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  • 301.
    Holm, Anne Lise
    et al.
    Centre for Women’s, Family and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud and Vestfold University College, Kongsberg.
    Lyberg, Anne
    Centre for Women’s, Family and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud and Vestfold University College, Kongsberg.
    Berggren, Ingela
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level. Centre for Women’s, Family and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud and Vestfold University College, Kongsberg.
    Cutcliffe, John
    School of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa .
    Severinsson, Elisabeth
    Centre for Women’s, Family and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud and Vestfold University College, Kongsberg.
    Shadows from the past: The situated meaning of being suicidal among depressed older people living in the community2014In: Crisis, ISSN 0227-5910, E-ISSN 2151-2396, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 253-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Most depressed older people in a suicidal state have mixed feelings, where the wish to live and the wish to die wage a battle. Aims: To explore and describe depressed older people’s experiences of being suicidal and their search for meaning. Method: Data were collected from 29 participants resident in the Rogaland and Vestfold districts of Norway, by means of individual interviews, after which a thematic analysis was performed. Results: For the participants in this study, the lived experiences of the situated meaning of survival after being suicidal comprised a main theme—”shadows from the past”—and two themes—”feeling that something inside is broken” and ”a struggle to catch the light.” Conclusion: Mental health-care professionals might be able to reduce the risk of suicide and perturbation by helping depressed older people to explore, resolve, and ultimately come to terms with their unresolved historical issues. Additional valuable strategies in primary care settings include encountering patients frequently, monitoring adherence to care plans, and providing support to address the source of emotional pain and distress. 

  • 302.
    Holmes, Alice E.
    et al.
    University of Florida.
    Wideén, Stephen. E.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Carver, Courtney L.
    Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore.
    White, Lori L.
    University of Florida.
    Perceived hearing status and attitudes toward noise in young adults2007In: American Journal of Audiology, Vol. 16, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of perceived hearing loss, tinnitus, and temporary threshold shift (TTS) in community college students and to see whether those students' attitudes toward noise affected their perception of their own possible hearing loss, tinnitus, and TTS. Method: Young adults (N = 245; age 18-27) completed 3 questionnaires: the Hearing Symptom Description, Youth Attitude to Noise Scale, and Adolescents' Habits and Hearing Protection Use. Results: Perceived TTS and pain associated with loud noise were the most common hearing related factors, followed by perceived tinnitus and hearing loss. The students' attitudes toward noise in their daily environment showed the most negative response, whereas attitudes toward noise and concentration indicated a more positive, or less harmful, response. Chi-square analysis indicated a significant correlation between perceived hearing loss and respondents' overall attitudes toward noise exposure. Hearing protection use was limited for all participants, with the majority reporting never having used hearing protection. Conclusion: Approximately 6% of respondents reported perceived hearing loss, and 13.5% reported prolonged tinnitus. In general, participants had neutral attitudes toward noise. Over 20% of participants reported ear pain, tinnitus, and/or TTS after noise exposure at least sometimes. Coincidentally, few participants reported consistent use of hearing protection. © American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.

  • 303.
    Hrustic, Adi
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    "Beroendet handlar om relation": En studie om synen på substansmissbruksproblematik bland yrkesverksamma inom missbruksvård och förebyggande arbete.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's substance abuse problems are significant and continuously growing. Studies and surveys have shown that an increasing number of people avoid seeking help for their addiction. Not only does there seem to exist obstacles for becoming abstinent, but there’re also obstacles regarding the seeking of help for addiction treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate how therapists in different establishments perceive how substance abuse develops and the obstacles that arise in the treatment procedures. The aim was also to examine how Sweden today is working regarding the prevention of substance abuse. Six participants who worked with treatment or preventive measures were interviewed in the study. All the interviews were analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis. These were compiled together for a more extensive analysis. Results showed that positive social options were shown to be the key to getting out of an addiction. Substance abusers often had psychological and social issues in their past life that prevented them from establishing healthy social relationships. The study also revealed that communication deficiency among networking establishments created barriers for patients during treatment, which were expressed in misunderstandings and misdiagnoses. The conclusion of the study was that the treatment procedures should focus more on the abusers possibility of creating social relations if individuals were to successfully heal. The development potential for establishments and especially therapists should also be paid attention to, where the therapists' working experience should be given more opportunity to influence future treatment.

  • 304.
    Huang, Li
    et al.
    Tuskegee University, AL, USA.
    Malone, Patrick S.
    University of South Carolina, SC, USA.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, NC, USA.
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, VA, USA;.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Bombi, Anna Silvia
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Faculty of Pschology, Italy..
    Bornstein, Marc H.
    fEunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, MD, USA.
    Chang, Lei
    Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Dodge, Kenneth A
    Duke University, NC, USA.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Rome University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University, NC, USA.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe
    Rome University ‘La Sapienza,’ Rome, Italy; kUniversidad de San Buenaventura, Medellin, Colombia.
    Zelli, Arnaldo
    University of Rome Foro Italico, Italy..
    Alampay, Liane
    Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan.
    Bacchini, Dario
    Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy.
    Measurement invariance of discipline in different cultural contexts2012In: Family Science, ISSN 1942-4620, E-ISSN 1942-4639, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 212-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement invariance of mother-reported use of 18 discipline strategies was examined in samples from 13 different ethnic/cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Participants included approximately 100–120 mothers and their children aged seven to 10 years from each group. The results of exploratory factor analyses and multi-group categorical confirmatory factor analyses (MCCFA) indicated that a seven-factor solution was feasible across the cultural groups, as shown by marginally sufficient evidence for configural and metric invariance for the mother-reported frequency on the discipline interview. This study makes a contribution on measurement invariance to the parenting literature, and establishes the mother-report aspect of the discipline interview as an instrument for use in further cross-cultural research on discipline.

  • 305.
    Hussain, Zaynab
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Vad anser anställda inom näringslivet vara kränkande beteende med fokus på sexuella trakasserier och könstrakasserier?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Heinz Leymann is regarded a pioneer in research on adult bullying. The aim of this study was to examine which behaviors are considered to be the most insulting, with a focus on sexual harassment and gender harassment among employees in a male-dominated work sector. In addition to finding out if there is a connection between the phenomena and scenarios. The factors that were studied in addition to the con-text were gender, age, education and profession type. The respondents were em-ployees (

    N = 396; 54 women and 236 men) with the following professions; 187 of-ficials, 54 public employees, and 44 consultants. All were between 20 and 65 years. The questionnaire consisted of two main questions, eight phenomena and five scenarios. Some of them were related to sexual harassment and others to gen-der harassment. The results showed that ignoring and touching, as well as scenario touch from the boss was regarded as the most insulting. The older group experi-enced scenarios that was related to gender harassment more insulting, while the younger group experienced phenomenon that was related to sexual harassment as more insulting. Men experienced phenomena which were related to gender harass-ment more insulting than women did. The results showed that officials were more offended by the phenomena and scenarios that were related to gender harassment than consultants and public employees. Based on the results, the conclusion is that several phenomena were considered to be offensive when they were alone but not when put in context.

