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  • 301.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Picard, RobertJönköping International Business School.
    Media Clusters: Spatial Agglomeration and Content Capabilities2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 302.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Picard, Robert
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Media Clusters: What Makes Them Unique?2011In: Me­dia Clusters: Spatial Agglomeration and Content Capabilities / [ed] Karlsson, Charlie & Picard, Robert G., Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, p. 3-29Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 303.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Picard, Roger G.
    Jönköping International Business School.
    The Challenges of Media Clusters2011In: Media Clus­ters: Spatial Agglomeration and Content Capabilities / [ed] Karlsson, Charlie & Picard,Robert G., Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, p. 379-395Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 304.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Stough, Roger. RGeorge Mason University, Falifax, USA.Johansson, BörjeJönköping Universty, Jönköping International Business School.
    Entrepreneurship And Regional Development: Local Processes and Global Patterns2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 305.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Warda, Peter
    Jönköping International Business School (JIBS).
    Entrepreneurship and innovation networks2014In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 393-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we give a general introduction to the notion of entrepreneurship and how it has many complex meanings. Entrepreneurs in new firms but also in incumbent firms have a key role in local, regional and national economic development by taking risks to get things done by developing new combinations of ideas and/or doing things differently. In view of this, two of the main questions that are dealt with are: (1) which features make structural differences in institutions and innovation networks remain invariant between decades, and (2) how knowledge about such features can be employed in policy at the national and the regional level. The research questions highlighted in this special issue relate to many pertinent national and regional policy issues. The most apparent concerns conditions conducive for entrepreneurship in the form of new firms and firm growth. In this paper, we also introduce the different contributors to this special issue.

  • 306.
    Karlsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Sera, Sabina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Urbanisering i Europa: Vilka faktorer är påverkande för urbanisering, och hur påverkas urbaniseringen i Europas länder av utvalda faktorer? 2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization is defined as the proportion of urban population and it is when people in a country move from the countryside to urban areas. The purpose of this report is to examine the factors that urbanization could be affected by. Urbanization is ongoing around the world and the urban population is increasing more and more, which means that rural areas are slowly but surely becoming depopulated. By reviewing previous literature several factors has proved important for the impact of urbanization. Six factors has been selected to examine if they have any impact on urbanization in Europe. The selected factors are GDP per capita, population, export per capita, number of employees, share of labor force and share of the highly educated. The report consists mainly of an analysis of European countries' urbanization during the years 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010. Four cross-sectional analyzes has been carried out, where each year were studied separately. The results of the study of urbanization in Europe shows a positive correlation between GDP per capita and the share of urban population. The result is consistent with the reviewed literature and previous similar studies conducted.

  • 307.
    Karlsson, Jesper
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Björnbäck, Henrik
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Amorteringskravet: En effektiv åtgärd på skuldkvoten och på prisutvecklingen av bostadsrätter i Göteborg?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effect of the amortization requirement on housing prices and it’s change after the introduction. The timeframe for the study is from 2005 to 2018. We are also interested in debt in households which has a crucial part in the housing market. The essay is based on apartments and therefore is limited to the area in Gothenburg. The discussion regarding the amortization requirement have been an interesting subject for quite some time. Many options have been discussed back and forth about what specific measures that needed to be taken to prevent an overheating of the Swedish housing market. Yet, one of the measures was the amortization requirement that was introduced in 2016. The legislation forced the consumer to amortize a specific percentage per year of the mortgage. The requirement was introduced to adjust the debt of households, yet to prevent a housing market which was potentially on its way to being overheated. Due to the intense price increase on households that we have had in Sweden the last couple of years, it is now interesting to examine the virtual effect of the requirement on the housing market. This essay examines the virtual effect by managing an OLS-model and using a multiple regression with crucial and relevant data as a basis. This takes forms with substantial explanatory variables with a following of the amortization requirement as a dummy variable. The conclusion of the study states that the housing prices will have a pattern of price increase both due to the amortization requirement and debt in households. This is the consequence of the introduction of the requirement as wells as the impact of other substantial factors. The essential factors that was mentioned before that affects the house prices was more clear to sum up than the debt in households. It’s hard to draw a specific conclusion on what the specific factor is that influence the real cause. The only common factor was the interest rate and the time or trend.

  • 308.
    Karlsson, Johan
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Andersson, Anton
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    En mer tillgänglig apoteksmarknad: Hur mycket ibuprofen, paracetamol och diklofenak konsumeras i Sverige och vad påverkar konsumtionen?2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim for the thesis is to illustrate and analyze the consumption of certain nonprescription drugs among the population of Sweden, the factors that affect consumption and the impact of the re-regulation on the Swedish pharmacy market. The aim of the thesis is to investigate what the consumption of the non-prescription drugs ibuprofen, paracetamol and diclofenac looks like in Sweden. By a quantitative method, data have been collected quarterly and refer to the years 2000 to 2019. Ibuprofen, paracetamol and diclofenac are the dependent variables and population, education, ill-health, unemployment and median income are the explanatory variables. The results of the variables that explain the consumption of the non-prescription drugs we examined are of varying significance. The study shows that consumption per 1,000 inhabitants of ibuprofen has increased but not for paracetamol and diclofenac. However, the total consumption shows an increase for the three non-prescription drugs. The conclusion is that the total consumption of the non-prescription drugs that are investigating has increased, but that consumption per 1,000 inhabitants has only increased for ibuprofen. Furthermore, it has decreased for paracetamol and for diclofenac the consumption has increased between 2006 and 2012 and then remains almost unchanged from 2012 and onwards. The results of which variables affect consumption cannot be relied upon fully and have varying degrees of influence depending on which our non-prescription drug is the explanatory variable.

