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  • 251.
    Islind, Anna Sigridur
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lindroth, Tomas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Assmo, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Taking Care Seriously: Transforming Practices by Design2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 252.
    Jansson, Christian
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Jeminovic, Emil
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Undersökning och jämförelse av DDoS-Filter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year businesses and individuals are exposed by Denial Of Service attacks with the intention of putting servers into disuse and make services unusable. We have investigated three different ways to protect a server and the internal network against Denial Of Service attacks in the most efficient manner. This study measure the CPU usage and response time before and during a DoS-attack to get an overview of how charged each unit is during an attack to compare each DoS-protection.

    The survey showed that the Cisco ASA Firewall protects the server and the internal network in the most efficient way because the device uses a deep packet filtering and inspection which involves a more advanced technology that is used to filter out inappropriate data-traffic

  • 253.
    Jenkins, Samantha
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    Kirk, Stephen
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    Ayers, P.W.
    Real-space study of mechanical instability in ice XI on a 'bond-by-bond' basis2006In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on the Physics and Chemistry of Ice: July 23-28, Bremerhaven, Germany, Cambridge: RSC publishing , 2006, p. 273-281Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 254.
    Jenkins, Samantha
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    Kirk, Stephen
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    Ayers, P.W.
    The chemical character of very high pressure ice phases.2006In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on the Physics and Chemistry of Ice: July 23-28, Bremerhaven, Germany, Cambridge: RSC publishing , 2006, p. 265-273Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 255.
    Jenkins, Samantha
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    Kirk, Stephen
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    Ayers, P.W.
    The importance of O--O bonding interactions in various phases of ice.2006In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on the Physics and Chemistry of Ice: July 23-28, Bremerhaven, Germany, Cambridge: RSC publishing , 2006, p. 257-265Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 256.
    Jenkins, Samantha
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    Kirk, Stephen
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    Ayers, P.W.
    Topological transitions between ice phases.2006In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on the Physics and Chemistry of Ice: July 23-28, Bremerhaven, Germany, Cambridge: RSC publishing , 2006, p. 249-257Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 257.
    Jenkins, Samantha
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    Kirk, Steven
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    Software architecture graphs as complex networks: a novel partitioning scheme to measure stability and evolution2007In: Information Sciences, ISSN 0020-0255, E-ISSN 1872-6291, Vol. 177, no 12, p. 2587-2601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability and evolution of the structure of consecutive versions of a series of software architecture graphs are analysed using the theory of complex networks. Brief comparisons are drawn between the scale-free behaviour and second order phase transitions. On this basis a software design metric Icc is proposed. This software metric is used to quantify the evolution of the stability vs. maintainability of the software through various releases. It is demonstrated that the classes in the software graph are acquiring more out-going calls than incoming calls as the software ages. Three examples of software applications where maintainability and continuous refactoring are an inherent part of their development process are presented, in addition to a Sun Java2 framework where growth and backward compatibility are the more important factors for the development. Further to this a projected future evolution of the software structure and maintainability is calculated. Suggestions for future applications to software engineering and the natural sciences are briefly presented.

  • 258.
    Jenkins, Samantha
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    Kirk, Steven R.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    An investigation of the merging and collapsing of software2007In: Advances in Complex Systems, ISSN 0219-5259, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 379-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the use of complex networks for understanding of the interaction of computer software applications written in the Java object-oriented language with the "library classes" that they use (those provided by the Java Runtime Environment) as, essentially, a merged network of classes. The dependence of the software on the library is quantified using a recently introduced model that identifies phases close to a second-order phase transition existing in scale-free networks. An example is given of a piece of software whose class network collapses without the presence of the library classes, providing validation of a novel structural coupling measure; Rcoupling. The structural properties of the merged software-Java class networks were found to correlate with the proportion of Java classes contained within the subset delimited by Rcoupling. A mechanism for the preservation of the software class network is also provided for the cases studied where the removal of the library classes does not cause collapse.