  • 306.
    Hwang, Philip
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. University of Gothenburg.
    Family policies and practices2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 307.
    Hwang, Philip
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. University of Gothenburg.
    Family policy and practices in Scandinavia2014In: Men as Fathers: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Fatherhood in the Context of the Family, Öhningen, Germany, May 7-9, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 308.
    Hwang, Philip
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. University of Gothenburg.
    Fatherhood and parental leave in Sweden2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 309.
    Hwang, Philip
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Förord2018In: Barn- och ungdomsvetenskap: grundläggande perspektiv / [ed] Johansson, Thomas & Sorbring, Emma, Stockholm: Liber, 2018, 1. uppl.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 310.
    Hwang, Philip
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Förord2018In: Moderna familjer: barn och föräldrar i nya konstellationer, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 311.
    Hwang, Philip
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. University of Gothenburg.
    Parental leave and gender equity2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 312.
    Hwang, Philip
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Frisén, Ann
    Göteborgs universitet, Psykologiska institutionen, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Nilsson, Björn
    Göteborgs universitet, Psykologiska institutionen, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Ungdomar och unga vuxna: utveckling och livsvillkor2018Book (Other academic)
  • 313.
    Hwang, Philip
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Göteborgs universitet Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten. Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Björn
    Göteborgs universitet Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten. Psykologiska institutionen.
    Gruppsykologi: för skola, arbetsliv och fritid2014 (ed. 1. utg)Book (Other academic)
  • 314.
    Hwang, Philip
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Nilsson, Björn
    Utvecklingspsykologi2019Book (Other academic)
  • 315.
    Högberg, Ulrika
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Åberg, Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Familjehemsdynamik: Familjehemsföräldrars upplevda påverkan på den egna familjen i uppdraget som familjehem.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study was done in order to investigate how foster parents experience how foster care affects themselves, their biological children and their relationships. Focus group interviews were conducted with two groups of five foster parents in each group. The focus groups consisted of five women and five men between 33 and 61 years old. An interview guide and a smaller survey was created and used during the interviews that were recorded on audio files. Data processing consisted of a phenomenological, hermeneutic analysis. The analysis gave three final themes:

    the importance of communication within the foster home and in their contact with the world outside the home; the impact of foster care on the biological children and their parents' relations within and outside the foster home and the positive and negative impact on personal and psychological development on parents and biological children in foster homes. Communication is a central concept in the foster carers everyday life. Relationships and psychological development is influenced both positively and negatively. The results of the study are in line with previous research. Communication, boundaries and empathy are key elements in foster care. The paper generated a model named Fostering care family dynamics. The model describes potential effects of fostering on the individuals in the biological family.

  • 316.
    Höglund Velasquez, Javiera
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Mamalingaz, Sarah
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Att jobba som taxichaufför: En kvalitativ studie om risker, säkerhetsarbetet och den egna upplevelsen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Working in the taxi industry may involve many risks for the drivers. This study was conducted with the purpose to try to identify risks taxi drivers face daily, how the organization works with the prevention of risks, and how the drivers themselves handle risk situations. The study followed a qualitative design where six taxi drivers from two different taxi companies participated, five men and one woman. The ages ranged from 23-54 years. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews where the drivers had to answered questions about the risks in their occupation, organizational factors, health and personal experiences. Thematic analysis was used to process and analyse the collected data. The results of this study showed that stress, threats and violence affected taxi drivers safety. The results also showed that safety measures may differ between companies but all of the interviewees expressed a wish for more established safety routines. Acceptance and social skills were key elements of the taxi drivers' personal way of handling risk situations. The results in this study agreed well with earlier research wich was the basis for this study. The risks that taxi drivers are greeted by are many and can often be associated to stress, health, external factors such as threatening passengers and internal organizational factors such as equipment and routines. Although some companies are working with the prevention of risks, there was still a desire expressed among the taxi drivers about more common and established safety procedures.

  • 317.
    Icenogle, Grace
    et al.
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, United States.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA .
    Duell, Natasha
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, United States.
    Chein, Jason
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, United States.
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology, China.
    Chaudhary, Nandita
    ady Irwin College, Department of Human Development and Childhood Studies, LUniversity of Delhi, India.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    Rome University La Sapienza, Faculty of Psycholog , Rome, Italy .
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    University of Cyprus, Department of Psychology, Cyprus.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe
    Universidad San Buenaventura,Consultorio Psicologico Popular, Medellín, Colombia.
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan; Emirates College for Advanced Education.
    Takash, Hanan M. S.
    Queen Rania Faculty for Childhood, Hashemite University, Jordan.
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Naples Federico II, Department of Psychology, Italy.
    Adolescents’ cognitive capacity reaches adult levels prior to their psychosocial maturity: Evidence for a "maturity gap" in a multinational, cross-sectional sample2019In: Law and human behavior, ISSN 0147-7307, E-ISSN 1573-661X, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 69-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All countries distinguish between minors and adults for various legal purposes. Recent U.S. Supreme Court cases concerning the legal status of juveniles have consulted psychological science to decide where to draw these boundaries. However, little is known about the robustness of the relevant research, because it has been conducted largely in the U.S. and other Western countries. To the extent that lawmakers look to research to guide their decisions, it is important to know how generalizable the scientific conclusions are. The present study examines 2 psychological phenomena relevant to legal questions about adolescent maturity: cognitive capacity, which undergirds logical thinking, and psychosocial maturity, which comprises individuals' ability to restrain themselves in the face of emotional, exciting, or risky stimuli. Age patterns of these constructs were assessed in 5,227 individuals (50.7% female), ages 10-30 (M = 17.05, SD = 5.91) from 11 countries. Importantly, whereas cognitive capacity reached adult levels around age 16, psychosocial maturity reached adult levels beyond age 18, creating a "maturity gap" between cognitive and psychosocial development. Juveniles may be capable of deliberative decision making by age 16, but even young adults may demonstrate "immature" decision making in arousing situations. We argue it is therefore reasonable to have different age boundaries for different legal purposes: 1 for matters in which cognitive capacity predominates, and a later 1 for matters in which psychosocial maturity plays a substantial role. © 2019 American Psychological Association.