  • 309.
    Karlsson, Julia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Martinsson, Frida
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Prisutveckling på småhusmarknaden: Vilka faktorer påverkar prisutvecklingen på den svenska småhusmarknaden, och i vilken omfattning?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    House prices on the Swedish real estate market have increased greatly for the past thirty years, and the most recent developments is the largest. This topic is debated and affects a large part of the Swedish population and the economy in general. There are many theories about what is affecting and have caused this price trend. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the long and short run determinants of the Swedish real housing for the period 1986 to 2016, and the extent to which they affect. To clarify this, cointegration as a simple structural model to determine the relationship in the long term has been used. In the short run an ECM (Error Correction Model) has been used. Each variable is tested for unit root by Dickey - Fuller test and the variables are then tested for cointegration by Engel-Granger test. The study examines the variable real estate price index as the dependent variable, and the variables mortgage interest rates, disposable income, unemployment and dwellings completed as explanatory variables. We have used the time series for the period 1986 to 2016, and used quarterly data. The results of the regressions show that all the variables are significant and thus has a connection with the house prices. Disposable income and dwellings completed have a positive impact and if those increase, then the housing prices increase as well. Unemployment and interest rates, however, have a negative impact and if those increase, house prices will decrease in the long term. In short term the result shows that Sweden is in a housing bubble and actions are required to correct the prices to equilibrium level. The study's findings are in line with previous studies.

  • 310.
    Karlsson, Linn
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Fredriksson, Linda
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Humankapitalets inverkan på ekonomisk tillväxt: En kvantitativ analys som undersöker sambandet mellan humankapital och den ekonomiska tillväxten inom den Europeiska Unionen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission has five main targets for year 2020 to promote a smart and sustainable growth. Two of these targets are focused on further investments in the so called human capital. Human capital stands for a person’s education, knowledge and health. The aim of this study is to highlight which components of the human capital that affects the economic growth. This quantitative analysis in conducted through a multiple linear regression based on cross-sectional data over the member countries in the European Union. The relationship is analyzed for two different points in time, which represents today and 20 years ago. The result shows a positive significant relationship between investing in fixed capital and the economic growth for both points in time. Furthermore, the results show a positive significant relationship between population growth and the dependent variable 20 years ago. Finally, the results also show a negative relationship between health and economic growth today. The regression results together with previous research cannot establish an exact relationship between investing in human capital and the economic growth. Therefore, it is difficult to determine each variable’s actual impact and if the impact is bigger today than 20 years ago. However, the study can state that the variables representing human capital jointly have a great explanatory power in the economic growth

  • 311.
    Karlsson, Louise
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Test of investment strategies using an Economic Sentiment Indicator2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis is to use historical data from the period 2000 to 2019 to test whether an Economic Sentiment Indicator (ESI), which is a measurement of current and forecasting economic activities in the economy, can be used in investment purposes. The assets are embodied by the OMXS30 index representing shares and OMRX-TBond index representing bonds. In Sweden one reliable ESI is the Economic Tendency Survey (ETS) which is produced by the National Institute of Economic Research (NIER) every month. In this thesis the active asset allocation changes in the portfolios determined by the ESI will be compared with a "buy and hold" portfolio. The portfolios will be compared by return, Sharpe ratio, beta values and an efficient frontier graph. The regressions to test the correlation between ETS and OMXS30 shows a significant relation, which is a requirement for using this method as signals in the construction of portfolios. The test of the OMXS30- and OMRX-T index shows a negative correlation which makes them good to combine. All three portfolios show a higher return and Sharp ratio than the OMXS30. One of the ETS portfolios showed the highest return and a high Sharp ratio. The "buy and hold" portfolio showed a higher Sharp ratio but the lowest return. According to the efficient frontier graph and the Sharp ratio the buy and hold portfolio is the preferred one.

  • 312.
    Karlstam, Emilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Millberg, Malin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Prispåverkan på småhus: en analys av prispåverkande faktorer i Sveriges kommuner under 20142016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a thesis where the main objective is to investigate and analyze selected variables that we believe affect house prices in Sweden's municipalities in 2014. A regression analysis has been made to ensure that the factors actually affect the house prices, and the extent for the affect. The investigation is done with cross-sectional data and we restricted the thesis to only get data from 2014 and only the data on permanent houses. We have taken out a dependent variable; house prices and four independent variables; disposable income, employment rate, population growth, population density, and a dummy variable; geographical impact. The conclusion shows that the variables that statistically can be assured to have an impact on house prices is disposable income, employment rate, population density and proximity to a big city.

  • 313.
    Kauppinen, Ronja
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Larsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Hushållens skuldsättning i Sverige och hur det påverkas av tre utvalda finanspolitiska åtgärder: Bolånetaket- Amorteringskravet- Det skärpta amorteringskravet2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Household debt in Sweden has risen drastically in recent decades and reached record high levels, as several financial researchers have announced that this may lead to risks to the stability of the credit market, from a macroeconomic perspective. Due to the increased risks, the mortgage ceiling (2010), the amortization requirement (2016) and the stricter amortization requirement (2018) were introduced with the aim of stabilizing the increasing market. Using the relevant, explanatory variables real estate price index, household disposable income, repo rate, gross domestic product, employment and household consumption, and the dummy variables mortgage ceiling, the amortization requirement and the stricter amortization requirement to examine how these variables have affected households debt ratio. The study uses the OLS-method to explain the research question. In the regressions performed with differentiated variables, it was found that only the mortgage ceiling and the stricter amortization requirement were significant and reliable to study. Based on regressions made and interpretations of previous research, it has been concluded that the mortgage ceiling and the strict amortization requirement have had the greatest effect on the household debt ratio of the three fiscal policy measures and thus the greatest effect on stabilization on the credit market.

  • 314.
    Kaurissaari, Meeri
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The performance of Finnish funds: A comparison between Finnish funds and a European index2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the performance of Finnish funds between January 2013 and April 2018. The purpose was to study if Finnish funds over- or underperform the market and if there are differences between returns on different fund categories. In line with previous studies, asset-pricing models were applied, which were chosen to be capital asset pricing model, Fama and French’s three-factor model and later developed fivefactor model. The models were used to find Jensen’s alpha to evaluate the performances. This was done by regressing the average returns of funds and market index on the variables in the models. Moreover, Sharpe ratio and average return were evaluated to find under- or overperformance. The data was observed on monthly basis and was collected from DataStream and Kenneth French’s data library. Empirical work revealed significant alphas on equity funds and Finland-funds. Comparing all aspects, equity and Finland-funds generated highest returns and reward-to-risk ratios. Hence, the study found that the two groups overperformed the market while the other fund categories showed no under- or overperformance of the market.

