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  • 251.
    Kisch, Annika M
    et al.
    Department of Haematology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Anna
    Lund University, Institute of Health Sciences Lund, Sweden..
    Fridh, Isabell
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, Borås, Sweden..
    Almgren, Matilda
    Lund University, Institute of Health Sciences ,Lund, Sweden.
    Lundmark, Martina
    Lund University, Institute of Health Sciences ,Lund, Sweden.
    Lovén, Charlotte
    Transplant Unit, Department of Surgery and Gastroenterology, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden..
    Flodén, Anne
    Transplant Unit, Department of Surgery and Gastroenterology, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Madeleine
    Department of Neurology, Psychiatry and Habilitation, Queen Silvia's Children's Hospital, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Karlsson, Veronika
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Lennerling, Annette
    Department of Transplantation, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The Meaning of Being a Living Kidney, Liver or Stem Cell Donor: A Meta-Ethnography2018In: Transplantation, ISSN 0041-1337, E-ISSN 1534-6080, Vol. 102, no 5, p. 744-756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Studies on living donors from the donors' perspective show that the donation process involves both positive and negative feelings involving vulnerability. Qualitative studies of living kidney, liver, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell donors have not previously been merged in the same analysis. Therefore, our aim was to synthesize current knowledge of these donors' experiences in order to deepen understanding of the meaning of being a living donor for the purpose of saving or extending someone's life.

    METHODS: The meta-ethnography steps presented by Noblit & Hare in 1988 were used.

    RESULTS: Forty-one qualitative studies from 1968 to 2016 that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were analyzed. The studies comprised experiences of over 670 donors. The time since donation varied from 2 days to 29 years. A majority of the studies, 25 out of 41, were on living kidney donors. The synthesis revealed that the essential meaning of being a donor is doing what one feels one has to do, involving 6 themes; A sense of responsibility, Loneliness and abandonment, Suffering, Pride and gratitude, A sense of togetherness, and A life changing event.

    CONCLUSION: The main issue is that one donates irrespective of what one donates. The relationship to the recipient determines the motives for donation. The deeper insight into the donors' experiences provides implications for their psychological care.

  • 252.
    Klang, Mikaela
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Overbridging linguistic barriers in Namibian healthcare2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Namibia there are a lot of different native languages even if the official language is English. Since communication is an important tool for nurses and studies about communication across language barriers mostly is done in western countries, there is need for more knowledge regarding the nurse's experience with language barriers in multilingual and multicultural context, like Namibia. Aim: To describe the experiences of Namibian nurses caring for patients who speak another native language. Method: Qualitative interviews were held with four nurses and one student nurse at Katutura State hospital in Windhoek, Namibia. Results: Two themes with subthemes were identified in the results. The first theme, Establishing the patient-nurse relationship, describes the importance of trust for communication and what the interviewees found important when creating a bond with the patient. The other theme, Establishing the communication, describes the importance of interpretation and how they tackled the language barrier. Conclusion: When meeting a patient with another native language it is of great importance to establish trust with the patient and that interpreters are used. The use of sublingual nurses, who found interpreting to be a natural part of their work, was beneficial.

  • 253.
    Kopsch, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Wetterhamn, Alexander
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Patienters erfarenheter av psykiatrisk tvångsvård: en litteraturbaserad studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When a person suffers from mental illness, involuntary hospital admission can be necessary as a protection from self-harm or from hurting others. Involuntary hospital admission is often the last resort to help a patient. Patients who have been cared for involuntarily sometimes experience a lack of communication and information during the care. Many of these patients may need it several times during their lives. Individual action plans on how the caregiver should act could help the patient and help to minimize the patients' negative experiences of the care under compulsory admission.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to highlight patients' experiences of involuntary psychiatric care.

    Method: A literature-based study with the aim to contribute to evidence-based care with an analysis based on qualitative research were used. Ten scientific qualitative articles were analyzed.

    Results: The results showed a mix of positive and negative emotions and experiences of being under involuntarily psychiatric care which are described under two main themes: To be given space as an individual and Having a mutual partnership.

    Conclusion: Patients often felt powerless, uninformed and like their voice is not being heard. Lack of information was the biggest problem experienced by patients that resulted in a negative experience. Patients want their family to be included in the planning of their care. Patients' negative experiences could be reduced by further education for staff and by working person-centered.

  • 254.
    Krasniqi, Sabina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Kumlin, Siri
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Sjuksköterskans möten med suicidala patienter i vården: En litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Suicide is a global public health problem and is one of the ten most common causes of death in the world. In Sweden, suicide is the most common cause of death for men and the second leading cause of death for women. Each year about 1100 persons commit suicide in Sweden, which are about three suicides a day. Suicidal patients occur in all health care, which explains why it is important for nurses to have adequate knowledge about this patient group. Aim: The aim was to describe nurses’ encounters with suicidal patients within care. Method: This literature review was conducted in accordance to Friberg. Nine scientific articles were included and have been analyzed to constitute the result. The analysis resulted in three categories and seven sub-categories. Results: The categories that emerged were: Attitudes matters, Feelings arise, and the Importance of being awarded. The sub-categories that emerged were: Attitudes that affect care, attitudes that affect the relationship, mixed feelings, hopelessness, insufficiency, assessment of the patient´s condition and observe risk assessments.  Conclusion: The result showed that different feelings of the nurse arose during the encounter with suicidal patients. Nurses’ attitudes that emerged from the encounter with suicidal patients were dependent on age, experience and education level. The more education and experience the nurse had, the more positive the attitude towards suicidal patients. It was revealed that nurses created a relationship with patients in the encounter and that the conditions for the relationship depended on the nurse’s approach.

  • 255.
    Kristensen, Erika
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Petersson, Lise-Lotte
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Närståendes erfarenheter av att leva med en person under 65 år som har en demenssjukdom: En litteraturbaserad studie med kvalitativ ansats2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden approximately 10 000 people under 65 years of age suffer from dementia. Dementia means pathological changes in the brain. It is a chronic condition that worsens over time. As a great share of the care is provided by family members, it becomes a strain for them and can have negative effects. It is therefore of importance to highlight the experiences of family members in order to promote health and ease suffering.

    Aim: The aim was to highlight the experiences of family members living with a person under 65 years of age suffering from dementia.

    Method: A method to contribute to evidence-based nursing with ground in analysis of qualitative research was performed. Eight scientific articles were analyzed according to Friberg's (2012) qualitative content analyze in five steps.

    Results: The result of the study showed two themes. The first theme; Life changes with three subthemes; Changed family roles, Changed social relationships and Being in need of information and support. The second theme; Increased strain also with three subthemes; To experience stress, To have coping strategies and To worry about the future.

    Conclusion: The study revealed that experienced great changes and were in great need of support as well as information. They experienced different kinds of stress and this affected their daily lives. The nurse needs knowledge and experience in order to meet these and to best promote health and ease suffering.

