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  • 301.
    Johansson, Alexandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Johansson, Hilda
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Från ord till handling: En kvalitativ studie om organisationers värdeord och dess implementering i praktiken2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is common for organizations to state and communicate their internal values, both externally and internally. All the more organizations strive to be grounded in their values as a way of standing out; they provide a clear vision and increase the level of motivation and commitment amongst their employees. However, research has shown implications concerning if stated organizational values are in fact able to generate anything of value for the organization. Empirical results have shown that a number of factors within an organization can contribute to a gap between talking and doing. Therefore this qualitative study aimed to explore how and if stated organizational values were resepcted in the organizations or not. This was achieved by investigating how our chosen organization was able to convert their values in to action. The study investigated how both employees and managers experienced the implementation and use of their stated organizational values. The study was conducted in a company who had four clearly stated value words that originated from their core values. The result showed that the experience concerning the use and implementation of value words varied depending on the informant's position within the company. Concerning how well the value words were implemented in their daily routine seemed to depend mostly on the leadership and the communication within the organization. The majority of the informants claimed that the organization would probably stay the same, with or without the stated value words.

  • 302.
    Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Sköld, Kajsa
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Vill studenter leda och varför: Beror det på personlighet, graden av Self-efficacy eller genus2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined the relationship between Self-efficacy, personality, based on the Big Five, and the willingness to lead in the future, and if the participants in this study thought that males or females were better leaders. This study investigated whether differences according to gender, age and work experience did exist. 132 university students responded to a questionnaire.

    The results showed that the desire to lead not was predicted by gender, age or work experience. Gender, age and work experience did not predict individual Self-efficacy. Self-efficacy and personality dimensions showed associations in some cases; Self-efficacy and Neuroticism had a negative association, while Self-efficacy had a positive association with Extraversion. The desire to lead was predicted by personality dimensions Extraversion and Agreeableness. Extraversion had a positive relationship and Agreeableness was negatively related to the willingness to lead. Women had higher levels of Conscientiousness compared to men. Self-efficacy and personality were the variables that best predicted the willingness to lead. Men felt to a greater extent than women that men were better leaders. The reliability of the Big Five, Self-efficacy, as well as the statements of leadership was at an acceptable level and all questions could be used in the questionnaire. The people who had the goal to have a leading position in the future tended to have a high degree of the personality dimension Extraversion

  • 303.
    Johansson, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, .
    Bjuhr, Helena
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, .
    Karlsson, Magdalena
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, .
    Karlsson, Jan-Olof
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Rönnbäck, Lars
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, .
    Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Delivered Live on the Internet to Individuals Suffering from Mental Fatigue After an Acquired Brain Injury2015In: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 1356-1365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An acquired brain injury often leads to long-lasting mental fatigue, which can have a considerable effect on work and social interactions. Fortunately, the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program has been found to alleviate mental fatigue. The purpose of this feasibility study was to evaluate the success of an interactive MBSR program delivered live online to individuals who have experienced a traumatic brain injury or stroke. We included the following three groups in our study: an Internet group, a face-to-face MBSR group, and an active control group who took weekly walks in natural environments. Thirty-four participants completed the study, and all were suffering from long-lasting mental fatigue after either a traumatic brain injury (16 participants) or a stroke (18 participants). However, seven did not accept to attend an Internet MBSR, and Internet was the only choice for others. We found that, according to the Mental Fatigue Scale (MFS), the program leads to significantly reduced mental fatigue in the Internet group compared with the face-to-face and the control group. Individuals in the MBSR groups also exhibited an improved ability to process two temporally close targets (attentional blink task), while this was not detected in the control group. In conclusion, we believe that it is possible for individuals suffering from mental fatigue after an acquired brain injury to obtain positive results through enrollment in a live, interactive, online MBSR program. This is promising, as the Internet is accessible to many individuals, irrespective of where they live. Further randomized control studies comparing are warranted.

  • 304.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Klaesson, Sara
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Genusskillnader inom inre och yttre motivation2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation is important for people, both in work-life and life in general. Motivation can mainly be divided into intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, which depends on the intentions behind the individual’s actions. An individual with intrinsic motivation performs an activity because it is based on interest and satisfaction. Actions based on extrinsic motivation are founded on something other than the activity itself for example economic reward. The aim of the study was to compare possible differences between male and female university teachers regarding intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The study also examined whether a type of motivation was valued as important and at the same time fulfilled. The study had a quantative approach and the design of the questions in the questionnaire was based on Deci and Ryan’s theory of self-determination (SDT). The study included 296 university teachers and the response rate was 47 %. The results of the study showed that the women valued all but one of the motivational factors significantly higher than the men. Thereby the motivational factor Economic reward was the only one where the differences were not significant. The results also showed that the participants who valued a motivational factor as important and at the same time were fulfilled to a high extent were in a large majority. Very few of the participants valued a type of motivational factor as important and also were fulfilled to a low extent.

  • 305.
    Johansson, Ingemar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Gymnasierektors ledarskapsparadox: att vara verksamhetschef och pedagogisk utvecklare2014In: Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning om rektors ledarskap är omfattande, men studier som undersöker gymnasierektors arbetssituation och ledarskap är mer sällsynta. Avsikten med den föreliggande studien var att bidra till att denna kunskapslucka fylls igen. Semistrukturerade intervjuer med tio gymnasierektorer genomfördes med fokus på rektors arbetsuppgifter, möjlighet att planera och styra arbetet, förväntningar kring ledarskapet, samt möjlighet att utvecklas och lära i arbetet. I resultaten av den tematiska analysen framträdde fyra teman: (1) ledarskapsideal, (2) kollegialt stöd, (3) ledarskap i en förändringsbenägen organisation, och (4) begränsat utrymme för reflektion. Ett övergripande, gemensamt tema: ”Ledarskapsparadox” speglar de högst varierande omständigheter och förhållanden i vardagen som en gymnasierektor ska kunna hantera, vilka också präglar resultatet av analysen. Ett något oväntat resultat var att gymnasierektor upplevde stort, eget ansvar för elevernas bästa. Studien kastar nytt ljus på gymnasierektorers ledarskap, och bidrar till ökad förståelse för vad rollen som ledare för en komplex organisation som gymnasieskolan kan innebära. Genom att knyta an till en arbetspsykologisk ledarskapsteori och formulera en arbetspsykologisk hypotes kan studien bidra till forskningen om arbetsintegrerat lärande (AIL).

