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  • 301.
    Gupta, Siddhartha
    et al.
    VIT Vellore,School Of Electrical Engineering (SELECT),Vellore,India.
    Sinha, Neha
    VIT Vellore,School Of Electrical Engineering (SELECT),Vellore,India.
    Ramasamy, Sudha
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Babu, Challa
    VIT Vellore,School Of Electrical Engineering (SELECT),Vellore,India.
    Breast Cancer Detection Using Image Processing Techniques2019In: 2019 Innovations in Power and Advanced Computing Technologies (i-PACT), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, Vol. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer is the uncontrolled multiplication of group of cells in a particular location of the body and is the second largest disease leading to the death of women in the world. The disease can be cured if it is detected in early stages. A lot of research has been done to find out the tumor correctly but a 100% accurate method has not been found. Research on breast cancer detection using digital image processing is not new but many new approaches in this field is being considered to accurately predict the tumor region. The present approach is to detect the tumor region visually as well as to figure out in which region the tumor is mostly concentrated. This work majorly focuses on finding out the best algorithm/s to detect the tumor present in the breast. In the proposed work, a variety of algorithms has been applied but the best one suited for cancer detection is the combination of K Means, Closing, Dilation and Canny Edge Detection algorithm. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 302.
    Gustafsson, Anton
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Flores, Leandro
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Apparatbestyckning i en fördelningsstation: Kostnad kontra driftsäkerhet2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report investigates the different constructions that are applied to substations that are used in Vattenfall regional electrical grid. All the new stations follow a set of guidelines and recommendations that are gathered in the internal planning guideline manual. These standard solutions are being investigated to see the reasoning and how the addition or lessening of parts in these stations are motivated. Each standard solution comes with a bit of leeway, flexibility in its development where you either connect your outgoing lines to the substations bus bars with a so-called double breaker solution or to be connected directly to the bus bar with only one breaker. Through interviews, researching of the internal documents, electrical handbooks, through calculation and applying it that information upon a specific station in the regional electrical grid as an example the standard methods could be examined and how they are applied. This report shows how the whole construction process, thought process and decisions of the construction new station is realized.

    The planning of maintenance and the work being performed on the grid is planed ahead of time to avoid big jobs overlapping each other. Maintenance and other work on the grid always contribute to some form of risk that puts the grid in a weakened state. A lot of time the stations that normally have a redundant supply will find themselves in a situation without redundancy during maintenance. This report gathers data from over six years ofwork performed around Station A to confirm the large amount of maintenance on the grid in the area. Load flow calculations were performed to lay the ground for the investigation of the redundant supply around Station A and the cost of two separate scenarios around Station A. This to be able to show how a double breaker solution could be valued on a certain line. Future work could use this as an example of the probability and costs of dealing with choices between double breaker vs single breaker solutions. To motivate a double breaker connection on an indoor constructed 40kV substation depends on the required amount of service reliability. The estimated cost of the double breaker solution is determined to be greater in comparison with then the probability of it being needed in this one example. Something worth mentioning and that always should be taken into consideration is that the large amount of maintenance, does change the initial state of the power grid away from its original form in the beginning of the planning of work.

  • 303.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Lindqvist, Wiktor
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Studie över laddning av personbilars påverkan på ett lokalnät2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s climate and environmental goals take us close to a future where a larger part of the Swedish automotive industry will experience a change towards electric motor vehicles. A few chargeable vehicles do not affect the electrical grid but what happens if the number of electric chargeable vehicles increases remarkably? Posed with this question, Västra Orust Energitjänst wants to investigate how their low voltage networks are affected by this futurechange.

    This thesis has examined how two different low voltage networks within the Västra Orust Energitjänst electrical grid will react when exposed to an increased load. The investigated areas, a residential district as well as a rural area, will have several scenarios simulated. A proposal of the rated power of a parking lot that plan to install several charging stations is also handed over to Västra Orust Energitjänst.

    The load scenarios that are used are simulated in the software program Mickel made by Mirakel services. The scenarios are based on randomly selected users in the network that will be handed a chargeable vehicle and have the power consumption increased, for either 2 or 4 hours. The time the users are expected to charge their chargeable vehicles are spread out over 24 hours, but the majority will charge their vehicles between 16 and 22. During this time span the network normally has its highest power consumption regardless of vehicles are charged or not.

    The results of the study clearly show that the rural network area in its current state will handle these simulations and it is only the transformer that will experience overload. The residential area, in its current state will not handle the simulated increase of load well. Several fuses and power cables will experience overload and the transformer will experience overload in some of the scenarios. Several users will experience a severe voltage drop due to the simulated increase in power consumption.

    Conclusions that can be drawn from the results are that the networks differ in the way that they will handle the load that derives from a larger number of chargeable vehicles. Because of this it is hard to draw general conclusions about how VOEs network will handle this change, instead expected tendencies will be seen. To fully understand how the networks willreact, further investigations are recommended to be performed.

  • 304.
    Gustafsson, Jenny
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Påverkan på leveranssäkerheten och elavbrottstiden vid användning av fjärrutrustning2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year the electricity network companies in Sweden reports to Energimarknadsinspektionen (EI) about how long power outages they have had in their networks as well as other data needed to ensure the network quality. SAIDI, SAIFI and CAIDI are three different reliability indicators that depicts the quality of the network as they give numbers on how many and how long outages that have occurred in the network.

    To achieve as low values as possible on these indicators the network must be provided with equipment such as fault indicators and remote-control equipment to quickly find and fix faults in the network. To find out how much more efficient the fault clearing gets with fault indicators and remote control, two different studies have been performed. For the first study a fictitious scenario has been produced to investigate how operations management engineers handle the same fault and which steps that are made based on different conditions regarding fault detectors and remote control. For the other study, outages longer than three minutes in two of Gothenburg energy’s receiving stations during 2018-2020 have been analysed to investigate if the duration could have been shorter if the network would have had more stations with fault indicators and remote control. To illustrate the duration of the outage, the reliability indicator CAIDI will be used as it illustrates the average duration of the outage forevery customer.

    The result of the investigation shows that the duration of the outage for the analysed faults would have been shorter for most of the customers with more remote control and fault indicators. Although it is important to point out that not all faults in the network can be solved quicker with remote control and fault indicators since some long interruption times is a result of other factors such as equipment that doesn’t work properly.

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  • 305.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Beredning för nybyggnation av två stycken vindkraftverk i Lyrestad, Mariestad.2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete är en beredning för Fortum Distribution AB. Avsikten är att ansluta två stycken nybyggda vindkraftverk till det befintliga elnätet. Samtidigt genomförs en förstärkning av distributionsnätet genom kablifiering (kabelförläggning i mark) samt rasering av det befintliga luftnätet. Platsen för projektet är belägen strax norr om Mariestad.

    Projektet är uppdelat i tre deletapper. Deletapp ett (huvudprojektet) heter Vindkraft Lyrestad – Värlsen. De nybyggda vindkraftverken i huvudprojektet kommer att anslutas till ställverket i Lyrestad.

    Gällande deletapp 2/3, högspänningen 10 kV, kommer matningen till distributionsnätet från en befintlig stolpstation L9083-40054 som står i Ödegården. Stolpstationen som står i Ödegården kommer även att mata fem nya markstationer längs sträckningen. Lågspänningen 0,4 kV kommer idag från stolpstationer som kommer att raseras och ersättas med markstationer.

    Beredning är utförd av Jonas Gustafsson på konsult företaget PSN Kraftkonsult i Vedum.

    Hela projektet omfattar ett 15-tal berörda lågspänningskunder som kommer få sin servis nedgrävd samt en schaktsträcka för högspänningskabel på ca 8 km. Detta är fördelat på sträckningen mellan Lyrestad – Värslen via fem stycken nya markstationer. 