  • 318.
    Inderberg, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Stiller, Victoria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    "Förändring är jobbigt, tror jag": En kvalitativ studie om hur medarbetare upplever en HR transformation på ett globalt företag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sense of coherence is a theoretical construct, which is used to measure the degree to which a person finds the world comprehensible, manageable and meaningful. In this study we aimed to discover and understand how the employees in an HR department at a large global company perceived the implemented changes from a sense of coherence perspective. The purpose of the organizational change was to become a more efficient HR department, as well as implementing a more unitary work procedure where there was supposed to be more room to support line managers in the organization and less focus on repetitive and administrative tasks. The study is based on a qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with six respondents. The questions we aimed to answer in this study were "Have the employees received sufficient information about the change? Have the employees felt involved in the change process? Do the employees feel that the change has contributed to increased commitment and well-being?" The study's result and conclusion reveals that the employees have different opinions regarding the HR transformation depending on which role they received after the organizational change. The interviews also showed that employees generally felt that they had received the information required for the HR transformation and that this is a decisive factor in feeling involved in the organizational change. A significant result 2 was also that there were uncertainties about what tasks should be performed by each working group. Finally, the study showed that as long as employees have the opportunity to influence their new positions and feel that their work experience is developing and challenging, it contributes to increased commitment and well-being at the workplace.

  • 319.
    Innervik, Marina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Kan ett datoriserat arbetspsykologiskt UPP-test genomskåda skönmålning?: resultaten är inte så optimistiska2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social desirability in personality tests which are often used as the selection method for recruitment is a big problem. Faked responses and unrealistic results can lead to wrong decisions and unsuccessful recruitment. This thesis was written in the context of a research project "Studies on a new Swedish labor psychological test Understanding Human Potential (UPP)". The author of the UPP test claims that the test reduces over 90% of the effect of social desirability (Sjöberg, 2015). The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the UPP test can detect social desirability. The study had an experimental design and was conducted in 2011-2012. Out of the 60 people who were recruited to the study, 48 took the UPP test on two occasions; the majority were students in the course Human Factors from an individual perspective at University West. At the first test session the participants were asked to honestly answer the test questions. At the second test session they were asked to try to portray themselves as good as possible in order to get their dream job. A paired samples t-test was used to measure the mean difference in all scales between these two occasions. The results showed that the UPP test was not able to correct for social desirability effectively. In 15 of the 24 scales the mean difference between the scores from the first and the second rounds had a large or moderate effect (d). The results are difficult to discuss in relation to previous research because previous studies on the UPP test are not peer reviewed and are often difficult to interpret. The results are discussed in relation to previous research on alternative ways to "get at" the problem of social desirability.

  • 320.
    Iseland, Tobias
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    A study of long haul truck drivers’ work tasks and reasons for performing secondary tasks: En studie av lastbilschaufförers arbetsuppgifter och anledningar bakom utförandet av sekundära uppgifter2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that secondary tasks (task unrelated to driving, which demands the driver’s attention resources, e.g., talking on the hand-held device) during manual driving increase the risk of being involved in an accident. The purpose of the study was to investigate; (1) if long-haul truck drivers engage in work tasks (tasks that are mandatory for their work) that involve secondary tasks whilst driving, if they do, what tasks are performed and how frequently; (2) the drivers selfperceived reason/s for performing them; (3) if factors personality traits, stress, workload, health-related life quality and self-perceived cause relate to the engagement in secondary tasks and if the group differs from norm groups regarding these factors. The study included 13 truck drivers driving long-haul and was conducted through an observational-, a questionnaire- and an interview study. The result indicates that the drivers had no work task whilst driving, but did performed secondary tasks. The main reasons for engaging in these secondary tasks were reported to be due to boredom, to prevent drowsiness. No strong correlations were obtained between personality traits, experienced stress, workload, health-related life quality and the number of performed secondary tasks. The trait Honesty-humility and workload showed a weak moderate negative correlation with secondary tasks. The results obtained are consistent with past research that they feel bored and use secondary tasks as a coping strategy to decrease boredom and drowsiness.

  • 321.
    Iseland, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Johansson, Emma
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Human Behaviour and Perception, M1.6, Götaverksgatan 10, SE-405 08 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Skoog, Siri
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Product Design, ABN, Götaverksgatan 10, SE-405 08 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    An exploratory study of long-haul truck drivers' secondary tasks and reasons for performing them.2018In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 117, p. 154-163, article id S0001-4575(18)30149-0Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on drivers has shown how certain visual-manual secondary tasks, unrelated to driving, increase the risk of being involved in crashes. The purpose of the study was to investigate (1) if long-haul truck drivers in Sweden engage in secondary tasks while driving, what tasks are performed and how frequently, (2) the drivers' self-perceived reason/s for performing them, and (3) if psychological factors might reveal reasons for their engaging in secondary tasks. The study comprised 13 long-haul truck drivers and was conducted through observations, interviews, and questionnaires. The drivers performed secondary tasks, such as work environment related "necessities" (e.g., getting food and/or beverages from the refrigerator/bag, eating, drinking, removing a jacket, face rubbing, and adjusting the seat), interacting with a mobile phone/in-truck technology, and doing administrative tasks. The long-haul truck drivers feel bored and use secondary tasks as a coping strategy to alleviate boredom/drowsiness, and for social interaction. The higher number of performed secondary tasks could be explained by lower age, shorter driver experience, less openness to experience, lower honesty-humility, lower perceived stress, lower workload, and by higher health-related quality of life. These explanatory results may serve as a starting point for further studies on large samples to develop a safer and healthier environment for long-haul truck drivers.

  • 322.
    Ivankovic, Sara
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Maleki, Yasmin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Skillnader i upplevd psykosocial arbetsmiljö mellan kommunal och icke-kommunal skola: utifrån krav-kontroll-stödmodellen2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, connections between health and work have been a prominent topic for researchers. Teachers have, according to research, been most affected by occupational disorders, such as work-related stress and fatigue syndrome. Long-term sickness due to psychosocial factors at work has increased and is more common in professions where there is interaction between people. Teachers belong to one of the professions that are at a greater risk of being affected by psychosocial illness in connection to their work. In addition, there is a large shortage of teachers and competent teachers change their profession due to fatigue.

    The study aims to examine differences in the perceived psychosocial work environment between teachers in municipal and non-municipal schools based on demand-control-support model.

    The survey was conducted in schools in the Västragötaland-region where 88 participants (N = 49 municipal, N = 39 non-municipal) participated (M = 42 years). The questionnaire was based on the DCSQ (The Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire) which contained 16 questions. Data were analyzed with an independent t-test.