  • 306.
    Johansson, Ingemar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Winman, Thomas
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Being a Rector: A Study of Knowledge Needs and Knowledge Development in Secondary Schools2015In: Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 357-368Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 307.
    Johansson, Kamilla
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Arbetsmiljöns väktare: En studie om skyddsombuds upplevelse av möjligheter till inflytande i offentlig sektor.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skyddsombud har som uppgift att säga ifrån och framföra kritik vid missförhållanden i arbetsmiljön. I denna studie valde författaren att undersöka skyddsombuds inflytande inom offentlig sektor, vilka upplevda faktorer som främjar och hindrar skyddsombuds arbete och möjligheter till inflytande när kritik framförs. I Sverige omfattas alla offentligt anställda av rätten att framföra kritik. Men tidigare forskning visar att det ändå finns en rädsla och oro för till exempel sin anställning och risken att hamna utanför den sociala gemenskapen om anställda framför kritik. Att skyddsombud känner en oro över att bli för besvärliga gentemot arbetsgivaren har gett denna studie en intressant infallsvinkel kring en funktion som funnits i 102 år på den svenska arbetsmarknaden. Sex stycken skyddsombud som arbetar inom utbildning- och vård och omsorgsförvaltningen i offentlig sektor intervjuades. Intervjuerna genomfördes enskilt och med en semi-strukturerad intervjuguide. Intervjuerna transkriberades och analyserades sedan med hjälp av tematisk analysmetod där fyra teman utformades; arbetsgivarens mottagande och respons vid arbetsmiljöarbete, upplevda faktorer som ger skyddsombud inflytande, svårigheter i rollen som påverkar inflytande och svårigheter i organisationen som påverkar inflytande. En av de svårigheter som lyftes fram i resultatet var att inneha två roller i arbetslivet, en som anställd och en del av arbetsmiljön och en som skyddsombud där rollen förväntas vara objektiv och kritiskt granska arbetsmiljön och arbetsgivarens arbete. Dock ger inte denna studie enbart en negativ syn på skyddsombuds inflytande utan lyfter också de möjligheter som skyddsombud har att vara med och påverka genom samverkansgrupper i organisationen och genom lagstiftning och regler. I studien framkom det också att alla skyddsombud känner ett stort ansvar att framföra kritik och anser att arbetsgivaren inte kan undkomma sitt ansvar vid arbetsmiljöarbete.

  • 308.
    Johansson, Kit
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Syla, Visar
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Vilka individegenskaper är vanliga inom polisyrket och andra riskrelaterade yrken?: En jämförande studie om personlighet och precisionsbedömning inom riskrelaterade yrken2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to get an insight into which individual characteristics that are common within the police profession and within other risk related occupations. The following questions were formulated: 1) Which personality traits are common in the police- academy, the police profession, and in educations and occupations that are risk related? Are there any differences? 2) Do police students or professional police show greater skills when it comes to impression accuracy, from looking at presented photos, than the ones who study or are working in other occupations? Both when it comes to precision in selections about who is, and when it comes to probability that a person is guilty and convicted of a crime. The participants were 342 persons; 163 (47.6%) were fulltime employed and the rest were fulltime students. The survey contained the personality test IPIP30 (International Personality Item Pool) which measures personality according to the five-factor model and a measurement of impression accuracy. Data was analyzed with SPSS and the statistic method of independent t-test. The result showed that 1) neuroticism was the personality dimension that was the most distinguished throughout the groups; police students, police, and the ones in other risk related occupations. These groups scored much lower in comparison to the groups of participants that study to or work in other occupations. 2) Police showed better skills in making precise judgements when it comes to guilty people. We conclude the results of this study could be used to get an understanding of the individual characteristics of people in these occupations.

  • 309.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Thungström, Linda
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Arbetsengagemang och personlighet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Work-engagement is defined as a pleasant emotion where work is felt to be rewarding. This study investigates whether work engagement correlates to the Big Five personality traits. Employees with high engagement have been shown to perform better at work and have a higher subjective well being, which is why this research-area is interesting and can benefit society. Our question was that work engagement would correlate positively with the personality factors extraversion and conscientiousness and show a negative correlation with neuroticism. Data was collected from questionnaires, IPIP-NEO and UWES, completed by 102 participants. We searched for a relationship between the various variables with help of a multiple regression analysis. The result displayed a correlation, which was strong given the research-area and partly in line with previous research. Our final conclusion was that personality accounts for one fifth of an individuals work engagement; hence it is an important predictor. Still, other factors explain the main part of engagement and may compensate for personality when necessary.

  • 310.
    Johansson, Pushpa
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Samband mellan yttre och inre motivationsfaktorer och attityden till att dela kunskap2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As knowledge is considered a crucial asset in companies the importance of managing knowledge increases. Gathering, storing and sharing knowledge are key elements in gaining advantage in a competitive market. What motivates employees to engage in knowledge-sharing activities? This study examined how different kinds of motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic) correlates with the employee's attitude towards knowledge-sharing. This study was based on a questionnaire developed in 2007 consisting of the variables extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, attitude and intention. In this research 84 respondents part took. In this study, extrinsic motivation consists of two constructs, organizational rewards and reciprocal benefits. Intrinsic motivation consists of the two constructs knowledge self-efficacy and enjoyment in helping others. The results showed that the motivational factors of reciprocal benefits and enjoyment in helping others were the only two significantly associated employee attitudes toward knowledge sharing. This was in line with previous research.

  • 311.
    Johansson, Regina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Tureson, Sandra
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Första intrycket: En kvasiexperimentell studie om kvinnor, män och ansiktsbedömningar av pålitlighet och dominans2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that intuitive judgements of faces are part of the daily interaction between people. Based on these first impressions of faces, conclusions are made about personal characteristics. These conclusions can affect such things as the outcome of political choices and who will be employed. Studies also show that that judgement of the same characteristic can have different outcomes depending on the persons sex. Judgements of faces are according to Oosterhof and Todorov (2008) based on two overall dimensions: valence and dominance which are defined by characteristics such as trustworthiness, attractiveness, dominance, aggressiveness and confidence.

    The purpose of this study based on the valence/dominance model was to investigate if these intuitive judgements vary depending on gender. The specific research questions were a) is there a difference in how men and women are rated on the dimensions valence and dominance and b) is there a difference in how men and women rate their own vs. the other sex.

    The sample is based on a total of 70 participants, 30 men and 40 women. Participation was voluntarily and the instrument used in the study was a computer program where participants twice rated 120 faces, on one characteristic. A 2 (dimensions: valence vs. dominance) x 2 (sex: man vs. woman) mixed ANOVA was conducted and followed up by explorative analyses.

    Results indicate 1) there is a significant main effect of gender, women were rated somewhat higher on both valence and dominance and 2) there was no significant difference in men and women's ratings for their own vs. other sex. This deviates from past research which show that men are generally rated as more dominant and women as more trustworthy (valence). However, according to this study judgements from faces are not significantly affected by gender.

  • 312.
    Johansson Sporregård, Madeleine
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Lidberg, Rebecca
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Ungdomars självkänsla, kroppsuppfattning och träningsvanor: En jämförelse mellan killar och tjejer2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were any differences between boys and girls regarding self-esteem, body image and exercise habits. The aim was to explore whether there were correlations between young people's exercise habits, self-esteem and body image. The study was conducted on 41 girls and 53 boys in high school, and the average age was 17 years. Participants were asked to answer a questionnaire that measured the concepts of "self-esteem", "body image" and how often they performed physical activity. Results showed that there were significant differences between the sexes. Boys tended to have a more positive self-esteem and body image and exercise more often. Results showed a positive correlation between self-esteem and body image with boys. The results with girls showed a significant correlation between self-esteem and body image and a negative relationship between body image and BMI

  • 313.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Att bli stoppad: psykosociologiska studier av vithet, ungdomskultur och plats2014In: Att förstå ungdomars identitetsskapande: en inspirations- och metodbok / [ed] Sorbring, E., Andersson, Å. & Molin, M., Stockholm: Liber, 2014, 1, p. 72-93Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet sätter fokus på tid och rum som betydande kontexter för identitetsskapandet.