  • 259.
    Jenkins, Samantha
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Kirk, Steven R.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Persson, M
    R & D Pulp and Paper, Eka Chemicals AB, SE 445 80 Bohus, Sweden.
    Carlen, J
    R & D Pulp and Paper, Eka Chemicals AB, SE 445 80 Bohus, Sweden.
    Abbas, Z
    Göteborg University, Department of Chemistry.
    Molecular dynamics simulation of nanocolloidal amorphous silica particles: Part II2008In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 128, no 16, p. 164711-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 260.
    Jenkins, Samantha
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Kirk, Steven R
    Persson, M
    R&D Pulp and Paper, Eka Chemicals (Akzo Nobel).
    Carlen, J
    R&D Pulp and Paper, Eka Chemicals (Akzo Nobel).
    Abbas, Z
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Chemistry .
    The role of hydrogen bonding in nanocolloidal amorphous silica particles in electrolyte solutions2009In: Journal of colloid and interface science, ISSN 1095-7103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Explicit solvent (water) molecular dynamics simulations were undertaken containing three pairs of amorphous silica nanoparticles, having diameters of 2.0nm, 2.4nm and 2.8nm, respectively. Mean forces acting between the silica nanoparticles were calculated in a background electrolyte, i.e., NaCl at four different concentrations. Dependence of the inter-particle potential of mean force on the center of mass separation, silicon to sodium ratio (Si:Na(+)), background electrolyte concentration, number of hydrogen bonds directly linking pairs of silica nanoparticles and the density of charged surface sites, are calculated. The pH was indirectly accounted for via the ratio of silicon to sodium used in the simulations. The close relationship between the variation of the number of hydrogen bonds between the pairs of silica nanoparticles and the inter-particle potential of mean force indicates that the degree of inter-particle hydrogen bonding quantifies, for a given size of nanoparticle, the degree of nanoparticle 'stickiness'. Simulations also show that the number of hydrogen bonds between the charged surface (O(-)) sites and the surrounding water molecules increases with increase in charged sites, in agreement with the interaction behavior of silica nanoparticles usually seen in experiments.

  • 261.
    Jenkins, Samantha
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Kirk, Steven R
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Persson, M
    R&D Pulp and Paper, Eka Chemicals (Akzo Nobel) AB.
    Carlen, J
    R&D Pulp and Paper, Eka Chemicals (Akzo Nobel) AB.
    Abbas, Zareen
    Göteborg University, Department of Chemistry.
    Molecular dynamics simulation of nanocolloidal amorphous silica particles: Part I.2007In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 127, no 22, p. 224711-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Explicit molecular dynamics simulations were applied to a pair of amorphous silica nanoparticles in aqueous solution, with diameter of 4.4 nm and with four different background electrolyte concentrations, to extract the mean force acting between the two silica nanoparticles. Dependences of the interparticle forces on the separation and the background electrolyte concentration were demonstrated. The nature of the interaction of the counterions with charged silica surface sites (deprotonated silanols) was investigated. A "patchy" double layer of adsorbed sodium counterions was observed. Dependences of the interparticle potential of mean force on the separation and the background electrolyte concentration were demonstrated. Direct evidence of the solvation forces is presented in terms of changes of the water ordering at the surfaces of the isolated and double nanoparticles. The nature of the interaction of the counterions with charged silica surface sites (deprotonated silanols) was investigated in terms of quantifying the effects of the number of water molecules separately inside each pair of nanoparticles by defining an impermeability measure. A direct correlation was found between the impermeability (related to the silica surface "hairiness") and the disruption of water ordering. Differences in the impermeability between the two nanoparticles are attributed to differences in the calculated electric dipole moment.