  • 315.
    Kesen, Nedife
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Mahfud, Mohannad
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Cryptocurrency As An Investment Instrument2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the past few years, the cryptocurrency market has seen a significantly large growth. With the issuance of many new digital currencies and the increase in their prices, they have garnered the attention of many investors. However, many people still do not know whether they can classify cryptocurrencies as an asset class, although many of those people invest into them.Therefore, this study aims to analyse cryptocurrencies as an investment instrument and to see whether they can be classified as an asset class. We took 5 major asset classes namely; stocks, bonds, real estate, commodities and forex and used them as proxies. For cryptocurrencies, we used the CRIX index as a proxy for the time periods March 31st 2016 to March 31st 2021. To test whether cryptocurrencies could be considered an asset class, this paper aims to analyse cryptocurrencies based on the 7 requirements of an individual asset class which are stable aggregation, Investability, internal homogeneity, external heterogeneity, expected utility, selection skill and cost-effective access. The results showed that cryptocurrencies met all the criteria in order to be considered as an individual asset class. Furthermore, they managed to distinguish themselves from other traditional asset classes in terms of risk and return and their low correlation to the other asset classes provides a diversification benefit to potential investors, providing a more beneficial profile for their risk/return portfolios

  • 316.
    Khalaf, Adel
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The Impact of Capital Structure on Financial Performance of Swedish Companies in the Industrial Sector2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Choosing the optimal capital structure is one of the problems that have been discussed since the middle of last century in terms of dependence on equity or debt. Many theories and opinions were put forward on this subject in several directions with many variables and considered the composition of capital effective on the performance of companies with results differing from one scholar to another. Based on the importance of the industrial sector at the global level and the characteristics of this sector in terms of the need to invest large amounts in fixed capital, it is interesting to study the capital structure of the industrial companies and its impact on their performance, as well as the impact of long-term loans and financial leverage on the financial performanceof industrial companies. Many researches were conducted on the industrial sector outside the Swedish market. The purpose of this study is to investigate and present an analysis of the possible correlation between the capital structure and the performance of companies in the Swedish industrial sector.The statistical analysis shows that all debts have a significant negative relationship with profitability. This came compatible with the pecking-order theory, where if the industrial companies use internal financing, the Corporate performance will be better, and the profit rates will behigher.This study includes about 68% of Swedish industrial companies listed in Nasdaq Stockholm and has quarterly data published during the study period 2010 -2018. To ensure access to the results, the sample was limited to companies with debts in their financial statements. The study is limited to commenting on the return on invested capital, the return on assets and the return on equity, which were deemed dependent variables, and examines the impact of long-term debt, short-term debt, financial leverage and debt on the above dependent variables. With panel data coming from series and cross-sectional quantitative studies, this paper investigates the Swedish industrial companies. Empirical data was collected from quarterly reports covering a nine-year period (2010-2018). Afterward, statistical testing was performed.

  • 317.
    Khouri, Anna-Maria
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Al Dakhil, Hassan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Tobakskonsumtion av cigaretter i Sverige: Påverkas cigarettkonsumtionen av punktskatt, inkomst och utbildning?2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tobacco products are consumed globally around the world and the most common product is cigarettes. It is well known that the consumption of cigarettes has a negative effect not only to the consumer of the product but also to the surrounding. Over the past two decades, cigarette consumption in Sweden has decreased. The aim of the study is to investigate whether excise tax, income and level of education have any impact on the consumption of cigarettes in Sweden. The study includes a time series of 26 observations of yearly data in percentage form. The time series was analyzed by first testing for unit roots, cointegration and then applying the Ordinary Least Square method. The result of the study shows that income has a negative relationship with consumption of cigarettes with a statistical significance. Excise tax and education also had a negative relationship with the consumption but no statistical significance was to be shown. The results are backed by microeconomic theories, the law of supply and demand, and price elasticity. The conclusion of the study is that excise tax, income and education have an impact on consumption of cigarettes in Sweden with support from previous research and the results from the regressions in this study.

  • 318.
    Kignell, Samuel
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Sandberg, Oscar
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Impact of ESG criteria on investmentperformance and returns: Analyzing the relationship between Sustainability and Profitability2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ESG is a term that refers to 3 different factors. The first factor is Environment that takes factors like climate change and carbon emissions into consideration. The second one is Social, that includes human rights and labor standards. The last factor stands for Governance, where board composition and lobbying activities are examples of areas. All of the three factors are taken into consideration when sustainable investors are making investment decisions (Peterdy, 2023)

    The concept of sustainability is gaining momentum worldwide, especially in investment conversations. Investors are now showing more interest in sustainable investments thanever before, shining a spotlight on funds that focus on Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) factors. Since investments generally aim to generate returns, it's intriguing to explore how well these ESG funds actually stack up against conventional funds that don't prioritize sustainability factors as much. This research aims to enhance our understanding of the performance of these two fund types by delving into data and existing literature.

    The ultimate conclusion drawn from this research is that spotting performance differences between conventional funds and ESG funds is a challenge. However, there's a noticeable difference in volatility that could potentially impact the overall returns. 

  • 319.
    Kronberg, Emelie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Öberg, Jennifer
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Finns det ett samband mellan den svenska hushållens skuldkvot och de svenska bostadspriserna?: Har det eventuella sambandet förändrats av finanskrisen 20082019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we will investigate if there is a strong or any link between the Swedish households' debts and the house prices. Further we'll also investigate if the Financial crisis in 2008 had an impact on this possible correlation. We use Meng et all. (2011) model that shows the correlation between factors that can affect household loans and household debt. We also use time series regression to investigate the relative importance of each factor on the debt ratio during the time between 1988 – 2018.

    The result of the paper showed us that the housing prices which was one of our independent variables hade a strong correlation to the household debts. We can refer this result to previous papers that has investigate similar topics and variables as we have and say that we ended up with similar result as them. The Financial crisis affected the debt ratio to the extent that households borrowed higher to afford housing prices during the time on short term after the crisis.

  • 320.
    Kumar Shil, Kazal
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Dividend Policy and Impact on Stock Return: A study of financial stock market in Bangladesh2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the dividend policy and the impact on the stock return. For this research purpose, a sample of 26 companies’ data has been used which are listed in the Dhaka Stock Exchange(DSE) main market of Bangladesh. For examining the regression result 10 years data were used for the period of 2005 to 2015. The relationship between dividend policy, dividend yield, Risk free interest rate and Expected return and market value were measured by CAPM, by using the regression analysis tools. All the variables were being collected from the Thomson Reuters data stream. The empirical estimation based on the CAPM Model shows there is not a significant effect on the average dividend yield on the average stock return. The result mostly indicates the dividend irrelevance theory where the investors do not need to concern about the company dividend police, hence they have an option to sell their stocks if they want. The research result shows that the dividend yield hasn’t an effect the stock return in Bangladesh stock market because of practicing speculative activities within the market, where investors mostly focus on share price changes rather than dividend yield.