  • 256.
    Kristensson, Erika
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Johansson, Linda
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    När livet närmar sig slutet: Patienters erfarenheter2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Each year about 90 000–100 000 people die in Sweden, the majority of these people are in need of palliative care. Nurses have a responsibility to ensure that patients’ keeps the dignity. Knowledge about patients’ experiences of palliative care are of great importance for the nurse to be able to meet their individual needs and desires. Aim: The aim of this study was to highlight adult patients’ experiences of being in palliative phase. Method: A literature study with the aim to contribute to evidence based care with an analysis based on qualitative research were used. Seven scientific articles were analyzed. Results: The results showed that patients in a palliative phase felt a need of being involved in their care, to make their own choices and to be heard. Many patients felt like a burden to their family, and found it difficult to ask for help. The lack of independency in the end of life was central, and the patients experienced that in different ways. Also, the spiritual and existential questions emerge to the patients, leaving them in acceptance of the situation, or the opposite – to find it hard to accept the fact that this was the end. Conclusions: Patients in a palliative phase is part of a multi-dimensional context. As a nurse, working personcentered creates a good foundation for being able to apply holistic nursing, relieving suffering and promoting a dignified death, given the patient’s individual needs.

  • 257.
    Kruslind, Annika
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Upplevelser av att vara syskon till ett barn med cancer: En litteraturbaserad studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When a child is ill with cancer family members are affected by grief and anxiety and siblings are not prepared to cope with the situation. Siblings to a child with cancer have a higher risk of reduced well-being. It is important that nurses and society gain an understanding of siblings' experiences when a brother or sister is ill with cancer and how it impacts their lives.

    The aim of the study was to illuminate siblings' lived experiences when a child in the family gets cancer.

    This study is a literature review based on results from ten qualitative scientific articles, which have been analyzed through a method of five steps according to Friberg.

    The overall theme of the result is 'The whole world has been turned upside down' which symbolizes the siblings´ overall experience that their entire existence suddenly became different. The result consists of four main themes and twelve sub themes. The main themes are ´An emotional rollercoaster', 'Just being the one standing behind the stage´, ´Trying to cope´ and ´Life on my own is shaken´.

    Conclusions are that siblings need support and information and have a desire to be included in the cancer situation and in the care of the sick child. The nurse has an important and central role in reducing the suffering of siblings and improving their health.

  • 258.
    Krusmon, Hanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Ljungqvist, Sandra
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Barns och vuxna barns upplevelser av att växa upp med en förälder med alkoholproblematik: en litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In a worldwide perspective the alcohol consumption is high, which can lead to problems for both the individual and the society. The alcohol consumption in Sweden is rife and a big part of the population has an intense consume of alcohol. Many children in Sweden is living in a household were risk consumption exists which can have a negative impact on children. This study proceeds from a child perspective because children's experiences need to be noticed. Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe how children and adult children experience a growth with a parent with an alcohol problem. Method: A literature review was used as a method and data was collected by systematic and unsystematic searches that resulted in eight articles, both qualitative and quantitative. Results: The result consists of four themes including "A lost childhood", "To live with exposedness", "The life situation creates own coping strategies" and "The support matters", including ten subthemes: "Take on an adult role", "Shame and guilt", "Abandonment", "Insecurity", "Violence", "Make distance", "Confide in someone", "Confront and acting out", "Inner problem-solving methods", "Relations that helps" and "When the support is missing". Conclusion: A life situation with a parent with an alcohol problem is difficult and a great burden for a child. The results of this study can lead to better meetings with children in exposed situations because professionals can increase knowledge and understanding about children's experiences.

  • 259.
    Kuti, Alexandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Jussinoja, Susanna
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Patienters erfarenheter av att leva med kronisk obstruktiv lungsjukdom2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an irreversible progressive disorder that affects the pulmonary ventilation. The disease causes suffering and makes it difficult to handle everyday life. COPD is a fatal disease and the leading cause of developing the disease is smoking. The nurse's role is to individualize nursing care and alleviate the suffering of the patient and to promote a healthy lifestyle through encouragement and sharing knowledge. Aim: The aim of this study was to illuminate patients’ experiences of living with COPD. Method: A method aimed to contribute to evidence-based nursing care based on analysis of qualitative research, was used. The data was collected from two databases and ten scientific articles were analysed. Results: The analysis resulted in four categories: adjust the life after the disease, alienation from the "healthy world", guilt and shame for the disease and emotional affection. Twelve subcategories were revealed. The main result shows that the experience of anxiety was associated with inability to get air. Patients felt guilt and blame for inflicting the disease on themselves, due to previous smoking. Physical symptoms of the disease caused constraints, leading to social isolation and loneliness, and strategic planning of everyday life. This put patients in a position of dependence on other people. Conclusion: The conclusion shows that support from the community is important for patients with COPD and that the environment shows an understanding that the disease is affecting patients’ lives and daily living. Community and a sense of coherence affected patients in a positive way. It was revealed that the patient's self-confidence and self-care capacity is strengthened when the nurse provides support and involve the patients in their own care.

  • 260.
    Kuusela, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Olsson, Sara
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Erfarenheter av bemötande i skolan hos elever med ADHD diagnos2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: ADHD is a neuropsychiatric diagnosis that has increased in recent years. When students start school and the requirements to be able to concentrate increases visibility students with ADHD clearer. Students' perceptions of the school environment is affected by the school's response. Aim and method: The aim of this literature review is to describe experiences of being treated at school as a student with an ADHD diagnose. Results: Students' experiences was affected by the response of teachers and classmates depended on if their approach were friendly or not. Students experienced non friendly approach as an insult. They feel lower self-esteem, became sad and angry, they got worse outcomes, feel excluded when replaced in remedial classes. When teachers and classmates were friendly in their approach students could experience joy and happiness, they understood the instructions better and had they felt like there was in the group. An important part of the experience was also due to how much knowledge the teachers had about the diagnosis, what demands they made and how the school environment in general looked. Students' perception was that the teachers with more knowledge had better approach which also classmates embraced and student feelings became less stressful and that feeling of exclusion reduced. Conclusion: This study provides a deeper understanding of how students with ADHD experience their education and treatment in their school enviroment. These findings may be useful in the school environment, by health care and other care contexts.

  • 261.
    Kämper, Benedikt
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Kämper, Mona
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Personers upplevelser av att leva med Diabetes Mellitus typ 22016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 is a common disease which can be found all over the world. Diet and inactivity are common reasons to Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. The main treatment of this disease includes changes in lifestyle in terms of healthier food and physical activity. These lifestyle changes can be difficult to integrate in people's life and may cause emotional struggles. Aim: The aim of the study was to illuminate persons' experience of living with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. Method: This is a study with a literature-based method. This method type has been used to illuminate life experience of persons with diabetes. To achieve this goal a content analysis in five steps has been selected, the analysis resulted in four themes and eight subthemes. Result: The result showed that Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 have a great influence in peoples life. People experienced an ongoing fight in their daily-life, they gain control, they can see a light in the darkness and they begin to understand how to live with the disease. Conclusion: The conclusion is that an integration of the disease was very important. A successful integration of the disease in a person's life was the key factor to recreate a normal everyday life, which was important to gain a feeling of health.

  • 262.
    Kängström, Ann-Caroline
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Majberger Klemetz, Sara
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Vad väntar jag på? Äldre patienters erfarenheter av att besöka akutmottagningen: En litteraturbaserad studie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background The older population in Sweden is increasing. In order to meet the growing needs of this patients it´s important to identify the areas for improvement. Aim The aim of this study was to describe elderly patients' experiences of visiting the emergency department. Method A method to contribute to evidence-based nursing based on qualitative research was used. An analysis of seven qualitative articles was carried out.

    Results The analysis resulted in three main themes and six subthemes. The main themes were a feeling of not being seen, a feeling of being exposed and being cared for. Conclusion The result of our study showed that older patients often are dissatisfied with the care given at the emergency department. Though some patients are satisfied with their received care. Our conclusion is that the emergency departments' care of older patients need to improve.