  • 262.
    Jenkins, Samantha
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Kirk, Steven R
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Persson, M
    R&D Pulp and Paper, Eka Chemicals (Akzo Nobel).
    Carlen, J
    R&D Pulp and Paper, Eka Chemicals (Akzo Nobel).
    Abbas, Zareen
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Chemistry.
    Molecular dynamics simulation of nanocolloidal amorphous silica particles: part III.2009In: The Journal of chemical physics, ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 130, no 13, p. 134702-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations were applied to four pairs of amorphous silica nanoparticles, two pairs having a diameter of 2.0 nm and two pairs with diameter 3.2 nm. The silica nanoparticles were immersed in a background electrolyte consisting of Ca(2+) and Cl(-) ions and water and mean forces acting between the pair of silica nanoparticles were extracted at four different background electrolyte concentrations. The pH was indirectly accounted for via the ratio of silicon to sodium used in the simulations. Dependence of the interparticle potential of mean force on the center-of-mass separation and the silicon to sodium ratio (5:1 and 20:1) is demonstrated. A Si:Na(+) ratio of 5:1 gave more repulsive interparticle potentials and lower numbers of internanoparticle or "bridging" hydrogen bonds. Conversely a Si:Na(+) ratio of 20:1 yielded more attractive potentials and higher numbers of bridging hydrogen bonds. The nature of the interaction of the counterions with charged silica surface sites (deprotonated silanols) was also investigated. The effect of the sodium double layer on water ordering was observed. The number of water molecules trapped inside the nanoparticles was investigated, and at the highest background ionic concentrations were found to consistently behave in accordance with there being an osmotic pressure. This study highlights the effect of divalent (Ca(2+)) background ions on the interparticle potentials compared with previous work using monovalent (Na(+)) background ions. Mechanisms of coagulation and the stability of silica nanocolloids found from this work appear to be in agreement with findings from experiments described in the literature.

  • 263.
    Jiresjö, Christian
    et al.
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    Boklund, Andreas
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Computer Science.
    Benefits of Alternative Network Topologies For COTS Linux Clusters2006In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Applied Computing: San Sebastian, Spain. Feb 25-28, 2006, p. 457-461Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper is to evaluate the use of two different network topologies for Ethernet networks in small Common

    Off The Shelf (COTS) clusters. The fully meshed network topology was evaluated and its impact on latency and

    bandwidth was measured and compared to the more traditional switched network topology. This was done at MPI level

    by measuring the point-to-point round trip latency (ping-pong) and all-to-alla bandwidth for different sized messages.

    The results from the experiments are presented and the overall the benefits and drawbacks of the both approaches are

    discussed.

  • 264.
    Jobe, William
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A Kenyan Cloud School: Massive Open Online & Ongoing Courses for Blended and Lifelong Learning2013In: Open Praxis, ISSN 2304-070X, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 301-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research describes the predicted outcomes of a Kenyan Cloud School (KCS), which is a MOOC that contains all courses taught at the secondary school level in Kenya. This MOOC will consist of online, ongoing subjects in both English and Kiswahili. The KCS subjects offer self-testing and peer assessment to maximize scalability, and digital badges to show progress and completion to recognize and validate non-formal learning. The KCS uses the Moodle LMS with responsive web design to increase ubiquitous access from any device. Access is free and open, and the KCS intends to be a contextualized open educational resource for formal secondary institutions to support blended learning and a free source of non-formal education for lifelong learning. The expected outcomes are that this effort will reduce secondary school dropout rates, improve test scores, become a quality resource for blended learning, as well as validate and recognize lifelong learning in Kenya.

  • 265.
    Jobe, William
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Bridging the learning gap in Kenya with mobile learning: Challenges and future strategies2015In: Proceedings of E-Learn: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2015 / [ed] curtis Ho & Grace Lin, University of Hawaii, USA, Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, 2015, p. 1319-1325Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overarching aim of this research was to study how mobile technology can catalyze informal learning and bridge the gap between informal and non-formal learning. In this study 30 Kenyan elite runners were equipped with a simple Android smartphone and free Internet for one year. The original research project focused on studying how a smartphone in the hands of impoverished Kenyans could assist and enhance informal learning. This project used log data, workshops and interviews to track the users’ progress. During the course of the study a huge desire for more formalized learning developed. Thus, a non-formal course on Human Rights was developed and made available for all Kenyans via any Internet connected device. In this way the intersection of these two projects provided an opportunity to satiate interests gained from unguided informal learning with structured non-formal learning. Key findings were that the smartphone empowered marginalized groups, augmented informal learning opportunities, and provided a means to bridge informal and non-formal learning to deliver educational opportunities to any device in the form of a non-formal MOOC. This research made a significant impact in the participants’ lives and the most common statement from the interviews was the statement “it helps us a lot”.