  • 321.
    Kuntashula, Justine
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Effects of exchange rate changes on the Zambi's trade balance2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examined the effects of real effective exchange rate (REER) changes on the Zambia´s trade balance, and whether the Marshal-Lerner condition (M-Lerner condition) and the Jcurve effect are satisfied in Zambia following the depreciation of the Zambian Kwacha (ZMK) against the U.S. dollar. Using annual time series data from 1990 through to 2019, the Johansen cointegration test results show that there is a long run relationship between the trade balance, the real effective exchange rate, the Zambia's GDP growth, the world´s GDP growth, and the Zambia´s terms of trade. A standard trade balance model was employed to estimate the long run and short run relationships between the trade balance and the variables in the trade balance model. The results from the trade balance show that the depreciation of the ZMK against the U.S. dollar improves the trade balance in the long run though the results could not validate the M-L condition since the coefficient value of REER was found to be far much less than unity (1). The results further uncover that the world´s GDP growth and the terms of trade both have a significant positive effect on the trade balance in the long run. The Zambia´s GDP growth was found to be statistically insignificant. In the short run, the results from the trade balance model show that the effects of the depreciation of the ZMK against the U.S. dollar on the trade balance were statistically insignificant, thus not consistent with the J-curve effect. The results from the Error Correction Model (ECM) on the other hand show that about 6.3% of the disequilibrium in the Zambia´s trade balance model is corrected every after one year.

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  • 322.
    Kuntashula, Justine
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Impact Of Credit Risk On Financial Performance Of Four Biggest Commercial Banks In Zambia2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the long-run impact of credit risk on financial performance of four biggest commercial banks in Zambia. Multiple linear regression analysis was employed using dataset covering a 21-year period from 2000 to 2020 extracted from the annual reports and financial statements of the selected commercial banks. Return on asset (ROA), and return on equity (ROE) were two financial performance indicators whereas non-performing loan ratio (NPLR), capital adequacy ratio (CAR), loan loss reserve ratio (LLRR), and loan impairment charges ratio (LCR) were four credit risk indicators for the selected commercial banks. Four hypotheses were proposed and empirically tested using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression model. The findings obtained from two financial performance models revealed that three credit risk indicators including NPLR, LLRR and LCR had negative and statistically significant impact on ROA and ROE of the selected commercial banks in Zambia. The results went further to reveal that credit risk indicator, CAR and control variables, bank size (BS) and Zambia’s real interest rate (RIR) had positive and statistically significant impact on ROA and ROE of selected commercial banks in Zambia. 

  • 323.
    Larsson, Andrea
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Dahlborg, Emma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Är Sveriges hyressättningssystem lösningen på bostadsbristen?: En studie fokuserat på nyproducerade hyresrätter och dess hyressättningssystem.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate what factors affect rent of newly build tenancy's on the housing market, and if so, what to extent.

    Based on previous research and a review of the Swedish housing market, variables have been identified, such as, Utility-value rents, Production cost, Income, and Fee of tenant owned apartments. These factors have a clear impact on rents of newly build tenancy's. Area-based data has been obtained for year 2004 and 2015 in order to find relationships and compare results between the two periods through cross-sectional regressions. Intended to analyze the decisions from the government to stimulate the production market.

    The result shows that the variables have an influencing effect over the rent and shows the changes in combination over the governments introduction of presumption agreements.

    It can be concluded that the raised rents are explained by the introduction of presumption agreements which leads to that companies can freely agree on higher rent and that changes in tenancy market will give a contributing effect co-operative apartments market. This affect the lowest- and middle-income earners worst as their ability to pay is limited and the lack of tenancy's still remain to a certain extent.

  • 324.
    Larsson, Josef
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Jonsson, Sebastian
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Faktorerna som påverkar löneskillnaden mellan män och kvinnor2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The fact that men and women earn differently in Sweden is nothing new, as the gender pay gap has existed for a long time. However, a downward trend can be seen, indicating that the pay gap has been closing slowly but surely over the last twenty years. In this study, we will use previous research on the gender pay gap and family responsibilities, supported by theories of human capital, glass ceilings and discrimination, to examine the factors that may explain the gender pay gap. In the study, we have collected cross-sectional data for all 290 municipalities in Sweden for the years 2016 and 2020, regarding variables related to the human capital theory, sick leave, parental leave and segregation. From the data, we developed correlation matrices over the years of observation to see if there is a risk of multicollinearity, descriptive statistics to get an overview of the data, and finally two separate OLS regression analyses to get our result. In the study, we found that the variables average wage, education, segregation rate, and segregation ratio had a statistically significant impact and therefore can help explain the wage gap in 2016. In 2020, we found that only the variables of average wage, segregation percentage and segregation ratio had a statistically significant impact and thus could help explain the wage gap. The average wage, segregation percentage and segregation ratio variables were the only variables that showed a statistically significant impact on the wage gap and could help explain the wage gap in both years of observation

  • 325.
    Larsson, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Zuna, Amila
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Immigrationens påverkan på Sveriges BNP per capita2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study is to investigate how immigration effects the Swedish GDP per capita in both short and long term, and if so, how and to what extent. The study exams the time series from 1990-2014 to cover the major waves of immigration due to the war of Yugoslavia and Iran/Iraq. This also covers the financial crises in the 20th-century and the immigration from the middle-east, that has been and still is a topic of debate. Similar studies have been done for Germany, The Netherlands and Canada. The researchers all agreed about one main factor that is the key to successfully growth in the economy, which is the integration of immigrants. The study is based on short and long term regressions from a slightly modified model created by Muysken and Ziesemer (2011). As Muysken and Ziesemers results for The Netherlands, the conclusion of this paper for Sweden is that immigrants affect the GDP per capita positively in the short and long term. The variable to be explained is the GDP per capita and the explaining variables are total gainful employment-level of immigrants, total gainfully employed and education of immigrants, which are the main factors the study is based on.

