum, Z.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Department of Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Division of Lightweight Structures, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Welding procedures for fatigue life improvement of the weld toe2016In: Welding in the World, ISSN 0043-2288, E-ISSN 1878-6669, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 573-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of gas metal arc welded, GMAW, cruciform joints made of common construction steel S355. The hypothesis is that smooth undercuts in as welded conditions can give enhanced fatigue properties similarly as post treated welds. Undercuts are generally seen as a defect or imperfection. Welders try to avoid these and repair them when they occur, which result in increased production lead time. Post weld improvement methods i.e. grinding or high-frequency-impact treatment (HFMI) as fatigue-enhancing post-treatment methods enforce amongst other effects a certain smooth undercut-shaped groove in the treated weld toe region. The obtained shallower weld toe transition reduces the geometrical notch effect and increases fatigue strength. This paper presents a study whereas welded specimens with a weld toe geometry similar to what is obtained by weld toe grinding or HFMI-treatment, has been produced, fatigue tested and analyzed. The improvement of the fatigue strength is comparable to post-weld treated specimens. It has proven to be an efficient way to achieve high-quality welds without introducing any additional operations in production, thus enabling weight reduction using cost-effective methods.

  • 366.
    Öberg, Anna Ericson
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Arvika, Sweden.
    Sikström, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production System.
    Barriers for industrial implementation of in-process monitoring of weld penetration for quality control2017In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 91, no 5-8, p. 2427-2434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research conducted sheds a light on the question why robust in-process monitoring and adaptive control are not fully implemented in the welding industry. In the research project FaRoMonitA, the possibilities to monitor the weld quality during welding have been investigated. Research conducted in this area has merely focused on technical issues investigated in a laboratory environment. To advance the research front and release some barriers related to industrial acceptance, the studies conducted in this paper have been both quantitative and qualitative in form of experiments combined with an interview study. The quality property weld penetration depth was chosen for in-process monitoring to evaluate the industrial relevance and applicability. A guaranteed weld penetration depth is critical for companies producing parts influenced by fatigue. The parts studied were fillet welds produced by gas metal arc welding. The experiments show that there is a relationship between final penetration depth and monitored arc voltage signals and images captured by CMOS vision and infrared cameras during welding. There are still technical issues to be solved to reach a robust solution. The interview study indicates that soft issues, like competence and financial aspects, are just as critical.

  • 367.
    Örnskär, Rasmus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Divison of Natural Sciences, Surveying and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förbättrings och layout förslag för pakethanteringen hos SKF Logistics Services Sweden2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The expected outcome of this thesis is to identify process involving manual handling of packet at SKF Logistics Services Sweden. As well developing proposals for changes in the process and layout suggestions for floor 200. These proposals are based in lean and ergonomics to find wastes in the process and improve the current working environment that today includes of heavy lifting for personnel.

    If the proposals are implemented they will provide an improved flow primarily by the takt-error which today is between picking and packing of orders. Ergonomics will also be improved by heavy lifting will be minimized. As well will work stations be redesigned with ergonomic models from the Swedish work Environment Authority. This will improve the working environment in the process. Some of the suggestions given in this thesis is not entirely rooted in the organization but are included to show how to save and the elimination of non -value adding activities that can be done by changing the surrounding processes. This will affect more departments than SKF Logistics Services Sweden and more extensive pre-study must be conducted before these proposals can be implemented

  • 368.
    Örtendahl, Niklas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    En studie på emballeringssystem ur ett resursoptimeringsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's industry is subject to fierce competition. This requires constant business development and continuous increment in product variety to meet customer requirements. Management Tools such as Lean Production, which focuses on a continuous reduction of waste in all parts of the company, plays a key role in today's industry. In order to reconcile the continual improvement of the organization's well-being requires a structured approach in the form of organized improvements.  The work carried out at Swegon AB in Kvänum identifies possible changes concerning the wrapping process in efficiency improvement and resource saving purposes. The company produces air handling units and fans for indoor use. The products are used in stadiums, hotels, hospitals, airports, universities and private housing.  Today’s wrapping process is perceived as ineffective. The company sees potential for improvement in transportation cuts, in minimizing physical and business management steps and thus reduce the need for storage space and buffers. Along with a restructuring, that focuses on improving material flow and layouts, large parts of the production is changed, from a function-oriented to an increasingly process-oriented structure. If the proposed changes are to be implemented this most likely occurs in conjunction with the rebuilding.  The work was initiated by a comprehensive survey of today's wrapping process. The empirical collection began through interviews, observations and process mapping. The survey was completed by applying the fishbone diagram, where the root causes of the identified problems were structured.  Continuous literature studies were conducted to substantiate the used methods. The theory deals primarily with lean production with focus on waste and standardization. Suggestions for improvement were generated continuously in close cooperation with technicians and production staff. The focus was on reducing non-essential steps in the process. This work results in four proposed changes: scanning, layout changes and kitting. These changes give rise to a reduced need of resources and an increased quality towards customers. Additionally, the proposals improve opportunities for standardization of the process in the future. Date

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