    The results showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the school sectors regarding the demand and control variables but not for support. Teachers in the municipal school experienced less of a demand and also less control than in the non-municipal school. The study's results are in line with previous research and showed differences in the perceived psychosocial work environment between municipal and non-municipal school.

  • 323.
    Jakobsen, Tonje
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Hussain, Zaynab
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Kränkande beteende på arbetsplatsen: Hur definierar vi kränkande beteende och vad är avgörande för vår definition2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier research has shown the difficulty of defining insulting behaviour in the workplace. It has been noted that the individual and subjective definition is connected to the specific situation in which the potentially insulting incidence occurred. In this study we designed a quantitative questionnaire in order to hopefully elucidate the comprehension of insulting behaviour and furthermore enable a more in-depth investigation on how important the contextual meaning is. This study examined 140 (n=140) working adult’s attitudes towards insulting behaviour in the workplace and the importance of the contextual variables. The results showed that improper contiguity (80,7 %), sexual insinuations (84,2 %) and being ignored (88,6 %) are what the respondents find most insulting. The results also show that the context in which the potentially insulting incidence occurred was not the sole determining factor when the respondents evaluated the incidence.

  • 324.
    Jakobsson, Erik
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Samband mellan inställning till intuition vid rekrytering och personlighet, kognitiv förmåga och rationellt tänkande2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Intuition is a difficult concept to explain, but could be defined as a concept in which a feeling arises that something is right or wrong. Distinguishing for this feeling is that it is not a result of intellectual analysis. But what does it mean to recruit individuals based on intuition, and what consequences could it have? The opinion is divided on whether or not the use of intuition in the recruitment process is good or bad. Some recruiters argue that intuition is necessary to make the right decision, while others believe that we should not rely on intuition.

    This quantitative study consists of 221 participants aged 22 to 67 years. 144 of the participants are women, while 73 are men. With intuition-based recruitment as a variable, attitude to using intuition when recruiting is measured. A high value in this variable means that the attitude to using the intuition in the recruitment process is more positive, while a low value indicates that the attitude to using the intuition in recruitment is more negative.

    The study does not show any connection between intuitive recruitment and personality traits based on the five-factor theory, or between intuition-based recruitment and cognitive ability. In this study, the intuitive recruiter seems to prefer general ability as a selection criterium, which means that the recruiter uses, for example, a test to measure the cognitive ability or intelligence of a candidate, in order to obtain a value for general ability.

  • 325.
    Javanshir, Parisa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Lundström, Nancy
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Delat ledarskap: En studie om medarbetares upplevelser av och förtroende för delat ledarskap.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess the pros and cons of a shared leadership from the employees perspective, how shared leadership affects the employees' work situation and also how shared leadership affects employees' trust towards their leaders. Data has been collected by means of eight semi-structured interviews. Respondents from four organizations with shared managements, both in the private and public sectors, have participated in the study. Döös & Wilhelmson's theory of shared leadership and Lewicki & Bunker's theory of trust, are the theories used in this study. The study's data was analyzed with Braun and Clarke's (2006) six phases of thematic analysis. Four overall themes were found; availability, eligibility, communication and responsibilities and duties. The study's conclusions regarding the advantages and disadvantages of shared leadership were that shared leadership leads to increased accessibility of leaders in the workplace, increased employee eligibility as well as generating an increased competence among the management team. However, with the increased eligibility among leaders, scenarios can occur, where employees use the increased eligibility for their own benefit. Something else that became clear throughout the writing of this study was the fact that processes and decisions in organizations with shared leaderships becomes more time-consuming, while at the same time they are more thought-out and refined. Employees' work situation is affected because the personality and chemistry with the leaders and the employees is the decisive factor for respondents to prefer a shared leadership instead of an individual one. It became clear that the co-leadership method, is the most beneficial shared leadership-method for the employees' work situation. It also surfaced that there were communication shortages between management and employees, within organizations that practice shadow management, functionally shared leadership or matrix management. The communication shortcomings that arise in the aforementioned leadership forms, in turn, reduce employee confidence in management while at the same time a joint leadership increases that confidence from employees to the shared leadership.

  • 326.
    Jensen, Caroline
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Ökar arbetstillfredsställelsen i grupper som utvecklas framåt i Wheelans integrerade modell om grupputveckling?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether there is any connection between increased work satisfaction and groups that develop forward from a lower to a higher phase in Wheelans model

    "Integrative Model of Group Development" (IMGD). The dataset used in this study was collected during an "European Social Fund" (ESF) funded collaborative project between occupational health services and a Swedish manufacturing industry. 31 management teams of 5-8 persons each of whom one was a line manager and the other team leaders were surveyed. The questionnaire "Group Development Questionnaire" (GDQ) where used to see in what phases according to the model IMGD the management teams were found, as well as additional supplementary questions about work satisfaction. The measurements were made on two occasions with seven months in between and during that time group interventions were made that intended to promote the groups' development forward. The results show that there was a positive correlation between increase of phase assignation and increase in work satisfaction. The results further show that even the stage a group was at in the first measurement had a positive correlation with the increase in job satisfaction seven months later.

  • 327.
    Jerrebäck, Erika
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Sjöö, Petra
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    En studie som undersöker samband mellan arbetsbelastning och personkonflikter på arbetet: Emotionell Intelligens som moderator2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that interpersonal conflicts at work can lead to negative consequences for both individuals, groups and organizations. High workload contributes to the emergence of conflicts between employees. Levels of trait Emotional Intelligence (EI) are of significance for how a person tends to handle demanding situations and feelings.

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the levels of trait EI can moderate the relationship between perceived workload and interpersonal conflicts at work.

    We predicted that individuals with a high level of EI would show a weaker correlation between perceived workload and interpersonal conflicts at work. To test the hypothesis, a web-based questionnaire was constructed and consisted of three measuring scales. Quantitative Workload Inventory (QWI) investigates workload, Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale (ICAWS) investigates interpersonal conflicts at work and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire- Short Form (TEIQue-SF) measures trait EI. The survey turned to individuals working or individuals who had worklife experience. This study used a convenience sample (N = 202). The age range was between 19 to 66 years (M = 39; SD = 13), 73% women, 26% men and 1% who defined themselves as other.