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    Beredning - Vindkraft
  • 306.
    Gustafsson, Stig
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Driftoptimering av effektkondensatorbatterier och transformatorer på mottagningsstationer2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains a study of power flows in Uddevalla Energi AB receiving stations and optimization of the operation control of its power capacitor batteries and transformers.

    For the past thirty years, Uddevalla Energi AB has employed power capacitor batteries almost all year around and these need soon to be replaced due to ageing. Uddevalla Energi Elnät AB has a need for new procedures for the operation control of the power capacitor batteries following new regulations introduced by Svenska Kraftnät and Vattenfall AB for reactive power flows on the grid.

    In the study of power capacitor batteries, there has been an investment calculation with three alternative purchase options. Option one is central phase compensation at the receiving station, option two is phase compensation at the receiving station supplemented with phase compensation at subscriber stations and option three is a local phase compensation at subscriber stations. The investment calculation shows that the second option: Central phase compensation supplemented with phase compensation at subscriber stations is the most favourable to implement.

    It has previously been found that, during certain times of the year, there has been a low load on some of the transformers of the receiving stations. It has never been investigated if it is profitable to turn off one of the transformer for the entire, or part of the year.

    In the investigation of the operation control of the transformers at the receiving stations, three alternatives have been considered. One alternative is that one transformer is in idle operation without load, the second alternative is that one transformer is completely turned off. The third alternative is to make no change. The study showed that the preferred alternative is to make no change, because the risks of turning off transformers are greater than the economic gain, that is approximately 101000 SEK.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 307.
    Gustavsson Christiernin, Linn
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production System.
    How to describe interaction with a collaborative robot2017In: HRI '17 Proceedings of the Companion of the 2017 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, 2017, p. 93-94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe early work on a classification model on how to interact with industrial and other types of robots. We suggest a classification for how to describe different scenarios within Human-Robot Interaction. The idea with this model is to help when identifying the gap between where a company is and where they would like to be when it comes to collaborative automation. © 2017 Author.

  • 308.
    Gustavsson Christiernin, Linn
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Augustsson, Svante
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Interacting with Industrial Robots: A Motion-based Interface2016In: AVI '16 Proceedings of the International Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces / [ed] Paolo Buono, Rosa Lanzilotti, Maristella Matera, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2016, p. 310-311Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative industrial robot cells are becoming more and more interesting for industry through the new Industrie 4.0 initiative. In this paper we report early work on motion-based interaction with industrial robots. Human motion is tracked by a Kinect camera and translated into robot code. A group of tests subjects are asked to interact with the system and their activities are observed. Lessons learned on interaction challenges in a robot cell are reported.

  • 309.
    Göransson, Elias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Andersson, Viktor
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Laddpunkter i bostadsrättsföreningar2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The man – made climate impact have a negative effect on the environment and the society needs to make changes to be able to decrease the carbon dioxide emissions. Transportation is a big part of these emissions and new types of vehicles are crucial for a climate adaption, electric cars is one of these. Electric vehicles need infrastructure that enables charging of the cars, primarily in adherence to the home. This is a relatively easy process if the land where the vehicle is parked is owned by the same person who owns the vehicle. In residential areas, however, where the vehicle owner does not own the land where the vehicle is parked problems can occur when legal proceedings can hinder an establishment.

    For a housing cooperative that want to install charging stations there are certain juridical aspects that must be considered. Housing cooperatives are regulated in Bostadsrättslag(1991:614) and there is an equality principle that has to be followed. The reason behind the principle is that all members of an association shall be treated equally, if no objective reasons say otherwise. The installation of charging stations in a housing cooperative is an expensive investment which only benefits one or a few residents that own an electric car. Therefore, it may be contrary to the principle of equality.

    The purpose of the degree project has been to study how housing cooperatives at this moment can install charging stations and what the major difficulties are during the installation.

    The method that has been used is a qualitative study with three participating housing cooperatives that have been interviewed with the focus of investigating how they dealt with charging stations and what they see as the key difficulties. The study showed that the installation of charging stations in cooperative housing was very difficult, mostly due to the problem of the principle of equality.

    The result of the study showed that housing cooperatives used different methods to establish charging stations that relate to the principle of equality. The greatest difficulty with the establishment showed to be related to the financing, two different types of methods seemed to be the most usual. One method was the residents who were interested in charging an electric car funded the installation of the charging systems. Thru this method the housing cooperative did not have to fund the installation thus the charging stations was funded by the users. The second and most usual method was that the housing cooperative funded the charging station and thereafter took out a higher parking fee for the parking spots having charging capability. This worked as a pay-off for the housing cooperative and had the added benefit that the residents didn´t have to fund the initial installation off the charging stations.

  • 310.
    Göransson, Oskar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Tessin, Tobias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utredning och projektering av smarta elbilsladdstationer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An expansive use of electric vehicles and therefore charging stations will eventually lead to a much greater load on the electrical grid. One way to avoid overloads is to fit charging stations with load balancing systems that can adjust every charging station’s power output in relation to the rest of the local substations load. Since cars usually remain parked for long periods of time the load balancer can ensure that the cars only charge with a high amount of power when the general load is low, and thereby the local electrical grid doesn’t risk overloading in consequence of the increased total energy consumption.  This paper includes a market review of the three largest load balancing system suppliers on the Swedish market to clarify what separates the different systems and whether they are applicable in different areas. There will also be a design, carried out through ÅF, of a scenario of 50 charging stations controlled by load balancing systems in the parking lot of a company. In conjunction with this there will be an investigation of the ability to charge 50 of the employee's electric cars during an 8-hour working day with an assumed average commute of 50 km. Which charging stations and load balancing systems that are to be used in the design are determined by those which are best suited to the circumstances of the company. The design has been done in accordance with Swedish standards and with the help of information and software provided by ÅF. The companies that participated in the market investigation were found through Power Circle. According to the customer's requirements, the charging stations needed a power output of 22 kW, and since variations of the power consumption of the plant are present, the load balancing system must be able to measure the load of a transformer to adjust all charging stations power output accordingly. The charging stations and systems that were considered most suitable for the situation were Eldon's. The design included cable sizing, cable layout maps, cost calculations and transformer calculations. Each car needed only about 10 kWh to reach a fully charged state, and the available power of the transformer was sufficient to complete the charging of up to 182 electric cars during the workday. Thus, the cost of both cables and charging stations could have been much lower if the requirement of 22 kW power output was not set.

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  • 311.
    Götlind, Hampus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Olsson, Rickard
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Russia’s war against Ukraine: The effect on IT security in Sweden’s municipalities2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to look at how Russia’s war in Ukraine has affected the work with IT security at Swedish municipalities, what actions have been taken, if any, and see if there has been an increase in attacks towards the municipalities’ networks. This was done by sending out a questionnaire to all of Sweden’s 290 municipalities via email with four questions regarding their IT security. 103 of Sweden’s municipalities responded to the email. Ten municipalities declined to participate in the report, which means that 32% (93) of Sweden’s municipalities participated in this survey. We chose to evaluate the Swedish municipalities and their preparedness in case of war for several reasons. They are a uniform group which we believed adhere to the same guidelines and regulations regarding cybersecurity, and the fact that they store and engage with critical and sensitive data about Sweden and its population, making them prime targets for attacks by foreign powers.

    The results were presented anonymously and based on the voluntary responses of the municipalities. Answers were then compiled and sorted into the five main categories from the NIST framework for cybersecurity. The report concludes that Swedish municipalities have taken significant actions to protect their networks in response to Russia’s war and aggressions towards Ukraine. For example, 18 municipalities reported that they had trained their staff in some way, which was the most common measure, and 11 municipalities had implemented two-factor authentication. However, more can be done in terms of responding to threats and enhancing recovery plans and systems.

    In summary, there seemed to be a lack of consensus on how municipalities should handle their own IT-security, as there was a high variation in the responses.

