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  • 251.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    A Teachable Agent Game Engaging Primary School Children to Learn Arithmetic Concepts and Reasoning2014In: International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, ISSN 1560-4292, E-ISSN 1560-4306, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 251-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we will describe a learning environment designed to foster conceptual understanding and reasoning in mathematics among younger school children. The learning environment consists of 48 2-player game variants based on a graphical model of arithmetic where the mathematical content is intrinsically interwoven with the game idea. The environment also features teachable agents, which are computer programs that can be taught and behave according to their knowledge. Thus, the environment provides both learning-by-doing (playing the game) and learning-by-teaching (teaching the agent to play). It differs from other learning-by-teaching systems 1) by targeting basic mathematics and primary grade students; 2) by using teachable agents as an extension to educational games in order to leverage engagement, reflection and learning; and 3) by using an agent-driven question dialogue to challenge students’ mathematical thinking, to role-model learner behaviour and to transfer game knowledge to out-of-game mathematics. The teachable agent game is described and evaluated in an authentic classroom study enrolling 443 students from 22 classes in 9 schools. Students range from 2nd to 6th grade of mainstream classes and 7th to 8th grade for students with difficulties in mathematics. Part of the study was designed as a quasiexperimental study with controls; part was designed to examine students’ change in mental models of arithmetic before and after game play. All students took pre- and post mathematics tests. The 314 playing students used the game and taught their agents during regular math-classes for three months, whereas the control classes attended standard instruction and took the tests. A questionnaire was distributed at the end of the study to investigate students’ perceptions and performances of the agent-tutoring task. Results show that 1) there is a significant learning gain for playing students compared to controls, 2) the learning environment can engage children in advanced mathematical thinking in early education, 3) young primary students can act as successful tutors. Thus, we conclude that teachable agents in educational games can help achieve deeper levels of learning that transfer outside the game. This idea combines the motivational power of games with the reflective power of a teachable agent asking thought-provoking, deep questions on the learning material during game play.

  • 252.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Mathematical literacy for everyone using arithmetic games2012In: In Proceedings of the 9th International Confernce on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies / [ed] P M Sharkey, E Klinger, Readings: University of Readings , 2012, p. 87-96Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An innovative mathematics game shown to be effective for low-achieving mainstream students is tested in special education for learners with intellectual disabilities. The game relies on a graphical, intuitive representation for numbers and arithmetic operations to foster conceptual understanding and numbers sense, and provides a set of 2-player games to develop strategic thinking and reasoning skills.  The game runs on computers and interactive white boards, and as an augmented reality application at a science centre. We compare its use in special education and mainstream education with respect to usage, performance levels and learning gain. The game has been used by teachers in special educations, with gains in mathematical understanding, strategic thinking and communication skills as effects.

  • 253.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Mathematical Literacy for Everyone using Arithmetic Games2014In: International Journal of Child Health and Human Development, ISSN 1939-5965, Vol. 7, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An innovative mathematics game shown to be effective for low-achieving mainstream students is tested in special education for learners with moderate or severe intellectual disabilities in Sweden, to investigate if the game also can be effective for this group of students. The game relies on a graphical, intuitive representation for numbers and arithmetic operations to foster conceptual understanding and numbers sense, and provides a set of 2-player games to develop strategic thinking and reasoning skills.  The game runs on computers and interactive white boards, and as an augmented reality application at a science centre. The study enrolled 3 teachers and 8 students in 5th to 8th grade with intellectual disabilities who played the game between 4 months and 2 years, one student with Asperger syndrome, and over 300 students in mainstream education as comparison. We compare the use of the game in special education and mainstream education with respect to usage, performance levels and learning gains. Collected data include game playing logs for all students where playing behaviour, performance and progression data was analysed; class room and science centre observations where interaction, collaboration and communication was analysed, and on in-depth interviews with the teachers. Conclusion is that the game in combination with dedicated teachers can be very effective for students with intellectual disabilities, and can result in substantial gains in mathematical understanding and strategic thinking as well as in communication skills, given time and proper support.

  • 254.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Robot As Tutee2017In: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, ISSN 2194-5357, E-ISSN 2194-5365, Vol. 457, p. 271-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the possible advantages of substituting teachable agents in a learning environment, with a humanoid robot as the non-human tutee. Teachable agents are used as an extension to educational games in order to leverage engagement, reflection and learning. The learning environment is engaging and shown to be effective for learning and promote self-efficacy in experimental studies in authentic classroom settings. Features beneficial for learning which are further enhanced by a robot compared to an agent are identified. These include embodiment of the robot; a social, empathic behaviour, better conversational abilities which together provide a better role model of an ideal learner for the student to identify with.

  • 255.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Dahl, Ylva
    Uddevalla Schools.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lund University Design Sciences.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Lund University Cognitive Sciences.
    A Teachable-Agent Arithmetic Game’s Effects on Mathematics Understanding, Attitude and Self-efficacy2011In: Artificial Intelligence in Education, Springer, 2011, p. 247-255Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A teachable-agent arithmetic game is presented and evaluated in terms of student performance, attitude and self-efficacy. An experimental pre-post study design was used, enrolling 153 3 rd and 5 th grade students in Sweden. The playing group showed significantly larger gains in math performance and self-efficacy beliefs, but not in general attitude towards math, compared to control groups. The contributions in relation to previous work include a novel educational game being evaluated, and an emphasis on self-efficacy in the study as a strong predictor of math achievements.