  • 326.
    Larsson, Sofia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Wiklund, Lovisa
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Hur skuldkvoten påverkas av förändringar i reporäntan och bostadspriserna2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes and investigates how the debt ratio has been affected by various macroeconomic factors, with the main focus being on housing prices and official bank rate. Since housing prices have risen extremely much in recent years and interest rates have been at an historically low level, we consider this subject to be interesting and exciting.

    We have chosen to investigate this by doing both a literature study and an econometric time series analysis from 1997 to 2017 in Sweden. We have also investigated whether factors such as financial savings and inflation also had a connection to the growing debt ratio.

    Based on our studies, we have found that housing prices have had the largest impact on the debt ratio. The increased debt ratio has been affected by the sharply risen housing prices in the recent years.

  • 327.
    Lehnberg, Izabella
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Jyborn, Rebecca
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The wage gap between females and males: Comparison in Sweden 2010 and 20202021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines a highly ongoing topic today; inequality between females and males. The purpose of this study is to investigate the Swedish sub-goal economic equality and examine if there have been any improvements in the gender wage gap between 2010 and 2020. Based on Human capital theory and Doing gender a part of the gender wage gap can be explained. The dataset is provided by the Swedish authority Skatteverket and consists of two randomised samples. One sample is from 2010 and the other one is from 2020. Both years contain 500 observations of females and 500 observations of males, adding up to 1000 observations in total for each year. Ordinary Least Square regressions have been executed, further the addition of an interaction term made it possible to study the effects of how the wage has changed during this ten-year period. The result demonstrates that the gender wage gap exists in both years, but no improvement can be determined.

  • 328.
    Leijen, Sebastian
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Vad påverkar hushållens sparande i Sverige?: En makroekonomisk analys av hushållens sparande under perioden 1985 – 20202021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, consumption in Sweden has seen a consistent increase. During the same period there has also been a consistent increase of savings. For individuals, the incentive to save is driven by different factors. For some individuals, the largest incentive to save is for retirement funds and for others the largest incentive is to afford buying real estate. Saving money enables individuals to consume more in the future. The purpose of the study is to examine how personal saving rates in Sweden are affected by different variables during the period 1985 – 2020. Using OLS-regressions to measure the relationship between the personal saving rates and the different variables. The result from the study shows that real interest rates and inflation are the determinants with the largest impact on the personal savings rate. 

  • 329.
    Lekander, Josefine
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Lantz, Sophia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Vilket samband har arbetslöshet ochbostadspriser i Sverige?2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Price developments of the housing market in Sweden have a major impact on both the private economy of households and the overall economy. Previous studies show that housing prices are determined by variables that affect supply and demand. Unemployment, interest rates and household disposable income are some of the factors that affect housing prices. We observed that only a few studies attain focus on the relationship between housing price and unemployment. The purpose of this paper has therefore been to examine this in Sweden. The time interval extends between 1991 to year 2019. The study is based on previous research and follows a quantitative method. Housing price and unemployment are the main variables of the model, with mortgage interest rates and disposable income as control variables. The time series data has been examined for unit roots through the Dickey-Fuller Test. Further analysis was performed using a multiple linear regression and a Vector Autoregressive Model. In the VAR model, the results showed that unemployment does not cause housing prices but that there is an inverse relationship, that housing prices cause unemployment. It was also found, based on the statistical analyzes, that the variables have a negative relationship to each other. This i consistent to the results obtained from previous studies.

  • 330.
    Lilja, Sofia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Svensson, Julia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Den svenska elmarknaden: Vilka faktorer påverkar Nord Pools spotpris?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how several factors influence the spot price on the Nordic electricity exchange market Nord Pool for the period 2005-2015. We have used a multiple regression and estimates parameters with OLS. In the regression we have the spot price on Nord Pool as dependent variable and price in fossil fuels, nuclear power, hydropower, temperature and price in emissions right as independent variables. All data are calculated on monthly basis and are collected from the databases SMHI, Statistiska Centralbyrån, Svensk Energi and Nord Pool. The results from this study shows that the price changes on Nord Pool can be explained by 33 % on the basis of the factors analysed during our time period. The results showed that nuclear power and hydropower, which are the largest electricity production in Sweden, either had only a small effect on the spot price or was not significant. While natural gas, which has a small part of Sweden's produced electricity had a bigger influence on the spotprice. We can conclude that Sweden is part of a larger market and the fact that marginal pricing is applied on Nord Pool, that there are several external factors that affect the Swedish electricity prices in addition to the factors we examined. This is because other countries' electricity prices and production, within and outside the Nord Pool has an impact on Sweden's electricity.

  • 331.
    Lind, Robin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, Dennis
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Testing Okun's law for the Swedish economy2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay aims to examine the relationship between unemployment and GDP from a perspective of Okun's law in the Swedish economy, between the time periods 1994 - 2014 with quarterly data, and also analyze what impact a labor market reform has on the relationship between unemployment and GDP. For analysis of the short-term relationship, Okun’s (1962) gap version along with the Hodrick-Prescott filter (HP) for trend estimation is used. And to investigate stationarity of the data we use an Augmented Dicky-Fuller test. The long-term relationship is analyzed by utilizing an Autoregressive Distributed Lag model to see if potential GDP is dependent on the natural rate of unemployment at a significant level. Our study shows that there is a negative relationship between unemployment and GDP in the short run, and also that a labor market reform that affects the flexibility of the market has a negative impact on the relationship. For the long run we can conclude that there is no relationship between the variables as potential GDP is not affected by the natural rate of unemployment.

  • 332.
    Linde, Maja
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Carlzzon, Clara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Vad driver arbetslösheten för män och kvinnor?: Ett genusperspektiv på den regionala arbetsmarknaden2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During recessions, the male unemployment rate tends to rise more than the female unemployment rate. Researchers agree that segregated labor markets account for most of the unemployment gap between genders. The Swedish labor market is largely divided into male- and female dominated sectors, and during the financial crisis in 2008, male workers had a higher inflow into unemployment than female ones. The male-dominated industries are often described as more reactive to cyclical fluctuations and economic growth. Differences in unemployment rates between high and low educated workers as well as natives and immigrants have also been an issue at stake, whereas low skilled and/or immigrant workers tend to have higher unemployment rates. In order to reveal which factors that drive male versus female unemployment, the regional unemployment rates of men and women are examined through a panel data analysis using the years 2005 to 2019. The findings of the study are the following: male unemployment seems to be more responsive to the industry composition and segregated labor markets, whereas female unemployment is more affected by the share of immigrants. Furthermore, when the share of college graduates is higher, the total unemployment rate is lower. Lastly, the growth in gross regional product has a positive effect on the regional unemployment rate amongst men. 