  • 314.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    An Inquiry into Satisfaction and Variations in User-Oriented Elderly Care2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The foundation for this thesis is an ongoing discussion about quality in Swedish elderly care: Which are the most important factors that contribute to elderly care in terms of satisfaction among older persons, and what are the primary reasons for their differences? Aims. The principal aim was to examine what determines satisfaction with elderly care in home care and nursing homes, using the perspective of older persons (Studies I and II). The secondary aim was to analyze why these determinants differ, using the perspective of care workers, managers, and observers (Studies III and IV). Methods. Study I analyzed aggregated statistical data from the level of municipalities and districts (N = 324) based on the Swedish elderly care quality reports “Open Comparisons”, while Study II analyzed individual data based on the original ratings in the annual, nationwide elderly surveys (N = 95,000). Study III describes field observations and interviews with care workers and managers in two municipalities, one with a high rating for user satisfaction and one with an average rating. Study IV describes investigations in these two municipalities concerning their organizing principles and departmental level management climate. Results. The results relating to the principal aim showed that process factors (such as respect, information, and influence) are related considerably more closely than structural factors (such as budget, staffing levels, and training levels) to satisfaction with care. Other process factors (such as treatment, safeness, staff and time availability) were also able to alleviate person factors (such as health, anxiety, and loneliness). Moreover, the results relating to the secondary aim showed that differences in user-oriented elderly care are mainly due to interpersonal factors between the caregiver and the older person. Care workers, however, reported that other factors (such as organizing principles and leadership support) influence the quality of the care process. Overall, older persons who receive home care generally report higher satisfaction with care than those in nursing homes, and feeling less safe. It is possible that differences in the process of aging explain this. Value. This thesis shows that satisfaction with elderly care can be largely explained by psychological quality at the individual level. The sizes of structural resources and organizing principles at the municipal level have minimal effect (< 5%). The thesis also presents a theoretical multiple-level Quality Agents Model to explain the sources of differences in satisfaction with care, and it presents recommendations for elderly care practices. A renewed focus on the psychology of satisfaction may contribute to the development of quality in elderly care.

  • 315.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Cross-cultural personality differences between East Asia and Northern Europe in IPIP-NEO2017In: International Journal of Personality Psychology, E-ISSN 2451-9243, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychological differences between nations are part of the challenges of globalization. The present study provides benchmarks of personality traits across 12 nations in East Asia and Northern Europe (N = 23,268). Personality was measured with the IPIP-NEO-120, which is a comprehensive, open-source version of the Five Factor Model (FFM). East Asia scored low in Openness and Agreeableness as opposed to high in Europe. Similarly, Neuroticism was higher in East Asia than in Europe. The IPIP-NEO instrument was subjected to measurement equivalence testing, and invariance could not be fully ruled out as part of the explanation. The discussion centers on how to understand the size, the relevance, and the mechanisms of cross-cultural personality differences.

  • 316.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Five Factor Model-Based Personality Disorders across Sex and Age-groups (N=320,128)2017In: Personality and Personality Disorders:Foundations of Pathology, Pathways to Health, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Five Factor Model (FFM) with its 30 facet traits is proposed as a universal basis for PD (Personality Disorders). For instance, based on the FFM-count method (Miller et al., 2005), the disposition for Paranoid PD can be calculated by a validated set of FFM sub-traits: N2 + E1_R + E2_R + O4_R + O6_R + A1_R + A2_R + A3_R + A4_R + A6_R. Using a comprehensive open-source representation of FFM (IPIP-NEO-120; Johnson, 2014), we explored age and sex differences in the 10 DSM-IV PD categories with the presumably largest US sample to date (N = 320,128). The results showed differences of up to ½ SD in all PD categories across age-groups, as well as clear gaps between sexes. For example, the largest decline with age, as well as differences in sex, was seen in Antisocial PD. Also, interaction effects between age and sex could be seen in Schizoid and Schizotypal PDs. The present study presents tentative support for personality trait theory as a basis for psychopathology, and updated benchmarks on the scope and size of sex and age differences in PD dispositions in the community.

  • 317.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Honesty-Humility in contemporary students: manipulations of self-image by inflated IQ estimations2014In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 311-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The HEXACO model offers a complement to the Big-Five model, including a sixth factor, Honesty-Humility, and its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty). The four facets of Honesty-Humility and three indicators of intelligence (one performance-based cognitive ability test, one self-estimated academic potential, and one self-report of previous IQ test results) were assessed in students entering higher education (N = 187). A significant negative correlation was observed between Honesty-Humility and self-reported intelligence (r  = –.37), most evident in the Modesty facet. These results may be interpreted as tendencies of exaggeration, using a theoretical frame of psychological image-management, concluding that the Honesty-Humility trait captures students’ self-ambitions, particularly within the context of an individualistic, competitive culture such as Sweden.

  • 318.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. School of Health and Education and Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Honesty-Humility predicting self-estimated academic performance2016In: International Journal of Personality Psychology, E-ISSN 2451-9243, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has established relationships between the Big Five personality factors, cognitive ability, and aca-demic performance. A more recent personality trait, Honesty-Humility with its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty) is suggested to have predictive value especially in self-promoting behaviors. The aim of the present study was to find out whether lower Honesty-Humility would predict higher self-reported academic performance, and account for additional variance, after controlling for the Big Five and cognitive ability. The partic-ipants were Swedish 17-19 year-old students (N = 154) in late secondary high school. The results revealed a signifi-cant negative correlation between Honesty-Humility and self-estimated academic performance, mainly through low scores in the facets Sincerity and Modesty, as well as an additional 7% accounted for variance. The discussion con-cludes that the new trait Honesty-Humility may be a welcomed addition to the understanding of how students use self-promoting strategies in contemporary school

  • 319.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Kritiskt tänkande och högskolans kritiska uppdrag2012In: / [ed] Chalmers konferenser, 2012, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    De högre lärosätena har av Sveriges riksdag och regering fått i uppgift att skola självständiga och kritiskt tänkande studenter för samhällets bästa. Det kritiska tänkandet är förutom en värdering i vår kultur också en förtjänstfull metodik som har visat sig gynna djupinlärandet hos studenter. Studien tar sin teoretiska utgångspunkt i Kolbs (1984) inlärningsmodell för att beskriva hur det kritiska tänkandet med hjälp av ett arbetsintegrerat lärande (AIL)-perspektiv kan utvecklas. Kritiken som riktas i detta arbete är att reflektionens väg och mål idag på förhand ofta är givet studenterna. Detta skulle kunna resultera i antitesen till högskoleverkets målsättningar och att studenterna i själva verket blir osjälvständiga och okritiskt tänkande. Studien pekar på att arbetssätt och metakognition kring kritiskt tänkande inom det högre lärandet bör medvetandegöras mer och den argumenterar för att AIL-perspektivet kan förbättra det kritiska tänkandet på Sveriges högre utbildningar.