  • 256.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gynther, Karsten
    University College Zealand, Denmark..
    Lindhardt, Bent
    University College Zealand, Denmark..
    Spante, Maria
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Vejbaek, Leif
    University College Zealand, Denmark..
    Wølner, Tor Arne
    Vestfold University College, Norway..
    A model for instructional design in virtual Nordic classrooms2013In: Proceedings of ECTC 2013, Brighton, UK, July 11 - 14, 2013,, 2013, p. 230-241Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 257.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lund University,Department of Design Sciences, Faculty of Engineering.
    Lindström, Paulina
    Lund University,Department of Design Sciences, Faculty of Engineering.
    Sjödén, Björn
    Lund University Cognitive Science, Kungshuset.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Lund University Cognitive Science, Kungshuset.
    A teachable-agent-based game affording collaboration and competition: Evaluating math comprehension and motivation2012In: Educational technology research and development, ISSN 1042-1629, E-ISSN 1556-6501, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 723-751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an educational game in mathematics based on an apprenticeship model using a teachable agent, as well as an evaluative study of how the game affects (1) conceptual understanding and (2) attitudes towards mathematics. In addition, we discuss how collaborative and competitive affordances of the game may affect understanding and motivation. 19 students played the game in pairs once a week during math lessons for 7 weeks (the game-playing group) while another 19 students followed the regular curriculum (the control group). Math comprehension scores increased significantly for the game-playing group but not the control group (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in attitude change between the two groups. Post hoc analyses indicated that game-playing primarily affected students' confidence in explaining math to a peer, but not their enjoyment of doing so. Collaborative and competitive activities seem to carry a strong motivational influence for students to play the game. © 2012 Association for Educational Communications and Technology.

  • 258.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Johansson, B.
    NU-Hospital Organisation, Dep. of Research and Development, Trollhättan.
    Zeller, S.
    NU-Hospital Organisation, Dep. of Research and Development, Trollhättan.
    Sunnerhagen, K. S.
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology.
    Rydmark, M.
    University of Gothenburg,Institute of Biomedicine, Mednet.
    Broeren, J.
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Biomedicine, Mednet.
    Virtual TeleRehab: A case study2011In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, ISSN 0926-9630, E-ISSN 1879-8365, Vol. 169, p. 676-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the efficacy of a remotely based occupational therapy intervention. A 40-year-old woman who suffered a stroke participated in a telerehabilitation program. The intervention method is based on virtual reality gaming to enhance the training experience and to facilitate the relearning processes. The results indicate that Virtual TeleRehab is an effective method for motivational, economical, and practical reasons by combining game-based rehabilitation in the home with weekly distance meetings. © 2011 European Federation for Medical Informatics. All rights reserved.

  • 259.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Johansson, Britt
    Department of Research and Development, NU-Hospital Organisation, Trollhättan/Uddevalla, Sweden.
    Ljungberg, Christer
    University West, Department of Economics and Informatics, Divison of Informatics.
    Zeller, Sally
    Department of Research and Development, NU-Hospital Organisation, Trollhättan/Uddevalla, Sweden.
    Sunnerhagen, Katharina
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, SU/Sahlgrenska, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rydmark, Martin
    Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Broeren, Jurgen
    Department of Research and Development, NU-Hospital Organisation, Trollhättan/Uddevalla, Sweden.
    Telehealth with 3D games for stroke rehabilitation2011In: International Journal on Disability and Human Development, ISSN 1565-012X, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 373-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the feasibility of a novel telehealth system for stroke rehabilitation in a rural area in Sweden. It addresses two major problems of home-based rehabilitation: training motivation and frequent meetings. Three stroke subjects were equipped with 3D computer games workbenches, and were instructed to play with the hemiplegic upper extremity. On-line coaching meetings were performed using bi­directional audiovisual communication. The intervention led to clinical changes for all subjects. On-line coaching is promising, but not yet as effective as desired. However, a distance based approach using 3D games for upper extremity rehabilitation after stroke is feasible.

  • 260.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lindhardt, Bent
    University College Zealand, Denmark.
    Vejbaek, Leif
    University College Zealand, Denmark.
    Wølner, Tor Arne
    Vestfold University College, Norway.
    Gynther, Karsten
    University College Zealand, Denmark.
    Spante, Maria
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A Model for Instructional Design in Virtual Nordic Classrooms2013In: The Inaugural European Conference on Technology in the Classroom 2013: The Impact of Innovation: Technology and You, Naka Ward, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan: The International Academic Forum , 2013, p. 222-233Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we will report from an on-going EU-financed project aiming at developing innovative cross-border, virtual classroom instructional designs; that is designs where classes from three Nordic countries collaborate by means of technology to enhance teaching and learning. School management, teachers, students, and educational researchers from Denmark, Norway and Sweden collaborate since 2011 in three-country teams on all levels to explore and evaluate novel cross-border instructional designs in four subjects. The research approach is user-driven innovation by means of Action Research and Design-based research. The cross- border instructional designs exhibit several challenges: designs need to be aligned with all national curriculums with respect to 1) subject content and 2) learning goals, and in order to advance learning, we need to address 3) learning benefits due to the collaboration. In Mathematics, such cross-border learning benefits were particular elusive to identify, so some kind of guidance were needed. The model, first proposed for Mathematics but generalizable to other subjects, is a three-dimensional cube that categorizes an instructional design with respect to 1) subject-content, 2) aimed-for competence, and 3) learning-benefit. The subject contents and required competencies were derived and synthesized from the national curricula, whereas the learning benefits were inspired from previous cross-border designs. The model has successfully been used as a classification system for virtual classroom tasks, and also as an innovation tool to generate novel instructional designs where the expected learning benefits became explicit from start, which facilitates design evaluation. 