  • 263.
    Körle, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Jensen, Lars
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Patienters upplevelser av postoperativ smärta och smärtlindring: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Approximately 2,8 million surgical procedures were performed in Sweden 2016. After surgery, patients experienced different degrees of postoperative pain. Under treated postoperative pain created great suffering for patients, delayed the recovery after surgery and could increase the risk of complications. Therefore, it is of importance to explore and describe patients’ experiences regarding pain in conjunction with surgery, in order to improve postoperative pain relief from a nursing perspective. Aim: To describe how patients experience postoperative pain and pain relief. Method: A literature review was conducted in which four qualitative studies and three quantitative studies were included. The studies were subjected to assurance of quality and Friberg’s three-step analysis was used. Results: Two categories and eight subcategories emerged. The two categories were (1) The time before surgery and (2) The time after surgery. The categories illustrated how patients experienced postoperative pain and pain relief before and after surgical procedures. Conclusion: Patients had previous experiences, expectations, knowledge and beliefs about postoperative pain and pain relief that affected their experiences before surgery. After the procedure, patients' difficulty in communicating, their participation, the attitudes of healthcare professionals and the degree of attendance of the nurse were important experiences related to postoperative pain and pain relief.

  • 264.
    Landgren, Ellen
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Niklasson, Ann-Louise
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Det dagliga livet efter en stroke: Erfarenheter från vuxna under 65 år2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Every year the number of young and middle-aged persons who receive stroke are increasing. Stroke is often considered as a disease of old people. A stroke often leads to changes in life. The consequences can be cognitive impairments and movement disabilities. These consequences can have a high impact of the person's life.

    Aim: The aim was to describe experiences of daily life after a stroke from the perspective of adults younger than 65 years old.

    Method: To analyze data, Friberg's (2012) method aimed to contribute to evidence-based care based on analyzing qualitative research, was used. Ten scientific articles were chosen and analyzed.

    Results: The result showed that adults younger than 65 who suffered from a stroke experiences a lot of difficulties in life afterwards. The analyze process generated four categories and nine subcategories. The four categories are "an altered work situation", "lack in rehabilitation", "to loose myself", "difficulties in social meetings".

    Conclusion: The study showed that rehabilitation is very important for adults younger than 65 who suffered from a stroke. Their experiences showed a lack in rehabilitation when it comes to their age category. To go back to work, live family life and participate in other social events is important. It's different to suffer from a stroke at younger age when it comes to their needs. Health staff should be aware of these needs.

  • 265.
    Larson, Sara
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Lundin, Emelie
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Stickrädsla: sjuksköterskans bemötande för att minska vuxna patienters stickrädsla inom akutsjukvård.2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When an adult suffers from fear-of-needles he is anxious and fearful of needle injections. Fear–of needles is common and can be caused by previous negative needle experiences. The nurse is responsible to have a holistic view of the patient to be able to judge the need of care and ease the suffering.

    Aim: The aim is to describe the nurse's treatment of adult patients with needle fear in emergency care.

    Method: A literature-based study consisting of two qualitative and nine quantitative papers was performed. The themes where defined and categorized into one main theme.

    Results: The main theme was: Treatment that reduces fear-of-needles. The five subthemes were: the importance of being understood, the importance of having control, treatment options when fear-of needles is pain caused, importance of communication and importance of care environment.

    Conclusion: The nurse needs to be aware of fear-of-needles and possible methods of care when it comes to needle injections of adults. Pain relieving methods that do not yet exist in Sweden were found. It is important that the nurse uses different treatments like communication, distraction, person oriented care and give the patient opportunity to choose different care methods like cooling spray and EMLA to reduce the pain for patients suffering from fear-of-needles.

  • 266.
    Larsson, Helen
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Badroos Zakhary, Shehto
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Behovet av stöd till patienter med hjärtsvikt som vårdas i hemmet2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nurses working in community home-care meet patients with heart failure. Heart failure is not a curable disease. Yet patients can live with the disease for a long time but have to visit the emergency-ward in times when their condition is worse. Patients with heart-failure prefer to be cared for at home but doesn't have the same support as patients with cancer in home-care.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to identify patients´ need of support when cared for at home suffering from heart failure.

    Method: A literature-based study on nine qualitative articles was accomplished. The articles were analyzed according to the method of Friberg.

    Results: Patients with heart failure needed a lot of support when they received care at home. The patients were often dependent on a relative to cope but they also needed professional nursing support. During the analysis four themes were risen in terms of support; the need of information, the need of physical support, the need of social and psychological support and the need of spiritual and emotional support.

    Conclusion: Patients with heart failure are in great need of a variety of support in order to feel safe in their homes. Registered nurses play an important supportive role in helping patients and their families to cope with the disease. To fortify the relationship between medical staff and the family are important as well as to progress professional home-care for patients with heart failure living at home.

  • 267.
    Larsson, Isabell
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Karlsson  , Stina
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Att få psykosocialt stöd vid bröstcancer: En litteraturbaserad studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer that affects women all over the world. In Sweden, approximately 80 000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer today. To be diagnosed with cancer can cause feelings of fear, anxiety and suffering. Therefore, psychosocial support is an important part which will facilitate their situation.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the need of psychosocial support among women with breast cancer.

    Method: A literature based study based on the content of nine qualitative studies.

    Results: The result showed three main themes: 'The experience of support during diagnosis', 'The experience of support while waiting for treatment' and 'The experience of support during treatment'. From the three main themes a total of five sub themes emerged. Each main theme included a sub theme representing women's support experiences and needs.

    Conclusions: There were different kinds of support among women with breast cancer. These were informational support, social support, emotional support, acknowledging support and existential support. Women stated that support was of importance to be able to cope with their situation and feelings caused by breast cancer.

  • 268.
    Larsson, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Johansson, Lovisa
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Aspekter som inverkar på socialsekreterares upplevelse av psykisk hälsa i relation till sin arbetssituation2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Persons working in caring professions have an increased risk for work related stress. The long-term absence from work due to sickness has increased since the 1990s, mostly caused by stress-related mental problems. One of the professions that has the greatest risk of exposure to psychosocial stress is the group of social workers. Aim: To describe aspects affecting social workers experience of mental health in relation to their work situation. Method: A literature review was conducted based on both qualitative and quantitative articles. Systematic and unsystematic searches were performed, which resulted in thirteen articles with relevance for the aim. Results: Aspects that affect the social workers mental health appeared to be workload, lack of time, staff turnover, coping strategies and collaboration. These aspects affect social workers mental health both positively and negatively in different contexts. Conclusion: The heavy workload affects social workers mental health negatively. Our results can bring attention to the negative consequences of social workers pressed working situation and emphasize the importance of changing it. This study may also lead to further research in the field of health sciences.

  • 269.
    Larsson, Julia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Allansson, Malin
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Närståendes upplevelser av att leva med en person med demenssjukdom: En litteraturstudie med kvalitativ ansats2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dementia is a disease that is increasing worldwide, including Sweden, as the age of the population increases. With the disease that in many cases deteriorates gradually, the situation of relatives acting as caretakers becomes a burden. This can be demanding both physically and mentally and cause suffering for both the patient and the relative. As a caretaker, it is easy to forget about their own health as they mainly focus on the person with dementia.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to illuminate the relative's experiences of living with a person with dementia.

    Method: A literature study was made based on systematic searches which were conducted in Cinahl and PsycArticles where ten qualitative articles were found. The articles were analysed according to Friberg's five-model step.