  • 320.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology, Sweden.
    Low Honesty-Humility gives high self-reported IQ2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The HEXACO model offers a complement to the Big-Five model, including a sixth factor, Honesty-Humility, and its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty). The four facets of Honesty-Humility and three indicators of intelligence (one performance-based cognitive ability test, one self-estimated academic potential, and one self-report of previous IQ test results) were assessed in students entering higher education (N = 187). A significant negative correlation was observed between Honesty-Humility and self-reported intelligence (r = –.37), most evident in the Modesty facet. These results may be interpreted as tendencies of exaggeration, using a theoretical frame of psychological image-management, concluding that the Honesty-Humility trait captures students’ self-ambitions, particularly within the context of an individualistic, competitive culture such as Sweden.

  • 321.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Self-estimated IQ Varies with Context: ICAR16 compared with a Swedish Intelligence test2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between self-estimated and observed intelligence has sparked an interest among researchers in recent years. However, studies on the relationship between how personality traits predict self-estimations of intelligence in different test-settings are still not explored. This study set up a two-way experimental within-subjects design (N = 84) to test how prior personality traits predict self-estimated intelligence, immidiately after having performed an intelligence-test. At a first occasion, an explicitly easy intelligence-test (Kajonius, 2014) under relaxed pretenses was given to a number of work psychology students, and at a second occasion two months later a difficult intelligence test (Condon & Revelle, 2014, ICAR16) with time pressure was given to the same students. No test-scores or personality traits’ results were revealed until after the study. An expected relationship between self-estimated and observed intelligence of similar strength was found in both conditions (r ~ .55). Also, the students’ prior personality tests (Big Five Inventory-44) showed that neuroticism had a negative relationship with self-estimated intelligence (r ~ -.30), similarly in both conditions. However, the self-enhancing traits of Machiavellianism and narcissism (Short Dark Triad-3) showed a significant positive relationship with self-estimated intelligence only in the easy condition (r = .30) and not in the difficult condition (r = .10). The discussion suggests that neither student exits nor adjustment effects can explain the differences in the impact of dark triad traits between the conditions. The conclusion is that the study implies that test situations can activate personality traits differently, while the accuracy of self-perceived intelligence is more constant.

  • 322.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    The Big Five Factors in Perceived Elderly Care Quality: An Evaluation Model in the Behavioral Sciences for User-Oriented Professions2016In: ViLär 2016, konferens 8-9 december, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Perceived care quality (i.e., how care is enacted by a care worker toward a client at the interpersonal level) is a strong predictor of satisfaction in a wide range of health care services. The present research aimed at compiling a model containing the basic elements of care quality from a behavioral science perspective. Specifically, such a model could help reveal how and why quality in user-oriented care professions vary.

    Design –We interviewed, observed, and took notes about care workers’ interactions with the older persons in both home care and nursing homes during two weeks.

    Findings – A model for categorising perceived quality variation, the Big Five of user-oriented care (Task-focus, Person-focus, Affect, Cooperation, and Time-use; T-PACT) was discerned with help of thematic analysis.

    Value – The proposed model may be useful for describing general user-oriented quality and its variations (see Table 1). These Big Five categories (TPACT) can be of relevance for future quality developments of user-oriented professions, as well as be implemented in educational programs.

  • 323.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    The Future of Personalized Care: Scientific, Measurement, and Practical Advancements in Personality and Brain Disorders2019In: Personality and Brain Disorders: Associations and Interventions / [ed] Garcia, Danilo; Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M., Springer International Publishing , 2019, p. 269-281Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Person-centered care sciences are experiencing rapid progress. Personalization in care services is becoming the norm, and implementation from scientific knowledge is increasingly acknowledged and mandated. Advances in personality and brain disorder research are crucial in assisting the future development of personalized care. Aim: We will attempt to present glimpses into the future of personalized care with support from frontline science, measurement, and practice, updating with input from personality genetics and measurement theory. Outline: We present three broad developments: (1) scientific advancements in understanding how personality and genetics are central in predicting mental health and disorders, with the potential to increase predictive diagnosis and treatment validity; (2) measurement advancements with help of trait dimensions and latent structures, with the potential to increase reliability in assessing personalized care needs and functioning; (3) practical advancements in implementing a personalized approach in care services, with the potential to increase effectiveness and satisfaction with patients. We review this glimpse into the future by referencing key findings in personality and assessment meta-analyses, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and trait measurements in psychiatric disorders. Conclusion: Personalizing care services will benefit practitioners and patients. We suggest and recommend that personalized care diagnosis and treatment is the way forward and that the future will be potentially revolutionized by incorporating the presented advancements in personality research and brain sciences.

  • 324.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    The Impact of Care Process on Satisfaction with Elderly Care2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis is based on the growing interest in Swedish elderly care. The aim of this thesis is to investigate what generates satisfaction with elderly care among older persons. The dominant ideology in both privately and publically run elderly care is individualized care, also called person-centered care, which holds the older person’s satisfaction as one of the main quality indicators. The proportion of older people is increasing and to maintain high levels of satisfaction with elderly care will require more knowledge. Data from the National Board of Health and Welfare’s (2012) nationwide survey on seniors’ experiences with elderly care was collected. Statistical analyses of this sample formed the basis for the results of the thesis and were reported in two papers. Study I used Donabedian’s (1988) model of quality of care in terms of structure, process, and outcome, and all municipal units in Sweden were included (N = 324). The results showed that structural variables (i.e. budget, staff, and training level) have minimal or no relationships with older persons’ satisfaction with care, while process variables (i.e. experiences of respect, information, and influence) have strong relationships with satisfaction with care. Study II made use of the long-standing person versus situation- model in social psychology, and was analyzed on an individual level (N = 95,000). The results showed that care process factors (i.e. experiences of treatment, safeness, staff- and time-availability) had a stronger relationship, than individual factors (i.e. health, anxiety, and loneliness) with satisfaction with care. The results also showed that older persons with home care generally felt better treated than older persons in nursing homes, but also felt less safe. Mediational analyses, based on this comprehensive elderly data, suggest that the individual aging condition of loneliness can be countered by providing safeness and treatment, resulting in high satisfaction with care. In conclusion, satisfaction with elderly care in Sweden today can largely be explained from a psychological perspective by the older persons’ perception of the care process, not by the amount of structural resources or the conditions of the aging persons. These findings could help facilitate the future quality development in municipalities and care organizations.

  • 325.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    The Learning Organization (and the Not-Learning Organization) within the Context of Elderly Care2016In: ViLär 2016, konferens 8-9 december, Vänersborg, Sweden / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2016, p. 1-1Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Previous research has shown that user-oriented care quality predicts satisfaction with elderly care. What is yet to be researched is how management facilitates the user-oriented care process in the organization. The present study set out to investigate the learning principles and management climate characterizing successful elderly care.

    Design – The department in one highly ranked municipality was compared with a more average municipality. On-site, semi-structured in-depth interviews with department managers and participatory observations at managers’ meetings were conducted in both municipalities.

    Findings – The results revealed three important learning principles for a successful care organization: 1) organizing from the viewpoint of the needs and wants of the older person, 2) recruiting and training autonomous employees, 3) instilling a vision for the mission that guide operations in all situations.