  • 266.
    Jobe, William
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Do-It-Yourself Learning in Kenya: Exploring mobile technologies for merging non-formal and informal learning2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The educational landscape is changing and a variety of technologies and techniques are blurring the lines between traditional and non-traditional learning. This change is substantial in low-income countries: individuals in developing countries have a great desire to educate themselves and improve their quality of life. Kenyans are adequately literate and accustomed to mobile technology despite being a largely impoverished, poorly educated populace. Kenya represents an optimal setting in which to research the use and feasibility of modern mobile and educational technologies. The broad aim of this dissertation is to explore how mobile devices can catalyze and enhance both informal and non-formal learning. In particular, this dissertation explores how technologies and concepts such as mobile web apps, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), and learning incentives via a smartphone specifically affect informal and non-formal learning in Kenya. The primary research question is how can learning efforts that utilize mobile learning, MOOCs, and learning incentives combine non-formal and informal learning to develop and contribute to a do-it-yourself (DIY) approach to learning in Kenya? The primary method is action research. The first contribution of this dissertation is the finding that mobile web apps are currently better suited for data exchange than producing new content. The second contribution is the finding that a smartphone can enhance informal learning in a developing country with little or no scaffolding. The third contribution is the finding that non-formal learning efforts as a MOOC are shown to be a viable means of delivering non-formal learning in a developing country via a smartphone. The fourth contribution is the finding that the use of incentives such as digital badges provide a means by which to validate non-formal learning and contribute to a DIY attitude towards learning creation, where individuals can freely complement or replace a traditional curriculum.

  • 267.
    Jobe, William
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Native Apps Vs. Mobile Web Apps2013In: International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM), ISSN 1865-7923, E-ISSN 1865-7923, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 27-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extensive growth and expansion of smartphones and tablets and therewith the use of mobile web applications that utilize HTML5 and related technologies are frequently discussed and debated in media as possible replacements for native applications. The aim of this study was to explore the viability of replacing native applications with mobile web applications in a developing country setting. Two mobile web applications were developed. The first mobile web application tracked runs and the second mobile web application was a booking system for scheduling "slum runs". The subjects who tested these apps were elite, semi-professional Kenyan runners primarily from the Kibera slum area outside of Nairobi. After a 6-month test period the participants concluded and results indicated that the mobile web application for tracking runs performed poorly compared to native applications due to poor GPS performance, while the mobile web application for booking slum runs performed well. The conclusion from this study is that mobile web applications that require hardware interaction such as using the GPS, GPU, or camera are not yet viable alternatives for native applications. However, mobile applications that only require a native interface and content consumption are suitable substitutes for native applications.

  • 268.
    Jobe, William
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    No University Credit, No Problem?: Exploring Recognition of Non-Formal Learning2014In: 2014 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference Proceedings, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, 2420-2426, 2014, p. 2420-2426Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are disrupting traditional, higher education and redefining how learning takes place online. These open courses typically offer some form of recognition, such as a certificate of completion and/or digital badge, to recognize, validate, and in some cases even accredit learning. A general problem with MOOCs is the uncertainty regarding the use and goals of recognition, validation, and accreditation (RVA), and participants' acceptance and perception of such techniques. This research effort addresses this problem by exploring course partici-pants' attitudes and levels of acceptance of non-formal learning recognition compared to traditional university credit in both devel-oped and developing countries. The actual study uses both certifi-cates of completion and digital badges to recognize and validate learning in an introductory, university level course in web pro-gramming using HTML5/CSS. The course is available to anyone, but was specifically marketed to participants from Sweden and Kenya. Empirical data was gathered using interviews and online surveys in the course. The preliminary results are that participants from developing countries value digital recognition to a greater extent than their counterparts in Europe. However, both Swedes and Kenyans see open courses with digital recognition as a com-plement to traditional learning to individually construct an educa-tion.

