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  • 251.
    Andersson, Mikael
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Tidlund, Stefan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pongolini, Malin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Implications of the Work Integrated Learning (WIL) certification at University West: An updated model for classifying pedagogical activities that promotes WIL2021In: VILÄR: 9-10 of December, 2021, University West, Trollhättan, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2021, p. 24-24Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last year more programs went through the formal process of WIL-certification at University West. The programs included in this presentation are 3d-animation and visualization, Digital Media and Systems development – IT and society. An early step when preparing for the certification was to identify activities and pedagogical ideas, utilized by staff and considered to promote and achieve a WIL space. As the number of activities identified grew in number the need for a model or classification of work integrated education (WIE) became apparent. There are some possible classifications suggested but they were not covering all aspects and forms of the programs. At the end a modified or updated classification based on the work of Hedlund & Svensson (2005) became the solution

    The aim for this presentation is to discuss identified forms of work integrated education (WIE) through examples from actual courses and a modified framework for classification.

     

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    VILÄR
  • 252.
    Andersson, Mikaela
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Klang, Johanna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Preferensskillnader i ledarskap hos anställda och chefer: Strategi för att minska skillnaden och förbättra ledarskapet2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Leadership exists in all organizations and looks different in all organizations as well, the leaders lead in the way that suits them and their organization. There are four different leadership styles that we have chosen to focus on to more easily define and categorize the different characteristics of the leadership styles. Laissez-faire leadership style is characterized by the fact that the leader is not controlled, you can work freely and the leader is very passive. The transformational leadership style is known for its motivation and guidance that allows employees to take their own initiative. The transactional leadership style is very much about the exchange of rewards for work done, while the leader is determined. The last leadership style is called charismatic and the leader is just that, charismatic who engages the employees but the leader is still active.

    The purpose of the thesis was to investigate whether leadership and its four different leadership styles, at a smaller engineering company, were perceived differently from an employee and leadership perspective. Thus, the survey was conducted via ten semistructured interviews at the company, which resulted in similar preferences for both parties. However, differences in perceptions of the charismatic leadership style were discovered. The leadership style that was most preferred by both parties was the transformational leadership style, although research shows that the transactional leadership style fits better in organizations where individualistic work is performed, as in the researched organization.

  • 253.
    Andersson, Måns
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    GraphQL vs. REST med relationsbaserade- och icke-relationsbaserade databaser: En komparativ studie av prestanda i webbtjänster.2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing usage of cloud-based services and the rapid development of mobile devices the need for quick and lightweight data fetching rises. But to be able to deliver a seamless and effective experience for users and clients, it is necessary that the communication between applications on the internet can maintain a high quality. A common technology for communications between web services is Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture. REST entails restrictions that can reduce the ability to design flexible web services, which can mean a degraded performance with longer response times. Alternative solutions have begun to emerge, including the query language GraphQL, which has been developed with the aim of stretching the limitations that previously existed and thus achieving a different flexibility. To contribute with aresult that was applicable with different types of database solutions, GraphQL and REST were tested with both a relational- and a non-relational database.

    In this study, a comparison of performance with different types of queries was performed to evaluate whether GraphQL can contribute with flexibility while maintaining an equivalent performance. The study was based on measuring latency and data volume for a more or less complex set of requests.

    The results showed that GraphQL performs better than REST in terms of latency when more than one endpoint is used for REST. At only one endpoint, REST, when using both a SQL- and a NoSQL database, is faster than its GraphQL counterpart. In terms of data volume, REST performs better than GraphQL in all cases. When requesting data from four endpoints in REST, GraphQL has a smaller data volume than REST NoSQL, but REST SQL is still the smallest. 

    GraphQL with SQL a database performs better than GraphQL with NoSQL database, in terms of both latency and data volume, in all cases. In terms of latency, REST with NoSQL database performs better than REST with a SQL database in three cases out of four. In terms of data volume, REST with a SQL database performs better than REST with a NoSQL database in all cases both in size of request and size of response. 

  • 254.
    Andersson, Nanna
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Johansson, Wilma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Hur förändrades slutpriserna på fritidshus i Orust kommun under Covid-19?: Vilka är de främsta faktorerna som påverkat prisförändringen?2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following report investigates how the final prices of vacation homes in Orust municipality changed during the covid-19 pandemic. To carry out the survey, we will use data on final prices for holiday homes in the municipality partly before and partly during the pandemic. Since the individual characteristics of the vacation homes can differ a lot, the factors that affect the prices need to be divided into different variables. Based on the result, it is possible to draw a conclusion as to whether each variable affected the prices. The report will also examine the possible other reasons that have contributed to the price changes. During the pandemic, the government in Sweden introduced restrictions which changed people's behavior patterns and contributed to people having more money to spare. Together with these factors, as well as the introduction of an exception to the amortization requirement, the demand changes and the need to have access to a vacation home in Sweden increases. Many workplaces also introduced that employees, as far as possible, control their work from home, which also led to more people wanting a vacation home to stay in. The demand for these types of homes increased at a rapid pace where the supply was unable to keep up with the demand, which resulted in higher final prices. The result from the statistic investigations shows that the prices on vacation homes in Orust kommun increased by around 25 % during the pandemic.

  • 255.
    Andersson, Niklas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Real Estate, Economics and Society.
    Material, references, and sources for the Theoria entry on Wikipedia2022Data set
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    dataset
  • 256.
    Andersson, Niklas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    The practical use of a theoretical concept: The usage of the ‘Global South’ concept in the academic journal, Theoria2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This WIL thesis examines the development of the usage and application of the Global South concept in Theoria, a social and political theory journal originally based in South Africa. Using a mixed-method approach that combines textual content analysis of Theoria's published issues and semi-structured qualitative interviews with its editors, this study uncovers an increase in the frequency of the Global South concept usage in Theoria since 2014, indicating a shift compared to previous years. The Global South concept was initially conceptualized from a postcolonial perspective in Theoria’s publications but gradually shifted towards a critical social theory understanding of the Global South concept. Regarding how the Theoria editors understand the Global South concept, their perspectives are varied. They regard the concept as strategically employed as a way to profile Theoria to a wider audience. And the physical manifestations of the concept could be seen through Theoria’s desire to recruit contributors from the Global South. In conclusion, Theoria has strategically deployed the Global South concept to expand its reach and transform its operational practices. This thesis contributes, therefore, to the understanding of how academic journals strategically use theoretical concepts for profiling. This thesis also suggests that further research is needed to understand if there are potential predictors for how an academic journal will utilize a concept to profile itself. 

  • 257.
    Andersson, Oliver
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Aurbakken, Tilde
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Oljeprisets påverkan på Sveriges BNP: En studie om oljeprisets påverkan på ett mindre oljeimporterande land2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The price of oil has changed a lot throughout history. What is often behind the large fluctuations in the oil price are due to the world economy, trade barriers, disturbances in supply chains and wars in the rest of the world. This paper analyzes the effects of the oil price on Sweden's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The study is based on a time which extends from January (Q1) 1999 to December (Q4) 2020. The methods that have been used are Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regressions and the statistics are based on quarterly data. The purpose of the thesis is to examine how Sweden's GDP, as a small oil-importing country, is affected by the oil price and its changes. The variables used to carry out the work are Sweden's GDP, the central bank interest rate, employment, population growth and oil price. The results from the OLS-regression confirm that all selected variables have an explanatory power on GDP. The result regarding the oil price indicates that the oil price, in the long run, has an impact on Sweden's GDP. This result is in line with what similar studies have concluded, namely that the oil price and its impact have a certain time delay.

  • 258.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Sjöstedt, Victoria
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Att förändra en högskolas kodplan: fallstudie vid Högskolan Väst2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studie "Att förändra en högskolas kodplan (- fallstudie vid Högskolan Väst)" i kursen Examensarbete i företagsekonomi - kandidatexamen med inriktning mot redovisning, VT 2013 har genomförts av Pernilla Andersson och Victoria Sjöstedt.