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  • 333.
    Lindell, Anna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Lenders behavior in the online lending platform Kiva: A study to see how gender affects the time and possibility to get a funded loan request2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with current study were to analyze if female borrowers within the online lending platform Kiva got their loan requests funded faster than men, mixed groups and nonspecified genders, and if women were less likely than men and mixed groups to get their loan request expired. The data was downloaded from Kivas website where snapshots with data were available. By taking 1% randomly my sample contained 15,782 funded loans with individuals and groups and 773 expired loans. Among the funded loans there were some loan requests that hadn´t specified their gender. The study was made by making hierarchic regression analysis and consist of six different regressions. In the first three regressions the dependent variable ln_TimeUntilFunded was used while in the last three regressions the variable Expired was used as dependent variable. The independent variable was in all six regressions gender (Femaledummy). It has been controlled for loan amount, picture, monthly repayment, sectors and countries. The result of the multiple regressions show that women get on average their loan requests funded faster than men, mixed groups and non-specified gender, when everything else is hold constant. And that women are on average less likely than men and mixed groups to get an expired loan request, when everything else is hold constant. A conclusion can thereby be done that women seems to be favored among Kiva lenders when choosing who to fund.

  • 334.
    Littke, Hélène
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, avd. Urbana och regionala studier.
    Rauhut, Daniel
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Foss, Olaf
    Norsk Institutt för By og Regionalforskning.
    Services of general interest and regional development in the European Union2013In: Romanian Journal of Regional Science, E-ISSN 1843-8520, Vol. 7, no June 15, p. 88-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at comparing the scientific literature and key EU policy documents on the impact of services of general interest on regional development. The study proposes to answer two questions: (1) how do the scientific literature and EU policy documents differ in terms of which services of general interest are seen to have an impact on regional development and (2) why do they identify different services of general interest as important for regional development? The method used is qualitative discourse analysis.

    The results indicate that services of general interest have a rather different assumed impact on regional development in the scientific literature and in the key EU policy documents. Eight out of the fourteen services of general interest analysed in this study are either not mentioned at all or are only indirectly touched upon in the studied EU policy documents. The EU policy documents consider the drivers for regional development to be transport, ICT and telecommunications, electricity, education and health.

  • 335.
    Liu, Yuna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The importance of trust distance on stock market correlation: Evidence from emerging economics2020In: Borsa Istanbul Review, ISSN 2214-8450, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 37-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have shown that the level of trust between agents is a determinant of financial decisions. This paper studies this issue further by analyzing whether the trust distance between two countries can explain bilateral stock market correlations among emerging countries. One finding is that a smaller trust distance among nations is related to a higher stock market correlation. This effect seems to be more pronounced in active-trading countries than thin-trading countries. Finally, we confirm the effect of trust distance upon stock market correlations by excluding extreme observations. © 2019 The Author

  • 336.
    Ljung Monteiro, Andreas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Basic Algorithmic Trading: Can it outperform the market?2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates whether quantitative trading strategies can outperform the general market and if they would serve as a better investment than a traditional buy and hold strategy of Indices when applied to the same stock portfolio. Three relatively simple algorithmic trading strategies were selected and backtested on historical stock prices over a 20 year and 5 months trading period (January 1st 2000 – May 1st 2020). The chosen algorithmic trading strategies were a pairs trading strategy, a Bollinger band trading strategy, and a loss-decreasing trading strategy. The algorithms were written in the Python programming language, the data was downloaded from Yahoo! Finance and the trading strategies were simulated within the Jupyter Notebook environment. The benchmarks to represent the overall market performance were the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index and the Standard & Poor's 500 Index. To make the comparison between the benchmarks and the algorithms as fair as possible, the stock portfolios that the algorithms used were built upon the composition of each index (except for the pairs trading strategy). The tested algorithmic trading strategies outperformed the general market and generated superior returns concerning their respective benchmarks. The algorithms also produced these superior returns while taking on less risk than the benchmark and as such, also returned higher risk-adjusted returns than the benchmarks.

  • 337.
    Ljung Monteiro, Daniel
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The US-China Trade War: Event study of stock-market responses2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how specific events during the US-China trade war affected the S&P 500 stock market index during 2018. It uses an econometric method called an event study to assess the impact of an event on and hypothesis testing to assess the plausibility of a hypothesis. The results show that three out of the six cases had a statistical significance of 0.05 or above. Indicating that the chances of wrongly concluding that a difference existed when there in actuality were no difference, were less than 5%. Our tentative conclusions from the study are that the U.S. – China trade war had an effect on the S&P 500 during 2018.

  • 338.
    Loewe, Louise
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Ryttersson, Marcus
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Random walk hypotesen: En empirisk studie av OMXS302015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines if rate of return on the Swedish stock market follows a Random Walk, in accordance to a hypothesis that is about predictability of profits. The Random Walk hypothesis is closely related to the weak form of the efficient market hypothesis, which says that you can´t make a future forecast of how share prices will move, only with the help of historical data. The analysis is performed on the OMXS30, an index representing the 30 most traded shares on the OMX Stockholm. Furthermore, the analysis is performed on the stock price´s daily and weekly returns during the years 1990-2015. To test the hypothesis, we are going to do two statistical tests. The first test is the Durbin-Watson, which is a first-degree autocorrelation test. The second is an Augumented Dickey-Fuller which tests if there are unit roots in a time series. The final results of both tests show that the share prices seems to satisfies the weak form of market efficiency over the entire period because it has not been any autocorrelation in the timeseries. This allows the conclusion that prices on the OMXS30 have seem to be unpredictable in the tested periods and thus tend to confirm some of the criterias for the hypothesis of a Random Walk.