    Results indicated that high perceived workload is associated with more reports of involvements in work-related conflicts. Another finding showed that individuals with high level of EI, have fewer involvements regarding interpersonal conflicts at work. However, the positive correlation between interpersonal conflicts and workload was constant regardless of one's level of EI. This contradicts the hypothesis, since EI, as moderator, had no significant influence on the relationship between interpersonal conflicts and workload

  • 328.
    Jildermark, Erika
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Wångdahl, Jeanette
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Arbetsplatsträffars effektivitet och utvecklingsnivåer: En observationsstudie inom en kommunal grundskola2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to highlight workplace meetings´ benefit and what level of development. The study was done at a school in Lidköping and included two qualitative observations. Most of the groups´ members were women; one man was included in each group, and there was a mixed age structure of the meeting participants. The collection of data was then paired with the scientific literature and scientific articles.

     

    .. Our results demonstrate that group 1 spend 59% of the time on information and 41% of communication. Group 2 show an even distribution of information and communication. None of the groups engaged in dialogue, decision making or empowerment.

  • 329.
    Joelsson, Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    E-kommunikation på arbetsplatsen: Medarbetares upplevelser av chefens e-postkommunikation2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Quick, technological development changed communication in the workplace. The virtual context contributed by digital means of communication, where e-mail is the most popular. The benefits are great. E-mail save time and is cost effective. According to early research organizations' performance was largely due to communication and relationships between managers and employees. In regard to the limited research on employees´ experience of the manager´s e-mail communication, this study´s purpose was based on the employee's perspective, highlighting how the virtual context influences the downward communication in the workplace. The study focused on the effects and affects e-mail has on communication, relationships, confidence and work performance. The study resulted in a qualitative design, which aim was to examine the descriptive data by individual experiences and create additional understanding. The selection was based on the criterion that the participants would work in a virtual context, where they would use e-mail communication with their manager as a tool. Based on a questionnaire guide, six semi-structured interviews were conducted. A thematic analysis resulted in four themes: cognitive abilities, interaction between employees and management, which affected as described, borderlines of time, space and labor. E-mail proved to be a complex concept. It was fast, while simultaneously a time thief. It contributed to a sense of belonging and participation, but also uncertainty and misunderstanding. We need e-mail skills in our organizations to minimize negative effects and affects.

  • 330.
    Johansson, Alexandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Johansson, Hilda
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Från ord till handling: En kvalitativ studie om organisationers värdeord och dess implementering i praktiken2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is common for organizations to state and communicate their internal values, both externally and internally. All the more organizations strive to be grounded in their values as a way of standing out; they provide a clear vision and increase the level of motivation and commitment amongst their employees. However, research has shown implications concerning if stated organizational values are in fact able to generate anything of value for the organization. Empirical results have shown that a number of factors within an organization can contribute to a gap between talking and doing. Therefore this qualitative study aimed to explore how and if stated organizational values were resepcted in the organizations or not. This was achieved by investigating how our chosen organization was able to convert their values in to action. The study investigated how both employees and managers experienced the implementation and use of their stated organizational values. The study was conducted in a company who had four clearly stated value words that originated from their core values. The result showed that the experience concerning the use and implementation of value words varied depending on the informant's position within the company. Concerning how well the value words were implemented in their daily routine seemed to depend mostly on the leadership and the communication within the organization. The majority of the informants claimed that the organization would probably stay the same, with or without the stated value words.

  • 331.
    Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Sköld, Kajsa
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Vill studenter leda och varför: Beror det på personlighet, graden av Self-efficacy eller genus2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined the relationship between Self-efficacy, personality, based on the Big Five, and the willingness to lead in the future, and if the participants in this study thought that males or females were better leaders. This study investigated whether differences according to gender, age and work experience did exist. 132 university students responded to a questionnaire.

    The results showed that the desire to lead not was predicted by gender, age or work experience. Gender, age and work experience did not predict individual Self-efficacy. Self-efficacy and personality dimensions showed associations in some cases; Self-efficacy and Neuroticism had a negative association, while Self-efficacy had a positive association with Extraversion. The desire to lead was predicted by personality dimensions Extraversion and Agreeableness. Extraversion had a positive relationship and Agreeableness was negatively related to the willingness to lead. Women had higher levels of Conscientiousness compared to men. Self-efficacy and personality were the variables that best predicted the willingness to lead. Men felt to a greater extent than women that men were better leaders. The reliability of the Big Five, Self-efficacy, as well as the statements of leadership was at an acceptable level and all questions could be used in the questionnaire. The people who had the goal to have a leading position in the future tended to have a high degree of the personality dimension Extraversion

  • 332.
    Johansson, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, .
    Bjuhr, Helena
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, .
    Karlsson, Magdalena
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, .
    Karlsson, Jan-Olof
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Rönnbäck, Lars
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, .
    Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Delivered Live on the Internet to Individuals Suffering from Mental Fatigue After an Acquired Brain Injury2015In: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 1356-1365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An acquired brain injury often leads to long-lasting mental fatigue, which can have a considerable effect on work and social interactions. Fortunately, the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program has been found to alleviate mental fatigue. The purpose of this feasibility study was to evaluate the success of an interactive MBSR program delivered live online to individuals who have experienced a traumatic brain injury or stroke. We included the following three groups in our study: an Internet group, a face-to-face MBSR group, and an active control group who took weekly walks in natural environments. Thirty-four participants completed the study, and all were suffering from long-lasting mental fatigue after either a traumatic brain injury (16 participants) or a stroke (18 participants). However, seven did not accept to attend an Internet MBSR, and Internet was the only choice for others. We found that, according to the Mental Fatigue Scale (MFS), the program leads to significantly reduced mental fatigue in the Internet group compared with the face-to-face and the control group. Individuals in the MBSR groups also exhibited an improved ability to process two temporally close targets (attentional blink task), while this was not detected in the control group. In conclusion, we believe that it is possible for individuals suffering from mental fatigue after an acquired brain injury to obtain positive results through enrollment in a live, interactive, online MBSR program. This is promising, as the Internet is accessible to many individuals, irrespective of where they live. Further randomized control studies comparing are warranted.

  • 333.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Klaesson, Sara
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Genusskillnader inom inre och yttre motivation2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation is important for people, both in work-life and life in general. Motivation can mainly be divided into intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, which depends on the intentions behind the individual’s actions. An individual with intrinsic motivation performs an activity because it is based on interest and satisfaction. Actions based on extrinsic motivation are founded on something other than the activity itself for example economic reward. The aim of the study was to compare possible differences between male and female university teachers regarding intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The study also examined whether a type of motivation was valued as important and at the same time fulfilled. The study had a quantative approach and the design of the questions in the questionnaire was based on Deci and Ryan’s theory of self-determination (SDT). The study included 296 university teachers and the response rate was 47 %. The results of the study showed that the women valued all but one of the motivational factors significantly higher than the men. Thereby the motivational factor Economic reward was the only one where the differences were not significant. The results also showed that the participants who valued a motivational factor as important and at the same time were fulfilled to a high extent were in a large majority. Very few of the participants valued a type of motivational factor as important and also were fulfilled to a low extent.