  • 261.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ljungberg, Christer
    University West, Department of Economics and Informatics, Divison of Informatics.
    Broeren, Jurgen
    GU.
    Johansson, B
    NU-sjukvården.
    Sunnerhagen, KS
    GU.
    Rydmark, Martin
    GU.
    Telehealth using 3D virtual environments in stroke rehabilitation: work in progress2010In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality and AssociatedTechnologies. Viña del Mar/Valparaíso, Chile, 31 Aug. – 2 Sept.2010., 2010, p. 115-122Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have now started testing a telehealth system for stroke rehabilitation in a rural area in Sweden (NU- Hospital Group Area). For collection of assessments and audiovisual communication, the telehealth system has bidirectional contact with the home-based units. To date, three stroke subjects’ participated; they were instructed to play 3D computer games with the hemiplegic upper extremity. The intervention led to clinical changes for all subjects. The analysis of the audiovisual communication revealed that the both stroke subjects and therapists were not yet effective in regulating their turn taking process. The data suggests the feasibility of a distance based approach using 3D virtual environments for upper extremity rehabilitation after stroke.

  • 262.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, Department of Economics and IT. University West, Department of Economics and Informatics, Divison of Informatics.
    Bernheim, Bo Göran
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lindroth, Tomas
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundin, Johan
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Östlund, Christian
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Designing for Learningin Network Organizations2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 263.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Karlsson, Marianne
    Chalmers.
    Engelbrektsson, Pontus
    Chalmers.
    Larsson, Lena E
    Berndtsson, Bo
    Creating an arena foruse-centred development of medical and health care technology2007In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on the Management of Healthcare & Medical Technology, HOF Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, 3-5 October 2007, Pisa, Italy., 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 264.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Sharkey, Paul M.School of Systems Engineering, University of Reading, United Kingdom.Merrick, JoavNational Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Technology, Rehabilitation and Empowerment of People with Special Needs2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 265.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Sharkey, Paul M.
    University of Reading, School of Systems Engineering, Reading, United Kingdom.
    Merrick, Joav G.
    Ministry of Social Affairs Israel, Division for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Using virtual reality technologies to support everyday rehabilitation2016In: Journal of Pain Management, ISSN 1939-5914, E-ISSN 1178-7090, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 197-198Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 266.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Sharkey, PaulSchool of Systems Engineering, University of Reading, United Kingdom.Merrick, JoavNational Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Jerusalem, Israel.
    International Journal of Journal of Child Development: Special Issue: Using technology to enhance rehabilitation and empower people with special needs2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 267.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Sharkey, Paul
    University of Reading, School of Systems Engineering, United Kingdom.
    Merrick, Joav
    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Introduction: Using technology to enhance rehabilitation and empower people with special needs2015In: Technology, Rehabilitation and Empowerment of People with Special Needs, Nova Science Publishers, Inc. , 2015, p. xi-xiiiChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 268.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Sharkey, PaulSchool of Systems Engineering, University of Reading, United Kingdom.Merrick, JoavNational Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Journal of Pain Management: Special issue: Using virtual reality technologies to support everyday rehabilitation2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 269.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Spante, Maria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Challenges of Implementing Interactivity in the Classroom2014In: IRIS  Proceedings: Proceedings of the 37th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS 37) / [ed] Ahmad Ghazawneh, Jacob Nørbjerg and Jan Pries-Heje, Ringsted, Denmark,, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization of schools has been on the agenda for decades and has resulted in new demands on teachers' skills in order to implememt technology into teaching. Despite political reforms, investments in technology and continuing professional development (CPD) initiatives for teachers, research often shows slow changes and unequal implementation. This paper addresses the challenges teachers are facing when participating in a 2-year CPD project using a highly interactive technology in classroom settings. The study is based on 18 in-depth interviwes and 6 video recalled observation sessions. The results show how the actual classroom situation is being very intense for the teacher in their everyday work. We conclude that for teachers to transform their teaching practices using highly interactive ICT-based learning is associated with several challenges related to planning and execution, for the part of the teachers, at the same time as it can be beneficial for student learning.

  • 270.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Svensson, LarsUniversity West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.Lundin, JohanGothenburg University, Applied Information Technology.Lundh Snis, UlrikaUniversity West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 20162016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 271.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Vejbæk, Leif
    University College Sjælland , Denmark.
    Wølner, Tor Arne
    Høgskolen i Buskerud og Vestfold , Norge.
    GNU matematik: aktiviteter och resultat2015Report (Other academic)
  • 272.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Can teachers’ fragmented work situation jeopardize professional development of future teaching practices?2014In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 2014, p. 464-469Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitization of schools has been on the political agenda for decades, but despite all reforms, technology investments and professional development initiatives, the goals are not yet reached. We have examined how teachers? perceive their working situation in order to explore if the conditions are suitable for learning and novel teaching practices. 18 interviews with Swedish primary school teachers were conducted and transcribed, from which 330 excerpts were extracted and divided in two characterizing categories: fragmentation reflecting working rhythm and density reflecting working tempo. The working condition had char-acteristics known to cause stress and less wellbeing, which counteracts teachers? sensitiveness to adapt to novelties and a reflective practice. This may jeopardize future professional development and thus digitalization of schools.