  • 339.
    Lundström, Alexandra
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Rautio, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Vad bestämmer min hyra?: En panelundersökning över externa faktorers inverkan på hyran för hyresrätter2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent months, there have been debates and discussions in Sweden regarding rents for rented apartments. Landlords want sharp rent increases due to high inflation and increased operating costs, while tenants and the tenant association are strongly against such a proposal. They mean that households with limited income can be hardly impacted by a sharp increase in their accommodation expenses. This thesis will analyze what external factors affect the rental compensation for rented apartments in Sweden for the time period 2018-2021. The result is based on a panel data analysis with collected data from 279 of Sweden’s 290 municipalities and is reported through a regression model. The outcome shows that disposable income, population and the number of completed rental apartments per 10 000 citizens, have a positive impact on the rent for rental housing. The result, however, does not show what effect the floating mortgage interest rate has, but is shown to have a positive impact as well based on previous studies on the subject. All the variables included in the model thus have an explanatory effect on the rent, but additional variables - for example, the location, condition and standard - can be included to get an even better result. 

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  • 340.
    Luu Nilsson, Carolina
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Avendano, Simone
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Har befolkningsmängden i Göteborg en påverkan på bostadsrättspriserna i Göteborg?2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay analysis if the change in population determine the change in condominium prices in Gothenburg for the period 2005-2019. An investigation is performed on Gothenburg and its condominium prices, the second largest city in Sweden.

    We got inspiration for our model from Claussen, Jonsson and Lagerwall (2011) econometric model. Other authors we got inspired from are Frisell and Yazdi (2010), Finocchiaro, Jonsson, Nilsson and Strid (2016) and Asal (2018) for our final choice of variables. A multiple linear regression is performed to analyze the connection with the condominium prices in Gothenburg. 

    The result for our research shows that the percentage change in the population of Gothenburg doesn’t have an effect of the percentage change in condominium prices in Gothenburg. The rest of the variables like the percentage change in mortgage rate, income in Gothenburg and the household indebtedness in Sweden showed statistical significance on the percentage change of Gothenburgs condominium prices.

  • 341.
    Magnusson, Emma
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Axell, Caroline
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Prisutvecklingen på småhus i stor-Malmö: En kvantitativ granskning av faktorer som påverkar småhuspriser i stor-Malmö2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research study intends to examine the development of house prices during the years 1998 to 2018 in Malmö with surrounding area. The purpose of the study is to determine whether the variables income, population, mortgage interest rate and employment rate have an impact on house prices in the chosen area. The research question is answered by applying a quantitative study with a deductive approach. By applying an Autoregressive Distributed lag model, the authors interpret the result and then draw the conclusion that we have a low degree of explanation. Which shows that the study had to include more explanatory variables in order to achieve a higher degree of explanation. Furthermore, the result shows that income is the only statistically significant variable, which means that it probably affects the house price in Malmö with surrounding area

  • 342.
    Marciniak, Karina
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Lindberg, Felicia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Hur har delmarknaden för fritidshus utvecklats under covid-19 pandemin?: En empirisk studie mellan Västervik och Sotenäs kommun2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was carried out with the aim of examining the Swedish submarket for holiday homes in Sweden, limited to Sotenäs and Västervik municipalities between the years 2018-2022. During this time, historical events have taken place around the world, and the covid-19 pandemic is the basis for this work. To arrive at a result on how the market for holiday homes has been affected during the allotted time, regression models have been used. A regression has been performed for each municipality, which includes a dummy variable to determine if the sale of the holiday home took place during the covid-19 pandemic, or either before or after. The study uses the hedonic pricing model, and with help of this model the variables contract price, number of rooms, living area and plot area can be proven. The cross-sectional data used in the regression models is taken from “Swedish broker statistics”. It is with the help of this data that it appears from the regressions which of the variables seems to have the greatest impact on the contract price during the period studied, and how the contract price differs between the periods.

  • 343.
    Mark, Sarah
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Henriksson, Beatrice
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    De svenska hushållens sparande: Vilka faktorer påverkar det privata sparandet?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's private saving rate have increased in recent years, and according to previous studies on the subject, there are several factors that have shown an impact on increased savings. This paper investigates the development of saving rate in Sweden for the period 1995 to 2015. The variables selected are based on the researcher Sebastian Edward's model presented in 1995. The method used is cointegration and error correction techniques to analyz the long-run and the short-run determinants of saving rate. The result shows that the variables that directly or indirectly lead to a higher income for the individual will contribute to a higher saving rate, which also supports the life cycle hypothesis that is the theory upon which the study is based.

  • 344.
    Markusian, Siran
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Azizi, Zubair
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Påverkande faktorer på prisbildning: en studie av Göteborgs bostadsrättsmarknad2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden today it is increasingly being built condominiums and the high demand together with the low supply continues to push up housing prices. Each condominium is unique and differs from others with its specific properties. The prices of condominiums in the same area can differ considerably and therefore it is interesting to investigate the factors that have an effect and how they affect the sales prices on condominiums. The study aims to investigate how different apartment-related characteristics affect the final price of condominiums in Gothenburg using the hedonic model. The study is based on 108 observations from sales of condominiums in Gothenburg during 2014. The calculations of the prices and the independent variables were made with a multiple regression analysis where the independent variables have a function to explain the dependent variable, in this case the selling price. The study had an explanation rate of 21%, in other words, the independent variables had its impact on the dependent variable price by 21%. It was found that the factors that had the greatest impact on the price was the number of rooms, elevator and renovated kitchen.

  • 345.
    Markusson, Andrea
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Julia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Vilka faktorer påverkar den svenska kronan?: en jämförelse mellan kronan, dollarn och euron2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines which factors affects the Swedish currency using the exchange rate for SEK/EURO and SEK/Dollar during the period 2000 to 2019. With inspiration from previous research and well-known models, five different variables are tested to explain the exchange rate for long and short term. This is done by testing the data in a cointegration test and with the Error Correction model. The result from the studies shows that price level for Sweden together with interest rate, money supply and the current account balance against the world for eurozone, has a positive relationship with the exchange rate for SEK/EURO. This infer that a depreciation of the Swedish krona is caused by an increase in these variables in the long-term. The exchange rate for SEK/Dollar shows that the dependent variable has a positive relationship with the American interest rate and money supply. This explains that a depreciation of the Swedish Krona is caused by higher interest rates and increased money supply in the long-term.