  • 269.
    Jobe, William
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University.
    Putting a MOOC for Human Rights in the Hands of Kenyans: The Haki Zangu Case for Non-Formal Learning2014In: Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, ISSN 1681-4835, E-ISSN 1681-4835, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research goal of this project was to explore the use and effects of non-formal education and incentives in the context of a developing country. The practical aim of this project was to create, implement, and evaluate a platform about human rights that was available to any Kenyan for free in order to increase knowledge and engagement. Therefore, a non-formal massive open online course (MOOC) about human rights was designed and launched. The course was free and open to anyone in Kenya and offered both a digital badge and certificate from Stockholm University in Sweden upon completion. The course was called Haki Zangu (Kiswahili for "My Rights"), and it explored how using incentives such as a digital badge and certificate of completion affected learning outcomes. This course offered ubiquitous access based on principles of responsive web design and used audio recordings of the entire course content. The course is perpetual and still on-going, but after six months there were 160 participants who had enrolled, and ten participants had completed the course and received certificates and digital badges. The participants showed extensive enthusiasm and engagement for human rights issues, and they expressed desires to learn more and further spread knowledge about human rights. The current findings suggest that the availability of digital badges and certificates increased interest for participation and positively affected learning outcomes. Moreover, the use of a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) format with incentives proved successful, combined with the contextualization and accessibility of the course content. Furthermore, the technical platform proved adequate for disseminating education for free in a developing country, and allowed for unencumbered access regardless of device. Lastly, a key challenge for future non-formal learning efforts in developing countries is the cost of Internet access.

  • 270.
    Jobe, William
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Östlund, Christian
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    MOOCs for Professional Teacher Development2014In: Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2014 / [ed] M. Searson & M. Ochoa, Chesapeake, VA: AACE , 2014, p. 1580-1586Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A MOOC is a trending concept in education that is disrupting traditional methods oflearning consumption. The emergence and use of MOOCs for professional teacher development isstill uncommon, but on the verge of gaining a foothold. Research regarding MOOCs typicallyfocuses on impacts for higher education and lifelong learning. However, the specific intersection ofMOOCs and professional teacher development is poorly researched. This concept papercontemplates the benefits and drawbacks of using MOOCs for professional teacher developmentand calls for more practical studies and explorative research. This paper also speculates on the basicMOOC design criteria and principles needed to maximize engagement and course completion,which are currently common issues with general MOOCs. The conclusion is that MOOCs can be acost- and resource-effective means to deliver quality education in order to further professionalteacher development. However, possible risks are employers' reluctance to accept MOOCaccreditation as equivalent professional development and the lack of relevant MOOC courses forprofessional development.

  • 271.
    Johansson, Christoffer
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Sutt, Ellinor
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    "Då menar jag inte att man ska få en käftsmäll när man får en käftsmäll": En kvalitativ analys om spelares uppfattning av inlevelse med Head Mounted Displays2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis will study if Head Mounted Displays affect the immersion experienced by gamers while playing video-games, how they expect it to affect the experience and what gamers feel is missing from the technology today to be able to experience total immersion.

    The research is conducted by using a survey and interviews. The main purpose of the survey is to identify which aspects affect the immersion while playing with classic videogame consoles. The in-depth interview show the responses from four different gamer respondents about their experiences and expectations for using Head Mounted Displays today.