  • 273.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Educational technology in teaching: What do teachers perceive they need in order to develop their professional competence?2013In: Proceedings IRIS 36: August 11-14 2013 at Gran, Norway University of Oslo, department of informatics / [ed] Tone Bratteteig, Margunn Aanestad & Espen Skorve, Oslo, 2013, p. 1-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     This paper addresses the challenge of how to reach an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) competent teaching faculty in the Swedish compulsory school. Continuing professional development (CPD) can be a means to reach ICT-competence among teachers. In order to achieve successful CPD it is important to understand what teachers’ perceive they need in their professional development, which is examined in this paper. The study was performed in order to get a better understanding of the challenges associated with achieving ICT-competence. 17 teachers have been interviewed to investigate how they perceive needs regarding professional development and how they want these needs to be met. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by learning theories suitable for professional practices. Teachers’ expressed needs were interpreted as well aligned with CPD methods advocated in research literature, but less aligned with previous CPD initiatives. Their expressed needs were highly divergent, depending on individual competence, motivation and learning preferences. Previous ICT initiatives may therefore have been too uniform to be effective.

  • 274.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Prata och göra matematik tillsammans med digital teknik2016In: Kollaborativ undervisning i digital skolmiljö / [ed] Sylvana Sofkova Hashemi & Maria Spante, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2016, p. 21-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 275.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Progression i praktiken: att utveckla matematikundervisning genom samarbete och digital teknik2015In: NGL 2015. Next Generation Learning Conference, 18-19 november 2015,Högskolan Dalarna Falun: Book of Abstract, 2015, p. B2-22Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 276.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    TPACK in situ: A Design-based Approach Supporting Professional Development in Practice2018In: Journal of educational computing research (Print), ISSN 0735-6331, E-ISSN 1541-4140, Vol. 0, no 0, p. 1-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) is a well-known conceptual framework for what knowledge teachers need in order to teach successfully using technology. Most recent TPACK studies address assessment of teacher TPACK by quantitative self-reporting surveys. Such an approach provides little guidance for teachers in how to develop their everyday teaching practice. We argue for a revival of the original TPACK design-based approach and propose a design-based, operationalization of the framework that is situated in action, context specific, and integrated in practical teaching. The approach has been developed, evaluated, and validated in a school development project in a Nordic Elementary School context using design-based research. The project engaged more than 100 professionals: in-service elementary teachers, school administrators and researchers, and more than 1,000 students during 3 years. The theoretical development evolved from rich descriptions of 38 didactic design as delimited units of teaching including planning, implementation, and evaluation of specified learning tasks acted out in practice. Contributions include framing teaching practice as design activity and a TPACK in situ model and methods targeting reflective practitioners. Our proposed approach addresses current limitations of TPACK and is aligned with advocated professional development methods.

  • 277.
    Pehrson, Hannah
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pantic, Nicola
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Från noll till hundra på åtta sekunder: En experimentell studie av laddningsindikatorers påverkan på användarupplevelsen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether progress indicators' various degrees of feedback have any impact on the users' subjective experienced time and satisfaction during loading sequences in smartphones. By executing a user test 30 participants used and evaluated three mobile applications, containing unique stimuli in the form of progress indicators. Throughout this we have been informed of the participants self-reflection experience through subsequent interviews. The result of this shows a clear correlation between progress indicators' degree of feedback and their impact on the subjective experienced time, and the degree of satisfaction.

    We made interesting findings in terms of the fastest perceived loading sequence was not alwaysthe most satisfying, but we can only discuss the reason behind this since further researchis required. Finally, we conclude that the development of applications should make useof progress indicators with a high degree of feedback since they positively promotes the subjective experienced time and satisfaction. Because of studies with this focus in UXare infrequent, we assume that this study can form the basis for further and deeper research in the subject. 

  • 278.
    Pehrson, Josefine
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ahxner, Sara
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Recensenten på nätet: En kvalitativ studie om konsumentens incitament för att skriva recensioner2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In line with the digitization and the growth of e-commerce, the internet-based review has gained importance for the digitized purchasing process. It has been found that reviews have an impact on purchase decisions and act as cheap marketing, but limited research cover the motives behind reviews. The purpose of this study is to achieve a wider perspective on the subject and a deeper understanding of the consumers incentive to write reviews through a qualitative survey. The selection is based on ecommerce consumers who have ever written a review on the internet or regularly do it. The data collects through eight individual interviews, where the focus lies on allowing the respondents to develop their own thoughts about their reviews. The result is put in relation to previous research and we find both similarities and differences. Other than previous research on the subject, theory include the model of the buying process and the concept of word of mouth (WOM). We conclude that the consumers main incentive to write reviews is the willingness to help others in their purchase decisions. Finally, we present implications for e-commerce companies where we recommend providing reviews and encouraging consumers to review. We believe that this study can form the basis for further research on the subject.

  • 279.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Nunstedt, Håkan
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Learning Through Reflection: The Portfolio Method As A Tool To Promote Work-Integrated Learning In Higher Education2019In: INTED2019 Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, Valencia: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2019, p. 729-739Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students need to develop meta-reflection to strengthen their learning process and to be able to manage the continuous changes encountered both higher education and in workplaces. Reflection is the most important for achieving progress within work integrated learning. For students to develop meta-reflection and achieve progression within work integrated learning, they need a systematic structure and conscious tools. The Portfolio method can be one of those tools.In this article we are going to discuss, from a theoretical standpoint, how teachers can develop a better structure for students so that they can strengthen their learning-process and progression of work integrated learning in higher education during internships which in turn promote lifelong learning. This progression of work integrated learning will be discussed in relation to the “WIL4U” model together with examples of reflection questions, learning outcomes, learning activities and examination forms. The “WIL4U” model was developed from the “AIL 4E (DUCATION)” model created by Bernhardsson, Gellerstedt and Svensson.The purpose of this conceptual discussion article is to highlight the portfolio method as a structure and tool for progress work integrated learning by reflection.With support of the portfolio method, the students can develop their ability to make well-balanced, and reflected choices in planning actions for work integrated learning. This requires well-developed self-regulation and the ability to meta-cognition and systematic meta-reflection to evaluate the effects of various actions. The portfolio method can also improve the reflection-process to develop the student's ability to emphasize strengths and increase the ability to achieve the learning outcomes in higher education.