    Using climate theory to interpret the material, the highly successful management was characterized by affective support and cognitive autonomy, in contrast to a more instrumental work climate primarily focusing on structure and doing things right, in the more average municipality.

    Discussion – We propose that management climate is intertwined with learning principles (see Table 1). These results can facilitate quality developments and increase understanding of the learning organization. 

  • 326.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    The Quality Agents Model: A Generalized Model for How to Evaluate Service Organizations2016In: ViLär 2016, konferens 8-9 december 2016, Vänersborg / [ed] Kristina Johansson, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Service-oriented quality (i.e., how a service is enacted by a worker toward a customer) is a strong predictor of satisfaction in a wide range of customer services. The present research aimed at describing the organization and impact of various levels of the service organization on customer satisfaction.

    Design –In an attempt to gain a deeper understanding of how and why perceived quality in terms of service-orientation varies, we conducted interviews with care workers and care unit managers in the context of elderly care.

    Results – A new model for understanding the impact of various levels of the organization on customer satisfaction, the Quality Agents Model, is proposed. Perceived reasons for quality variation suggest that service evaluations may be explained from at multiple levels (e.g., older person, care worker-, unit-, department-, and municipality-level; see Figure 1). The Quality Agents Model suggests that the closer the agent is to the center (i.e., the customer), the larger the impact on satisfaction evaluations.

    Discussion – The proposed model may be useful for describing customer-related service quality. The strength of the model is that it acknowledges the many contextual inputs involved in forming an opinion about service quality, and thus might be a useful tool for most service-organizations.

    Empirical testing – We subsequently were able to test the model empirically with 95,000 respondents from national care service surveys, statistically showing that the level (agent) closest to the customer has the most influence on service-satisfaction (50%), while the surrounding organization only 5% (See Figure 1).

  • 327.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. University of Skövde, Sweden .
    The Short Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and its Conjoined structure with the Common Five-Factor Model2017In: International Journal of Testing, ISSN 1530-5058, E-ISSN 1532-7574, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 372-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research is currently testing how the new maladaptive personality inventory for DSM (PID-5) and the well-established common Five-Factor Model (FFM) together can serve as an empirical and theoretical foundation for clinical psychology. The present study investigated the official short version of the PID-5 together with a common short version of FFM, reflecting the time-constraints often imposed in all types of assessment. The objective was to model the dependency of maladaptive traits on common traits, hypothesized to show a mutual structure of latent higher order factors. A Swedish adult community sample was surveyed. The results showed that all five maladaptive traits shared a conjoint higher order organization with all the five common traits through the higher order factors of positive and negative emotion, and internalizing and externalizing. In conclusion, the study results support the nascent theory and practice in section III in DSM-5 basing psychopathology on personality traits. 2017 Copyright © International Test Commission

  • 328.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology, Göteborg, Sweden. University of Skövde,Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Skövde, Sweden.
    Björkman, Therese
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Dark malevolent traits and everyday perceived stress2018In: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is a factor that greatly impacts our lives. Previous research has examined individual differences in relation to stress. However, research regarding malevolent personality traits in relation to how stress is perceived is limited. The purpose of the present study was to investigate relationships between dark malevolent personality traits; psychopathy (EPA), Machiavellianism (MACH-IV), vulnerable narcissism (HSNS), grandiose narcissism (NPI-13), and perceived stress (PSS-10) in a community sample (N = 346). The results showed a strong positive relationship between vulnerable narcissism and perceived stress, while grandiose narcissism and psychopathy showed a small negative relationship with perceived stress. The discussion centers on that narcissism should be treated as two separate traits, and that psychopathy and Machiavellianism overlap in relation to the experience of stress in everyday life.

  • 329.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Univ Gothenburg, Dept Psychol, POB 500, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden and Univ Skovde, Dept Cognit Neurosci, Skovde, Sweden.
    Carlander, Anders
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Psychol, POB 500, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Who gets ahead in life?: Personality traits and childhood background in economic success2017In: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 59, p. 164-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many societies around the world, the ideal is that anyone can achieve a successful life independent of family background. An indication of such social mobility could be that personality characteristics have stronger impact than childhood background on economic success. The present study investigated how much of life outcomes (i.e., educational attainment, annual income, and life outcome satisfaction) were accounted for by adult personality traits (the Big Five), when controlled for childhood socio-economic status (SES). The results from a large, representative Swedish sample (N = 5280) showed that personality traits (especially neuroticism) were associated as much as or more than childhood SES to annual income and life outcome satisfaction, whereas childhood SES related more to educational attainment. These results may help facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms behind individual economic success. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 330.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Dåderman, Anna
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Conceptualizing the Structure of FFM Personality Disorders with Empathy2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The new section III in DSM-5 suggests pathological personality traits and impairments in personality functioning such as empathy to be used for identifying personality disorders (PDs). Previous research has also theoretically and empirically advocated that psychopathology is related to the general Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits. The objective of the present study was to investigate the hierarchical structure of the 10 DSM PD categories using the FFM count technique (Miller et al., 2008), and to conceptualize PDs with empathy dimensions. We measured PDs and 4 dimensions of empathy (emphatic concern, perspective-taking, fantasy, and distress) in a medium-sized community sample. The results showed that higher order factors such as externalizing and internalizing could be applied to PDs based on FFM scores. PD could furthermore be conceptualized using two of the empathy dimensions, low emphatic concern and high distress, and specific PD categories could be conceptualized by using distinct dimensions of empathy (e.g., histrionic PD with high fantasy, or dependent PD with high distress). The discussion concludes that PDs based on self-reported FFM show conceptual validity, and that the presence of symptoms of PDs potentially may be screened in the community population by using empathy measures.   

  • 331.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Conceptualizations of Personality Disorders with the Five Factor Model-count and Empathy Traits2017In: International Journal of Testing, ISSN 1530-5058, E-ISSN 1532-7574, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 141-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has long advocated that emotional and behavioral disorders are related to general personality traits, such as the Five Factor Model (FFM). The addition of section III in the latest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) recommends that extremity in personality traits together with maladaptive interpersonal functioning, such as lack of empathy, are used for identifying psychopathology and particularly personality disorders (PD). The objective of the present study was to measure dispositions for DSM categories based on normal personality continuums, and to conceptualize these with empathy traits. We used a validated FFM-count method based on the five personality factors (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), and related these to 4 empathy traits (emphatic concern, perspective-taking, fantasy, and personal distress). The results showed that FFM-based PD scores overall could be conceptualized using only two of the empathy traits, low emphatic concern and high personal distress. Further, specific dispositions for personality disorders were characterized with distinct empathy traits (e.g., histrionic with high fantasy, and paranoid with low perspective-taking). These findings may have both theoretical and practical implications in capturing potential for personality disorders with ease and efficiency. © 2017, Copyright © International Test Commission.