    Our study show that Head Mounted Displays do make the user experience higher levels of immersion compared to classic consoles, but if there is a break in presence the reaction is much stronger, since the amount of sensory data that needs to be dealt with is increased. The study also identifies new possible design issues for more seamless experiences with the Head Mounted Displays. For example, using better hand representations, to be able to see and use your own hand in the game, applying wireless technology and solutions for better support for users travel over large areas in game. Summing up, the gamers are optimistic about how Virtual Reality and Head Mounted Displays will affect the gaming industry, they believe it is the future of videogames.

  • 272.
    Johansson, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Jibing, Gustav
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Krantz, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Prestandajämförelse mellan Amazon EC2 och privat datacenter2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Publika moln har sedan några år tillbaka blivit ett alternativ för olika företag att använda istället för lokala datacenter. Vad publika moln erbjuder är en tjänst som gör det möjligt för företag och privatpersoner att hyra datorkapacitet. Vilket gör att de inte längre behöver spendera pengar på resurser som inte används. Istället för att köpa en stor andel hårdvara och uppskatta hur stor kapacitet som man behöver kan man nu istället så smått börja utöka efter behov eller minska ifall det önskas. Därmed behöver företag inte spendera pengar på hårdvara som inte används eller har för lite datorkapacitet, vilket skulle kunna resultera i att stora batcharbeten inte blir färdiga i tid och i och med det kan företaget förlora potentiella kunder. Potentiella problem  kan dock uppstå när man i ett moln virtualiserar och försöker fördela datorkapacitet mellan flera tusen instanser. Där även skalbarhet inte ska ha några begränsningar, enligt moln-leverantörerna.

    I denna rapport har vi med hjälp av olika benchmarks analyserat prestandan hos den största publika moln-leverantören på marknaden, Amazon, och deras EC2- och S3-tjänster. Vi har genomfört prestandatester på systemminne, MPI och hårddisk I/O. Då dessa är några av de faktorer som hindrar publika moln från att ta över marknaden, enligt artikeln Above The Clouds -  A Berkely View of Cloud Computing [3].  Sedan har vi jämfört resultaten med prestandan på ett privat moln i ett datacenter. Våra resultat indikerar att prestandan på det publika molnet inte är förutsägbar och måste få en ordentlig skjuts för att stora företag ska ha en anledning till att börja använda det.

  • 273.
    Johansson, Gus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Rovala, Thomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Resource analysis of PXE based deployment solutions from Microsoft, Acronis and the FOG project2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a PXE based deployment an operating system is sent or installed over an IP based net-work, creating a centralised point of control for the management of multiple clients to effectively minimise the workload of the administrator and the total time needed to install operating systems. This project examines the processor, memory and network utilisation of four selected PXE based operating system deployment solutions - Acronis Snap Deploy 5, FOG and two variants of Windows Deployment Services (WDS) - in a part virtualised and part physical environment to determine their differences, scalability and appropriate role.

    The experimental setup consisted of five client computers, a traffic log server, and a server hosting virtual machines onto which the solutions were installed. Measurements were done using Windows Performance Monitor on the main server to poll data from its virtual machines. The time frame of each deployment was determined by the time stamp of the first DHCPDiscover packet sent from a client to the point of time where the network communication between the server and client(s) was complete.

    Acronis and FOG were determined to be much faster than WDS in regards of time, where Acronis adds less time per added client in multicast environments than FOG. The processor utilisation is increased for all systems in multicast scenarios compared to unicast deployments, and Acronis had the highest average and peak processor utilisation throughout the processor measurements. Memory utilisation is a non-issue, and no significant increase was detected between unicast and multicast deployments, or when adding clients to a multicast scenario. The FOG machine running CentOS 6.7 and Linux Integration Services displayed excessive amounts of memory utilisation, a symptom not displayed with LIS inactive. This is determined to be the fault of LIS, and not FOG. Acronis and FOG forward multicast data about four times faster than WDS, which leaves little reason to choose WDS over the other two. Acronis includes some useful proprietary features not found in FOG, and utilises more processor time. The main reason to choose FOG over Acronis is the fact that it is open source and free to download.