  • 280.
    Persdotter, Klara
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Disneys Frost: ”A Frozen Heart Worth Mining”2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine how and what Disney is communicating to its audience through its movie Frozen (2013). Since Disney currently is a dominant party of the movie entertainment for children they bear a great responsibility for the messages they convey through their movies, as children may be influenced by them. In this study, Frozen (2013) has been studied by a qualitative text analysis using Peter Dahlgren's approach for analyzing media text, with focus on the textual construction and the narrative dynamics of the media text (the movie). The analysis was made based on a norm-critical perspective.

    The analysis showed that Frozen breaks free from many of Disney's past patterns and structures and manages to create a less predictable tale. The analysis also showed the emergence of a new role; the fake villain, used precisely in order to create a less predictable tale. In differences from several earlier portrayals of the Disney Princess Frozen shows two feminine strong and independent female characters, who act on their own authority. Frozen also questions Disney's previous attitude concerning that love can arise at first sight, and that romantic love is the strongest and most valuable type of love. For the first time in forever in a Princess movie Frozen manages to portray love between family members as stronger than romantic love.

  • 281.
    Riha, Jan
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Social sensing och dess reglering för koordination i arbetsgrupper: Mobile Phone Sensing och forslag pa ramverk for trygg Social sensing inom IT & Media arbetsgrupper2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses possibility of People centric opportunistic social sensing system usage in coordination of small IT and Media teams. Paper define inter and extern dependencies of private sensing data sharing in IT and Media groups through coordination theory. Design science research method is used for analysis of such dependencies in small work teams. These dependencies are analysed with help of focus groups discussions. Result from combination of analysis and theory leads to development of graphic artefact with rules of Google Material Design. This artefact is used as material in inquiry sheet where more possibilities of dependencies and sharing are discussed. Results of this paper is possible groundwork for usage of People centric opportunistic social sensing system in small IT and Media groups. Part of the result is graphic artefact of possible mobile application based on this paper. This paper also describes that new study of possibilities is needed in future because of ever shifting relationship between humans and computers.

  • 282.
    Romany Engström, Ellen
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Åhrén, Jakob
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    En kvalitativ studie av Horizon Zero Dawn och The Last of Us: En intersektionell analys2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to determine the representation and application of gender and ethnicity in two video-games released in the last ten years. One of them released 2014 and the other 2017. This was done by a qualitative analysis of both games and by comparing how representation of gender and ethnicity is handled in each one. The analysis sought to determine if and how the characters’ gender and ethnicity affected the way they interacted with each other. The theories and research that was used as basis for the study showed that video-games historically had an unequal amount of gender and ethnicity among characters and that it in a high degree affected how a character was portrayed. The games analysed in this study both showed more equal treatment of both male and female characters than the norm. The gender of the character had very little to do with how they were portrayed although it did matter somewhat more in the older game than the new one. In neither of the games was ethnicity observed as a factor in how a character was portrayed or treated. The newer game was somewhat more inclusive when it came to ethnicity as it was with gender.  In general it is clear that the newer game is more progressive than the older one which hints about the development of the gaming industry.   

  • 283.
    Rosengren, Hanna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Filterbubblan: En individanpassad verklighet: En studie om huruvida politiskt intresserade Facebook-användare är medvetna om fenomenet filterbubblor2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine if politically interested Facebook-users are aware of the term filter bubble and if they consider the bubble a threat to democracy. The study was conducted with a survey which was distributed in political groups on Facebook. The survey was also sent to whomever was responsible for the email contact at different political parties as well as the responsible party at political youth associations to see if they could distribute it amongst their members. The result shows that the awareness of filter bubbles is high. Most of the respondents have heard of the term filter bubble before, however, not all of them had. The majority of the respondents expressed a concern that the filter bubble could have a negative effect on democracy mostly because a key component of democracy is equal information to all.

  • 284.
    Rune, Axel
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Nystedt, Michael
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Upplevd närvaro i Augmented Reality: En kvalitativ studie om olika faktorers inverkan på användarupplevelsen i mobiltelefonen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate which factors that are important for the user to perceive presence in Augmented Reality (AR) when using mobile phones.

    The research method is made from a user-oriented perspective where participants use the IKEA Place and AR Dragon apps. They are invited to talk about their experiences while testing the apps and at the same time observation notes are conducted based on how they act and react. Thereafter, an interview follows to get further information on how the experience was perceived. Afterwards the observations and statements were compiled and analyzed to find common notions about their AR-experiences.

    The result of the study shows that in order to perceive presence in AR, the users experiences and interests is important. That they feel a personal connection to the AR-content and find the content functional and/or amusing. The result also shows that the users' ability to interact with the AR-content functions as a great tool to establish interest and immersion. Furthermore, the mobile phone is a handy medium for the technology, but the perceived presence would be stronger with AR-glasses. In addition, visual elements such as the light properties and material properties have a certain impact on perceived presence but are not decisive. It is of greater importance what kind of visual aesthetic the AR-content is using, where a more stylized expression brings a greater sense of perceived presence and makes users more forgiving to technological shortcomings. In addition, the result shows that incorrect occlusion is the main source of disruption to perceive presence.