    Results: The three themes that emerged were, The relatives need of support and information which showed that the relative's felt that supporting resources were important, A changed relation where it emerged that the relative's entered new roles to adapt to the situation as caretakers, and Thoughts and feelings of the relatives, the last theme showed that the relative's experienced a great loneliness.

    Conclusion: Relatives who lived with and care for a person with dementia often felt overlooked and experienced feelings of loneliness, anxiety and worries for the future. The result showed that the relatives needed more support and knowledge of dementia. In many cases, this could make them feel better mentally.

  • 270.
    Larsson, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Hjelseth, Tina Marie
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Kroppen och kampen: Att leva med en ätstörning2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Eating disorders are more common among adolescents and younger adults and are formed through body images and beauty standards from the society. This study focuses on anorxia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Aim: The aim of this study was to illuminate patients' experiences of living with an eating disorder. Method: This study is a literature study where eleven articles were analysed and formed into a new result. Results: This study revealed four main themes and eight sub themes. The main themes were negative experiences and feelings, with the subthemes shame over the disease and guilt and responsibility. To handle life with the subthemes to be controlled or to be in control and to conceal or to not conceal. To search for understanding and confirmation with the subthemes social isolation and understanding and helplessness or confirmation. The way to health with the subthemes to see the person behind the disease and to allow oneself to recover. Conclusion: The patients’ experiences revealed both positive and negative aspects of living with an eating disorder. Patients’ experiences showed that healthcare professionals have little knowledge about eating disorders and have to increase their knowledge on the subject in order to know how to properly guide and care for patients with an eating disorder.

  • 271.
    Larsson, Sara
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Sävhage, Amanda
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Närståendes upplevelse vid palliativ vård i hemmet2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In recent years, it has become increasingly common for patients to choose to end their life at home. Relatives often wants to fulfill the wishes of the sick person, but are often poorly prepared to act as caregivers and experience lack of continuity, insufficient information and poor treatment. The experience of relatives having a dying family member is stressful. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of relatives in palliative homecare.  Method: A literature based study with 12 qualitative articles were performed using the Friberg method of analysis. Results: The result showed that some relatives felt that taking care of their family member where a matter of course and others felt that they had no choice. It was important for the relatives to have support from healthcare professionals, family and friends. Lack of support made them feel abandoned. It was difficult to talk about death with the dying family member and relatives expressed that it was easier to talk to the nurse about it.  Conclusion: Death was constantly present, despite that death was hard to talk about with the sick person. It was also hard for the relative to be responsible for someone else and they felt that they were isolated in their own home. The relatives felt therefore the need to be supported by the nurse. They needed to be able to talk to the nurse and feel safe to fulfill the feeling of support.   

  • 272.
    Lilja, Agnes
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Andersson Svensson, Sandra
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Kvinnors erfarenheter av att leva med bröstcancer2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Breast cancer is a tumor disease that increases and affects women around the globe. It is the cancer diagnosis that strikes women most extensively. Previous research has shown that breast cancer affects the life of these women in a negative way as a life changing trauma. The disease requires various treatments and affects the women's psychological and physical wellbeing.

    Aim The aim of this study was to illuminate women's experiences of living with breast cancer.

    Method The method used for this study was analysis of qualitative research. Through this method experiences from women living with breast cancer could be illuminated and described. Ten qualitative articles were analysed and resulted in two themes and six sub themes.

    Results The result showed that women living with breast cancer experienced a tremendous change in their everyday lives as an outcome from the disease. The self gets a changed self image and they are in need of support. Two themes emerged from how the women experienced their lives during the illness. To feel secure and fear of how others perceive me.

    Conclusion Breast cancer prevented women from living their normal lives. Nurses should understand that women's experiences are individual and experienced differently. It is required that the nurse is receptive and open to meet women's need for support and information during the care process.

  • 273.
    Lilja, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Giri, Muna
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    När varje förälders värsta mardröm blir sann: Föräldrars upplevelser när deras barn insjuknar i cancer, en litteraturstudie.2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Almost every day a family finds out their child has cancer. The cancer affect the entire family. The parents had the closest contact to the child, and they were involved in all treatment process. Aim: The aim of this study is to illuminate parents’ experiences of their child going through cancer treatment. Method: The method we chose is a literature study that contributes to evidence based care, based on analysis of qualitative research. This method was chosen to get a better understanding of parents’ experiences when their child gets a cancer diagnose. Twelve qualitative articles were chosen for the result. Results: In the result we found three themes and ten subthemes. What we found was a changed life situation that affected the life quality, the family, marriages and the social relations. The situation also affected their faith and hope for the future. The parents had to struggle with their feelings and their economic daily, as a result of the child’s diagnosis. Another thing the results show is how the parents’ experienced the care, with treatment, information from the health professionals, and how they treated the families. Conclusion: The results show that the parents was in need of information, care and support to be able to handle the situation of their sick child. Here, the nurse plays a vital and significant role to support these families in their struggle against cancer. Keywords: childhood cancer, experiences, family, neoplasm, parents.

  • 274.
    Lind, Emelie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Ulldal, Kristina
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Det är ingen idé, det går ändå inte att undvika vårdrelaterade infektioner: en litteraturbaserad studie om sjuksköterskors tankar kring handhygien2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background - Health care associated infection is the most common injury related to hospitalization in Sweden. This implies a major suffering for patients affected and requires unnecessary resources from health care. In every tenth hospital bed there is a patient who has been exposed to a health care associated infection. The primary source of transmission is through the professionals' hands. There is a great need to reduce the spread of pathogens that cause health care associated infections. Nurses represent a large part of the workforce in health care, where their thoughts about hand hygiene are of interest to find out why health care associated infections occur.

    Aim - The aim of this study was to describe registered nurses' thoughts about hand hygiene. Method - In this literature based study nine qualitative articles were analysed by a method described by Friberg (2012).

    Results – The three main categories were for whom my hands get washed, difficult to follow hygiene guidelines and want to be better. Nurses' motivation to follow hand hygiene practices is primarily based on protecting themselves against microorganisms. Nurses' have knowledge about the guidelines but choose to apply their own rules. Nurses follow the examples set by others, whether they have a good or bad behaviour. Conclusion - Nurses need more knowledge in why hand hygiene is important in order to change their mindset for whom hand hygiene is performed. Nurses have a need of role models who can motivate them and set a good example.

  • 275.
    Lind, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Appasi, Bisan
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Att se människan bakom sjukdomen är som att lösa en gåta: En litteraturbaserad studie om vårdpersonalens erfarenheter av personcentrerad vård vid beteendemässiga och psykiska symtom vid demens (BPSD)2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are around 150.000 people with dementia in Sweden. It is common to suffer from BPSD sometime during the course of the disease, which adversely affects the quality of life. Symptoms cause impairment to varying degrees, making everyday life difficult to handle independently. Person-centered care means seeing the person behind the disease and it is necessary to find the cause of behavior and to compensate for loss of function. Knowledge of experience of working person-centered is a prerequisite for being able to provide staff with necessary support.

    Aim: To highlight healthcare professionals' experiences of person-centered care in BPSD.

    Method: This is a qualitative literature study based on 12 scientific articles.

    Result: The main themes that emerged were: Own conditions and obstacles, External conditions and obstacles and Contradictory feelings at work. With associated subthemes: Seeing the person behind the disease, To balance between strategies and routines,To take personal responsibility, To have knowledge and experience, Being in need of support and cooperation, To meet organizational / environmental factors, To have access to background information, To feel success and satisfaction and To feel insufficient and powerless.