    The follow-up questions revealed a significant increase in attacks towards the municipalities’ networks, with many considering their networks potential targets for future attacks from foreign powers. 

  • 312.
    Habibovic, Sejla
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Svensson, Per Real
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Friköp av bostadsrättsföreningar och överföring av fastighetstillbehör: Vad avgör om anläggningslagen 12 a § tillämpas?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction of properties exist in several different forms. A joint facility forms such a form of cooperation, which is set up to accommodate purposes of constant importance for several properties. The purposes for which a joint facility is set up are widely different and often consist of facilities that make up a property, including property fixtures. With a joint facility follows the right to space for the participating properties to manage the facility appropriately.   However, ownership of the participating properties will not automatically change when setting up a joint facility. Before 2002, property and its fixtures were seen as an ownership unit, which could only be separated by the physical removal of the fixture from the property. Regulations that allowed the transfer of property fixtures and property rights to the facility were introduced in the Real Property Formation Act (FBL) and the Joint Facilities Act (AL). Even regulation on the possibility of release of property fixtures was introduced simultaneously in the Utility Easements Act (LL). 

     In the government bill Transfer of property fixtures 2000/01: 138, the introduction of the legislative changes was motivated by the fact that a number of uncertainties could be avoided regarding the property fixtures. These consisted of uncertainties about maintenance responsibility, liability to subscribe for insurance, assignment of use rights, the right to rebuild and expand, as well as the use of the mortgaging.  Owning your own property has always been important not only for the individual but also for the development of society. The ownership creates incentives to spend time, energy and money on your property, which in turn generates a higher property value. Nevertheless, tenant-ownership is a common housing form in Sweden. However, it is possible to create new individual properties through liquidation of the tenant-ownership and the subdivision of the property. However, for those spaces and facilities that has previously been common, the need remains for common use. In practice, only the property boundaries and ownership have changed, not the physical conditions. Establishment of a joint facility meets this need. In order to also transfer ownership of the participating properties there is the possibility of applying AL 12 a §.   This study investigates what has been crucial for whether AL 12 a § has been applied and which property fixtures are usually transferred. Responsibility for joint facilities is a key concept. The study examines how responsibility for the insurance issue is affected if transfer under AL 12 a § happens or not. In order to answer the question of liability, it was important to try to understand what separates the right to space from ownership.

    The result shows that transfer of property fixtures under AL 12 a § occurred in 17 of the 45 gathered acts of execution. The property fixtures that were usually transferred were mainly VA-pipelines but also watercourses, outdoor lighting, media installations in the form of cable TV, broadband, fiber and central antenna, as well as driving areas such as road and exit. The decisive factor in applying AL 12 a § is the attitude of the cadastral surveyor, and knowledge of the regulation.  Regarding the liability of the insurance issue, the joint property unit of the facility is considered to be of greater significance than if the transfer has taken place or not. The right to space differs slightly from ownership in this context, as the insurance terms are based on the responsibility for property fixtures and not the property rights themselves. The transfer of the property fixtures therefore lacks practical significance. Associations management is considered more appropriate in this context than part-owner management. The choice of management form is more important, the more expensive the property fixtures are and the more useful it is for the properties participating in the joint venture.

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  • 313.
    Hagebrand, Pauline
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Mohammed, Ghulam Murtuza
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Simulation, Measurement, and Analysis of the Electromagnetic Performance of a Prototype Motor2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the simulation and analysis of the electromagnetic performance of a prototype motor. In recent years, the popularity and demand for electric vehicles have accelerated considerably due to their high energy efficiency, significant performance, and lower emissions. The prototype is a permanent magnet synchronous machine designed without rare earth elements, instead ferrite Y40 is used for the permanent magnets. While the most common materials used for permanent magnets today, such as neodymium and dysprosium, demonstrate high performance, they come with ethical, environmental, and economic challenges. Technological advances in areas such as electric motors are necessary to reduce the use of, or completely move away from the use of environmentally and ethically questionable rare earth elements. The objective of this thesis is to understand the deviation between simulated and measured results of the prototype, as well as building a foundation upon which the work on the prototype can progress further while moving on to the next step. Simulations are made in Ansys MotorCAD ® as well as Ansys Maxwell ® to determine the winding pattern that yields the highest torque. Simulations are made in both MotorCAD and Maxwell to investigate electromagnetic performance, and the results are compared and analysed. The magnetic flux density is measured on the ferrite Y40 magnets and compared to simulated results. The assembly steps of the motor are documented and assessed in a failure modes and effect analysis, FMEA, to observe and prevent possible risks associated to the assembly of the motor. The results from measuring the magnets show that the magnetic flux density is as desired in the magnets and correspond with the simulated result. The simulations of the electromagnetic performance of the motor in MotorCAD and Maxwell correspond to a high degree and will be suitable to compare to actual measured results on the motor. The goals of the thesis were met, but because of delivery delays the motor could not be fully assembled and measured during steady state testing. Instead, the thesis changed course towards a purely theoretical and analytical approach where a foundation for the future work was laid. The next step is to assemble the full prototype motor, and conduct measurements during steady state testing.

  • 314.
    Hagmar, Hannes
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    A feasibility study of Increasing Small Scale Solar Power in Sri Lanka2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following report is conducted as a feasibility study, aimed to objectively uncover the advantages and challenges of increasing the amount of small scale solar power in Sri Lanka. The demand for electricity in Sri Lanka has been steadily increasing the last few years and there is an urgent need to find new ways of generating electricity. To not further increase the already high dependency of foreign oil and to decrease the impact on the environment, a transition from traditional combustion of fossil fuel to new renewable energy is required.

    The report shows that there exists substantial potential for generating solar energy in Sri Lanka. Calculations show that an investment in a photovoltaic system can be economically favourable and that the investment often is paid back within a few years. Current regulations and electricity pricing increases the economic incitement for high electricity consumers to invest in small scale solar power. Furthermore, the report demonstrates that there are likely no technical obstacles of increasing small scale solar power at this period. In contrary, the report shows that small scale solar power in general decreases line losses, voltage drops, and the peak demand of electricity.

    At present, it is probably not the lack of economic incitement but rather socio-economic factors that limit the development of small scale solar power. Sri Lanka is still a relatively poor country and the long years of civil war have prevented development and wealth. Lack of funds and a high ratio of low-income earners are probably the main reason for the slow development

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  • 315.
    Hagqvist, Petter
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Instrumentation and estimation for high temperature control2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within a variety of industrially relevant high temperature production processes such as welding, heat treatment and metal deposition, the quality of the manufactured component is largely affected by how well parameters can be controlled during processing. These parameters might be, in the case of metal deposition, power input, material feed, or a parameter which is common for all of the aforementioned processes: material temperature. The ability to correctly measure, or in other ways estimate process parameters is vital in order to successfully control high temperature processes such as above 700 degrees Celsius. In this work, instrumentation and estimation solutions adapted to high temperature control are proposed and implemented with a focus on the laser metal wire deposition process. Special attention is given to temperature measurements on specimens with varying emissivity as commonly found in high temperature processes. A calibration procedure for a single-wavelength pyrometer is also presented together with a general discussion on limitations of such a system for measurands with varying emissivity. A new method for non-contact emissivity compensated temperature estimations using a spectrometer is presented. Simulations and industrially relevant experiments have been carried out validating the method. The theoretical framework for the developed method will be further investigated in the future together with additional experimental validation. In addition to temperature measurements, a method for real-time process control of laser metal wire deposition has been developed and implemented with good results. This control scheme estimates and controls the tool-to-workpiece distance based on resistance measurements. Such measurements allow for placement of instruments outside of the processing chamber and easy integration into existing equipment. Future work will be directed towards incorporation of resistance measurements into an iterative learning control scheme. Also, improvement on the resistance-distance model and further investigation into suitable signal processing methods for the resistance signal will be pursued.