    Vi har på uppdrag av Högskolan Väst undersökt hur en kodstruktur kan vara strukturerad för att uppfylla interna och externa redovisningskrav och behov. Bakgrunden till studien orsakades av att de upplevde en problematik med deras befintliga kodstruktur som hade skapats 2002. Organisationen hade förändrats under dessa tio år varför strukturen behövde justeras, dessutom hade de börjat växa ur sina nummerserier. Ett beslutsstödssystem hade också införskaffats där ekonomisystemet eventuellt skulle implementeras varför kodstrukturen även behövde kunna integreras med andra system för att få fram relevant information. Högskolans kodplan vid studiens genomförande bestod av fälten konton, ansvar, verksamhetsgren, motpart, finansiär, anläggning och objekt. Syftet med studien var att lägga en teoretisk grund för en ny kodstruktur som kunde uppfylla verksamhetens krav och behov. Gruppintervjuer med åtta fokusgrupper samt fyra individuella semi-strukturerade intervjuer inom Högskolan Västs organisation användes som metod för datainsamling. De befattningar som intervjuades var beslutsfattare, olika befattningar inom ekonomifunktion, utredare, koordinator för kvalitet samt forskningsrådgivare. För att få med några ytterligare behov granskades även vissa officiella dokument som Högskolans årsredovisning, regleringsbrev, Ekonomistyrningsverkets (ESV) rekommendationer och regelhänvisningar. Vår undersökning grundade sig i en teori kring ABC-kalkylering i relation till traditionella metoder. Empirinsamlingen visade på ett behov av att kunna få ABC-redovisning men att det vid tidpunkten för studien inte var fullt genomförbart eftersom det skulle innebära mycket manuellt arbete varför fler datasystem i så fall behövde integreras som exempelvis ett tjänsteplaneringssystem. Vi kunde konstatera genom empirin och teorin att det högskolan saknade var en ABC-redovisning, med fokus på ansvar och objekt. Kodplanens struktur som vi rekommenderar till Högskolan Väst är en grund för att kunna utvecklas till en ABC-modell efterhand som system implementeras. Vi kunde även konstatera att Högskolan Västs nuvarande kodstruktur inte behövde någon större omstrukturering utan att istället interna rapporter och uppföljningsmallar behövde förändras till att bli mer aktivitetsbaserade istället för kontobaserade som de var vid tillfället för studien.

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    attforandraenhogskolaskodplan
  • 259.
    Andersson, Peter
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bilderna som räknas: En kvalitativ studie om upplevda skillnader i bilder från renderingsmotorerna Arnold, Cycles, LuxCore och Renderman2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are many options available for path-tracing render engines today. This study aims to investigate differences between images produced by different path-tracers that all use the same 3D data. This was done through the creation of a 3D-scene including an everyday object that was rendered by four different engines: Arnold, Cycles, LuxCore and Renderman. The resulting images were presented to six test subjects, three with previous knowledge in 3D-graphics and three with no previous knowledge in 3D-graphics. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in order to examine whether the test subjects experienced any differences between the images, with special emphasis on depth of field, noise and attractiveness of the images. The render times for the different engines were compared.

    The results show that the test subjects experienced great differences between the images. Experienced and non-experienced alike had no difficulty pointing out differences between the images, on some observations they all concurred, on some they expressed different opinions. The render times differed greatly for the different engines even though they all used the same number of samples. The conclusion of this paper is that, because the different engines work in slightly different manners, they produce pictures that are perceivably different even when they use the same 3D-data.

  • 260.
    Andersson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Borg Andersson, Anna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Frivillig redovisning i svenska börsnoterade bolag: En kvantitativ studie av företagsegenskapers påverkan2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Annual reports have gone from being a way for companies to report their financial position for stockholders, to being adapted for all stakeholders. All the information that stakeholders demand the companies are not obliged by law to publish, which leads companies to disclose some information voluntarily. The extent of this information differs between companies. Previous studies have investigated the relationship between different firm characteristics and the level of voluntary disclosure, which has resulted in varying results. The aim of the study is therefore to attain knowledge regarding which firm specific characteristics in Swedish listed companies that affect the level of voluntary disclosure and also how change between years affects this. Previous studies and business economics theories is the basis for the developed hypotheses regarding the impact of the characteristics. A longitudinal study was implemented on 21 companies that were chosen through a stratified random sampling. The data collection for the dependent variable of the study, voluntary disclosure, was done with the help of an index where the companies’ annual reports from 2016-2020 were examined. The level of the voluntary disclosure was then analyzed against the independent variables of the study, the companies’ size, age, profitability, debt ratio and liquidity. A multiple regression analysis was performed and resulted in the expected relationships between the level of voluntary disclosure and the companies’ size, age and profitability. The results showed a significant positive relationship for these characteristics. Any significant relationship could not be shown for the characteristics debt ratio and liquidity. A linear regression analysis was performed on the change in profitability between years and its relationships to the voluntary disclosure. This analysis was also in line with the expectations that changes in profitability does not affect the level of voluntary disclosure. 

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    fulltext
  • 261.
    Andersson, Sara
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Thörngren, Sofia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hur hanteras dilemman med flerdimensionell styrning?: En kvalitativ fallstudie i två företag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are different dilemmas faced by companies in a multidimensional control model and in order to maintain competitiveness such dilemmas shall be managed in an effective way. Use of multidimensional control models has increased among companies and when managing the business through such models companies are facing dilemmas within the frame of the control model analysis, and decisions needs to be taken on such dilemmas. In our qualitative study we present and analyze three selected dilemmas, our aim is to create a deeper understanding of how companies manage such dilemmas. In this study we specifically look into how companies handles the dilemma of combining a short-term and long-term perspective, how they combine financial and non-financial objectives and methodologies, and how companies can create clear goals by effective analysis methods and relevant parameters to measure results. We present criticism in the theory section of the essay on the subject of how companies manage dilemmas that can arise in a multidimensional control model where different objectives and methods of analysis may conflict with each other. We also describe how such dilemmas are solved by companies. The essay is based on five interviews with two selected companies. The theory section of the essay is based on scientific articles and literature concerning the chosen problem area within the field of business economics. In the theoretical framework the analysis model is detailed, the model has been developed through the chosen theory. The three selected dilemmas are then examined in the analysis model. Throughout the empirical section and the analysis section the analysis model is being tested. Our study gives examples of different ways of dealing with dilemmas. Our conclusion is that companies need to be consistent in their control when they have a multidimensional control model. This applies to the choice of strategy and when designing the goals and methods of the analysis model. We think it is important that these dilemmas are being managed rather than avoided as it can help to strengthen the company's competitiveness if properly applied.

  • 262.
    Andersson, Simon
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Could suppliers take greater transport and owner responsibility?: Evaluation of changed Incoterms at GKN Aerospace2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems acts as supplier to the original equipment manufacturers of aircraft engines and is one owe the largest component manufacturer in the aerospace industry. They purchase raw material from suppliers all over the world. The components are big and heavy which means that transport cost could be saved with ship transport. But since GKN Aerospace Engine Systems use Free carrier agreement as incoterm they tie up capital during the transportation. The capital tied up could instead be used in other investments. To overcome the problem with tied up capital during transport the incoterm agreement has been evaluated. The incoterm Delivery at place means that the supplier owns the material and thereby also the capital cost during the transportation. A production stop due to lack of raw material is expensive and to minimize the risk it is important to evaluate all possible risks. The purpose with this thesis is to identify potential risks. The concept with DAP makes it possible for the suppliers to use their own freight carrier, that could lower the prices, but it also increase the inbound transport to GKN Aerospace Engine Systems. The administration cost in the goods receive tends to increase with a DAP solution. It is also necessary to change place where the delivery precision is measured. The supplier also needs some knowledge in export transportation and have competence in transports.