  • 334.
    Johansson, Ingemar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Gymnasierektors ledarskapsparadox: att vara verksamhetschef och pedagogisk utvecklare2014In: Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning om rektors ledarskap är omfattande, men studier som undersöker gymnasierektors arbetssituation och ledarskap är mer sällsynta. Avsikten med den föreliggande studien var att bidra till att denna kunskapslucka fylls igen. Semistrukturerade intervjuer med tio gymnasierektorer genomfördes med fokus på rektors arbetsuppgifter, möjlighet att planera och styra arbetet, förväntningar kring ledarskapet, samt möjlighet att utvecklas och lära i arbetet. I resultaten av den tematiska analysen framträdde fyra teman: (1) ledarskapsideal, (2) kollegialt stöd, (3) ledarskap i en förändringsbenägen organisation, och (4) begränsat utrymme för reflektion. Ett övergripande, gemensamt tema: ”Ledarskapsparadox” speglar de högst varierande omständigheter och förhållanden i vardagen som en gymnasierektor ska kunna hantera, vilka också präglar resultatet av analysen. Ett något oväntat resultat var att gymnasierektor upplevde stort, eget ansvar för elevernas bästa. Studien kastar nytt ljus på gymnasierektorers ledarskap, och bidrar till ökad förståelse för vad rollen som ledare för en komplex organisation som gymnasieskolan kan innebära. Genom att knyta an till en arbetspsykologisk ledarskapsteori och formulera en arbetspsykologisk hypotes kan studien bidra till forskningen om arbetsintegrerat lärande (AIL).

  • 335.
    Johansson, Ingemar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Winman, Thomas
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Being a Rector: A Study of Knowledge Needs and Knowledge Development in Secondary Schools2015In: Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 357-368Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 336.
    Johansson, Kamilla
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Arbetsmiljöns väktare: En studie om skyddsombuds upplevelse av möjligheter till inflytande i offentlig sektor.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skyddsombud har som uppgift att säga ifrån och framföra kritik vid missförhållanden i arbetsmiljön. I denna studie valde författaren att undersöka skyddsombuds inflytande inom offentlig sektor, vilka upplevda faktorer som främjar och hindrar skyddsombuds arbete och möjligheter till inflytande när kritik framförs. I Sverige omfattas alla offentligt anställda av rätten att framföra kritik. Men tidigare forskning visar att det ändå finns en rädsla och oro för till exempel sin anställning och risken att hamna utanför den sociala gemenskapen om anställda framför kritik. Att skyddsombud känner en oro över att bli för besvärliga gentemot arbetsgivaren har gett denna studie en intressant infallsvinkel kring en funktion som funnits i 102 år på den svenska arbetsmarknaden. Sex stycken skyddsombud som arbetar inom utbildning- och vård och omsorgsförvaltningen i offentlig sektor intervjuades. Intervjuerna genomfördes enskilt och med en semi-strukturerad intervjuguide. Intervjuerna transkriberades och analyserades sedan med hjälp av tematisk analysmetod där fyra teman utformades; arbetsgivarens mottagande och respons vid arbetsmiljöarbete, upplevda faktorer som ger skyddsombud inflytande, svårigheter i rollen som påverkar inflytande och svårigheter i organisationen som påverkar inflytande. En av de svårigheter som lyftes fram i resultatet var att inneha två roller i arbetslivet, en som anställd och en del av arbetsmiljön och en som skyddsombud där rollen förväntas vara objektiv och kritiskt granska arbetsmiljön och arbetsgivarens arbete. Dock ger inte denna studie enbart en negativ syn på skyddsombuds inflytande utan lyfter också de möjligheter som skyddsombud har att vara med och påverka genom samverkansgrupper i organisationen och genom lagstiftning och regler. I studien framkom det också att alla skyddsombud känner ett stort ansvar att framföra kritik och anser att arbetsgivaren inte kan undkomma sitt ansvar vid arbetsmiljöarbete.

  • 337.
    Johansson, Kit
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Syla, Visar
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Vilka individegenskaper är vanliga inom polisyrket och andra riskrelaterade yrken?: En jämförande studie om personlighet och precisionsbedömning inom riskrelaterade yrken2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to get an insight into which individual characteristics that are common within the police profession and within other risk related occupations. The following questions were formulated: 1) Which personality traits are common in the police- academy, the police profession, and in educations and occupations that are risk related? Are there any differences? 2) Do police students or professional police show greater skills when it comes to impression accuracy, from looking at presented photos, than the ones who study or are working in other occupations? Both when it comes to precision in selections about who is, and when it comes to probability that a person is guilty and convicted of a crime. The participants were 342 persons; 163 (47.6%) were fulltime employed and the rest were fulltime students. The survey contained the personality test IPIP30 (International Personality Item Pool) which measures personality according to the five-factor model and a measurement of impression accuracy. Data was analyzed with SPSS and the statistic method of independent t-test. The result showed that 1) neuroticism was the personality dimension that was the most distinguished throughout the groups; police students, police, and the ones in other risk related occupations. These groups scored much lower in comparison to the groups of participants that study to or work in other occupations. 2) Police showed better skills in making precise judgements when it comes to guilty people. We conclude the results of this study could be used to get an understanding of the individual characteristics of people in these occupations.

  • 338.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Thungström, Linda
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Arbetsengagemang och personlighet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Work-engagement is defined as a pleasant emotion where work is felt to be rewarding. This study investigates whether work engagement correlates to the Big Five personality traits. Employees with high engagement have been shown to perform better at work and have a higher subjective well being, which is why this research-area is interesting and can benefit society. Our question was that work engagement would correlate positively with the personality factors extraversion and conscientiousness and show a negative correlation with neuroticism. Data was collected from questionnaires, IPIP-NEO and UWES, completed by 102 participants. We searched for a relationship between the various variables with help of a multiple regression analysis. The result displayed a correlation, which was strong given the research-area and partly in line with previous research. Our final conclusion was that personality accounts for one fifth of an individuals work engagement; hence it is an important predictor. Still, other factors explain the main part of engagement and may compensate for personality when necessary.