  • 316.
    Hagqvist, Petter
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Automatic detection of material phase transitions from spectroscopic data2013In: Proceedings of the IECON 2013: 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IEEE, 2013, p. 2384-2389Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When using a temperaturemeasurementmethod which utilizes spectral information for measuring the temperature of varying emissivity measurands, there is a need for a temperature reference at some point in time. In this work, such a reference is created from the spectral radiance data already used by the temperature measurement method. A method of using knowledge of the measurand material's phase transitions and spectral radiance data as a temperature reference is presented. Through automatical identification of phase transitions from radiance spectra employing signal processing, the temperature is known at a certain instance in time, just like required by the temperature measurement method. Three methods for automatic identification of material phase transitions from spectroscopic data are examined and evaluated. The methods are, based on derivatives, steady-state identification and cross correlation respectively. They are introduced and evaluated using experimental data collected from a solidifying copper sample. All methods proved to identify the phase transitions correctly. The addition of automatic phase transition identification supplements the existing temperature measurement method such that it becomes a stand alone, reference free method for measuring the true absolute temperature of a measurand with varying emissivity.

  • 317.
    Hagqvist, Petter
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Heralic, Almir
    GKN Aerospace.
    Automation of a laser welding system for additive manufacturing2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering / [ed] Kazuhiro Saitou, Univ. of Michigan, IEEE, 2015, p. 900-905Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the benefits and challenges ofusing a standard robotised laser welding cell for additive manufacturing(AM). Additive manufacturing, sometimes denoted3D-printing or rapid prototyping, has lately met strong interestin several areas of society, and a variety of technologies andmaterials have been in focus. The current paper summarisesautomation efforts for AM of advanced aero engine componentsusing high power laser with welding optics as power source formelting metal wire and using an industrial robot for obtaininga 3-dimensional feature shape. The challenges are related to theprocess itself encountering high and repeated temperatures withmelting and solidification of the metal as the main players. Themajor research solutions discussed in this paper are relatedto automation issues for obtaining a stable process and tohave control of the temperatures and temperature changes thatthe metals encounter during the process. The solutions aresuccessfully implemented in an industrial laser welding cell.

  • 318.
    Hagqvist, Petter
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Heralic, Almir
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Chalmers.
    Resistance measurements for control of laser metal wire deposition2014In: Optics and lasers in engineering, ISSN 0143-8166, E-ISSN 1873-0302, Vol. 54, no March, p. 62-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for controlling robotized laser metal wire deposition online by electrical resistance metering is proposed. The concept of measuring the combined resistance of the wire and the weld pool is introduced and evaluated for automatic control purposes. Droplet formation, detachment of the wire from the weld pool and stubbing can be hard to avoid during processing due to the sensitive process and short reaction times needed for making on-line adjustments. The implemented system shows a possible route for automatic control of the process wherein such problems can be avoided automatically. The method proves to successfully adjust the distance between the tool and the workpiece through controlling the robot height position, thus increasing stability of the laser metal wire deposition process.

  • 319.
    Hagqvist, Petter
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Sikström, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Process and Product Development.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Chalmers.
    Emissivity compensated spectral pyrometry for varying emissivity metallic measurands2014In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 025010-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel method for converting electromagnetic spectral radiance information into emperature measurements is presented. It allows for varying spectral emissivity of the metallic measurand during the course of the measurement. Such variations are due to e.g. thermal oxidation or temperature dependent emissivity. Based on the assumption that emissivity changes with time and temperature in a continuous manner, it is further assumed that an emissivity estimate at one sample instance can be derived from the estimated emissivity found at the previous samples together with updated spectral information. This leads to successive recalculations of spectral emissivity together with corresponding temperature values. The proposed algorithm has been proven to give accurate temperature estimates from a measurement based on data captured by a standard UV-Vis spectrophotometer even for an oxidizing Ti-6Al-4V specimen in a temperature range between 900K and 1400K. The method however, is not limited to these wavelength- or temperature-ranges.

  • 320.
    Hagqvist, Petter
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Sikström, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Process and Product Development.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Chalmers.
    Emissivity compensated spectral pyrometry-algorithm and sensitivity analysis2014In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 025011-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to solve the problem of non-contact temperature measurements on an object with varying emissivity, a new method is herein described and evaluated. The method uses spectral radiance measurements and converts them to temperature readings. It proves to be resilient towards changes in spectral emissivity and tolerates noisy spectral measurements. It is based on an assumption of continuous changes in emissivity and uses historical values of spectral emissivity and temperature for estimating current spectral emissivity.

    The algorithm, its constituent steps and accompanying parameters are described and discussed. A thorough sensitivity analysis of the method is carried out through simulations. No rigorous instrument calibration is needed for the presented method and is therefore industrially tractable.

  • 321.
    Hagström, Marcus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Jaris, Peter
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Simulation of electric machine in test rig2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electrification is a trend that is on the rise within the aviation industry. Electrifying more systems in airplanes leads to increased efficiency and safety. GKN Aerospace intends to simulate electric machines as a preliminary step before conducting real-world experiments for the purpose of testing different machine designs. A simulation of an existing electric machine was made in this project seeking to replicate the characteristics of a synchronous machine installed in a test rig at GKN Aerospace. The simulation was made possible by measuring and estimating parameters from the machine. Furthermore, the report demonstrates the complexity of reverse-engineering an existing machine and how unexpected challenges made the development of the simulation model much harder than anticipated. The result confirms that a simulation model can be made by measuring and estimating the machine’s parameters. However, to get a more precise simulation, more exact measurements must be done, and more time to experiment with the input and output data in Motor-CAD. The simulation developed in this project can be applied to simulate steady-state behavior of the machine. A suggestion for future work includes more detailed measurements as well as further integrating the simulation in other software platforms to facilitate more dynamic simulations. 

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  • 322.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Identifiering av potentiella leverantörer av systemdrifttjänster2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The frequency quality in the Swedish grid is deteriorating. Plannable production from nuclear power is phased out. At the same time, the government has set a goal for Sweden to be fully supplied by renewable electricity production by 2040. Therefore, wind power is beingexpanded, which means an increased share of electricity production that are dependable on the weather, which in turn means more unstable frequency quality. The need to regulate the power system will thus increase, which is expected to lead to a greater need for so-called ancillary services.Traditionally, hydropower has, and still does, account for more than 90% of all ancillary services in Sweden. There is a great need for development of new technologies in frequency regulation both from an efficiency perspective as well as from a business competition perspective so that the power system in the future will have sufficient good frequency quality.

    This report identifies a number of these new technologies and roughly estimate the potential of these technologies.Wind power is being expanded and at present it is difficult to motivate regulation of production as it is not possible to control the wind, which means that, for example, down regulation of production leads to a waste of wind and therefore a waste of revenue.Number of electric cars are increasing and the charging of them is seen as a great potential if certain obstacles can be overcome. By integrating a “smart” charging system, many charging points could be aggregated together and jointly charge faster or slower as an ancillary service. In addition, a new “V2G” system is under development which, if users’ flexibility allows, lets the cars battery discharge back to the power grid, which further increases the potential.Furthermore, industry accounts for a large portion of Sweden’s energy consumption, of which many loads are not dependent on even constant power consumption. By being able to adjust the consumption of these loads in real time, the adjusted consumption can be sold as ancillary services.In addition, the development of batteries is fast. With these, great potential comes in both direct delivery of ancillary services and to even out peaks in power consumption.