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    fulltext
  • 263.
    Andersson, Therese
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    de Jong, Jonathan
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Hur designar man en e-handelssite:: är designers och dokumenterad forskning överens?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines and summarizes rules, guidelines and methods for how an e-commerce site should be designed, which elements it should contain and where these should be placed. Our approach consists of two phases. First we comprise relevant research within the target area. This is then divided into logical themes and is used as a foundation for an interview guide, which will be used in the second phase. After this, in the second phase, we conduct qualitative interviews with designers that are actively working with design of e--‐commerce  sites. These can be part of a larger team or work more or less alone, i.e. the participants are not limited to being part of a larger or smaller company or project. The purpose of this is to establish if the relevant research is coherent with how designers work within the area of  Västra Götaland. The result will also serve as a kind of general template, which can be used as support or inspiration while creating an e--‐commerce site, supported by the research material as well as the interviews. We concluded that the research and the way the designers work were mainly coherent. The difference between the research and the result of the interviews were mainly that the people in the business develop more methods and guidelines in a faster pace than the research can keep up with. This is because they are actively developing the business as part of the design community. 

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    fulltext
  • 264.
    Andersson, Ulf
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Informatics and Media production2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    fulltext
  • 265.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Andersson, Mikael
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    The challenge with the skilled hobbyist2020In: VILÄR: 3–4 December 2020 University West,Trollhättan. Abstracts / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2020, p. 16-17Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Having prior knowledge and experience in 3d-graphics or visual effects can give you ahead start when embarking on an education within that field. However, experience shows that it is common that those students that have worked with 3d-graphics on a hobby level are stuck in a certain way of working. They have developed methods and workflows that are suitable under hobby-like circumstances, which means that they  have worked in isolation, on a single computer and often without any specific deadlines or time restraints. However, work life is seldom this structured. Instead it is complex and disordered, and requires constant new learning (Bruno et al, 2017).

    This is a qualitative study where students from a three year program are interviewed regarding their process of going from a hobbyist to a professional, if any. The results are compared with the concept of the Deliberate Professional, as described by Trede and Jacksson (Trede et al, 2019) The results of this pilot study suggests that the students to a large extent still are in the “hobbyist”-mindset, and have a low insight in the different requirements of beingin the workplace. However, some mentions of constant learning, and the importance of knowledge outside of specific 3d-technology. Some implications for the program isto focus and emphazise what it means to be a professional, and not only expose the students to work-like projects, but also have more occasions for reflection excercises, as described by Bruno and Dell’avarsana (Bruno et al, 2017).

  • 266.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Can Measurements of Online Behavior Predict Course Performance?2016In: Proceedings of the 7th International Multi-Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics: IMCIC 2016 and the 7th International Multi-Conference onSociety and Information Technologies: ICSIT 2016: Volume II (Post-Conference Edition), 2016, p. 4-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a pilot study on the relationship between performance in online classes and behavior in online discussion forums. Measuring student activity on the discussion forum, the collected data is then analyzed and mapped to the performance of the students on the course. The student activity was dividedinto a number of parameters, and during the study these parameters were compared to the performance of the students.The significance of each parameter was also analyzed through a Kruskall-Wallis-test Overall there was a strong tendency thatstudents with more activity and engagement received higher grades. This is in the future useful for developing some kind of monitoring to identify and support students on the verge of failing the course.

  • 267.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    How well can completion of online courses be predicted using binary logistic regression?2016In: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, p. 1-12Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses binary logistic regression to create models for predicting course performance. The data used is the data-trail left by students activities on a discussion forum while attending an online course. The purpose of the study is to evalute how well models based on binary logistic regression can be used to predict course completion.Three sets of data was used for this. One set collected at the end of the course, one collected after 75% of the course and one set collected after half the course. The result of the study says that it's possible to design models with an accuracy of between 70% and 80% using these methods, regardless of what time is used.

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    fulltext
  • 268.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media Production.
    Josefsson, Pernilla
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media Production.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media Production. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Challenges in designing virtual environments training social skills for children with autism2006In: Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies, University of Reading , 2006, p. 35-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to explore particular challenges faced when designing virtual environments for children with autism, with the purpose of training social skills. Our findings are based on studying autistic behaviour during three years (primary and secondary sources), analysis of related system and other computer mediated assistive technology, as well as general game design. From these studies we have identified eight critical design parameters that need to be adjustable in a system suitable for autistic persons. The parameters importance, their variation range, as well as the need for independent adjustment of these were estimated and verified by experienced expert pedagogues.

  • 269.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media Production.
    Josefsson, Pernilla
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media Production.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media Production. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Challenges in designing virtual environments training social skills for children with autism2006In: International Journal on Disability and Human Development, ISSN 1565-012X, E-ISSN 2191-0367, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 105-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explore particular challenges faced when designing virtual environments for children with autism, with the purpose of training social skills. Our findings are based on studying autistic behavior during three years (primary and secondary sources), analysis of related system and other computer mediated assistive technology, as well as general game design. From these studies, we have identified eight critical design parameters that must be adjustable in a system suitable for autistic persons. The importance of the parameters, their variation range, as well as the need for independent adjustment of these were estimated and verified by experienced expert pedagogues. Copyright © Freund Publishing House Limited.

  • 270.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Truong, Anh
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Virtual care for the virtually dying2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 271.
    Andersson, Viktor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Kunskapskrav för webbutvecklare: Vilka kunskaper efterfrågas i jobbannonser?2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Demand for web developers has increased significantly in recent years in line with the growth and development of the Internet, while demand has increased it also has become more and greater. Job advertisements in web development went from requiring one or two programming languages to now requesting several technical skills in, for example, different languages and frameworks. They also demand several years of experience and knowledge in these areas and, for example, that you should be able to communicate, be agile and creative. In addition, technology and knowledge are replaced over the years and new, more modern solutions become popular. So therefore I want to find out what different knowledge that web developers need according to job advertisements and if it differs from previous studies and if the requirements for the number of knowledge have been raised.

  • 272.
    Andersson, Wilma
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Bergman, Elin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Hur upplever medarbetare informationen som de tilldelas på arbetsplatsen?: En kvalitativ studie om medarbetares sätt att agera för att inte bli överbelastade av information2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s society is described as an information society where humans are exposed to large volumes of information in both their private life and at their workplace. Studies show that due to the massive influx of information at the workplace, it can be a contributive factor as to why co-workers feel overladen by the information they are obliged to process. Information overload means that a person assimilates more information than one can handle. Since information mainly passes on through internal communication, it is important that this internal communication is effective within the organization. When the internal communication deficits it causes co-workers not feeling satisfied with the amount of information they are assigned. The purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge about how co-workers experience the information that are assigned to them at the workplace. The theory is based on four different themes that are consistent throughout the study. These themes are: How information channels contributes to information flow at the workplace, The impact of information’s qualitative or quantitative characteristic on information overload, The possible contribution of the information flow to information overload and Approaches to counteract information overload at the workplace. To reach a satisfactory result with this degree project; a qualitative study was applied throughout semi-structured interviews at two organizations with large information flows. The results of the interviews are presented in the empirical chapter based on the studies main themes, and then compared with the theory in the analysis chapter. The structure of the analysis chapter is based on the four recurring themes mentioned earlier. The conclusion found that a majority of the respondents did not experience problems with an information overload, but on the other hand, all respondents felt stressed as a result of the information they were pressured to deal with. More importantly, this study showed that both organizations had problems with their information flow and internal communication, however, only one of the organizations were aware of the problem. Lastly this study showed that the co-workers way of handling the information assigned to them were very personal.