    Lastly, eight recommendations for designing AR content are presented, which can be used in order to achieve a higher perceived presence. These recommendations are based upon the conclusions about the participants´ experiences.

  • 285.
    Rydström, Cecilie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Sjölin, Maja
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Tillit genom design: Conversational User Interface inom human-machine interaction2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies factors that affect trust in semi and fully autonomous cars, the connection between trust and the design of the information system, and if it is possible to increase the degree of trust in the cars by using a conversational user interface.  The study was carried out by conducting interviews with five UX and interaction design professionals in the automotive industry. By doing so, we obtained an understanding of how working professionals view the connection between trust and design. The results indicate that news and media can affect users’ trust in autonomous cars. There are several components that play into the trust in autonomous cars, but feedback and situational awareness were two distinguishing factors. Drivers need to have an appropriate degree of trust when using the autonomous system. You have to display only what is relevant for the driver to know in the specific situation and what actions are required from the driver. The car’s decisions should also be presented in a way that conforms to the human thought process. Furthermore, the results show that you can increase the degree of trust with the vocal attributes of the voice of a conversational user interface; adding human attributes to the voice can help create a more human-like relationship to the system.

  • 286.
    Ryrå Landgren, Isabella
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Samspel i det berättartekniska: text, bild och effekter i musikvideor2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Music videos have under the last 50 years become entertainment in our society. Some are created to reflect feelings while others are a kind of showcase for the artist. There are also those based off of the lyrics and thus creates a short film or an illustration of the lyrics. Through the use of technologies such as visual effects is it possible to bring the impossible worlds and stories alive.Videos with these effects are the kind of videos I've been analyzing in this essay with the purposeto explore how much the visual effects affect the narration. To achieve this I have chosen to make a semiotic study focused on analysis and interpretations of five chosen music videos created during orafter the year 2000. CGI, slow-motion and metaphors are techniques I've been looking at and they have proved to contribute to how the story of the video is told and how it's understood. The interplay between image and text is another thing I've been studying and in the chosen videos it's been varying between interpretations and literal translation to the other.

  • 287.
    Samuelsson, Frida
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Smederöd, Ellinor
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Det fotorealistiska ögat: En undersökning av två 3D CGI-modelleringsguiders metoder2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     

     

  • 288.
    Sinclair, Alexandra
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Kylefalk, Julia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Influencers påverkan på unga kvinnor i Generation Z: En studie om hur influencers berör unga konsumenter på sociala medier2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many organizations today handle a large number of young customers from the so called "Generation Z". For this reason, there is a great need for organizations and companies to gain a practical insight into how they can understand the generation's use of platforms. It is also necessary to explore the list of both opportunities and threats for marketers who target their marketing to these particular young users via social platforms. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate how young women in Generation Z experience influencers on social media, and also to examine the factors that affects their buying intention as well as their trust in influencers. The purpose was also to study how women in Generation Z perceive the content that is placed on influencers' different channels in terms of paid collaborations.

    In chapter two, a number of different models and theories have been presented, such as social media, influencers, influencer marketing, credibility and buying intention. The study has also been based on a qualitative study as well as a quantitative pilot study through a questionnaire as well as six interviews, which means that a method combination was applied. The selection was based on women in Generation Z. The purpose of these methods was to answer three research questions.

    The result suggested that many young women in Generation Z appreciated the content that influencers put on their various channels of social media. The result also showed that many women claimed to have a certain relationship with the influencers they follow, which made it easier for them to receive advertising and paid collaborations in a positive way. Furthermore, it was found that some of the respondents considered themselves as "positively influenced" by the influencers they follow. At the same time, there were experiences of a negative impact of influencers in Generation Z. Thus, it was established that all individuals in Generation Z experienced influencers and their content as something positive. On the other hand, they are both positively and negatively affected by them.

  • 289.
    Sjöberg, Elin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Andersson, Martina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Kan man vara vän med en vloggare?: En kvalitativ studie om följarnas sociala relation till vloggare2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the relationship created and maintained between the video blogger (vlogger) and their followers in the production and consumption of video blogs (vlogs) on Youtube. Vlogs has contributed with a new form of autobiographical documentation that has engendered many positive effects on young people. Trough vlogs they get the possibility to feel togetherness, find like-minded and it has also brought courage to talk about rule-breaking subjects.

    We take a follower perspective where the interest lies in understanding what the vlogger means to the followers. With the study we are also exploring how the connection they feel to a vlogger can arise and how it is maintained through various forms of social exchanges.

    The empirical data were gathered through in-depth interviews with 6 experienced followers. They share their experiences and feelings about their vlog consumption and discuses their relationship with their favorite vlogger.

    Social penetration theory, Para social relationship theory helps us to understand how relationships can appear and develop. Our results, together with theories within public design, show that these theories are insufficient to explain the complex ties that are built through an asynchronous monologue with the asynchronous response from followers. The study also shows that the relationship between the followers and vlogger depends on its context. Factors affecting building relationships are mediated form, the common context, accessibility, participation, content and authenticity.