  • 323.
    Hammar, Samuel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Automated path planning for supporting autonomous industrial robots in multi-agent systems2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 14 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the paradigm shift from mass production (high volume, low variety) towards mass customization (high volume, high variety) today’s manufacturing systems must adapt to be more flexible. One approach for solving this is with the concept of Plug & Produce, which can be realized using a Multi-Agent System (MAS). In a MAS, the logical control is distributed onto individual, autonomous agents, which are digital representations of physical objects (parts and resources) in the manufacturing system. In these types of solutions agents representing robots can request paths for moving from A to B. These paths need to be generated automatically without human intervention to maximise flexibility. This thesis work aimed at implementing an automatic path planning service in a MAS.The work resulted in a system design for a path planner service that was successfully implemented and evaluated in a simplified multi-agent manufacturing scenario. The evaluation shows that it is possible to implement a path planner as an agent, the results include a comprehensive agent configuration in the system used. The solution is successful in generating a path upon request from an agent within the multi-agent system, without any need for human intervention once the system has been started. Suggestions for future work include improvements to the path planning algorithm used, tests on a real manufacturing cell and the development of a digital twin

  • 324.
    Hampali N, Ajay
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Automatically Updating a Robotics Simulator with Object locations and CAD data2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Individual, autonomous agents, which are digital representations of physical items (parts and resources) in the manufacturing system, receive logical control in a MAS. Agents representing robots can request paths to get from point A to point B in these types of solutions. To maximize flexibility, like to automize the entire process when introducing new products, these pathways must be generated automatically with less human effort such as a few buttons to be pressed to verify or confirm the start procedure. Also, consume less time when deploying and integrating into the existing systems. There could be many scenario’s /complexities in today’s industries regarding customization but solving and applying ideas to reduce these complexities is what all are trying to solve. Traditional mass production manufacturing techniques are difficult to reconfigure for new items because of the various changes which must be made on the production line affecting time, production and costs, and as more customized products become available, new alternatives are required. Manual online programming of robots takes a lot of time and costs lots of money. It is feasible to generate collision-free pathways and entire robot programmes using off-line programming software such as ABB Robot Studio without having to test them on an actual robot. This is advantageous sincenew programmes may be developed without disrupting ongoing work. Off-line programming, on the other hand, is not automatic and takes time for personnel who usethese technologies. Many path planning algorithms are available and finding themost feasible and optimized planning algorithms is also important so that we can deploy that in Multi-Agent System (MAS). Hence this thesis work will help in supporting path planning by providing the flexibility to import the CAD models in their respective locations automatically rather than the manual placements of them in the simulated environment which could provide a collision-free path in the simulation. Utilising ABB’s Robot Studio software for visualising the process with other tools will help to contribute to the development the of Multi-Agent System (MAS) whichin turn contributes to Industry 4.0. 

  • 325.
    Hansen, Björn
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Underlag för ombyggnation av reservskydd2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This problem-solving system study has highlighted what problems a power distribution network can have with the combination of large transformers and long cables and wirings. This means that the short-circuit currents become too small for the transformer or busbar protection to function as backup protection if the outgoing 10 kV lines regular relay protection fails.

    With the requirements that exist in the safety of a plant and power distribution network, it is important to have relevant protection that meets the requirements contained in laws and regulations. The protection that exists in a power distribution network must be fast and safe. There can always be a failure in the equipment that exists and then some form of reserve must be available to ensure that the safety requirements are met.

    The goals that have been met with this study, are that it has been possible to clarify the problems that exists with back-up protection and to present solutions that are able to disconnect all faulty parts as quickly as possible in order to protect persons and animals, property and facilities from damage. The study shows some solutions that are simple and economical, the costs are realistic estimates from experienced competent personnel from different manufacturers. The various solutions have been discussed and weighed against each other with the pros and cons that form the basis for a decision making about which solution is best.

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  • 326.
    Hansson, Niklas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Nyberg, Eleonore
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Prestandajämförelse av ABBs EGM och Permanova Lasersystems externaxel för fogföljning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to compare solutions for seam tracking with a welding robot. At the moment the used solution is an external seventh axis made by Permanova which is going to be compared to software made by ABB called EGM. The primary comparisons shall be done regarding the dead time and the time constant of the two processes. A primary problem with this was the uncertainty that comes with ocular inspection of the graphs in order to extract relevant values. Another problem, that also made construing the curves harder, was that there were some disturbances that caused distorted curves. Experiments were done on a model of the actual process, meaning that no welding equipment was connected to the robot in this model process. Instead a laser sensor was mounted onto the robot that measured against a parallel metal block. The seventh axis was connected for all tests to make sure that the results were comparable when it comes to the weight that the robot arm is burdened with. Each experiment had different parameters, such as speed and distance from the robot's base. Several tests were made with the same parameters to make sure that good results were had.

    One method used for analysis of gathered data was comparing a similar first order system to the step response of different experiments. The values of this approximate step response were tweaked until both step responses were fairly similar, however, the human factor is very relevant in this analysis.

    The results showed a clear advantage towards Permanova's seventh axis in both decreased dead time and time constant. For example, the filtered mean value for the dead time with EGM was 266 ms and a standard deviation of 20,8 ms, while Permanova clocked in at 11,5 ms with a standard deviation of 2,0 ms. The filtered time constants followed the same trend and were at 68 ms, standard deviation of 13,5 ms, for EGM and 33 ms, standard deviation of 4,8 ms, for Permanova. It was quite surprising how big the difference was between EGM and Permanova's seventh axis, but the seventh axis was without a doubt the solution best suited to this kind of process. Due to the lacking performance from EGM it is determined to be unfit for laser welding applications at PTW.

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  • 327.
    Hansson, Viktor
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Ackemo, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Jämförelse mellan DMVPN Spoke-toSpoke och Site-to-Site GRE-IPsec VPN2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report compared two different VPN technologies, DMVPN Spoke-to-Spoke and Site-to-Site GRE-IPsec VPN. The VPN technologies were tested in two different scenarios. In the first scenario video-streamed material was sent from one PC to another PC. In the second scenario, a stress test was performed in which a large number of packets were sent from one PC to another for a limited time. Investigation showed the loss of packets that occurred through the VPN tunnel with these two VPN technologies. The implementation of these two VPN technologies was evaluated to see if one was easier to configure than the other and if they were suitable for different types of organizations.

    What was shown after the tests was that there was no difference in loss of packets between these two VPN technologies. In terms of implementation, DMVPN was the better VPN technology to choose from, as it allows for better scalability and simpler configuration. 

  • 328.
    Hassan, Mohamed
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Segedal, Kevin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Känsligheten hos hushållsapparater för dålig elkvalité2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today people use appliances in households that use electricity and the need for it only gets bigger for each year. The distribution system operators try to deliver as high quality of electricity as possible to our homes. What would happen if the quality dropped on the electricity network, and how would our appliances react to it. The electricity quality means that the electricity user can use the electricity without disturbances and interruptions. The effect on the devices with voltage variation is what has been studied in the report and the effect of harmonics on the devices has not been studied. The rated voltage level that exists in a household is 230 V and according to the Swedish standards the voltage must not drop or exceed 10 % of the rated voltage. In the households there are many different appliances that works in different ways. They work from using an electric motor, converting alternating current to direct current to charge batteries in mobilephones and laptops, and heat pumps used to heat our house and water supply. The investigation to find out how the different household appliances work, a dial up transformer is used to simulate a normal wall socket. This is to be able to increase and decrease the voltage levels to see how the appliances react. The only type of test that has been performed is when the voltage levels is being reduced on an appliance that is connected to the wall socket. Other errors can occur in the electricity network but cannot be tested cause the equipment that is needed to simulate these errors is not available in the laboratory. The appliances that were tested was an unloaded electric whisk, laptop charger, electric kettle and various types of lamps. All appliances can have a voltage below the 10 % described in the Swedish standards and still works and can be used but at a reduced efficiency. Electric whisk and electric kettle are the appliances that are most noticeable when the voltage drops as the electric whisk spins more slowly at lower voltage and the kettle takes longer time to get the water to boil. The light illuminates less when the voltage is lowered. Low-energy lamp, fluorescent lamp with and without HF-ballast go out when the voltage becomes too low. Incandescent, halogen and LED-lamps can illuminate until the voltage disappear completely but reduced brightness at lower voltage levels. The laptop charger is made to withstand voltage between 100-240 V so it can be used in any country that has different voltage levels in the socket. When the voltage goes below 100 V the laptop charger is still manages to produce a stable direct current to be able to charge a laptop. When the voltage becomes too low, it completely stops charging. 