  • 273.
    Andersén, Jim
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration. University of Skövde Skövde (SWE).
    Green resource orchestration: A critical appraisal of the use of resource orchestration in environmental management research, and a research agenda for future study2023In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 5506-5520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resource orchestration (RO) is a strategic management framework that details various processes by which how firms structure, bundle, and leverage resources. Thisstudy reviews how RO has been considered in environmental management research.The review highlights some limitations on how RO has been used in studies on environmental management, and it also illustrates a lack of knowledge accumulation inthe field. To realize the full potential of RO, the concept of green RO is developed.Green RO (GRO) is defined as a firm's capability to coordinate and manage the structuring of resources and the bundling and leveraging of capabilities to create economicvalue for the company while simultaneously creating environmental benefits. Threemain research areas for GRO are described: GRO as an organizational or managerialmeta-capability, management of specific GRO processes, and the synchronization ofseveral GRO processes.

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  • 274.
    Andreasson, Ann-Sofie
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Women in the Swedish Armed Forces: How does the Swedish Armed Forces promote women in order to attract them to their organisation?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following Bachelor thesis is analysing how the Swedish armed forces promotes women in order to attract them to their organisation. Specifically it investigates (1) "How does the Swedish armed forces break the social norms of what it means to be a soldier?" (2) "How do they present a gender equal division of labour?" (3) "How do they try to affect women´s attitude towards the organisation?" This study investigates the Swedish armed forces, an organisation with a great underrepresentation of women. The underrepresentation of women is something that the Swedish armed forces openly tries to change through their marketing. This thesis is a single case study with both qualitative and quantitative approach, using Harding´s gender process theory in a descriptive design. By gathering television commercials from the Swedish armed forces user page on YouTube, I explore how the Swedish armed forces tries to minimize the underrepresentation of women. Their strategies are analysed by using Harding´s three gender processes. The results show that the organisation is active in all three processes, but focuses on breaking the social norms of what it means to be a soldier.

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  • 275.
    Andreasson, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Granath, Simon
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Frivillig informationsgivning i årsredovisningar: värdeskapande eller resursslöseri?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An annual report consists of financial and non-financial information which is required by law, however the annual report is considerably more extensive than that. This additional scope of information consists of information that is not required to be disclosed by law. However, companies still decide to publish a lot of voluntary information, though the amount differs heavily. The reason for this depends on the varying positive effects an increased disclosure entails. This is a balancing act that companies must consider and evaluate. Therefore, it is of interest for companies to know whether the market will reward this increased transparency.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the amount of voluntary disclosure that is published in an annual report had a causal relationship to the market value. This was investigated by analyzing 107 annual reports by Swedish listed companies. A number of key words that were associated with future oriented statements were used as a proxy to measure the amount of voluntary disclosure. This information was quantified and then used in a regression analysis where the relationship between the voluntary information and market capitalization was analyzed.

    The analysis concluded that the amount of voluntary disclosure had a linear relationship with the market capitalization. But the regression analysis, under the control of a number of control variables and after excluding extreme outliers from the data, showed that a causal link did not exist. A conclusion to be drawn from this was that the quantity of voluntary disclosure, in terms of future oriented statements, that a company publishes does not have a causal relationship on the market capitalization.

  • 276.
    Andreasson, Josef
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Klaar, Tim
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Kentucky Fried Elderly Care?: A longitudinal comparative case study of news media’s framing regarding the NPM reforms in Swedish elderly care before and after the Swedish Corona commission's interim report2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate how Social-democratic and Moderate newspapers have framed New Public Management (NPM) during the covid-19 pandemic from 1st March 2020 and until 15th March 2021. More specifically the study intends to compare and describe how the NPM reforms in Swedish elderly care were framed in light of the high death rates during the covid-19 pandemic. The study is based on framing theory and analyses framing trends before and after the Swedish corona commission's interim report (SCCIR) stating that the NPM reforms was a cause of the high death rates within elderly care. To this end, the thesis contributes to the scholarship on media framing of NPM in Sweden in general, and specifically by investigating if the SCCIR was a critical juncture for how the Social-democratic and Moderate newspapers frame the NPM reforms. The study concluded the Social-democratic newspapers morally opposed the reforms and framed the reforms as the cause for the high death rates. And by doing so, holding the Social-democratic party (SAP) as partly accountable for the high death rates as they, together with the Moderate party, have been behind the implementations of the neo-liberal NPM reforms. The Moderate newspapers were morally in favour of the NPM reforms and instead framed the general spread of infection in society to be the cause, which they held the SAP government responsible for. All four newspapers matched their ideology over time, thus following their original ideological positions, which implies that the Social-democratic newspapers are impartial from the SAP. This concludes that the SCCIR was not a critical juncture for how the newspapers framed NPM. 

  • 277.
    Andreasson, Matilda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Gustafsson, Moa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Earnings Management: En kvantitativ studie om faktorer som påverkar förekomsten av resultatmanipulering i svenska börsnoterade bolag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Earnings Management is a term aimed at discretionary accounting which involves manipulation of a company's results. Earnings Management can be done either upwards or downwards. When manipulation occurs downwards with the aim of lowering the result, it´s called Big Bath Accounting. There are several researchers who have studied this area over time and have come up with conflicting results. Some researchers believe that Earnings Management and Big Bath Accounting occur to a large extent when companies offer bonus programs based on company performance and whether CEO turnovers has occurred. Other researchers have a different opinion. They do not find any statistical evidence that Earnings Management and Big Bath Accounting occurs when the CEO has changed and companies have bonus programs. Some of these researchers also believe that Earnings Management has diminished significantly or even disappeared in recent years. Previous research also shows conflicting evidence about the use of Earnings Management during financial crises and bonus programs. The purpose of the study was thus to investigate factors that underlie Earnings Management and Big Bath Accounting as well as incentives that may affect the management of a company to apply the theory.

    Results from previous research form the basis of the theoretical framework of the study, which emerged in three hypotheses. These hypotheses were tested by multiple regression analysis as well as a time series analysis. The study's selection was limited to companies in the Swedish market on the OMX Stockholm Stock Exchange's Large Cap in 20072015. The original sample was comprised of 747 observations, but when a certain loss occurred, 547 observations remained while testing hypothesis one and two and 567 observations remained while testing hypothesis three.

    The result showed a statistical correlation between performance manipulation and bonus programs, but we found no statistical correlation between profit-decreasing accruals and CEO turnover. On the other hand, we found support for our third alternative hypothesis that the financial crisis affected Earnings Management during 2008-2009. Our conclusion thus became that the factors underlying Earnings Management and Big Bath Accounting as well as incentives that could affect the management of a company to apply the theory are bonus programs and the financial crisis.

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  • 278.
    André, Anna
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Thabet, Lisea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ledarskap och kommunikation under Covid-19: En kvalitativ studie om medarbetare- och ledares upplevelser av krishanteringsarbetetvid en offentlig verksamhet2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to create an in-depth understanding of employees and leaders’experiences in the public sector with a focus on leadership and communication in connection with the organizational changes that took place during the crisis of the Covid-19 pandemic. To find out how the leaders have managed to navigate through the current pandemic, it was essential for us to shed light on the employee perspective. We not only wanted to create an understanding of how the leaders have managed to get through the pandemic, but also how these crisis management methods have affected the employees. To be able to answer the aim of this study, we focused on two aspects, communication,and leadership. We wanted to find out how communication has changed and how it in return has affected the relationship between employees and leaders. To get an overall picture of leadership, we chose to shed light on the leadership and employee perspective. We wanted to find out how leadership has changed, but also the employees' experience that change. To collect our empirical material, semi-structured interviews were conducted at a social services office in Västra Götaland. A total of seven respondents participated, of which five were employees and two were leaders. To find out to what extent the effects affected the organization, the respondents were selected from two different departments. The results of the collected empirical data were analyzed and divided into the subheadings, crisis management, leadership and relationships, communication with employees, resistance to change and change metaphors.The study concluded that the leaders had a central role in the crisis and that they handled the communication with their employees in a sufficiently informative way so that they have gained good knowledge of what the plan looks like. Therefore, the change has taken place successfully without a noticeable and physical resistance as a negative effect. However, we see that the leaders have failed to review the health perspective, which has been at a disadvantage compared to the economic perspective.