    Conclusion: Several conditions that favor dementia care emerged from the results, but there were also factors and obstacles that hampered nursing work. Person-centered work practices increase the possibility of well-being for all involved. In order to care for people with dementia with a person-centered approach, more research in the subject, more resources and in-depth education is required.

  • 276.
    Lindberg, Ida
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Karlsen, Nathalie
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Promotivt och preventivt arbete mot diabetes typ 2: En litteraturstudie om sjuksköterskors erfarenheter2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes type 2 is one of our major public diseases. The number of individuals living with diabetes type 2 and those who are at risk of developing diabetes type 2 has increased. The disease can be treated and the consequences avoided. If nurses would work health promotively and preventively, more individuals could avoid developing diabetes type2.

    Aim: The aim was to describe nurses' experiences of health promotional and preventive work against diabetes type 2.

    Method: In the study, a method to contributing to evidence-based nursing with a ground in analysis of qualitative research has been used. This method was used to get a better understanding of the nurse's experiences of health promotional and preventive work. An analysis of ten qualitative articles was carried out, which resulted in three main themes and eight subthemes.

    Results: The result showed the importance of creating an equal relationship between the nurse and individuals at risk of developing diabetes type 2 who needs to go through a lifestyle change. The result also showed that support from the environment is important for lifestyle changes, but also that nurses need support from the organization for their work. Finally, the result showed that the nurse's health promotional and preventive work creates benefits for both the individuals and the organization.

    Conclusion: Health promotional and preventive work leads to increased quality of life for individuals, reduced workload for nurses and reduced costs for the organization.

  • 277.
    Lindblad, Amanda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Nordström, Emma
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    ”Tvätta händerna”: Hinder för en god handhygien2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Low hand hygiene compliance among health staff is a problem globally in health care settings. Improving hand hygiene could prevent many of the health care associated infections that affects hundreds of millions of patients every year around the globe. The aim of this literature study was to describe obstacles to maintain proper hand hygiene in hospitals, seen from a global perspective. Eight articles from seven countries, all based on qualitative research have been analysed according to Friberg's five-step method that contributes to evidence-based nursing. The challenges to sustain hand hygiene found in the results were split into two main categories: Organizational factors and Individual factors. Organizational factors included five subcategories: Work environment, Inadequate education, Infrastructure, Insufficient management and Power structures. The results showed that when these factors were negatively affected so was compliance regarding proper hand hygiene. These were often issuesthat the health staff felt powerless to change and affect. Individual factors included two subcategories: Attitudes and social factors. Example of this could be healthcare workers neglected hygiene guidelines out of personal reasons or healthcare workers giving care to patients that didn’t accept how it was carried out because of social and cultural differences. The complex issues revolving these matters need to be addressed on an overall perspective. Cooperation between management and health staff is fundamental to obtain changes within healthcare organizations. Both parties need to work together to be able to improve hand hygiene compliance and to reduce healthcare associated infections.

  • 278.
    Lindgren, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelse av att vårda patienter i palliativt skede i hemmet: En litteraturbaserad studie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background The need for advanced palliative homecare is increasing. More patients choose to be cared for in their homes at the terminal stage of their illness. The central part is that the patients are in focus and their need is going to be full filled. The aim of palliative care is built on a solid foundation of nursing philosophy and quality of life are in focus where cure no longer is possible. The nurses' responsibility is to improve life quality, ease symptoms, and to give existential support to patients and related persons. Aim The aim of the study was to illuminate the nurse´s experience of giving palliative care to the patient in the patient's home.Method A literature based study of ten qualitative articles has been conducted. Result Categories that emerged;Feeling vulnerable, subcategories: Feelings of lack of confidence, Feelings of powerlessness, Fear of mistakes, Feelings of frustrationTakes courage and strength, subcategories: A multifaceted work, Feelings of support in colleaguesShow consideration, subcategories: An act of balance, Honesty is a virtue Conclusion The theme that emerged was that the nurses felt that it was a privileged experience to nurse the palliative patient in the patient's own home and the nurses expressed a feeling that it was a great experience to be there for the patient.The authors propose that strategies for how to give good palliative care is being implemented in the basic nurse education.

  • 279.
    Lindgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Adzic, Antonio
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Min första hjärtinfarkt: Patienters erfarenheter av att söka vård vid akut insjuknande av hjärtinfarkt2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Myocardial infarction is the main reason to death in Sweden. Statistics have shown that death rate has decreased the last decade at the onset of acute myocardial infarction. Even though the death rate has decreased it is important to understand patients' experiences, this is something that previous studies not have enlightened enough. As a nurse in prehospital care, it is a necessity to understand how the patient experience the infarction and give individual care to each patient.

    Aim: The aim was to describe patients' experiences of seeking care at the acute onset of myocardial infarction.

    Method: A method to contribute to evidence-based nursing with ground in analysis of qualitative research was performed. An analysis of seven qualitative articles was carried out.

    Results: The analysis resulted in three categories; denial, to seek medical care or not, and I did not think it was a myocardial infarction with nine subcategories. A delay in searching help was common. Women were more prominent to use self-medicating methods for their symptoms then men. Men would search help when their problems were either life threatening or relatives pushed them to do it. Both men and women had low or non-knowledge about symptoms that did not include chest or arm pain.

    Conclusion: The conclusions was that regardless of symptoms, it was important that the nurse acknowledged the patients' problems and had to acknowledge social, physical and psychological aspects in the care of every patient. An important aspect in the help seeking process was to not be ignored by health professionals.

  • 280.
    Lindqvist, Erica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Heimdahl, Maria
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Kvinnors upplevelse och erfarenheter av att leva med urininkontinens: En situation att acceptera och anpassa sig efter2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Urinary incontinence denotes an involuntary leakage from the bladder which can affect women of all ages, but leakage problems are often more common with rising age. It is a common issue, however there is a large unrecorded number of women who do not seek medical attention for their urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence is very costly for the society because of the medical and social disability it causes the affected. Aim: To illuminate the experiences of women living with urinary incontinence Method: A literary study was done where nine scientific articles were examined and analyzed according to a five step model. Results: The women experienced their urinary incontinence as taboo and shameful. The issue was too intimate and private and therefore unnatural to talk about. Their leakage lead to fear and nervousness which made them end up in a vulnerable situation. This affected them on several emotional levels both psychosocial, psychological and physical. The women experienced an ignorance and a nonchalant attitude from their care providers which caused an hesitancy in their search of healthcare. They experienced that their bodies were unreliable which lead to a reduced spontaneity and restrictions in life. Conclusion: Urinary incontinence is not solely an issue with leaking urine, it is affecting the women's lives as a whole on many levels. The hindrance that the urinary incontinence caused the women on a daily basis made them feel a sense of loss and affected their joy and zest of life. It requires an improvement of healthcare praxis in order to meet these women in a professional and trustworthy manner.