  • 329.
    Hatefipour, Saeid
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems. saeid@termisk.se.
    Ahlberg, Jörgen
    Linköping University.
    Wren, Joakim
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Runnemalm, Anna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation Systems.
    Thermal non-destructive testing: modeling, simulation and experiments for improved localization of hidden defects2014In: The 12th International Conference on Quantitative Infrared Thermography, 2014, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, a substantial amount of research and practical work has been conducted on non-destructive testing of materials using thermography. The performed studies elucidate the potential of various types of thermal non-destructive testing (TNDT) for different materials and applications, including various types of defects. This paper presents a method for detecting in-depth defects in metallic materials and a simulation model for the heat transfer in the material. Experiments are performed on a test specimen with artificial defects (flat-bottom holes). The detection method exploits spatiotemporal analysis in order to find deviations from a model of normality, and shows novel results. Thermal modelling is performed in order to have a base-line simulation model enable us to (a) investigate affecting parameters without repeating the experiments and (b) generalize the results and extend their validity to other cases. Results show that there is an acceptable compliance between simulated and measured thermal data. 

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    Final-QIRT-A8877SH
  • 330.
    Haydar, Abdulmajeed
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Smart Warehouses with Robots and AGVs2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Parker is a global company within motion and control technologies. Parker products that originate from a global leadership position in nine core Motion and Control technologies that include aero-space, climate control, electromechanical, filtration, fluid and gas handling, hydraulics, pneumatics, process control, sealing and shielding [1] [2].

    Parker in Trollhättan produces hydraulics pumps and motors [3]. They produce almost 2730 pumps/motors per week. The factory has worked a lot with automation in the manufacturing sections.

    They are now interested to start with automation in other parts in the factory; especially improve the warehouses by using the robots and AGVs and improve the material handling between different sections by using the AGVs. And of course, they think also about improve the ergonomics and solve the bottleneck. Parker want to analyse the assembly stations and material handling to identify the key areas to start the automation process.

    Parker has a main big warehouse and many buffers around the assembly stations. Material handling now is done manually by using the workers, small trolley or vehicles with a big trolley. The material handling for all assembly stations takes between 512 and 770 minute per shift as manual transfer by workers in addition to several of transfer operations by trolleys and vehicles. And the buffers inside the workplace take about 200 square meters. Wherefore, Parker is very interested to improve the warehouses.

    This work focuses on analysing the current system for material handling in both warehouse and stations. After analysing the current system, the potential for moving from manual material handling to semi- or automated material handling was discussed. Different potentials for improving material handling with the help of robots and AGVs in warehouse and stations has been defined. Testing and validation for all the potentials were the automation can be implemented and started with, the productivity, workspace, safety, in addition to the level of the ergonomics for these working places. The likelihood for solutions success are also presented. And how to optimize the solutions for reaching a high level of automation is discussed.

  • 331.
    Hederstad, Anna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Anslutningsoptimering av solcellsparker i Vattenfalls regionnät2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to connect large scale electric power producers to the distribution system in Sweden, extensive analyses and calculations are carried out. Vattenfall Eldistribution AB - a company that owns a portion of this distribution system, has experienced a rise in requests to connect larger solar power plants. As power generated by such a plant is of intermittent character, it is necessary to investigate how production and production patterns can be reliably estimated.

    The report presents theories and equations for various types of solar radiation and solar cell technology, and then briefly discusses the main components of a solar power plant.

    In this report two methods to estimate the production and production pattern from a solar power plant are investigated. One of the methods uses radiation data provided by STRÅNG. STRÅNG is a radiation model funded by SMHI (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute) together with the Radiation Safety Authority and the Environmental Protection Agency. The other method to estimate production uses PVGIS, a tool developed by the European Commission to provide information on the expected performance of a solar panel installation. The estimations by the two methods are then compared to the actual production outcome from an existing park to validate the calculations and methods.

    The later part of the report discusses different scenarios of combined solar and wind power production. The aim was to study how the two parks' power generation coincide and how many hours per year this occurs. The same chapter also discusses how this relates to the transmission capacity of an overhead line. The transmission capacity of an overhead line is expressed as current and is the calculated result of its mechanical properties and weather parameters such as air temperature and solar radiation.

    The results of the analyses carried out in this thesis indicate that it is possible to estimate production from a solar power plant using both STRÅNG and PVGIS. The estimation; however, should be seen as a guidance rather than basis for detailed calculations. STRÅNG offers more current data than PVGIS but requires more processing of the data to produce an estimate. The analysis also suggests that there may be potential for integrating solar power plants in areas where there are already existing wind power plants, given the transmission capacity of an overhead line. 

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  • 332.
    Hedlund, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Abrahamsson, Carl
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Rekonstruktion, utveckling och design av ett befintligt system2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Systemutveckling går framåt i ett väldigt raskt tempo, inte minst webbutveckling. På marknaden idag finns det ett brett utbud av olika system. Många system med väldigt moderna och användarvänliga gränssnitt, men också exempel på mindre bra varianter. Många system är lite äldre och har fungerat okej en längre tid. Men i takt med att det kommer nyare och enklare system som kan utföra samma uppgifter kommer kanske behovet av att byta ut systemen. Ibland byter man ut hela systemet, i vissa lägen räcker det med en uppfräschning. Denna rapport kommer att behandla uppbyggnaden och utvecklingen av ett helt nytt användargränssnitt. Systemet som gränssnittet implementeras i existerar sedan tidigare och ägs av företaget Empir. Detta gränssnitt ersätter det redan befintliga gränssnittet. En grundlig analys gjordes för att få en god förståelse för hur systemet användes och fungerade. Hela designen gjordes om från grunden, hela strukturen byttes ut, nytt menysystem, nya listor och nya vyer togs fram. Stöd för mobila enheter implementerades. Det nya användargränssnittet utvecklades med hjälp av erkännda ramverk samt de senaste inom webbteknik. Examensarbetet behandlar i delen resultat en jämförelse mellan de båda systemen, detta för att få en klar bild om de mål som sattes är uppnådda. Jämförelse är nästan uteslutande visuell. Rapporten kommer att rikta sig mot design delen av arbetet och kommer inte behandla någon avancerad kod. Därför kommer även en läsare utan programmeringsbakgrund att kunna ta del av innehållet.

  • 333.
    Hedlund, Otto
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Råhnängen, Nils
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beredningsarbete i området Ärentuna, Uppsala på linje 062021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about the approach how the prepatory work on Trolk El & Tele AB for both high and low voltage power grids. The conduct preparations refers to a local network in Ärentuna, Uppsala. The existing high and low voltage network that currently exists in the area today is old and largely overhead power lines, which will be demolished and replaced with mostly underground cable grid. The rebuilding is done to increase the reliability in the area, which means fewer disruptions and interruptions. The project has involved map studies to give the project members an overview of the area. After the map studies had been carried out, a field visit was carried out to give a clearer picture of the area and to be able to discover problems and obstacles that were difficult to see on maps. As the route for the cable routing could be chosen, obstacles and problems could be avoided to a large extent, however, controlled drilling is required at six locations to cross a railway and five roads. The project includes the demolition of 8304 meters of high voltage line and 3277 meters of low voltage line. Six network stations, of which four pole stations, will be demolished and replaced with six new substations in the sizes of 100, 200 and 315 kVA. 7139 meters of high voltage cable, 3533 meters of low voltage cable and 273 meters of low voltage overhead line are laid and six new cable distribution cabinets are set up. The project affects a total of 125 subscribers. According to a p2 calculation, the total cost of the reconstruction within the area amounts to 6,18 million SEK.