  • 332.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Exploring the Relationship Between Honesty-Humility, the Big Five, and Liberal Values in Swedish Students2014In: Europe's Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1841-0413, E-ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 104-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on the Five-Factor model (Big Five) reports a relationship between personality traits and liberal values, and the trait  Agreeableness has demonstrated the strongest relationship. The HEXACO model offers a complement to the Five-factor model with an additional sixth trait of Honesty-Humility. Previous research on the Honesty-Humility trait has reported mixed results with liberal values, and this study set out to resolve this. The work presented here explored the relationship between the Honesty-Humility trait on facet-level (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty) and liberal values (equality for women, minorities, and socio-economical groups). Data from Swedish students (N = 202), known for their individualistic and liberal mindset, were sampled. There was an overall positive correlation between Honesty-Humility and the strength of liberal values (r = .36), and Honesty-Humility predicted liberal values beyond Agreeableness. We discuss these results in terms of the significance of traits and values in a culture that promotes both individualism and equality.

  • 333.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Grankvist, Gunne
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    The Impact of Personality Traits, Values, and Abilities on the View of Uniqueness of Consciousness2015In: Towards a Science of Consciousness: Book of Abstracts, Helsingfors, 2015, p. 315-no. 284Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personality traits, including the well-known Big Five traits, the subclinical Dark Triad traits, as well as cognitive (IQ) and emotional abilities (EQ), are known to predict a number of attitudes, such as views of politics, importance of other people, or interest in self. This present study set out to research the impact of personality traits on the view of consciousness, the main question being whether consciousness sets mankind apart from the animal kingdom. A Swedish sample was tested on six different personality-related tests measuring traits, values, and abilities. The results showed that high scorers in emotional intelligence, openness and extraversion had a view of consciousness being unique for human beings only. Furthermore, people high on self-enhancing values and the tendency to manipulate others (Machiavellianism) also held a view of consciousness being unique for human beings, and which sets us apart from animals. Only self-transcending values, such as universalism, showed a negative association with the uniqueness of consciousness. The discussion extends to how the view on consciousness affects other outlooks on life, such as the view on one’s personal future or mankind’s environmental predicament. Motivational agendas stemming from personality traits, in terms of stable, genetical influences, might explain views on ontological questions to a greater degree than previously thought.

  • 334.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology, Sweden, University of Skövde, Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Sweden.
    Johnson, John
    Pennsylvania State University, Department of Psychology, United States.
    Sex differences in 30 facets of the five factor model of personality in the large public (N = 320,128)2018In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 129, p. 126-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study reports on the scope and size of sex differences in 30 personality facet traits, using one of the largest US samples to date (N = 320,128). The study was one of the first to utilize the open access version of the Five-Factor Model of personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the large public. Overall, across age-groups 19–69 years old, women scored notably higher than men in Agreeableness (d = 0.58) and Neuroticism (d = 0.40). Specifically, women scored d > 0.50 in facet traits Anxiety, Vulnerability, Openness to Emotions, Altruism, and Sympathy, while men only scored slightly higher (d > 0.20) than women in facet traits Excitement-seeking and Openness to Intellect. Sex gaps in the five trait domains were fairly constant across all age-groups, with the exception for age-group 19–29 years old. The discussion centers on how to interpret effects sizes in sex differences in personality traits, and tentative consequences. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 335.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Kazemi, Ali
    School of Health and Education, University of Skövde.
    Cost and Satisfaction Trends in Swedish Elderly Home Care2016In: Home Health Care Management & Practice, ISSN 1084-8223, E-ISSN 1552-6739, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 250-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a widespread belief among the public and policy makers that quality of care in terms of user satisfaction can beimproved with increased spending. However, recent research indicates that structural resources (e.g., budget per elderly)in elderly home care do not predict quality of care in terms of older persons’ satisfaction with care. In the present study,we analyzed the longitudinal trends in costs and perceived quality of care across 3 years using nationwide data in Swedishelderly home care. The results showed that although costs have been steadily increasing, perceived quality of interpersonaltreatment in care has remained at the same level. An important implication is that future research and policy efforts toimprove quality should more directly target the mechanisms generating satisfaction.

  • 336.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Högskolan i Skövde.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ledningsklimatets betydelse förkvalitet inom äldreomsorgen2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 337.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande.
    Older Persons’ Subjective Evaluations of Care Quality: Three studies Analyzing the National Survey of Swedish Elderly Care2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the proportion of older people in coming years is increasing, and as the organizations of home care and nursing homes grow to manage the expectations from the population, the debate on the quality of elderly care has gained a new momentum. Today, most decision-makers within elderly care in Sweden base their actions on the nation-wide annual quality report on elderly care from the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, Open Comparisons. This research presents findings from this national survey conducted in 2012, including a wide variety of indicators for elderly care services in all Swedish municipalities (N = 324) based on the responses from over 95,000 older persons. Study I presents that structural variables (i.e., budget resources and personnel training) overall did not correlate with older persons’ perceived quality of care, while processual variables (i.e., influence, respect, and access to information) showed moderate to strong correlations. Study II presents that overall satisfaction with care was strongly correlated with evaluation of relationship with care personnel and feelings of safeness. Study III presents an overall municipality quality-index with which comparisons between municipalities can be made, showing that the highest and the lowest ranked municipalities did not differ strongly on indicators of quality (d < 0.6). The conclusion is that there currently exists no reliable and valid measure which manages to tap quality of municipal elderly care, and that developing a new client-care centered climate scale should prove to be fruitful. Seeing how a person-centered theoretical approach is receiving support from this large national sample, implications for extending the theoretical frame of person-centeredness into psychological climate research in organizations is proposed. 

  • 338.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande.
    Rankning av Sveriges kommuners äldreomsorg i Öppna jämförelser2014In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 91, no 4, p. 323-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med den ökande andelen äldre personer i Sverige har diskussionen om kvalitet i äldreomsorgen tagit ny fart. Idag är äldreomsorgsbeslut baserat på den omfattande årsrapporten, Öppna jämförelser, som rankar alla Sveriges kommuner utifrån ett antal kvalitetsindikatorer. Relevant för området sociala studier och hälsa, visar sekundäranalyser av dessa data att Öppna jämförelser gör en missvisande rankning som inte tar hänsyn till hur de äldre har svarat, och inte heller påtalar hur små skillnaderna mellan högst och lägst rankade kommuner är. Genom att använda effektstorleksmått presenteras i artikeln ett nytt och mer korrekt sätt att ranka kommuner. Vidare föreslås i denna artikel att Öppna jämförelser i sina framtida mätningar inkluderar reliabla och valida mått på brukarorienterad omsorg då detta har visat sig ha positiva effekter på äldres upplevelse av omsorgskvalitet.

  • 339.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande.
    Safeness and Treatment Mitigate the Effect of Loneliness on Satisfaction with Elderly Care2016In: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 928-936Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maximizing satisfaction among the older persons is the goal of modern individualized elderly care and how to best achieve this is of relevance for anyone planning and providing for elderly care services. Purpose of the study: What predicts satisfaction with care among older persons can be conceived as a function of process (how care is performed), and the older person. Inspired by the long-standing person versus situation debate, the present research investigated the interplay between person- and process aspects in predicting satisfaction with elderly care. Design and method: A representative nationwide sample was analyzed, based on a questionnaire sent out to 95,000 individuals using elderly care services. Results: The results showed that person-related factors (i.e., anxiety, health, and loneliness) were significant predictors of satisfaction with care, although less strongly than process-related factors (i.e., treatment, safeness, and perceived staff- and time availability). Among the person-related factors, loneliness was the strongest predictor of satisfaction among older persons in nursing homes. Interestingly, a path analysis revealed that safeness and treatment function as mediators in linking loneliness to satisfaction. Implications: The results based on a large national sample demonstrate that the individual aging condition to a significant degree can be countered by a well-functioning care process, resulting in higher satisfaction with care among older persons. 