  • 281.
    Lindskog Sandersson, Christoffer
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Nilsson, Henrik
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Att vara man och deprimerad – Mäns upplevelser av depression: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Depression among men differ from depression among women and is much less diagnosed. Depression among men affect the people around them and the society. There are a lot of treatments available for depression and different people respond differently to treatments. Not everything is known about how depression affects men in their everyday life and mens symptoms. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe mens experiences of living with depression. Method: A literature based study was used in this study. Nine qualitative articles were chosen which regarded men and their depression. Results: Three themes with subthemes were discovered in which a description of mens experiences with depression were analyzed. Men with depression tends not to talk about it and tries different coping strategies to treat themselves. The masculine norm affects men in ways that they don’t seek professional care. Professional care is the last option for men and they need support from family and friends to seek help. Conclusion: The masculine norm has a big impact on men with depression. It can cause men not to seek help and treat themselves in ways that are more destructive than helping. Men tends to show a self-confident exterior to not be seen as weak in front of their family.

  • 282.
    Ljungberg, Ann-Katrin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Lundqvist, Elina
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Sjuksköterskans strategier för att hantera stress i arbetslivet2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Occupational stress is a growing problem in health care. Occupational stress put the patient safety at risk and have a negative impact on the nurse’s health. Therefore, more knowledge is needed in stress management. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe how nurses cope with occupational stress. Method: A literature-based study with focus on analyses of qualitative studies was conducted. The result is based on nine qualitative scientific articles. Results: The findings revealed four main themes with three sub themes each. The four main themes were take control, seek support, recovery and destructive strategies. The subthemes were plan and prioritize, find meaning in the work of nursing, positive thinking, seek support from colleagues, seek support from friends and family, seek support in their faith, rest, reflection, leisure activities, substance use, emotional outbursts and escape the stressful situation. Conclusion: The results show the importance of planning and prioritizing. The nurse also needs to ask for support from colleagues, family and friends to regain energy. Time for rest and reflection is also very valuable for the nurse.

  • 283.
    Ljungdahl, Jonathan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Lundström, Robert
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Ett nytt liv: Patienters upplevelser av fysisk aktivitet vid typ 2 diabetes eller prediabetes2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Type 2 diabetes is a disease which is becoming more prevalent in the world. Physical activity is, with dietary changes the primary treatment before the use of drugs. Patients usually have to rely on their self-care and the health professionals are only used for diagnosis and prescribe pharmaceutical treatment.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe patients' with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes experiences of physical activity.

    Method: The method used in the study was a literature review based on an analysis of twelve qualitative articles. The study uses Fribergs (2012) five step analysis method.

    Results: The results that were found showed that there are motivators and barriers to physical activity. The result produced four themes and eleven subthemes. The themes were: a feeling of fear, a feeling of guilt/shame and demands, a feeling of support and a feeling of well-being.

    Conclusion: Patients' experiences shows that what motivates or stops them from physical activity is individual. An individual care-plan can help them to get motivated and carry on to a higher level of physical activity.

  • 284.
    Lord, Sara
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Wikström, Matilda
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av interaktioner med patienter som lider av psykisk ohälsa inom den somatiska vården2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mental illness is a widespread, vast issue in today’s society. It’s challenging for nurses working in the somatic-care to interact with and care for patients with coexisting mental illness. Despite high prevalence of mental illness in the population, major problems exist regarding prejudices and negative attitudes towards these patients. A legal obligation for nurses to conduct non-discriminatory care and responsibility to maintain decent ethical attitude prevents violations of patients right. Previous research indicate that nurses today experience this as difficult achieving.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to illustrate nurses’ experiences of interacting with patients with mental illness in somatic care.

    Method: Systematic literature review was used, based on six qualitative and three quantitative scientific articles. The databases Cinahl, PubMed and ProQuest were used to find the articles.

    Results: Nurses stated varying competence regarding assessment- and actionability related to patient behaviour. Care environment was considered as inadequate. Nurses expressed different prejudices and attitudes towards patients with mental illness. They mainly experienced feelings of uncertainty, insufficiency, fear, anger, anxiety and frustration, this affected interaction negatively. Overall a lack of knowledge was stated, regardless of attitude.

    Conclusion: Nurses in somatic care mainly express negative attitudes and experiences regarding patients with mental illness, though positive attitudes also showed. Varied levels of competency and knowledge regarding interaction, a consistently need for further education was stated. Stigmatization, prejudices and lack of holistic approach exists. Increased education and knowledge leads to decreased negative attitudes and experiences. It raises feelings of security, positive attitudes, acceptance and a more holistic approach.

  • 285.
    Lugner, Pontus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Köhler, Douglas
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Närståendes erfarenheter av att vara vårdare till en person som drabbats av stroke2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Stroke is a common disease which involves several personal changes for the affected. The consequences of the disease can result in disabilities and speech disorders which could lead to depression. When returning home the relatives need to take on a caring role.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe relatives' experiences of being a caregiver to a person who suffered a stroke.

    Method: A literature based study was conducted using three different databases, Cinahl, PubMed and Medline. 10 qualitative articles were examined and analyzed.

    Results: Two overarching themes emerged, To make an adjustment and Coping with the role as carers, consisting of two subthemes each. These themes describe various experiences of relatives who care for a person who suffered a stroke. Relatives social life changed, family relationships suffered and earlier recreational activities was sidelined. To be bound to the affected was distressing for the relatives who also experienced increased stress. Relatives expressed a need for support and information, both from health care and people close to the relatives. Both difficulty finding available assistance and feelings of not having any cooperation in the discharge process where experienced. Relatives accepted the new situation and realized that it was not better to constantly worry. Having someone to talk to was shown to be of importance, and many felt that the workplace was a place where they were given respite.

    Conclusion: Relatives ability to accept and deal with the caregiving role is affected by their personal development over time, but also through the support of friends, family, and health care services. Health care plays a vital role in providing support and information which could be crucial for relatives, enabling to cope with the caregiving role, especially short after the stroke has occurred.

  • 286.
    Lund, Kim
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Myrhage, Linnéa
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Att vara människa - inte en diagnos!: En litteraturstudie om vuxna människor med psykisk ohälsa2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mental illness has in recent years increased in society. It has since centuries been seen as a shameful disease and mental illness has not been a high priority in health care. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how adult humans with mental illness experiences the meeting with the nurse.Method: The method that was used was a literature based study with basis in analysis of qualitative research. 11 articles with a qualitative approach was analyzed. Result: The result showed two main theme. The first theme was a feeling of being seen in the meeting when an open dialogue was used and a relationship was created. The second theme was a feeling of invisible because they felt reduced to a diagnosis and encountered obstacles in the relation. Conclusion: Adult humans with mental illness could experience the meeting in different ways. A good meeting with the nurse could increase the human with mental illness trust in healthcare. It could improve the care and relationship between human with mental illness and the nurse.