  • 279.
    Andréasson, Joakim
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Vega, Caroline
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Smartklockans motiverande faktorer: En studie som utforskar hur kvantitativa mätresultat samt kringliggande faktorer påverkar beteendeförändringsprocessen2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Health is a big area and something highly valued in people's lives. This is something that has been sought after throughout all times and has today been supported by smart watches and quantification. Today, smart watches are a fast-growing technology adapted to influence behavior. The market promises good results from these smart watches, and various research areas also express positive opinions about this phenomenon. The result from these quantitative measurements has been viewed as a central force in the process of behavior change, the impact of which has been explored in this study. This exploration of quantified measurements is seen as the first goal in this study. There are surrounding factors related to the smart watches that can contribute to behavior change. Exploring these surrounding factors in relation to measurements from smart watches was the second objective of the study. The study used previous research as well as semi-structured interviews to fulfill its purpose. Theoretically, smart watches can measure any unit. This study was therefore limited to only heart rate, steps, and sleep sensing. The conclusion shows that heart rate but mainly step counters has a significant effect on the behavior change process. The social factor, new technology, investment, and flexibility were identified as surrounding factors but have no significant effect on the behavior change process.

  • 280.
    Andrésson, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Gunnarsson, Michaela
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Att motivera medarbetare på distans: Vad en chef kan göra för att motivera medarbetare iett bemanningsföretag2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Employment with a temporary work agency often involves a complexity because of the three-party relationship between the agency, the consultant and the client company. It can therefore contribute to the emergence of motivation problems and confusion about how managers should proceed to motivate their consultants. As a temporary work agency has a distance and limited attendance to the consultants, difficulties with creating close relationships arise. Which in turn means that the staffing company’s managers have a far more difficult task to motivate its consultants, in comparison to more traditional businesses.

    The purpose of this study was to examine which motivational factors consultants in a temporary work agency see as motivating, and how the consultant managers can create motivation among their employees, despite the distance between them. To achieve the purpose the problem was examined with qualitative methods, through interviews and a questionnaire. Seven interviews were conducted, two with consulting managers and the others with consultants from the temporary work agency.

    In the theoretical part, four motivation theories were used; Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Vroom's expectancy theory, Hertzberg's two factor theory and McGregor's theory X & Y. In addition, theories concerning leadership at a distance, and approaches to motivating at a distance were also consulted. This has formed the basis for the collection of empirical data and the interpretation of the final result, which shows that motivational factors differ slightly from what the motivation theories show. Meanwhile, the result shows that the approaches that should be used to motivate consultants at a distance, are based on close relationships and opportunities for development.

    The conclusions of the study were that the factors that create maximum motivation of consultants, which are employed by an temporary work agency are; fair working conditions, development opportunities, confirmation/feedback, good results on performance, rewards, responsibility, work task design, salary and relationship with colleagues. Meanwhile, the result shows that the approaches that were the most satisfying when motivating at a distance are; relationship-building activities, continuous communication, and education

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  • 281.
    Angenete, Eva
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Department of Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, SSORG, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, SE-416 85, Gothenburg.
    Angerås, U.
    Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Department of Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, SSORG, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, SE-416 85, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Börjesson, M.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekelund, J.
    Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Department of Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, SSORG, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, SE-416 85, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Thorsteinsdottir, T.
    University of Iceland, Faculty of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Haglind, Eva
    Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Department of Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, SSORG, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, SE-416 85, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Physical activity before radical prostatectomy reduces sick leave after surgery: results from a prospective, non-randomized controlled clinical trial (LAPPRO)2016In: BMC Urology, E-ISSN 1471-2490, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 50-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that early physical rehabilitation after surgical procedures is associated with improved outcome measured as shorter hospital stay and enhanced recovery. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the preoperative physical activity level and subsequent postoperative complications, sick-leave and hospital stay after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer in the setting of the LAPPRO trial (LAParoscopic Prostatectomy Robot Open). METHODS: LAPPRO is a prospective controlled trial, comparing robot-assisted laparoscopic and open surgery for localized prostate cancer between 2008 and 2011. 1569 patients aged 64 or less with an occupation were included in this sub-study. The Gleason score was <7 in 52 % of the patients. Demographics and the level of self-assessed preoperative physical activity, length of hospital stay, complications, quality of life, recovery and sick-leave were extracted from clinical record forms and questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression, with log-link and logit-link functions, was used to adjust for potential confounding variables. RESULTS: The patients were divided into four groups based on their level of activity. As the group with lowest engagement of physical activity was found to be significantly different in base line characteristics from the other groups they were excluded from further analysis. Among patients that were physically active preoperativelly (n = 1467) there was no significant difference between the physical activity-groups regarding hospital stay, recovery or complications. However, in the group with the highest self-assessed level of physical activity, 5-7 times per week, 13 % required no sick leave, compared to 6.3 % in the group with a physical activity level of 1-2 times per week only (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In our study of med operated with radical prostatectomy, a high level of physical activity preoperatively was associated with reduced need for sick leave after radical prostatectomy compared to men with lower physical activity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered at the ISCRTN register. ISRCTN06393679 .

  • 282.
    Angenete, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra.
    Jacobsson, Anders
    Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Haglind, Eva
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra.
    Laparoscopy on the Risk of Small-Bowel Obstruction: A Population-Based Register Study2012In: Archives of surgery (Chicago. 1960), ISSN 0004-0010, E-ISSN 1538-3644, ISSN 0004-0010, Vol. 147, no 4, p. 359-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective  To investigate the incidence and risk factors for small-bowel obstruction (SBO) after certain surgical procedures. Design A population-based retrospective register study. Setting Small-bowel obstruction causes considerable patient suffering. Risk factors for SBO have been identified, but the effect of surgical technique (open vs laparoscopic) on the incidence of SBO has not been fully elucidated. Patients The Inpatient Register held by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare was used. The hospital discharge diagnoses and registered performed surgical procedures identified data for cholecystectomy, hysterectomy, salpingo-oophorectomy, bowel resection, anterior resection, abdominoperineal resection, rectopexy, appendectomy, and bariatric surgery performed from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2004. Data on demographic characteristics, comorbidity, previous abdominal surgery, and death were collected. Main Outcome Measures Episodes of hospital stay and surgery for SBO within 5 years after the index surgery. Results A total of 108 141 patients were included. The incidence of SBO ranged from 0.4% to 13.9%. Multivariate analysis revealed age, previous surgery, comorbidity, and surgical technique to be risk factors for SBO. Laparoscopy exceeded other risk factors in reduction of the risk of SBO for most of the surgical procedures.

    Conclusions Open surgery seems to increase the risk of SBO at least 4 times compared with laparoscopy for most of the abdominal surgical procedures studied. Other factors such as age, previous abdominal surgery, and comorbidity are also of importance

  • 283.
    Anomaa, Malin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The dominant frames in the reportage of NATO in the Finnish and the Swedish media: A comparative study2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Conversation rounding the question if Finland and Sweden were to apply the membership in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) has been a heavily debated issue in different news medias for several years.

    This thesis constitutes an attempt to characterize the dominant frames that the media, in both Finland and Sweden, uses when discussing issues rounding NATO. The theory which is used to understand the phenomena is framing. 150 articles, published in the Finnish Helsingin Sanomat and the Swedish Dagens Nyheter during the timeframe of January-August 2017 were analysed.

    The research methods that were used in the thesis are quantitative analysis through descriptive statistical analysis and a comparative study of the results.

    The thesis concludes that, the most used dominant frames are frames that describe conflicts between different actors. This conclusion, with respect to the theory, means that it is unlikely that the Finnish or the Swedish population would think more highly of joining NATO in the near future.