  • 340.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology, Gothenburg, Sweden. Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Mac Giolla, Erik
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Personality traits across countries: Support for similarities rather than differences2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, article id e0179646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current climate of migration and globalization, personality characteristics of individuals from different countries have received a growing interest. Previous research has established reliable differences in personality traits across countries. The present study extends this research by examining 30 personality traits in 22 countries, based on an online survey in English with large national samples (NTotal = 130,602). The instrument used was a comprehensive, open-source measure of the Five Factor Model (FFM) (IPIP-NEO-120). We postulated that differences in personality traits between countries would be small, labeling this a Similarities Hypothesis. We found support for this in three stages. First, similarities across countries were observed for model fits for each of the five personality trait structures. Second, within-country sex differences for the five personality traits showed similar patterns across countries. Finally, the overall the contribution to personality traits from countries was less than 2%. In other words, the relationship between a country and an individual's personality traits, however interesting, are small. We conclude that the most parsimonious explanation for the current and past findings is a cross-country personality Similarities Hypothesis.

  • 341.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University of Gothenburg; University of Skövde.
    Magnus, Roos
    University of Gothenburg; University of Skövde, Sweden.
    The Personality Map of Sweden2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that personality traits are unevenly distributed geographically, with some traits being more prevalent in certainplaces than in others. The majority of research in this field has focused on cross-national comparisons, while less attention has beengiven to variations in personality traits within countries (Rentfrow, Jokela & Lamb, 2015). More recently, regional personalitydifferences have been mapped in both United States and Great Britain (Rentfrow, Gosling, Jokela, Stillwell, Kosinki & Potter,2013; Rentfrow, Kokela & Lamb, 2015). The aim of the present study is to map regional personality differences in Sweden. Usinga representative sample of Swedish residents (N = 6154), we mapped the geographical distribution of the Big Five Personality traitsacross eight national areas (e.g. Stockholm, East Middle Sweden, South Småland and the Islands, South Sweden, West Sweden,North Middle Sweden, Middle Norrland and Upper Norrland). The result revealed statistically significant associations on nationalareas and the degree of agreeableness [F (7, 6154) = 4.63, p < .01, partial ƞ² =.005]. Employing the Bonferroni post-hoc test,significant differences (p < .01) were found between South Sweden (M = 2.74) and the Upper Norrland (M = 2.93), and betweenSouth Sweden and North Middle Sweden (M = 2.88). Descriptive statistics illustrate a stepwise change toward higher degree ofagreeableness, from the South of Sweden to the North of Sweden (Figure 1). The result revealed statistically significant associationson national areas and the degree of conscientiousness (F (7, 6164) = 2,51, p < .05, partial ƞ² =.003). Employing the Bonferronipost-hoc test, significant (p < .05) differences were found only between Stockholm (M = 2.94) and the Upper Norrland (M = 3.06).Insights about regional personality differences within a nation are useful, because such differences are associated with political,economic, social and health outcomes and thereby linked to a regions history, culture and ability to change.

  • 342.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Persson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Dark Values: the Dark Triad hiding in Schwartz’ value orientation2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dark Triad offers measurement and predictive validity of egotistic and anti-social dispositions, including the factors Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism. Based on the well established link between personality traits and values, this study proposes that the Dark Triad can be used to understand individuals’ propensity towards including or excluding other people in their social relationships. A group of 80 human resource management students whose future comptence among other things will be to cooperate with others were measured on the Dark Triad, Schwartz’ ten Value Orientations, and two versions of the Big Five personality traits (FIPI, BFI44). The results showed consistent negative correlations between the Dark Triad and the value dimensions of concern for generalized others, as well as positive correlations between the Dark Triad and the value dimensions of concern for self. The study also concluded that the Dark Triad works as a moderator of the relationship between personality traits (Big Five) and values (Schwartz’), and substantially adds additional explained variance especially on values of exclusion. The etiology of social in-group and out-group processes in everyday life is suggested to be individuals’ dispositions for dark values, a path towards deviant and negative behaviors. 

  • 343.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Persson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Jonason, Peter K.
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Achievement, Power, and Hedonism: Universal Values that Characterize the Dark Triad2015In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 77, p. 173-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a sample of Swedes and Americans (N = 385), we attempted to understand the Dark Triad traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) in terms of the universal social values. The Dark Triad traits correlated significantly with all 10 value types, forming a sinusoid pattern corresponding to the value model circumplex. In regression analyses, Machiavellianism and narcissism were positively associated with the values Achievement and Power, while psychopathy was positively associated with the values Hedonism, and Power. In addition, the Dark Triad traits explained significant variance over the Big Five traits in accounting for individual differences in social values. Differences between the Swedish and the US sample in the social value Achievement was mediated by the Dark Triad traits, as well as age. Given the unique complex of values accounted for by the Dark Triad traits compared to the Big Five traits, we argue that the former account for a system of self-enhancing “dark values”, often hidden but constantly contributing in evaluations of others.

  • 344.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Department of Social Psychology, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Persson, Björn N.
    Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden; Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosenberg, Patricia
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden; Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The (mis)measurement of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen: exploitation at the core of the scale2016In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background.

    The dark side of human character has been conceptualized in the Dark Triad Model: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. These three dark traits are often measured using single long instruments for each one of the traits. Nevertheless, there is a necessity of short and valid personality measures in psychological research. As an independent research group, we replicated the factor structure, convergent validity and item response for one of the most recent and widely used short measures to operationalize these malevolent traits, namely, Jonason’s Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. We aimed to expand the understanding of what the Dirty Dozen really captures because the mixed results on construct validity in previous research.

    Method. We used the largest sample to date to respond to the Dirty Dozen (N = 3,698). We firstly investigated the factor structure using Confirmatory Factor Analysis and an exploratory distribution analysis of the items in the Dirty Dozen. Secondly, using a sub-sample (n = 500) and correlation analyses, we investigated the Dirty Dozen dark traits convergent validity to Machiavellianism measured by the MachIV, psychopathy measured by Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire Revised, narcissism using the Narcissism Personality Inventory, and both neuroticism and extraversion from the Eysenck’s questionnaire. Finally, besides these Classic Test Theory analyses, we analyzed the responses for each Dirty Dozen item using Item Response Theory (IRT).

    Results. The results confirmed previous findings of a bi-factor model fit: one latent core dark trait and three dark traits. All three Dirty Dozen traits had a striking bi-modal distribution, which might indicate unconcealed social undesirability with the items. The three Dirty Dozen traits did converge too, although not strongly, with the contiguous single Dark Triad scales (r between .41 and .49). The probabilities of filling out steps on the Dirty Dozen narcissism-items were much higher than on the Dirty Dozen items for Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Overall, the Dirty Dozen instrument delivered the most predictive value with persons with average and high Dark Triad traits (theta > −0.5). Moreover, the Dirty Dozen scale was better conceptualized as a combined Machiavellianism-psychopathy factor, not narcissism, and is well captured with item 4: ‘I tend to exploit others towards my own end.