  • 287.
    Lundgren de Santis, Marina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Nyqvist, Maria
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Den sista resan i vården: Vårdrelationen i palliativ vård2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Palliative care is based on a holistic approach and the ultimate goal is an enhanced quality of life, and a good and worthy death. Aim: the aim of this study was to illuminate the caring relationship between the nurse and the patient in palliative care. Method: A qualitative approach was used for this literature based study. Two databases were used, Cinahl and Pubmed, to search for scientific articles. Eleven articles were found, and were analyzed using Friberg’s five step method. Results: The result was presented in; the main theme – the caring relationship journey towards end of life - describe the common journey the nurse and the patient do together. The first subtheme, family from a holistic perspective, describes how the caring relationship in palliative care develops. The second subtheme, to connect in the difficult conversation, describes the difficult conversation in palliative care. The third subtheme, to lead with care, describes how the nurse has a guiding role through the relationship. The last sub theme, the fight against time, describes the importance of time. Conclusion: A conclusion that can be drawn from the study result is that building a trustful caring relationship in palliative care is difficult and requires a lot from the nurse. It is also important that the nurse is a good listener, is responsive and shows respect to both the patient and his or her family. The nurse needs a good sense of self awareness, a strong self-confidence and being confident in her/his professional role. Keywords: caring relationship, communication, palliative care, togetherness, unique relationship,

  • 288.
    Lundgren de Santis, Marina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Nyqvist, Maria
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Den sista resan i vården: Vårdrelationen i palliativ vård2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Palliative care is based on a holistic approach and the ultimate goal is an enhanced quality of life, and a good and worthy death. Aim: the aim of this study was to illuminate the caring relationship between the nurse and the patient in palliative care. Method: A qualitative approach was used for this literature based study. Two databases were used, Cinahl and Pubmed, to search for scientific articles. Eleven articles were found, and were analyzed using Friberg’s five step method. Results: The result was presented in; the main theme – the caring relationship journey towards end of life - describe the common journey the nurse and the patient do together. The first subtheme, family from a holistic perspective, describes how the caring relationship in palliative care develops. The second subtheme, to connect in the difficult conversation, describes the difficult conversation in palliative care. The third subtheme, to lead with care, describes how the nurse has a guiding role through the relationship. The last sub theme, the fight against time, describes the importance of time. Conclusion: A conclusion that can be drawn from the study result is that building a trustful caring relationship in palliative care is difficult and requires a lot from the nurse. It is also important that the nurse is a good listener, is responsive and shows respect to both the patient and his or her family. The nurse needs a good sense of self awareness, a strong self-confidence and being confident in her/his professional role. 

  • 289.
    Lundqvist, Elvira
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Källsbäck, Amanda
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Patienters upplevelser av att leva med Amyotrofisk lateral skleros (ALS): litteraturbaserad studie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease in which nerve cells in the brain, brain stem and spinal cord dies. This leads to muscle atrophy and paralysis, with strong impact on patients' physical and mental life.

    Aim: Highlight how patients with ALS experience living with the disease.

    Method: This is a literature-based study using qualitative scientific articles.

    Results: The results show that ALS involves a lot of changes in a patient's life and a central feeling that the study found was loss. Loss of control was the most difficult. ALS led also to feelings of fear. Fear of the future and death troubled them each day. At the same time it was important to try to find a meaning of life and feel in control of their life situation.

    Conclusion: This study has provided increased understanding of how patients with ALS experience living with the disease. The experiences are characterized by fear of death, anxiety about losing control over their own bodies and hopelessness of not be able to influence their progression of the disease. Thoughts about death is a central part and those feelings that control the life of the patient and create anxiety. Even though ALS is perceived as a horrible and dark disease, many patient's tried to be positive and make the best of their everyday life. Results show that patient's experience health despite their illness. Nurses can promote patient's health by having increased understanding of ALS and by providing information and being present.

  • 290.
    Lundqvist Randhem, Victoria
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    När ens barn drabbas av cancer - Föräldrarnas upplevelser: En litteraturbaserad studie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden in 2014 there were 396 discovered cases of cancer among children between 0–19 years. The most common types of cancer are leukemia and brain tumors. Cancertreatments contains several medications and the most common is chemotherapy, which may cause side effects for example loss of hair and nausia. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe experiences of parents living with children with cancer. Method: Literature study based on qualitative studies found in the database Cinahl. Nine articles were chosen and analyzed. Results: Being a parent to a child with cancer results in loss of everyday routine. Parents become more vulnerable and emotional unstable. They get emotional support from relatives, family, other parents and health professionals. Being there for their child and never give up hope was the key to survival. Conclusion: Emotional support is an absolute necessity in order to find strength to being there for the ill child. Communicate information to parents is an important task for nurses and should be handled with consideration to the parents' emotional state.

  • 291.
    Lundvall, Sara
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Johansson, Emma
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Sjuksköterska inom allmän palliativ vård: En litteraturbaserad studie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The population becomes older and many patients are dependent of palliative care. The nurse role in palliative care consists of relationship building, supporting patient and relatives, communication and coordinating care. Liverpool Care Pathway (LCP) and palliative directory are useful toolsets working with palliative patienst, but more guidelines are needed to be developed. The aim of this study was to describe nurse´s experiences of general palliative care.

    The analysis results into three main themes and six subthemes. Main themes were loneliness, inadequacy and meaningfulness and the subthemes were requirements to coordinate care, frustration when interacting with other professions, uncertainty in the relationship with the patient and family, stress when there is lack of resources, satisfaction with personal development and awareness in the professional role. This study shows a predominant negative depiction of the palliative care. There is lack of resources in all care units and nurses become frustrated and get the feeling of inadequacy. Experience in palliative care however increases the condition of development in nurse's personality and professional role.

  • 292.
    Löf, Emma
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Olsson, Madeleine
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Att leva med endometrios: en litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease which means that the uterine mucosa grows outside the uterine cavity. The disease causes women' pain and affects the quality of life and it takes an average of five to seven years to get the diagnosis established.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to illustrate women's exeperiences of living with endometriosis.

    Method: This is a literature study where method to contribute to evidence-based nursing based on analysis of qualitative research was used.

    Results: Findings in the study showed that women with endometriosis experienced limitations in their daily life. Pain was the most described symptom and women experienced lack of knowledge of themselves and by their surroundings. They risked being misstrusted because of normalization of the symptoms. The women developed strategies to take back control over their lives which helped them to master the disease.

    Conclusion: In order to provide advice and support, the nurse needs increased knowledge about endometriosis and how it affects the women's lives. It would also reduce the time of delayed diagnosis.

  • 293.
    Löfberg, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Eliasson, Pontus
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Mitt barn har cancer: En litteraturstudie om hälsofrämjande aspekter för vårdnadshavare till cancersjuka barn2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Every day, about one child gets diagnosed with cancer in Sweden. The cancer has a big impact on the child and its family. The child is not alone during its cancer diagnosis, where the caregivers play a special roll. For caregivers to be able to take care of their sick child and promote a healthy relationship with the healthcare, an understanding of caregivers´ experience of their child´s cancer process is needed. Aim The aim of this literature study was to describe health-promoting aspects of caregivers to children with cancer. Method A literature study design was used. Data from ten qualitative articles where analyzed using the method to contributing to evidence-based nursing based on analysis of qualitative research. The purpose of the method was to get a deeper understanding of caregivers` experiences and to be able to describe their health-promoting aspects. Results The results were divided in to four themes and ten sub-themes. To share the care (to be involved, to trust the healthcare stuff, to be informed), To get emotional support (to get support from family and friends, to get support from your child), To continue to live (to live a normal life, to get practical support, to have control), To make sense (to feel hope and faith, to get a new perspective). Conclusion Understanding regarding caregivers’ health-promoting aspects during their child’s cancer treatment helps the nurse’s to give adequate and personal-centered care and thereby strengthen their health processes.

  • 294.
    Löfgren, Elin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Norén, Stina
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Män och kvinnors upplevelser av symptom vid hjärtinfarkt: En litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The most common cause of death in Sweden is myocardial infarction. There are gender differences between men and women, in symptoms and experiences of myocardial infarction. Chest pain is the most common symptom for both men and women. It is important for nurses to have knowledge about this to give prompt and proper care. Aim: To describe men and women’s experiences of the symptoms of myocardial infarction. Method: The method used was a literature review with focus on both qualitative and quantitative facts. The nine studies included in this review had been published between the years of 2006-2016. Results: The analysis showed that there are both differences and similarities between men and women experiences of symptoms of myocardial infarction. Women often reported more nausea and pain in different parts of the body while men often only had chest pain. Due to lack of knowledge about myocardial infarction both men and women get delayed seeking medical care. Conclusion: The result of this literature review showed that there are both differences and similarities between men and women’s experiences of symptoms of myocardial infarction. Even if there are a lot of differences there are also a lot of similarities between the genders. It is therefore important that all nurses see people as individuals who react in different ways, gender is not always decisive and this must be taken into consideration.