  • 290.
    Stångberg, Max
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Imperfektion som estetiskt val: En utredning om vad som bidragit till den ökande produktionen av animerade filmer skapade med analoga och digitala 3D-animationstekniker i symbios2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project examines the aspects that motivated 3D animated movie creators to combine analog and digital 3D animation techniques in a symbiosis. This can be done using new technology through 3D scanning and 3D printing. Where analog artifacts have the ability to be scanned into a computer to be animated digitally, while digitally created artifacts possess the ability to be 3D printed, and animated in an analogue environment.  By interviewing Meindbender Animation Studio, a digital 3D animation studio, and Dockhus Animation, which is primarily an analog stop-motion animation studio, we would like to test the validity of our hypothesis that this is primarily about getting an aesthetic visual imperfection. During these interviews, their experiences and views are explored and discussed in working with a symbiosis of analogue and digital 3D animation techniques, and their own reasons as to why they themselves chose to work with such a symbiosis. From this we want to create a greater understanding of the possibilities of symbiosis and give light to the so far unexplored phenomena which so far has become very relevant in the modern production of animated images.   The results were well matched with our hypothesis, that visual and animated imperfections play a major role in the decision of working with a symbiosis of analog and digital 3D animation. However, the potential of 3D animation was not the most crucial factor in choosing a symbiosis. This can provide scope for further research.

  • 291.
    Svensson, Lars
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Re-thinking the LMS: Designing for Engaged Collaboration2014In: Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2014 / [ed] M. Searson & M. Ochoa, Chesapeake, VA: AACE , 2014, p. 1702-1707Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there has been extensive research done on technology supporting communication and interaction in online higher education, this research focus on the potential of new web development tools for designing educational technologies. With the recent advent and maturity of the HTML5-standard together with CSS3 and advanced javascript libraries such as jQuery andNode.js developers now have access to tools enabling them to create dynamic, web-based systemssupporting rich social interaction & collaboration between students & educators with features that were previously only available in proprietary applications. This paper reports from an ongoingresearch project utilizing a design research approach aimed at creating and evaluating such a tool.

  • 292.
    Svensson, Lars
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Svanberg, Pia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Johansson, Lars-Olof
    Halmstad University, Halmstad.
    From Tutor to Producer: Changes in the design space of online education2010In: Proceedings of the 33rd IRIS Seminar. 2010. / [ed] Hanne Westh Nicolajsen, John Persson, Lise Heeager, Gitte Tjørnehøj, Karlheinz Kautz, Peter Axel Nielsen, Rebild, Denmark, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years online and blended learning has scaled up from being a pilot endeavour driven by pioneers, to constituting a large portion of many institutions of higher education. In the process, the conditions for the online teacher has gradually changed, and the situation of today is in many ways problematic where student interaction and dialogue has to stand back in favour of time consuming content production, material delivery, and technical problem solving. This paper draws on the experiences from a Scandinavian University to illustrate how this transition can be understood in the light of rapid technological development in combination with slow evolution of pedagogical models for online education.

  • 293.
    Swenman, Patrick
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    UGV - Kvalité räknas: En undersökning om skillnader mellan användargenererade videos på Youtube2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we analyzes the 75 largest user generated videos (UGV) at Youtube. The goal is to be able to place videos into categories by identifying differences and similarities between different videos. By doing this we'll be able to calculate if there is a difference in exposure value between different kind of videos. Our findings indicates that videos with a higher production quality may have a greater chance of being shared.

  • 294.
    Söderström, Josefine
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Let Me Take A #SELFIE: Hur resonerar tjejer kring selfien och känslan den skapar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay examines the intentions underpinning for why girls take selfies, and how

    they reflect on it. A study has been made where seven girls aged 18-19 years that everyone is active on Instagram and publishes selfies more frequently were interviewed. The purpose of this study is to try to clarify if there is a correlation between girls' self-image and identity through the publication of selfies. This is investigated by the theories of identity formation through social networks, as well as the preparation of face vs the body and its importance. The study showed that the biggest reason for the publication of selfies was about to get confirmation. And that the positive response can be seen as a motivating factor to continue to publish selfies this then it generates a confirmation that the person is looking for

  • 295.
    Thielen, Julia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Goffe, Karin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Internet of Things och marknadsföring: En kvalitativ studie om användning av Internet of Things inom marknadsföring2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to identify the relationship between marketing and the Internet of Things. The goal is to contribute to increased knowledge for marketers and Internet of Things developers to understand the opportunities and challenges it is in creating marketing with the Internet of Things. To explore this matter we have used inductive approach and then made a qualitative interpretation of semistructured interviews. Through subjective selection we have selected five respondents in which everyone has actively worked with the Internet of Things in combination with marketing and there by possesses experience and knowledge of the subject. We have analyzed the answers of the respondents based on theories and concepts that involve content marketing, context marketing, interactive marketing, big data and privacy by design. The results of this thesis show that the combination of the Internet of Things and marketing is best suited to develop the customer relationship between consumers and businesses. To expand the interaction- and relationship perspective will be in focus, and to create value of the Internet of Things for the consumer. These opportunities can be summarized in the concept of "mother sees you," and that is precisely the concept that embody Internet of Things in marketing. Although the thesis demonstrates the possibilities of using the Internet of Things in marketing the challenge in getting the customer to feel confident to hand over data about themselves to the Internet of Things and see the benefits of doing so remains. To analyze the data that the customer creates and know how to use it is also a challenge for marketers and Internet of Things developers. The thesis discuss the risk that comes with the lack of framework of rules to lean on in the development of marketing with Internet of Things.