  • 284.
    Ansah, Helen
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Assessing the Factors that Influence the Adoption of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics in Ghana Healthcare Service2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to access the factors that influence the adoption of AI and robotics in the Ghana healthcare from the perspective of medical professionals and patients. Technology acceptance model was used to access the factors that influence the adoption of AI and robotics. A qualitative method with semi-structured interviews was applied to this study. This study included 8 participants with different occupations. This study resulted in many different views and perspectives. Whereas some participants were resisted the use of robotics and AI in GHS, others found it interesting. The results indicated that AI and robotics can be adopted by the GHS to supplement the human resource need, support medical professionals in their line of duty to reduce stress and enhance the quality-of-service delivery by improving diagnosis. The study suggested that to influence the adoption of AI and robotics, medical professionals must be trained, and the public must be sensitized. Also, AI and robotics can be included in school curriculums and successfully implemented by piloting or trials.

  • 285.
    Antman, Marie
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Att vara chef i ideella organisationer: En kvalitativ studie om ledarskap, makt, värderingar och politisk styrning2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Being a leader in non-profit organizations. Author: Marie Antman, University Westwithin the framework of the course Master's Program in Leadership in the spring semester 2021. This is a qualitative study that deals with the tasks of leaders in organizations that are characterized by values, power and political control. The background is that the number of employees in the non-profit sector has increased while research on the sector'sintra-organizational aspects has lagged. The research that has been conducted has shown that the sector differs from the private, profit-driven, sector in significant areas. It concerns the sector's political governance, about conflicting demands and goals and intraorganizational expectations to embody the organization's values. The purpose of the studywas to contribute to an increased understanding of how employed managers in the nonprofit sector handled the sector's unique circumstances. In order to respond to the purpose of the study, a study was conducted with a constructivist approach focusing on the participants' own stories. The study was conducted through interviews with ten managers with experience from employment as a manager in at least two non-profit organizations. The selection was appropriate in the sense that it was done with the aim of selecting the participants in a strategic way. The analysis model was chosen to highlight the roles and tasks that managers have based on the study's special focus on the non-profit sector's unique challenges. The study's analysis is based on the basic view that in practice each manager's work is about a combination of management, power and leadership, that leadership is a process that is about relationships and should be understood in different social contexts and that non-profit leadership requires perspective on organizations structural, political and symbolic aspects. The interviews were handled through a thematic approach with inspiration from both grounded theory and narrative analysis method. The themes that crystallized were: understanding of the sector, manager or leader, theworkplace as an arena of democracy, power and conflicts of interest, the pros and cons of commitment, ethical stress and setting goals. In summary, the interviews describes a complex social context with strong values and multifaceted conflicts of interest that the managers had to deal with. The main contribution of the study was an insightful description, provided by the interviews, of how the sector's unique challenges appear to the leaders and the ways they handle it, and to point out that it is not possible to understand the leadership in these organizations without the understanding of the complexity of the social context that each non-profit organization constitutes. There is further development to be done to create a model for visualizing the different parts that such an organization consists of and how they relate to each other. The study also indicates that managers in the non-profit sector have a previously unidentified managerial role that is about acting as a liaison within the various parts of the organization: elected representatives, members, employees, non-profit forces, donors and target groups. The study also shows that a dual leadership is built into these organizations which leads to managers in the non-profitsector not handling all the tasks of a manager/leader. To address the challenges that this study focuses on, managers worked primarily with the structural and political perspective. However, the study showed that they would be helped by also being able to develop opportunities to work with the tools of the symbolic perspective

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  • 286.
    Antonsson, Linnéa
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Fredriksson, Louise
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    De sänkta arbetsgivaravgifternas effekt på ungdomsarbetslösheten: En tidsserieanalys mellan åren 2005 och 20172018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has, among many other European countries, struggled with high levels of youth unemployment. As a solution to this arising problem the government decided to implement a two-step reform that lowered the payroll taxes paid by the employer, affecting adolescents between 15 and 26. Earlier research on similar reforms has shown small, or no effects on the employment but in some cases shown positive impacts on wage levels. Research has also shown that youth unemployment levels are significantly more sensitive for changes in the business cycle than the adult unemployment levels.

    In this paper, we examine the effects on youth unemployment levels by the lowering of the payroll taxes by including data from SCB, Riksbanken and OECD covering the years 2005 to 2017. The model used includes the youth unemployment level, real GDP, Term of Trade, real interest rate, inflation, tax wedge and a dummy variable for the payroll tax cut that assumes the value 1 between the period 2007Q2 and 2016Q2.

    The results show no significant effects of the payroll tax cut, as well as for the other variables within the model except for a tiny significant effect of GDP.

  • 287.
    Apell, Louise
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Nyborg, Natalie
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Intäktsredovisning av pågående arbeten: en studie inom byggbranschen i Skara och Skövde2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the construction industry are ongoing works a common occurrence and companies wrestle with the problems of making a correct accounting of these. Because there are different ways to account revenues, which give different outcomes on the result, the company must ensure to account so that they comply with the laws, rules and recommendations. This is to achieve true and fair view and follow generally accepted accounting principles. The concept of true and fair view is difficult and can be interpreted in different ways by the company. There are two ways to perform con-struction duties, either the current account or fixed price. Based on these two calculations, there are two methods to account revenues during the missions, the per-centage of completion method and completion method. The purpose of this study is to investigate how construction companies reports its revenues during the work in progress and if the revenue recognition is affected by how they comply with laws, rules and recommendations for various accounting methods.

    We have done a study with a qualitative method through interviews with three different construction companies and an accountant. Our study has been focused on a hermeneutic method and we have used an inductive research approach. Our theory takes up definitions of income, revenue recognition, percentage of completion, completion method and true and fair view. We also take up different concepts, laws and regulations e.g. the different accounting principles, the ÅRL and BFL. On the basis of an analysis model, we have since been able to get a basis for our experiments and analysis. In our results we first have seen what an auditor considers whether revenue recognition for work in progress and then we received the interview people's own views on revenue recognition and how they apply accounting of ongoing work in their companies.

    Based on the results, we did an interpretation and analysis of how the different construction companies applied the various accounting methods and compared it with our theoretical section and the section on standards and rules. What we came up with was that construction companies made use of the laws and rules for revenue recognition for work in progress. They used both the current account and fixed price on their behalf. A difference between the companies was the method they used in the report and why. Two of the companies used the completion method and one of the companies the percentage of completion method. They used their method to achieve true and fair view, and this seemed that true and fair view was perceived differently by the companies. Depending on the method used by companies so affected the result at year-end

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  • 288.
    Aracic, Tea
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Saini, Simranpreet
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Perceptions of integration: We came here to add more colour in a colourful society2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to see how asylum seeking refugees, between the ages of 18-25 years old, perceive their integration and to further investigate if the perception of integration differs within this group. More specifically this thesis asks two questions: (1) How do young asylum seeking men and women perceive the concept of integration in terms of mutuality and onesidedness? (2) Are there any similarities or differences within this group when it comes to their perceptions of integration? This thesis is designed as a qualitative case study with comparative elements and semi-structured interview questions. It consists of a combination of a theory of integration as a process within the economic, social and political spheres, and a theory of integration as a process based on mutual adjustment or one-sided adjustment relationships. From the analysis, it resulted that there are more differences than similarities among the asylum seeking refugees. Especially among men and women when it comes to the perception of integration, and more specifically within the economic and social sphere. Within the economic sphere, women strongly associate this with a one-sided relationship, while men tend to perceive that relationship within the social sphere. However, both women and men expressed the need for a mutual relationship within the political sphere due to the asylum process which lies in the hands of the society and not something that these women and men can decide on their own.