  • 339.
    Johansson, Pushpa
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Samband mellan yttre och inre motivationsfaktorer och attityden till att dela kunskap2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As knowledge is considered a crucial asset in companies the importance of managing knowledge increases. Gathering, storing and sharing knowledge are key elements in gaining advantage in a competitive market. What motivates employees to engage in knowledge-sharing activities? This study examined how different kinds of motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic) correlates with the employee's attitude towards knowledge-sharing. This study was based on a questionnaire developed in 2007 consisting of the variables extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, attitude and intention. In this research 84 respondents part took. In this study, extrinsic motivation consists of two constructs, organizational rewards and reciprocal benefits. Intrinsic motivation consists of the two constructs knowledge self-efficacy and enjoyment in helping others. The results showed that the motivational factors of reciprocal benefits and enjoyment in helping others were the only two significantly associated employee attitudes toward knowledge sharing. This was in line with previous research.

  • 340.
    Johansson, Regina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Tureson, Sandra
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Första intrycket: En kvasiexperimentell studie om kvinnor, män och ansiktsbedömningar av pålitlighet och dominans2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that intuitive judgements of faces are part of the daily interaction between people. Based on these first impressions of faces, conclusions are made about personal characteristics. These conclusions can affect such things as the outcome of political choices and who will be employed. Studies also show that that judgement of the same characteristic can have different outcomes depending on the persons sex. Judgements of faces are according to Oosterhof and Todorov (2008) based on two overall dimensions: valence and dominance which are defined by characteristics such as trustworthiness, attractiveness, dominance, aggressiveness and confidence.

    The purpose of this study based on the valence/dominance model was to investigate if these intuitive judgements vary depending on gender. The specific research questions were a) is there a difference in how men and women are rated on the dimensions valence and dominance and b) is there a difference in how men and women rate their own vs. the other sex.

    The sample is based on a total of 70 participants, 30 men and 40 women. Participation was voluntarily and the instrument used in the study was a computer program where participants twice rated 120 faces, on one characteristic. A 2 (dimensions: valence vs. dominance) x 2 (sex: man vs. woman) mixed ANOVA was conducted and followed up by explorative analyses.

    Results indicate 1) there is a significant main effect of gender, women were rated somewhat higher on both valence and dominance and 2) there was no significant difference in men and women's ratings for their own vs. other sex. This deviates from past research which show that men are generally rated as more dominant and women as more trustworthy (valence). However, according to this study judgements from faces are not significantly affected by gender.

  • 341.
    Johansson Sporregård, Madeleine
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Lidberg, Rebecca
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Ungdomars självkänsla, kroppsuppfattning och träningsvanor: En jämförelse mellan killar och tjejer2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were any differences between boys and girls regarding self-esteem, body image and exercise habits. The aim was to explore whether there were correlations between young people's exercise habits, self-esteem and body image. The study was conducted on 41 girls and 53 boys in high school, and the average age was 17 years. Participants were asked to answer a questionnaire that measured the concepts of "self-esteem", "body image" and how often they performed physical activity. Results showed that there were significant differences between the sexes. Boys tended to have a more positive self-esteem and body image and exercise more often. Results showed a positive correlation between self-esteem and body image with boys. The results with girls showed a significant correlation between self-esteem and body image and a negative relationship between body image and BMI

  • 342.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    An Inquiry into Satisfaction and Variations in User-Oriented Elderly Care2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The foundation for this thesis is an ongoing discussion about quality in Swedish elderly care: Which are the most important factors that contribute to elderly care in terms of satisfaction among older persons, and what are the primary reasons for their differences? Aims. The principal aim was to examine what determines satisfaction with elderly care in home care and nursing homes, using the perspective of older persons (Studies I and II). The secondary aim was to analyze why these determinants differ, using the perspective of care workers, managers, and observers (Studies III and IV). Methods. Study I analyzed aggregated statistical data from the level of municipalities and districts (N = 324) based on the Swedish elderly care quality reports “Open Comparisons”, while Study II analyzed individual data based on the original ratings in the annual, nationwide elderly surveys (N = 95,000). Study III describes field observations and interviews with care workers and managers in two municipalities, one with a high rating for user satisfaction and one with an average rating. Study IV describes investigations in these two municipalities concerning their organizing principles and departmental level management climate. Results. The results relating to the principal aim showed that process factors (such as respect, information, and influence) are related considerably more closely than structural factors (such as budget, staffing levels, and training levels) to satisfaction with care. Other process factors (such as treatment, safeness, staff and time availability) were also able to alleviate person factors (such as health, anxiety, and loneliness). Moreover, the results relating to the secondary aim showed that differences in user-oriented elderly care are mainly due to interpersonal factors between the caregiver and the older person. Care workers, however, reported that other factors (such as organizing principles and leadership support) influence the quality of the care process. Overall, older persons who receive home care generally report higher satisfaction with care than those in nursing homes, and feeling less safe. It is possible that differences in the process of aging explain this. Value. This thesis shows that satisfaction with elderly care can be largely explained by psychological quality at the individual level. The sizes of structural resources and organizing principles at the municipal level have minimal effect (< 5%). The thesis also presents a theoretical multiple-level Quality Agents Model to explain the sources of differences in satisfaction with care, and it presents recommendations for elderly care practices. A renewed focus on the psychology of satisfaction may contribute to the development of quality in elderly care.

  • 343.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Cross-cultural personality differences between East Asia and Northern Europe in IPIP-NEO2017In: International Journal of Personality Psychology, E-ISSN 2451-9243, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychological differences between nations are part of the challenges of globalization. The present study provides benchmarks of personality traits across 12 nations in East Asia and Northern Europe (N = 23,268). Personality was measured with the IPIP-NEO-120, which is a comprehensive, open-source version of the Five Factor Model (FFM). East Asia scored low in Openness and Agreeableness as opposed to high in Europe. Similarly, Neuroticism was higher in East Asia than in Europe. The IPIP-NEO instrument was subjected to measurement equivalence testing, and invariance could not be fully ruled out as part of the explanation. The discussion centers on how to understand the size, the relevance, and the mechanisms of cross-cultural personality differences.

  • 344.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Five Factor Model-Based Personality Disorders across Sex and Age-groups (N=320,128)2017In: Personality and Personality Disorders:Foundations of Pathology, Pathways to Health, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Five Factor Model (FFM) with its 30 facet traits is proposed as a universal basis for PD (Personality Disorders). For instance, based on the FFM-count method (Miller et al., 2005), the disposition for Paranoid PD can be calculated by a validated set of FFM sub-traits: N2 + E1_R + E2_R + O4_R + O6_R + A1_R + A2_R + A3_R + A4_R + A6_R. Using a comprehensive open-source representation of FFM (IPIP-NEO-120; Johnson, 2014), we explored age and sex differences in the 10 DSM-IV PD categories with the presumably largest US sample to date (N = 320,128). The results showed differences of up to ½ SD in all PD categories across age-groups, as well as clear gaps between sexes. For example, the largest decline with age, as well as differences in sex, was seen in Antisocial PD. Also, interaction effects between age and sex could be seen in Schizoid and Schizotypal PDs. The present study presents tentative support for personality trait theory as a basis for psychopathology, and updated benchmarks on the scope and size of sex and age differences in PD dispositions in the community.