    Conclusion. The Dirty Dozen showed a consistent factor structure, a relatively convergent validity similar to that found in earlier studies. Narcissism measured using the Dirty Dozen, however, did not contribute with information to the core of the Dirty Dozen construct. More importantly, the results imply that the core of the Dirty Dozen scale, a manipulative and anti-social trait, can be measured by a Single Item Dirty Dark Dyad (SIDDD).

  • 345.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Inverkan av föräldrastrategier och föräldrabarnrelation på tonåringens Interneterfarenheter2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Theories about exposure and risk-taking in an everyday environment show a connection between parental strategies, parent-child relationship and exposure on the Internet. In the present study, the Internet is presented as an everyday activity. Negative exposure is seen as an outcome of risk-taking. The purpose of the study was to examine in what way parental strategies together with the parent-child relationship were related to the teenagers’ negative experiences on the Internet, which consisted of three categories: 1) Exposure to pornographic sites, 2) Exposure to upsetting and violent material, 3) Digital bullying. The regression analysis showed that the parent-child relationship was linked to all negative experiences. Parental knowledge, disclosure, rules, safe usage of the Internet and solicitation were also linked to negative experiences on the Internet. Parental strategies that were not significant were parental control and shared web activities.

  • 346.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Mutual actions: developmental links between aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent risk behaviors2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescence is a critical time for the onset or intensification of engagement in risk behaviors, such as delinquency and alcohol use. Parents are often advised to supervise adolescents or set rules for behavior control in order to protect their adolescents from harm. But are such parenting strategies advantageous in preventing adolescents from engaging in risk behaviors? Little is known about what role adolescents play in the parent- adolescent relationship and their own psychosocial development? The overall aim of the dissertation was to investigate how parent- and adolescent-driven communication efforts occurring in the parent-adolescent relationship relate to risk behaviors in early to mid- adolescence.Findings show that adolescent-driven communication efforts (i.e. disclosure about their everyday activities) play a prominent role in the parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent engagement in risk behaviors. Adolescent disclosure is linked to parental knowledge of an adolescent's whereabouts, parent-adolescent emotional connectedness, and decreases in adolescent risk behaviors over time. While parental behavioral control of adolescent whereabouts can indeed be protective of adolescent engagement in risk behaviors, parents' soliciting efforts are related to higher levels of engagement in delinquency and substance use. This is particularly true for boys and adolescents with detached and fearless temperament. However, when adolescents are willing to communicate, parents can elicit more disclosure from their adolescents through soliciting efforts.This dissertation suggests that parents and adolescents both play important roles in parenting and parent-adolescent relationships. Parents can protect their adolescents from engagement in risk behaviors, especially when adolescents share information with their parents.

  • 347.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Boele, Savannah
    Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherland.
    Skoog, Therése
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Parent-Adolescent Communication and Adolescent Delinquency: Unraveling Within-Family Processes from Between-Family Differences.2019In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the factors that predict adolescent delinquency is a key topic in parenting research. An open question is whether prior results indicating relative differences between families reflect the dynamic processes occurring within families. Therefore, this study investigated concurrent and lagged associations among parental behavioral control, parental solicitation, adolescent disclosure, and adolescent delinquency by separating between-family and within-family effects in three-wave annual data (N = 1515; Mage = 13.01 years at T1; 50.6% girls). At the within-family level, parental behavioral control negatively predicted adolescent delinquency. Adolescent disclosure and delinquency, and adolescent disclosure and parental solicitation, reciprocally predicted each other. Parental solicitation negatively predicted parental behavioral control. The findings indicate a prominent role of adolescent disclosure in within-family processes concerning parental-adolescent communication and adolescent delinquency.

  • 348.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Göteborgs universitet.
    Skoog, Therese
    Gothenburg University, Department of Psychology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Gothenburg University, Department of Psychology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Structural relations between sources of parental knowledge, feelings of being overly controlled and risk behaviors in early adolescence2017In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we have investigated parental knowledge and its sources, namely adolescent disclosure, parental control, and parental solicitation; and how they relate to adolescents' feelings of being overly controlled, and to three types of adolescent risk behaviors, namely bullying, substance use, and delinquent behavior. This was studied in a sample of 1520 Swedish early adolescent boys and girls (M age = 13.0). A structural equation path model showed that adolescent disclosure and parental control were positively associated with parental knowledge, which in turn related to all three risk behaviors. Adolescent disclosure was related to lower levels of risk behaviors, while parental solicitation was linked to higher levels of adolescent engagement in risk behaviors, especially for boys, through feelings of being overly controlled. The findings support the idea of a functional role of open communication, as well as adequate levels of autonomy granting, for managing boys' and girls' risk behavior.

  • 349.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Skog, Therése
    Jönköping University, Jönköping; Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden; Norwegian University of Science and technology, Norway.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Does one Size Fit All?: Linking Parenting With Adolescent Substance Use and Adolescent Temperament2019In: Journal of research on adolescence, ISSN 1050-8392, E-ISSN 1532-7795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using longitudinal Swedish data from 1,373 early‐adolescent youths, this study aims to answer the question of whether the previously established protective function of parental knowledge and its sources — adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control—on substance use among early‐adolescents is moderated by the adolescent's temperament. Adolescent temperament moderated several links between parental knowledge and its sources and adolescent substance use. The most pronounced moderating results were found for those adolescents with fearless, socially detached and thrill‐seeking tendencies. For these "detached thrill‐seekers", bidirectional links between adolescent disclosure and substance use, and negative links between parental solicitation and substance use were found. We recommend, therefore, that adolescent temperament is considered when designing parenting programs.

  • 350.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sverige.
    Skoog, Therése
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden; Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Aspects of the Parent–Adolescent Relationship and Associations With Adolescent Risk Behaviors Over Time2019In: Journal of family psychology, ISSN 0893-3200, E-ISSN 1939-1293, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parents' actions and knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts play key roles in preventing risk behaviors in early adolescence, but what enables parents to know about their adolescents' activities and what links there are to adolescent risk behaviors, such as substance use and delinquent behavior, remain unclear. In this study,we investigated whether different aspects of the parent–adolescent relationship predict parental knowledge, and we examined the direct and indirect longitudinal associations between these aspects of the parent–dolescent relationship and adolescents' self-reported delinquent behavior and substance use. The participants were 550 parents and their adolescent children from two small and two midsized municipalities in Sweden. Parental data were collected when the adolescents were 13 years old (mean), and adolescent data on riskbehaviors were collected on two occasions, when they were 13 and 14 years of age (mean). Structural path analyses revealed that adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control predicted parental knowledge, with adolescent disclosure being the strongest source of parental knowledge and the strongest negative predictor of adolescent risk behaviors. Parenting competence and adolescents' connectedness to parents were indirectly, through adolescent disclosure and parental solicitation and parental control, associated with substance use and delinquent behavior. Some paths differed for boys and girls. In conclusion, confident parenting and a close parent–adolescent relationship in which adolescent disclosure is promoted, seem protective of adolescent engagement in risk behaviors

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