  • 274.
    Johansson, Jim
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Microsoft WebMatrix: Enkelheten i dynamiska webbaserade system2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on problematic in an earlier system in which requests have been made to improve the system to a new one. The new system has become to a dynamic web-based system and implemented with the new development tool Microsoft WebMatrix. Microsoft says that developing websites with WebMatrix has never been easier, a statement which is considered as vague.The purpose of the study is to analyze this tool and its new technologies, then result if the statement according to Microsoft is partially true or not, if WebMatrix and its new technologies perceived simple to use. The study also describes the underlying problem and which techniques that have been implemented in the new system using WebMatrix. The purpose of the previously and the new system is service planning of the staff within the organization University West in Trollhättan. The goal is to simplify and improve the service planning.The study and implementation of the system has resulted in that WebMatrix perceived as simple and has a content of useful techniques that contribute to an effective development. The new system which has been created has resulted in being a positive solution which is simplifying service planning. The system contains only functionality that is relevant, have a better overview and a structure that makes it easier to administer. Unlike the previous system data is stored in a database, which has contributed to a very positive impression of the system's users, given the common availability.

  • 275.
    Johansson, Joakim
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Avståndsvarnare till Mobiltelefon2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes a study, description and testing of parts to an application adapted to the operating system Android. The application is supposed to measure the distance to a car ahead. Apart from distance measurements the ability of the application to calculate its own speed with the help of GPS is tested. From these two parameters, speed, distance and some constants the theoretical stopping distance of the car will be calculated in order to warn the driver if the car is too close to the car ahead in relation to its own speed and stopping distance.

    Tests were conducted on the different applications that were programmed and the result showed that the camera technique in the mobile phone itself limits the maximum distance of the distance measurement application. The max distance the tests in this thesis revealed was approximately 5 meters. The measurement done to the GPS speed calculating application showed that the application was more accurate than the speedometer in the test car.

    The result of this thesis was that if all the parts were to be put together to a single application the maximum speed that it could be used with some functionality was 13,8 kilometers/hour assuming that the car ahead is at a standstill and the camera on the mobile phone is in a straight line from the license plate.

  • 276.
    Johansson, Lars-Olof
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Informatics and Mathematics.
    The dynamics of interaction: exploring a living lab innovation process from a community of practice perspective2011In: Proceedings of Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS) 2011, Association for Information Systems, 2011, article id 85Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on a living lab project, which is an open, user-centric, innovation approach, where several actors from industry, user groups and academia are involved. The research question is: How can interaction dynamics be understood in a living lab innovation process? We applied an action-oriented research approach, where the empirical results are from The Find Project (TFP), which aim is to customize an ICT product based on the needs of a user group. The findings are analyzed from a community of practice perspective where three different communities, i) researchers from Halmstad Living Lab (HLL), ii) ICT developers (ICTD) and iii) next of kin of demented elderly persons (NOKD), represented the unit of analysis. We identified situations and activities that played a vital role for the innovation process in terms of boundary interaction dynamics. The contribution of our research to innovation theory is a combination and further exploration of the boundary spanning and communities of practice theories. We have developed a conceptual model describing the dynamics in boundary interactions of an ICT innovation process with regard to boundary objects-inuse and brokering. The conceptual model highlights two different levels of brokering: i) inner-level brokering and ii) outer-level brokering.

  • 277.
    Johansson, Lars-Olof
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Halmstad.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Exploring brokering situations in an innovation boundary context2011In: Selected Papers of the Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia:: “IRIS 34 - ICT of Culture – Culture of ICT” / [ed] Judith Molka-Danielsen & Kai Kimppa,, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on studies of a living lab process, which is an open, user-centric, innovation approach, where several actors from industry, user groups and academia are involved. We aim to describe and analyze the dynamics in an innovation boundary context based on a living lab process. An action-oriented research approach was applied and the empirical results are from The Find Project (TFP), with the aim of customizing an ICT product based on the needs of a user group. The findings are analyzed from a community of practice perspective where the three different communities i) researchers from Halmstad Living Lab (HLL), ii) ICT developers (ICTD), and iii) next of kin's to demented elderly persons (NOKD) represented the units of analysis. The analysis identified several boundary situations that played a vital role for the innovation process. The contribution of our research to innovation theory is a process model describing the dynamics in an innovation boundary context with regard to boundary objects-in-use as well as to brokering. The research highlights two different levels of brokering: i) product/service brokering; and ii) process brokering.