  • 334.
    Hedlund, Petter
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Studie av alternativ vid konstruktion av testutrustning för generatorskydd2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie utreder alternativ för hur en testutrustning för generatorskydd skulle kunna konstrueras. Den är utförd på uppdrag av Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery, SIT. Målet är att underlätta konfigureringen av generatorskyddet för de konstruktörer som arbetar på SIT samt förebygga fel i provningsfasen som försenar färdigställandet av de turbinanläggningar i vilka generatorskydden skall användas. Testutrustningen behöver vara billig vilket medfört att fokus har legat på att undersöka möjligheten för konstruktion av en egen lösning av signalgenereringen, som är den del av utrustningen som kostar mest.

    Konstruktionen är tänkt att fungera genom användandet av ett styrsystem vars analoga utsignaler förstärks till nivåer passande generatorskyddet. Spänningssignalerna transformeras upp med hjälp av en transformator och strömsignalerna förstärks genom användande av en förstärkarkrets innehållandes transistorer och en operationsförstärkare.

    Kostnaden för konstruktionen är låg jämfört med att köpa in en utrustning motsvarande det reläprovningsinstrument som används i provningsfasen. Det upptäcktes dock att det fanns möjlighet att köpa in ett begagnat reläprovningsinstrument till ett likvärdigt pris. Då detta instrument är av samma fabrikat som det reläprovningsinstrument som används av SIT vid funktionsprovning och dessutom en väl beprövad produkt anses det lämpligare att istället köpa in ett sådant.

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  • 335.
    Hedström, Kevin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Utvärdering av nätverksdesign2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis intent is to show various design methods used in building a network. Show differences that occur with replacing layer 2 devices to layer 3 devices. The difficulty in designing a network is to provide enough redundancy, number of access ports, enough throughput and good load-balancing. Scalability and troubleshooting should also be considered. Cisco's Network model will therefore be displayed as a well-used standard in network design.

    Reasons why this design model is used is given. Other design models suitable for various sizes of networks is displayed. An evaluation to the improved network of the classic Cisco Network Model is done, where the layer 2 devices is swapped out for layer 3 devices. The benefit of this change is mainly the removal of the spanning-tree usage.

  • 336.
    Heikkinen, Marko
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Salihu, Shpetim
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Projektering och beredning av vädersäkrat nät i Häljebo2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a preparation work to protect a small part of Vattenfall's electricity distribution networks from weather changes in the area Häljebo located in Grästorp municipality.The preparation is performed by the consulting company Nordisk ElkraftTeknik AB, NEKTAB commissioned by Vattenfall Distribution AB that has decided that the existing overhead lines should be placed in the ground to secure electricity network for weather changes. Today's pole stations and overhead lines should be removed and replaced by three new ground stations and 5.7 km of low- and high voltage cables in the ground. 17 customers are affected by this change. Preparation means to manage contacts with authorities and property owners and also explore the field and determine the appropriate trench. Basis for prepared work needs permission to various authorities, for example Administrative Board, the Swedish Transport Administration and the Environmental and Building Committee. The preparer signs agreements with property owners regarding land ownership issues. Finally, all documentation compiled in a cover used by the entrepreneur to perform work on the field. Preparation work was carried out by Marko Heikkinen and Shpetim Salihu at consulting firm Nordisk ElkraftTeknik AB, NEKTAB.

  • 337.
    Helmersson, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Flexible and modular production machines: A guiding framework and the design of a packaging machine2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To increase production and reduce intermediate storage in the factory a new flexible packaging machine is needed. The main purpose of this project is to design a new flexible and modular packaging machine and to create a new framework to use when designing new machines. Current research shows that no framework or practical guide for designing flexible and modular machines exist. A new framework is developed based on a literature study on flexibility in the industry with past, present, and future concepts. The proposed framework is a step-by-step tree/flowchart where each step has a set of rules/guidelines to follow. Along with the flowchart a help section is written to guide the user through the design steps. Existing industry standards are investigated to find a suitable structure for connecting the modules and the machine in the project. Results show that few standards exist in the connectivity structure for the industry.  To lower maintenance costs and increase operational reliability, predictive maintenance using edge computing is investigated. Using edge computing allows the machine to take advantage of predictive maintenance while being offline which makes it suitable for a moveable machine. Evaluation of predictive maintenance show that it still needs more research, and it is complex to implement, which makes it expensive for non-critical machines.The results of this project are a new proposed framework that was used in the project to design a new packaging machine and a flexible PLC program that is easily adaptable for changing modules. The proposed framework fills a gap in the practical usage of known concepts and was used while designing the new machine to evaluate its usability.

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  • 338.
    Hendberg, Jessica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Lundgren, Emma
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Planerade arbetens påverkan på SAIDI: analys baserad på Vattenfall Eldistribution AB:s nät2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is made on behalf of Vattenfall Eldistribution AB and was conducted at their office in Trollhättan. The purpose of the project was initially to reveal that the way to the 2025‘s SAIDI-goal, probably will deviate from the original goal. This because of the many investments that are made in the power grid. These investments often lead to many switching schedules which often, for the customers, mean a planned interruption of the power supply. What is to be investigated is if there are any disturbances which are related to a planned interruption. Namely, if there was a secondary fault caused by the planned work, that caused a customer interruption that lasted longer than three minutes aside from the planned interruption time. According to Swedish Energy Markets Inspectorate, the concept of power quality divides into two different parameters; continuity of supply and voltage quality. This work will only focus on the continuity of supply, more particularly the interruptions which last more than three minutes. To enable comparison between electrical companies there are a few interruption indicators which for example are SAIDI and SAIFI. SAIDI is the quota of the total customer interruption time and the total customer quantity. The result that has been shown is not comparable to the historical SAIDI-results which Vattenfall Eldistribution AB presents, since different variations of SAIDI is being used. The result shows that a meaningful impact is to be received because of secondary faults occurring with some of the switching done in the grid, due to planned work. These faults could for example be rooted in a disconnector failing, flaws in the documentation that lead to manoeuvres of the wrong device, or simply because of the human factor.

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  • 339.
    Henningsson, David
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Larsson, Björn
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    QoS, roaming och omassocieringstider för olika typer av accesspunkter2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Roaming in wireless networks may introduce interference to time-critical applications, with high demand on latency, jitter and packet-loss[5]. The access-points which act within an extended wireless network can either be of autonomous type, or light access-points controlled by a central controller [3][8]. This study aims to investigate the possible influence client initiated roaming can have on a prioritized UDP-dataflow, as well as study whether autonomous access-points or lightweight has different impacts on reassociation times when a client suddenly is forced to associate to a different access-point. Furthermore a scenario where the connection to the access-point is suddenly cut, forcing a reassociation to a secondary access-point, was formulated. The results from the tests displayed that the client initiated roaming, despite relatively short time interval for reassociation to the new access-point, amounts to high enough values of delay, jitter and packet-loss to potentially have noticeable effect on, for example, an IP-telephony conversation. When forcing a client to initiate a reassociation this meant a several seconds long disconnection in the dataflow, which also could affect applications running TCP/IP. Client roaming is decided from the parameters which are programmed in the drivers of the client network interface card. Lack of consciousness regarding other nodes in the wireless intra-network, or a lack of will to roam even if a secondary access-point has better signal strength, can contribute to deteriorated quality in data-streams. Therefore it's just as important to consider the dynamics in the technical resources of the client as the access-points and physical environment when assessing the functionality in extended wireless networks with QoS-capability.