  • 295.
    Lönnehag, Cecilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Samuelsson, Madeleine
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Se mig, hör mig: En litteraturbaserad studie som beskriver hur patienter med självskadebeteende upplever mötet med sjuksköterskan2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Self-harm is used to describe a group of diseases where the persons intention is to hurt thereself. This collective name includes conditions such as anorexia, burning, poisoning and self-cutting. The act of self-harm is almost never related to the patients' wish of death, it's more of a tool for the person to calm herself. Previous research shows that nurses often see these patients as troublesome often because of a lack of knowledge. There's just a few studies that examine the patients' views.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how patients with self-harm was experiencing the meeting with the nurse.

    Method: The study was designed as a literature based study based on 12 qualitative articles. All articles are read and analyzed by Friberg (2012) model with the analysis of qualitative research.

    Results: The result of this study showed that the nurse plays a big part in how the patients experienced their treatment. If the patient feels that the nurse doesn't see, hear or respect her, the patient starts to feel that she is not worth health care. For the patient to feel and get better it's essential that there is a functional relationship between the patient and the nurse.

    Conclusion: Patients who self-harm is a difficult patientgroup to treat if there is a lack of knowledge. But these patients are dependent on the care that the nurse is providing them. Therefore a caring and trusting relationship is a must to provide high quality care.

  • 296.
    Magnell, Emelie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Sigfridsson, Emilie
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Varför dröjer kvinnor med att söka vård vid symtom på hjärtinfarkt?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Time is crucial for the forecast of myocardial infarction. It’s crucial for the prognosis and can decrease complications. Complications can include both physical and psychological ailments and can affect women’s daily life. Aim: The aim of this study was to illustrate why women delay seeking care for symptoms of myocardial infarction.  Method: A literature-based study. Results: The reasons that women delayed seeking care of their symptoms were fear of being an inconvenience for either their relatives and/or health care professionals. They had also a misleading conception about myocardial infarction and had difficulties to connect their symptoms to myocardial infarction. Therefore the women try to attempt to perform self-care rather than consult medical professionals. They also prioritized obligations against employer and related.  Conclusion: Women want to be self-sufficient enough to take care of themselves and not be a burden to their family or medical professionals. They had difficulties prioritizing themselves and the women has to start put herself first. Through increased knowledge about symptoms for myocardial infarction the result may be that women can take better and more informed decisions on when it is imperative to seek immediate medical care. This may in turn result in better prognosis for the affected women.

  • 297.
    Magnusson, Cecilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Warlin, Linda
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenhet av att misstänka barnmisshandel2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Thousands of children are abused each year in Sweden. Those children may be harmed physically or psychologically, and it often leads to psychic and emotional damage. This provides consequences both for the individual and for the society. Under Swedish law, the nurse is obligated to report suspected child abuse. Despite this, research shows that only fifty percent of the actual child abuse is reported by the health care staff. The aim of this study has been to investigate the nurses' experience of suspected child abuse. It was carried out as a literature study where ten articles were reviewed.

    The result shows that by observing the child and parents the nurse can discover some signs and abnormal behavior in the child, parents or both. Those can point in a direction that leads to suspicion of child abuse. Nurses with long professional experience were the ones who were safest in their assessment. The nurses were also influenced by their personal experience and their own values, ethics and morals. Nurses feel that suspected child abuse is a difficult matter that evoke much emotion. It is desirable with support from management and colleagues and time for self-reflection. Education leads to increased competence and safer conclusions by the nurses. It requires a great amount of courage to want to observe and dare question. With proper knowledge the nurse has a key role in being able to identify the signs and symptoms of abuse. She will also have the opportunity to act as the child's representative to protect the children.

  • 298.
    Magnusson, Sofia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Sandin, Helena
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Efter regn kommer solsken?: Personers erfarenheter av att ha genomgått Gastric Bypass kirurgi2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Obesity has exploaded in the last decades and an ongoing increase is to be seen. The disease is rated as a huge epidemia of times and has developed to an economic social problem. Today more people die from obesity and it´s complications than from nutritional diseases and malnutrition. Gastric Bypass has proved to enable a new life including an improved health and quality of life but has also been critized for being a quick solution not resulting in a long term perspective weight loss.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe people´s experiences from going through Gastric Bypass surgery.

    Method: The method used was a literature study based on qualitative research. The articles were analysed according to Fribergs five step model and resulted in three main themes and nine sub-themes.

    Results: The main themes were- The last way out, The battle against oneself and On a new adventure. In order to be able to support these people keeping their new life style and weight reduction the nurse must have insight in people´s experiences of having undergone a Gastric Bypass surgery.

    Conclusion: The result showed that Gastric Bypass can be a last alternative for hope about a better future and a chance to an improved health and quality of life. Though the surgery has to be combined with individually created coping strategies and a genuine, strong will to make a change in order to become a successful action in a long term perspective.

  • 299.
    Mai, Carina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Lysholm, Johanna
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Ungdomars erfarenheter av att leva med typ 1 diabetes2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: More and more adolescents develop type 1 diabetes (T1D) every year in the world, this chronic disease is a global problem that involves major changes in their lives. Nursing care is challenged to meet the increased need for adequate care, it is important that nurses receive additional knowledge about adolescents' experiences of T1D.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe adolescents' experiences of living with type 1 diabetes.

    Method: A method to contribute to evidence-based nursing based on analysis of qualitative research was performed to deepen understanding. Sixteen articles were analysed.

    Results: Four categories were identified "Not like any other", "I'm not equipped to handle this", "Want to be free" and "I develop" with subcategories.

    Conclusion: Adolescents have a strong need to be part of the community and not stand out because of their T1D. The disease requires structure and order which is time-consuming and affects their social existence and hampers their process of emancipation.

  • 300.
    Malii, Tetiana
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Abdi,  Asiyo
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Att vårda en familjemedlem med demenssjukdom2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dementia is a growing problem and as the elderly population increases, the number of people with dementia will also increase. Relatives who care for a family member need support from society to continue caring and to reduce the risk of mental illness.  Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe relative’s experiences of caring for a family member with dementia.  Method:  The method used in this study contributes to evidence-based nursing and is based on analysis of qualitative research to get a better understanding of how relatives are affected by caring their family members. It is based on 10 qualitative articles.  Result: The result consists of three main themes. The first was altered everyday life. The second main theme was relative’s need of help and the third main theme was emotional response. The main themes were divided into several subthemes.  These three themes highlight relatives' experiences of caring for a family member with dementia. Support from health care, affiliates and society were important factors for relatives to manage to care for their sick family member. It also emerged that changes in family relations appeared, related to the consequences of the disease such as memory loss and need for help with everything in daily life.   Conclusion: The results showed that the family's life and quality of life are greatly affected by the care of a family member with dementia. Nurses have a significant role to support these relatives. Further research may be needed to investigate how relatives, children and adults alike, experience the support they receive from health care and society

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