  • 345.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Honesty-Humility in contemporary students: manipulations of self-image by inflated IQ estimations2014In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 311-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The HEXACO model offers a complement to the Big-Five model, including a sixth factor, Honesty-Humility, and its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty). The four facets of Honesty-Humility and three indicators of intelligence (one performance-based cognitive ability test, one self-estimated academic potential, and one self-report of previous IQ test results) were assessed in students entering higher education (N = 187). A significant negative correlation was observed between Honesty-Humility and self-reported intelligence (r  = –.37), most evident in the Modesty facet. These results may be interpreted as tendencies of exaggeration, using a theoretical frame of psychological image-management, concluding that the Honesty-Humility trait captures students’ self-ambitions, particularly within the context of an individualistic, competitive culture such as Sweden.

  • 346.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. School of Health and Education and Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Honesty-Humility predicting self-estimated academic performance2016In: International Journal of Personality Psychology, E-ISSN 2451-9243, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has established relationships between the Big Five personality factors, cognitive ability, and aca-demic performance. A more recent personality trait, Honesty-Humility with its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty) is suggested to have predictive value especially in self-promoting behaviors. The aim of the present study was to find out whether lower Honesty-Humility would predict higher self-reported academic performance, and account for additional variance, after controlling for the Big Five and cognitive ability. The partic-ipants were Swedish 17-19 year-old students (N = 154) in late secondary high school. The results revealed a signifi-cant negative correlation between Honesty-Humility and self-estimated academic performance, mainly through low scores in the facets Sincerity and Modesty, as well as an additional 7% accounted for variance. The discussion con-cludes that the new trait Honesty-Humility may be a welcomed addition to the understanding of how students use self-promoting strategies in contemporary school

  • 347.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Kritiskt tänkande och högskolans kritiska uppdrag2012In: / [ed] Chalmers konferenser, 2012, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    De högre lärosätena har av Sveriges riksdag och regering fått i uppgift att skola självständiga och kritiskt tänkande studenter för samhällets bästa. Det kritiska tänkandet är förutom en värdering i vår kultur också en förtjänstfull metodik som har visat sig gynna djupinlärandet hos studenter. Studien tar sin teoretiska utgångspunkt i Kolbs (1984) inlärningsmodell för att beskriva hur det kritiska tänkandet med hjälp av ett arbetsintegrerat lärande (AIL)-perspektiv kan utvecklas. Kritiken som riktas i detta arbete är att reflektionens väg och mål idag på förhand ofta är givet studenterna. Detta skulle kunna resultera i antitesen till högskoleverkets målsättningar och att studenterna i själva verket blir osjälvständiga och okritiskt tänkande. Studien pekar på att arbetssätt och metakognition kring kritiskt tänkande inom det högre lärandet bör medvetandegöras mer och den argumenterar för att AIL-perspektivet kan förbättra det kritiska tänkandet på Sveriges högre utbildningar.

  • 348.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology, Sweden.
    Low Honesty-Humility gives high self-reported IQ2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The HEXACO model offers a complement to the Big-Five model, including a sixth factor, Honesty-Humility, and its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty). The four facets of Honesty-Humility and three indicators of intelligence (one performance-based cognitive ability test, one self-estimated academic potential, and one self-report of previous IQ test results) were assessed in students entering higher education (N = 187). A significant negative correlation was observed between Honesty-Humility and self-reported intelligence (r = –.37), most evident in the Modesty facet. These results may be interpreted as tendencies of exaggeration, using a theoretical frame of psychological image-management, concluding that the Honesty-Humility trait captures students’ self-ambitions, particularly within the context of an individualistic, competitive culture such as Sweden.

  • 349.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Self-estimated IQ Varies with Context: ICAR16 compared with a Swedish Intelligence test2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between self-estimated and observed intelligence has sparked an interest among researchers in recent years. However, studies on the relationship between how personality traits predict self-estimations of intelligence in different test-settings are still not explored. This study set up a two-way experimental within-subjects design (N = 84) to test how prior personality traits predict self-estimated intelligence, immidiately after having performed an intelligence-test. At a first occasion, an explicitly easy intelligence-test (Kajonius, 2014) under relaxed pretenses was given to a number of work psychology students, and at a second occasion two months later a difficult intelligence test (Condon & Revelle, 2014, ICAR16) with time pressure was given to the same students. No test-scores or personality traits’ results were revealed until after the study. An expected relationship between self-estimated and observed intelligence of similar strength was found in both conditions (r ~ .55). Also, the students’ prior personality tests (Big Five Inventory-44) showed that neuroticism had a negative relationship with self-estimated intelligence (r ~ -.30), similarly in both conditions. However, the self-enhancing traits of Machiavellianism and narcissism (Short Dark Triad-3) showed a significant positive relationship with self-estimated intelligence only in the easy condition (r = .30) and not in the difficult condition (r = .10). The discussion suggests that neither student exits nor adjustment effects can explain the differences in the impact of dark triad traits between the conditions. The conclusion is that the study implies that test situations can activate personality traits differently, while the accuracy of self-perceived intelligence is more constant.

  • 350.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    The Big Five Factors in Perceived Elderly Care Quality: An Evaluation Model in the Behavioral Sciences for User-Oriented Professions2016In: ViLär 2016, konferens 8-9 december, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Perceived care quality (i.e., how care is enacted by a care worker toward a client at the interpersonal level) is a strong predictor of satisfaction in a wide range of health care services. The present research aimed at compiling a model containing the basic elements of care quality from a behavioral science perspective. Specifically, such a model could help reveal how and why quality in user-oriented care professions vary.

    Design –We interviewed, observed, and took notes about care workers’ interactions with the older persons in both home care and nursing homes during two weeks.

    Findings – A model for categorising perceived quality variation, the Big Five of user-oriented care (Task-focus, Person-focus, Affect, Cooperation, and Time-use; T-PACT) was discerned with help of thematic analysis.

    Value – The proposed model may be useful for describing general user-oriented quality and its variations (see Table 1). These Big Five categories (TPACT) can be of relevance for future quality developments of user-oriented professions, as well as be implemented in educational programs.

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