  • 289.
    Arfvidsson, G. F.
    et al.
    School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (SWE).
    Ljungdahl Eriksson, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lidbo, H.
    Rumtiden, Stockholm (SWE).
    Falkenberg, K.
    School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Design Considerations for Short Alerts and Notification Sounds in a Retail Environment2021In: Proceedings of the Sound and Music Computing Conferences, Sound and Music Computing Network , 2021, Vol. 2021-June, p. 261-267Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The design and noticeability of alert sounds have been widely researched and reported, and not least, notification sounds are ubiquitous in both software and hardware product development. In an ongoing research project concerning the retail industry, we aim at designing short alert sounds that only grab attention from one group of customers, while others do not register the alerts: this particular aspect has to our knowledge not yet been studied. To establish design guidelines for such alert sounds, we conducted an experiment where test subjects would experience ordinary shopping activity including background music and an ambient soundscape in a virtual reality clothing store, but with added alert sounds. We tested, specifically, six differently designed sound alerts belonging to two classes: contextual-specific congruent sounds, and incongruent sounds that did not fit the sonic context. The results disproved our assumptions that incongruent sounds would outperform the congruent and thus in the context more anticipated sounds. The findings suggest that alert sounds can be designed with subtlety and still be noticeable and that customers will not necessarily be annoyed. We present here a first approach towards design guidelines for short alert sounds in a shop environment. Copyright: © 2021 the Authors.

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    OpenAire
  • 290.
    Argenti, Christian
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Arvidsson, Denise
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Think Global, Act Local: A Comparative Analysis of the Environmental Policies of Gävle and Trollhättan in 2009 and 2019.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is an issue of huge social and academic interest. We approach it from the perspective of local government and its work toward environmental sustainability. The thesis is a comparative study where we examine the environmental policies between two Swedish cities, namely Gävle and Trollhättan, and investigate how these have changed in two specific time periods, 2009 and 2019. The time frame and the choice of cities are motivated by the drastic change in their environmental ranking placement. Through the lens of social constructivism and the theory of What's the Problem Represented to be, created by Carol Bacchi, we can analyse the cities' environmental policies critically. It gives us a comprehensive understanding of how a given policy issue is constructed as a problem. The chosen material for this study consists of formal documents issued by the two municipalities, which are analysed qualitatively. This study concludes that having a narrow and consistent definition of environmental sustainability over time has allowed Gävle to refine its environmental goals, hence the city can prioritize their environmental policies and become a leader in the ranking. While Trollhättan has changed their definition of environmental sustainability between the years 2009 and 2019 toward a multi-dimensional concept of sustainability, including social and economic sustainability. This alteration in policy formulation might be behind Trollhättan's drastic drop in the placement in the environmental ranking. The causal link, however, needs to be further confirmed in future studies.

  • 291.
    Arghavan Shahlaei, Charlotte
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Rethinking Competence: On Performing Digital Transformation2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing incorporation of digital technologies at work, a growing concern has been with the competence of the workforce. To capture the importance of competence in relation to digital technologies, Information Systems has traditionally employed the concept of “IT competence”. In recent years, the more contemporary concept of “digital competence” has made its way into Information Systems. However, regardless of whether these concepts refer to distinct sociotechnical phenomena, it can be said that they provide similar contributions and limitations. As a result, the focus in both the “IT competence” and “digital competence” literature has been primarily limited to the individual’s abilities to use specific IT artifacts to perform certain work tasks. These limitations have bounded our concept of how the incorporation of today’s digital technologies transforms entire work relations and therefore the plausible ways in which the workforce can adapt to these changes. By revisiting the theoretical value of these concepts through a Neo-Sociotechnical Systems approach, my research aim has been to provide an enhanced understanding of a) the implications of the digital transformation of work for competence, and b) digital competence as a theoretical concept that accommodates those implications. The dissertation provides a revised understanding of “digital competence” through a longitudinal and ethnographic study of two digitally transforming professions, i.e., communications and automotive engineering.

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    spikblad
  • 292.
    Arghavan Shahlaei, Charlotte
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Kazan, Erol
    IT University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (DNK).
    Digitizing Products towards Platforms: the Case of Vehicle Motion System2020In: Making Digital Inclusive: Blending the Local and the Global, Association for Information Systems, 2020, article id 2557Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of digital product platforms is a prevailing trend in many industries. As firms incorporate digital technologies into established product categories, they need to manage tensions on multiple organizational layers including strategy, technology and structure. Recent findings suggest that tensions are most likely to be managed by creating resource and coordination flexibility. This paper reports a longitudinal case study of developing a digital product platform. By drawing on organizational ambidexterity theory, we identify four mechanisms—re-scripting, centralizing-re-directing and decoupling—through which the firm creates resource and coordination flexibility. The resulting resource and coordination flexibility in turn lead to the transformation of the firm’s strategy, technology and internal structure. The contribution of this study is in adopting an internal perspective and a bottom-up approach which help to theorize the evolution of digitized products into digital product platforms in an emergent way.

  • 293.
    Arghavan Shahlaei, Charlotte
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Conceptualizing industrial workplace learning: an information systems perspective2022In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859, Vol. 35, no 9, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the constituent parts of learning in the manufacturing work context and understand why these parts are key in the learning of the employees. Design/methodology/approach: The data was collected from two sources: a literature review of the Information Systems literature to establish an initial picture of what learning in relation to digital technologies entails and in-depth interviews with engineers in the automotive industry whose knowledge-intensive work is exposed to substantial digital transformation. Findings: The authors first identified three constituent parts for learning: change, reflection and deliberation. When the authors cross-checked the initial findings through in-depth interviews with the engineers, it was found that these three themes trigger learning through three different mechanisms, that is, balancing newness, finding point of reference and organizing actively. Thus, the findings of this paper extend beyond a categorical identification of what constitutes learning to also illustrate why learning entails these constituent parts. Research limitations/implications: This paper implies that progressive learning requires active organizing of learning stages. The data is limited to the review of the Information Systems field. The authors have also only focused on the automotive industry as the representative sector in the manufacturing industry. Practical implications: Applying the model of progressive learning can be a primary way to actively plan and organize learning opportunities for employees. This is key for supporting learning culture in organizations that are exposed to continuous and disruptive changes. Social implications: A significant part of social sustainability is based on sustainable employability and feelings of contentment at work. This paper is an attempt to highlight how sustainable employability can be achieved by providing effective learning opportunities at work. Originality/value: The originality of this paper emerges from two sources. First, the authors conducted the literature review and in-depth interviews by devising innovative methods because of the challenges of identifying when (informal) learning has occurred at work. Second, the authors owe the in-depth interviews to the first author’s extensive familiarity with the automotive industry and the knowledge and rapport acquired through her prior longitudinal research on the engineers’ work. It was this background that allowed the authors to find out when these engineers were about to leave the firm because of discontent about their competence development. 

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  • 294.
    Arghavan Shahlaei, Charlotte
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    What competence is not2019In: VILÄR 5-6 december 2019, University West, Trollhättan: Abstracts / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: University West , 2019, p. -3Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ambitions of organizational scholarship to enhance employee's performance is viewed as a process of moving from controlling workers to empowering them, from giving orders to creating participatory interactions.These movements are usually pursued in the shadow of a supposed scientific management exactness that aim for a higher performance. However, such ambitions often ultimately translate into organizational efficiency in the sense of less input for more output in performing certain tasks, or in terms of creating customer value. In this scenario, no matter how capable employees are in performing a range of tasks related to a knowledge area, their performance is always evaluated relative to tasks specific to the context of the given organization and dependent upon its demands.

    In this study, we examine a highly innovative industrial context, where the arrangement of human competence, and modern agile management processes are implemented with hopes of employee empowerment. Through in-depth interviews, we illustrate how the engineers' presumptions for individual competence development are often at odds with the requirements of performing in the context of their organization.This is while, the agile management processes have famously accommodated the engineers with high levels of freedom to engage in their personal interest areas and to continue learning in that direction. Towards the end, we argue that, although closely entangled, employees' 'competence' and 'performance' refer to distinct grounds.By distinguishing the two terminologies, we aim at voicing both the employees' concerns with developing their competence, as well as the managerial consideration to obtain "competent" performance. Our study contributes to both the management literature on competence at work, as well as studies of workplace learning.