  • 346.
    Mavis, Owusu Kwarteng
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Nanono, Josephine
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Foreign Direct Investment & Economic Growth: Evidence From The Sub-Saharan Region2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There have been many studies and theories to prove the connection or relationship that exists between the flow of investment and the growth of the economy of a country. This study aimed at examining the impact Foreign Direct Investment has on the economic growth of Sub-Saharan Africa from 1999 to 2019. Using Panel data analysis, we analysed the impact on thirty-Five selected countries in this region. Based on empirical studies and theories, we researched using carefully selected variables with data sourced mainly from World Bank Development Indicators, World Governance Indicators as well as Data Stream. These variables include inflation that was realized to harm growth, contrary to human capital, financial market development, exchange rate, control of corruption as well as the openness of the economy were variables that were included in our study to analyse their relationship with economic growth. The findings were conclusive that FDI impact on growth is positive yet statistically insignificant to the economic growth of Sub-Saharan Africa.

  • 347.
    Mehdiyeva, Adila
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Effects of Credit Rating Changes on Common Stock Prices.: Case of Sweden2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The primary motivation of the study is to investigate whether credit rating agencies havevalue in providing new information to the investors in the highly ranked, liquid Swedish stock market or not. The event study method has been employed to answer the research question. In order to cover the considerable share of the market, the proxy market index of Stockholm Stock Exchange 30 firms – OMX30 is used. Fourteen firms listed in OMX30 and ranked by Standards & Poor tested to give an overall perspective on the market efficiency of Sweden. The study timeline covered the period starting from January 2008 ending December 2020 to stress out the market reaction in normal financial conditions and during the crisis period of Covid-19. Three different event windowsemployed to assess the reaction pre and post announcement short-term and long-term effects of the rating updates. Starting from the idea of the efficient market hypothesis,that market reflects the new information efficiently, and in time, every single firm analyzed separately, and outcomes cumulated to accept or reject the hypothesis. Findings supported the previous research made in the Nordic market that highly ranked and valuable stock markets did not respond to credit rating information efficiently. The firsthypothesis that downgrades cause negative abnormal returns is rejected because not all firms experienced negative abnormal returns. Second, the downgrades have more effectthan upgrades in the stock prices accepted because firms incorporated bad news in the event window but not upgrades. In conclusion, all empirical work that has been performed suggested that the Swedish Stock market is not efficiently absorbing information in a timely manner, and credit rating agencies are not adding much value for investors.

  • 348.
    Melker, Ronja
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Berglund, Hampus
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Vilka faktorer har bidragit till hushållens rekordhöga skuldkvot?: En studie på Sverige år 1986-20162017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The debt of Swedish households seems to be a subject that never becomes irrelevant. Lending is a great benefit for the economy but high lending can also cause major problems for the individual households and for the entire economy. The purpose of this paper is to answer the question; what factors affect the Swedish households average long-term debt ratio? To do this, quarterly time series data for the period 1986 – 2016 have been quantitatively analysed using an error correction model, with the goal set to provide long-term debt ratio information.We use previous studies and theoretical papers on the subject in order to select the factors to be analysed. The analysis shows that property prices, the disposable income, share of the population within the age 18-30, share of the population whom retired and "the mortgage cap"-law are the factors which in one way or another affect the long-term debt ratio. Other factors discussed in this paper is the repo rate, unemployment and share of the population with a higher education. These are included in order to get a model that properly reflects the debt ratio to the issue that the essay addresses.

  • 349.
    Memisevic, Emil
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Jalloul, Nouhad
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    The Swedish housing market: Impact of the 2008 financial crisis and the Covid-19 pandemic: A comparison between the financial crisis in 2008 and the Covid-19 pandemic2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, we analyse Sweden’s housing market for the period 1990 to 2021. We specially focus on the behaviour of the Swedish housing market before, during and after the COVID-19 pandemic and the financial crisis of 2008. We used quarterly data collected mostly from Statistics Sweden (SCB) to get a deeper insight into what happened. We used a cointegration analysis to determine the long-run determinants of the Swedish housing prices. As for the variables, we had real house price index as the dependent variable, which includes permanent residentials and condominiums. We used multiple independent variables, such as population growth, real disposable income, unemployment, real mortgage rate, and real GDP. These variables and the regression analysis have been the focus to be able to answer our research questions. The result showed that there is no cointegration, and to make the variables stationary we took the first differences and looked at the short-run relationship. It showed that the real GDP and unemployment are both significant and do affect the real logged house price in the short run. Given this, we could start with the dummy variables for the time periods we investigated. The conclusion we made from the results was that both crises had a positive influence on the real house price index of Sweden. Hence, during the pandemic there was a higher increase than it was in 2008.

  • 350.
    Minassian, Eduard
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Ränteavdragets påverkan: Hur påverkas fastighetspriserna av bolåneräntan vid olika nivåer på ränteavdraget?2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att reda ut hur mycket ränteavdraget egentligen påverkar fastighetspriserna. För att få svar på studiens frågeställning använde jag mig av felkorrigeringsmodellen (ECM) som tar hänsyn till både det långsiktiga men även det kortsiktiga sambandet mellan variablerna. Den beroende variabeln är fastighetsprisindex och disponibel inkomst, finansiella förmögenheter och den genomsnittliga rörliga bolåneräntan som de oberoende variablerna. Tidsperioden i denna studie är från år 2006 K1 till år 2020 K4. Studien visade att den disponibla inkomsten och den finansiella förmögenheten påverkade fastighetsprisindex positivt medans bolåneräntan påverkade fastighetsprisindex negativt. Resultatet i studien visade att på lång sikt så skulle en procentenhet högre bolåneränta leda till en nedgång av fastighetsprisindex med 5.4 procentenheter. Om ränteavdraget reducerades till 20% skulle detta leda till en nedgång av fastighetsprisindex med 6.2 procentenheter. En reducering av ränteavdraget till 10% skulle leda till en nedgång av fastighetsprisindex med 6.9 procentenheteroch man skulle ta bort ränteavdraget helt så skulle detta leda till en nedgång på fastighetsprisindex på 7.7 procentenheter. På kort sikt visade felkorrigeringstermen att systemet korrigerar den tidigare periodens jämviktsrubbning med en hastighet på 7,2%. Detta betyder att även om den beroende variabeln ”vandrar” bort ifrån jämvikten på kort sikt så kommer den långsamt att dras tillbaka på lång sikt. 

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