  • 340.
    Heralic, Almir
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Monitoring and Control of Robotized Laser Metal-Wire Deposition2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis gives a number of solutions towards full automation of the promising manufacturing technology Robotized Laser Metal-wire Deposition (RLMwD). RLMwD offers great cost and weight saving potentials in the manufacturing industry. By metal deposition is here meant a layered manufacturing technique that builds fully-dense structures by melting metal wire into solidifying beads, which are deposited side by side and layer upon layer. A major challenge for this technique to be industrially implemented is to ensure process stability and repeatability. The deposition process has shown to be extremely sensitive to the wire position and orientation relative to the melt pool and the deposition direction. Careful tuning of the deposition tool and process parameters are therefore important in order to obtain a stable process and defect-free deposits. Due to its recent development, the technique is still manually controlled in industry, and hence the quality of the produced parts relies mainly on the skills of the operator. The scientific challenge is therefore to develop the wire based deposition process to a level where material integrity and good geometrical fit can be guaranteed in an automated and repeatable fashion. This thesis presents the development of a system for on-line monitoring and control of the deposition process. A complete deposition cell consisting of an industrial robot arm, a novel deposition tool, a data acquisition system, and an operator interface has been developed within the scope of this work. A system for visual feedback from the melt pool allows an operator to control the process from outside the welding room. A novel approach for automatic deposition of the process based on Iterative Learning Control is implemented. The controller has been evaluated through deposition experiments, resembling real industrial applications. The results show that the automatic controller increases the stability of the deposition process and also outperforms a manual operator. The results obtained in this work give novel solutions to the important puzzle towards full automation of the RLMwD process, and full exploitation of its potentials.

  • 341.
    Heralic, Almir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Charles, Corinne
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Dzevad, Imamovic
    Volvo Aero Coorporation.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Dep of signal and systems, Chalmers.
    Towards stable high-speed metal-wire deposition, Part I: Parameter studyIn: Journal of laser applications, ISSN 1042-346X, E-ISSN 1938-1387Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 342.
    Heralic, Almir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Automatic in-process control of laser metal-wire deposition based on sensor feedback2011In: 30th Interantional Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, ICALEO 2011: Orlando October 23-27, 2011. Code 87581|, 2011, p. 211-220Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes alasermetaldepositionsystem that isbasedon robotizedlaserwelding andwirefiller material. The system has been found suitable for the manufacture of simple but large shapes with high metallurgical requirements such as bosses or flanges found on aero engine components. Several benefits have been identified with the usage ofwirefiller compared to powderized feedstock, such as betterprocessefficiency, higherdepositionrates, and cleaner working environment. Thewirebaseddepositionprocessis however sensitive to disturbances and thus requires continuous monitoring and adjustments.Inthis work a 3D scanning system is described forautomaticin-processcontrolof thedeposition. The goal is to obtain a flat surface for each deposited layerinorder to ensure stabledeposition. The deviationsinthe layer height are compensated by controlling thewirefeed rate. The system is tested throughdepositionof small cylindrical bosses and the results show that the proposedcontrolapproach is suitable forautomaticdepositionof such structures. The material consideredinthis paper is Ti-6Al-4V deposited on plates of same material. The paper presents the equipment and thecontrolstrategy and discusses practical issues regarding thesensorused.

  • 343.
    Heralic, Almir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Dep of signal and systems, Chalmers.
    Height control of laser metal-wire deposition based on iterative learning control and 3D scanning2012In: Optics and lasers in engineering, ISSN 0143-8166, E-ISSN 1873-0302, Vol. 50, no 9, p. 1230-1241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser Metal-wire Deposition is an additive manufacturing technique for solid freeform fabrication of fully dense metal structures. The technique is based on robotized laser welding and wire filler material, and the structures are built up layer by layer. The deposition process is, however, sensitive to disturbances and thus requires continuous monitoring and adjustments. In this work a 3D scanning system is developed and integrated with the robot control system for automatic in-process control of the deposition. The goal is to ensure stable deposition, by means of choosing a correct offset of the robot in the vertical direction, and obtaining a flat surface, for each deposited layer. The deviations in the layer height are compensated by controlling the wire feed rate on next deposition layer, based on the 3D scanned data, by means of iterative learning control. The system is tested through deposition of bosses, which is expected to be a typical application for this technique in the manufacture of jet engine components. The results show that iterative learning control including 3D scanning is a suitable method for automatic deposition of such structures. This paper presents the equipment, the control strategy and demonstrates the proposed approach with practical experiments.

  • 344.
    Heralic, Almir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Dep of signal and systems, Chalmers.
    Towards stable high-speed metal-wire deposition, Part II: Automatic deposition using feedback controlIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 345.
    Heralic, Almir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Electrical Engineering and Land Surveying.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Electrical Engineering and Land Surveying.
    Ottosson, Mattias
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Electrical Engineering and Land Surveying.
    Hurtig, Kjell
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mechanical Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Electrical Engineering and Land Surveying. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Automation of Robotized Laser Metal-Wire Deposition2007In: Proceedings of the ninth IASTED International Conference on Control and Applications: Montreal, Canada, ACTA Press , 2007, p. ID 658-075-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 346.
    Heralic, Almir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Ottosson, Mattias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Increased stability in laser metal wire deposition through feedback from optical measurements2010In: Optics and lasers in engineering, ISSN 0143-8166, E-ISSN 1873-0302, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 478-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robotized laser metal-wire deposition is a fairly new technique being developed at University West in cooperation with Swedish industry for solid freeform fabrication of fully densed metal structures. It is developed around a standard welding cell and uses robotized fiber laser welding and wire filler material together with a layered manufacturing method to create metal structures. In this work a monitoring system, comprising two cameras and a projected laser line, is developed for on-line control of the deposition process. The controller is a combination of a PI-controller for the bead width and a feed-forward compensator for the bead height. It is evaluated through deposition of single-bead walls, and the results show that the process stability is improved when the proposed controller is used.

  • 347.
    Heralic, Almir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Ottosson, Mattias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems. Dep of signal and systems, Chalmers.
    Automation of laser metal deposition for the manufacture of fully dense structures2011In: 4th International Swedish Production Symposium, SPS11: 3-4 May, Lund, Sverige / [ed] Jan-Eric Ståhl, Swedish Productio Academy , 2011, p. 219-227Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 348.
    Heralic, Almir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Ottosson, Mattias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering.
    Kristiansson, Anna-Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Electrical and Automation Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Norlander, Torbjörn
    Volvo Aero Coorporation.
    Geometry control of laser metal deposition for the manufacture of complex structures in the aero industry2011In: 20th International Society for Airbreathing Engines Conference, ISABE 2011: September 12-16, 2011 Gothenburg, 2011, p. 1666-1674Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 349.
    Heralic, Almir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Electrical Engineering and Land Surveying.
    Wolff, Krister
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Wahde, Mattis
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Central Pattern Generators for Gait Generation in Bipedal Robots2007In: Humanoid Robots: New Developments, I-Tech Education and Publishing , 2007, p. 285-304Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 350.
    Heras Aguilar, Sergio
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production System.
    Comparison and visualization of robot program modifications: Applied on ABB industrial robots at Volvo Cars Corporation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Volvo Cars Corporation creates robot programs off-line for all new robot implementations for virtual commissioning. These virtually created robot programs are then downloaded to the real robot, after the installation has been carried out, to be tested before they are fully operational. These tests are spanned from robot installation until full production, adjusting the robot programme according to Volvo Cars specification and correcting errors that the robot program may have. Changes of the robot programs will be saved each time it is modified, generating a series of backups for each robot until the robot is correctly adjusted along all the steps of the process. To improve the offline programming there is a necessity for visualize the modifications made during the physical robot commissioning. The objective of this thesis is to identify, categorise, quantify and visualize modifications between each different backup of a robot. A software application has been developed using Microsoft Visual Studio using C#. The application is designed in windows for different types of data. It enables the user to compare two robot programs (two different backup programs from the tests) from one robot and see the result between them graphically. The graphs are designed interactively so that the user can filter the information to see the desired data from the robot programs comparison. Key performance indicators (KPIs) has been specified for RobTargets and Procedures according to Volvo Cars Corporation requests. These KPIs are implemented and visualised in a graphical representation.

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