  • 296.
    Tunney, Ruth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Interaktivt Innehåll och Konvergenskultur: En diskursiv fallstudie av Black Mirror: Bandersnatch2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As illustrated by the Netflix special Bandersnatch as a cultural phenomenon, the purpose of this study was to analyze how "new" storytelling forms exist in today's convergence culture. This was done by a discursive case study about TV-critics' reception of Bandersnatch, along with smaller comparative discourses covering both relatively traditional film and TV organizations within the media industry, as well as an online forum. Therefore, it was demonstrated how the convergence culture expanded the expression of interactive content. Themes inspired by the reviews included the categorization of Bandersnatch as a media product. The technological aspects of interactive elements were furthermore used in the analysis of the result. Moreover, this was discussed in relation to theories of design and convergence culture. Finally, the results of the study indicated that Netflix's Bandersnatch was compared to both analogue and digital media products. The film's technological aspects were considered to detract from the storytelling experience of a movie, but rather it generated the type of entertainment found in a video game. An insecurity of the future of film as an artform and a dilution of traditional ownership roles also emerged, as the viewer's control continued to be discussed, not only in relation to Bandersnatch, but also to the overall interactive and participatory digital media landscape.

  • 297.
    Vallo Hult, Helena
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics. NU Hospital Group, S-461 85 Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Islind, Anna Sigridur
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Tuning professionalism in the public sector2018In: AIS SIGPRAG Pre-ICIS Workshop 2018: "Practice-based Design and Innovation of Digital Artifacts", 2018, p. -3Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The digitalization in the public sector poses challenges for the professionals that have previously not been using digital tools as a part of their everyday practice. Building on three qualitative research projects this study shed light on contradictions and tussles, as well as possibilities re-lated to professionalism in the public sector. The three cases involve different professionals: cancer rehabilitation nurses, municipality communicators, and resident physicians. The paper aims to gain a better understanding of the impact of digitalization efforts on everyday work practices, and the emerging opportunities and challenges of using digital artifacts as a part of professional work. Our findings show how the transition toward digital work practices is pushing the professional boundaries of rooted professionalism in the public sector. The meaning of work and what it means to be a professional profoundly changes. The process of tuning professionalism in the public sector is not straight forward.

  • 298.
    Voldberg, Jakob
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Zontho, Erica
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Alla är hetero tills motsatsen är bevisad?: En semiotisk innehållsanalys av homosexualitet och queer i fem animerade amerikanska mainstream-långfilmer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, films from the mainstream American animation companies have had an almost non-existent representation of homosexual characters. Previously, it has been proven that the heteronormative has had a strong dominance in these companies. Considering the companies constantly produce new films, we aim to explore if this is still accurate. Within this context, this research offers an updated perspective on current representation by analyzing five animated feature films: Zootopia (2016), ParaNorman (2012), Storks (2016), Finding Dory (2016) and Frozen (2013). We have, with semiotics as a foundation, conducted a qualitative inductive content analysis of these films. By diverging from the heteronormative perspective which is deeply rooted in society we have viewed these films with a different approach. This research shows that the inclusion of homosexual couples and queer characters in animated films has increased. However, despite this increase the characters remain in small roles which are only included for a short time. This shows that the heteronormative still dominates in American mainstream animation. The clues which are given about the characters’ sexuality are subtle, resulting in them being easily overlooked.

  • 299.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Digital Didaktisk Design: Att utveckla undervisning i och för en digitaliserad skola2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna avhandling undersöks grundskollärares arbete med att utveckla sin undervisningspraktik med digital teknik. Mer precist undersöks hur en sådan utveckling kan identifieras, förstås och stödjas. Empirin härstammar primärt från ett treårigt aktionsorienterat skolutvecklingsprojekt i nordisk grundskola. Inom projektet samarbetade lärare från Sverige, Norge och Danmark för att utveckla nya undervisningsaktiviteter över nationsgränserna med stöd av digital teknik. Lärare organiserades inom olika ämnesspecifika designteam för att planera, implementera och utvärdera undervisningsaktiviteter, så kallad digital didaktisk design, vilket avser utformandet av en undervisningssekvens, som adresserar ett specifikt ämne inom ett visst ämnesområde. Det empiriska underlaget utgörs av dokumentation över den digitala didaktiska designen, deltagande observationer, intervjuer och innehållsanalyser samt en enkätundersökning. Två teoretiska ramverk används, TPACK (akronym för Technological Pedagogical And Content Knowledge) och verksamhetsteori. Resultaten påvisar en utveckling av lärares undervisningspraktik. Med stöd av digital teknik skapar lärare digital didaktisk design över nationsgränser, som ger upphov till nya aktiviteter, situationer och möten. Det krävdes dock både omfattande arbetsinsatser och ett praktiskt experimenterande under lång tid, för att lärarna skulle kunna utveckla digital didaktisk design som upplevdes meningsfull i den nya kontexten. Motsättningar och organisatoriska gränser mellan de samverkande lärarna identifierades som avgörande för utvecklingen, genom att ge upphov till förhandlingar, kompromisser och reflektion. Avhandlingen bidrar med ett verktyg för att identifiera och stödja lärares arbetemed att utveckla sin undervisningspraktik med digital teknik. Vidare föreslås en strategi för att identifiera och analysera lärares utveckling över tid. Avhandlingen bidrar också med kunskap om hur olika typer av spänningar och gränser vid samarbete kan stimulera till lärande för en digitaliserad undervisningspraktik, liksom rekommendationer för hur utbildningsinsatser för lärare kan utformas i syfte att stödja lärares utveckling av undervisningspraktiken.

  • 300.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Obstacles Supporting Expansive Learning2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss key findings inspired by concepts of expansive learning theory by illustrating results from empirical research on technology-mediated cross-border collaboration in an educational setting. The study reports from a three-year school development project and aims to examine what factors that influence expansive learning and how we can design for it. 

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