  • 295.
    Arghavan Shahlaei, Charlotte
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Stenmark, Dick
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied Information Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Organizing in the age of digital product platforms: The work of integrated vehicle control engineers2019In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, E-ISSN 1613-0073, Vol. 2398, p. 17-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As flexibility and generativity of digitized information continuously afford new possibilities, a significant challenge for organizations becomes pinpointing practices that are befitting from various aspects. Two overarching digitization eras have so far determined the greatness of the challenge for organizations; 'computerization', and 'the Internet'. Today, a third era of digitization is marked by the emergence of digitized products. As increasing numbers of code line and software are being incorporated in previously physical products such as cars, they can be used as complete products on one layer, and simultaneously turn into platforms enabling other firms to develop and integrate new components, content, or services on another layer. As digital product platform's multiple design layers need to be open to various applications and agendas, their development requires new justifications and approaches for organizing work. By applying a Neo Socio-Technical Systems frame of reference on the work of engineers as they engage in developing digitized products, we 1. discuss changes of work and organizing along three eras of digitization, 2. provide a rich empirical instance by identifying what steps engineers take in preparation for developing digital product platforms, and 3. discuss the implications of these steps for the literature on practice and organizing. ©Copyright held by the author(s).

  • 296.
    Arghavan Shahlaei, Charlotte
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Stenmark, Dick
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, (SWE).
    Tikekar, Rohit
    National Electric Vehicle Sweden (NEVS), Trollhättan, (SWE).
    Re-organizing for digital product platforms: the work of vehicle motion engineers2019In: Selected Papers of the IRIS / [ed] Pasi Hellsten, Tampere University, Finland, 2019, article id 10Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As flexibility and generativity of digitized information continuously afford new possibilities, a significant challenge for organizations becomes pinpointing forms and kinds of practice that are befitting from various aspects. Two overarching digitization eras have so far determined the greatness of the challenge for organizations; ‘computerization’, and ‘the Internet’. Today, a third era of digitization is marked by the emergence of digitized products. As an increasing number of code lines and software are being incorporated in previously physical products such as cars, they can be used as complete products on one layer, and simultaneously turn into platforms enabling other firms to develop and integrate new components, content, or services on another layer. As digital product platform’s multiple design layers need to be open to various applications and agendas, their development requires new justifications and approaches for organizing work. By looking into the characteristics of digital product platforms, we discuss the shifts in the work of engineers as they engage in developing digitized products along three main courses of action. We illustrate how these courses of action are formed based on the requirements of developing digital product platforms rather than managerial presuppositions

  • 297.
    Arghavan Shahlaei, Charlotte
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Rangraz, Masood
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Stenmark, Dick
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, (SWE).
    Conceptualizing Competence: A Study On Digitalization Of Work Practices2020In: Proceedings of the 28th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), 2020, article id 197Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Competence development at work has since long been a core managerial challenge and a topic that has received a steady research interest. In academia, the topic has been explored in what we see as two scholarly traditions: 1) the earlier scholarship on ‘competence’ where discussions of technology have largely been absent, and 2) the later scholarship on ‘digital competence’ where the focus has been on the individual’s abilities to use particular Information Technology (IT) artifacts. With the increased sophistication of digitalization in today’s society, we suggest—while attending to digitalization—competence scholarship needs to go beyond the study of individuals’ ability to use particular IT artifacts. One way to do so is to investigate how digitalization transforms work conditions, and how individuals respond to these shifts. In this study, we focus on the role of today’s cyber-infrastructural technology, such as social media, in re-writing work conditions. By examining, through in-depth interviews, how the work of communication practitioners is digitalized, we 1) extend the conceptualization of digital competence beyond the customary IT competence, and 2) suggest two levels of competence based on two empirically grounded conceptualizations; competence as the optimization of existing resources, and competence as the envisioning of new possibilities.

  • 298.
    Arghavan Shahlaei, Charlotte
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Rangraz, Masood
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Stenmark, Dick
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied Information Technology.
    Transformation Of Competence: The Effects Of Digitalization Oncommunicators' Work2017In: Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS),: ECIS 2017 Proceedings, 2017, p. 195-209Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying human competence in relation with digitalization is currently an under-researched area within information systems scholarship. This paper presents a response to the contemporary calls within the IS field for studying the changes brought on by the advent of digitalization. Based on indepth interviews with professional communicators, we illustrate the effects of digitalization on the formation of work related competences. Employing a new sociotechnical system approach (Neo-STS), we analyze and illustrate the effects of digitalization in multiple ways. First, we propose that any further study of competence cannot be inadvertent to the phenomenon of digitalization. Second, we suggest a new approach for studying competence in relation with digitalization as opposed to studying "digital competence". Third, by applying a Neo-STS perspective, we provide a substantiated explanation of the transformation of competences in the work of communicators.

  • 299.
    Arnergård, Christopher
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Johansson, Andreas
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Rekryterares roll i rekryteringsprocesser2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Could it be that there are subjective elements in the recruitment process? Recruitment is an important area for companies and is also something that most workers have to undergo. For companies, it is also a question about costly investments. Furthermore it is the employees who determine how the company develops and performs. Choosing these employees is what recruitment processes are there for. Previous research lacks focus on the individual recruiters role in the recruitment process. This study is based on this issue.

    Through interviews with representatives from various companies in various industries as well as a collection of theory and research on the topic, an overall picture has been created where the recruiter's role in the recruitment process appears. The result shows that recruiters have the confidence and ability to influence recruitment processes, but that the decision-making often lies with the responsible leader's power. The study shows that there are benefits to giving a recruiter a lot of space in the process and for allowing him to be involved from start to finish. It also shows that recruiters and the responsible leader should take decisions together on employment issues. This is to enable recruiters to influence and create a composition of employees who can complete each other with personalities and skills

  • 300.
    Arnosson, Sandra
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hållbarhet som strategisk utgångspunkt: En undersökning av utvalda svenska företags hemsidor och års-/hållbarhetsrapporter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this study was in the desire to investigate whatchain stores want to convey beyond sustainability through two different communication channels, sustainability reports and websites. Information about sustainability is perceived to be communicated more and more frequently by companies today and what this could mean and include seemed interesting to investigate. This is to try to bring clarity and insight into the stakeholders who gets in contact with the information. 30 well-established establishments in Sweden became the study area and contributed interesting points of view in relation to the theoretical background. The purpose of the study was to investigate how companies worked with sustainability based on sustainability reports, as well as to review how they choose to communicate sustainability marketing on their websites. The companies were further divided into three categories that were compared and then developed the empirical background. Relevant theoretical research areas in this study included sustainability from a social, economic and ecological perspective, as well as legitimacy theory, stakeholder theory and strategic marketing. Furthermore, sustainability and CSR as strategic starting point were relevant orientations in the theoretical reference framework. The study is of a qualitative nature and had interpretation and reflection as a starting point. The empirical material has been examined using a critical of source perspective where the author was aware of the limitations and benefits that studies with angled material may hold. The study was based on information that the chains themselves choose to convey, which means that the reader cannot interpret it as fully truthful. However, the image that the chains convey was the primary focus of the study and the material found was designed for the remainder of the study and helped answering questions and research questions. The study was completed by comparing the empirical material with Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and other theoretical backgrounds. GRI was used for the development of indicators from the empirical material using the theoretical background. This contributed to the creation of both conclusions that answers the purpose and proposals for further studies. These conclusions, among other things, showed that work on sustainability reports varied greatly between both business chains and industries. This at the same time as all published sustainability reports had a broad and comprehensive summary of both social, economic and social sustainability. In addition, sustainability communication on websites was used approximately equally in all industries and business chains, although the amount of information varied. Sustainability was generally not used as direct marketing to customers, but was available in the context, which showed that the information fulfills an objective in a different sense than in the form of direct marketing.

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