  • 278.
    Johansson, L-O
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Boundary dialogues in user-centric innovation2012In: 18th Americas Conference on Information Systems 2012, AMCIS 2012, Seattle, WA, 2012, Vol. 4, p. 2910-2919Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on a user-centric innovation project, Free2Ride, which is seen as an example of community interaction that overcomes boundaries. Free2Ride aimed at developing a piece of ICT safety equipment consisting of a sender (on the horse) and a receiver (application in a smartphone) to be used by equestrian club members during their everyday riding activities. We will answer the research question of what the characteristics of a boundary dialogue in user-centric innovation activities are. The aim of the paper is to propose a model describing the characteristics of boundary dialogue in user-centric innovation that involve different communities of practices such as ICT developers, users and researchers. We applied a combination of research approaches consisting of action research and engaged scholarship approach. The theoretical framework for analyzing our findings is communities of practices with a specific interest in boundary spanning and learning dialogues. Our contribution is a model describing the characteristics of boundary dialogues in user-centric innovation. An important element of that model is the mental wandering, inwards and outwards, by core members in a community. We discuss the temporal as well as the symbolic nature of the mental wandering during the boundary dialogue in user-centric innovation activities. © (2012) by the AIS/ICIS Administrative Office All rights reserved.

  • 279.
    Johansson, Pierre E. C.
    et al.
    Volvo Group Trucks Operations, Gothenburg 405 08, Sweden.
    Enofe, Martin O.
    Volvo Group Trucks Operations, Gothenburg 405 08, Sweden.
    Schwarzkopf, Moritz
    Volvo Group Trucks Operations, Gothenburg 405 08, Sweden.
    Malmsköld, Lennart
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Fast-Berglund, Åsa
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg 412 96, Sweden.
    Moestam, Lena
    Data and Information Handling in Assembly Information Systems: A Current State Analysis2017In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 11, p. 2099-2106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Products become more complex as the general technology development reaches new levels. These new technologies enable manufacturing companies to offer better products with new functionalities to their customers. Complex products require adequate manufacturing systems to cope with changing product requirements. In general, manufacturing of this type of products entails complex structured and rigid IT systems. Due to the system’s complexity and comprehensive structure, it becomes challenging to optimize the information flow. There are improvement potentials in how such systems could be better structured to meet the demands in complex manufacturing situations. This is particularly true for the vehicle manufacturing industry where growth in many cases have occurred through acquisitions, resulting in increased levels of legacy IT systems. Additionally, this industry is characterized by high levels of product variety which contribute to the complexity of the manufacturing processes. In manual assembly of these products, operations are dependent on high quality assembly work instructions to cope with the complex assembly situations. This paper presents a current state analysis of data and information handling in assembly information systems at multiple production sites at a case company manufacturing heavy vehicles. On basis of a certain set of characterizing manual assembly tasks for truck, engine and transmission assembly, this work focuses on identifying what data and information that is made available to operators in terms of assembly work instructions and the importance of such data and information. This work aims to identify gaps in the information flow between manufacturing engineering and shop floor operations. © 2017 The Authors

  • 280.
    Jonasson, Amanda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Öhman, Emelie
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Vill ni betala för min film?: En kvalitativ fallstudie kring framgångsfaktorer i crowdfundingkampanjer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Crowdfunding is a concept that is growing among entrepreneurs. Crowdfunding involves using small donations from many people able to finance their product or project. Kickstarter is a crowdfundingplattform where you can create campaigns to raise money. If the campaign should be seen as successful need a financial target that met. Our investigation involves identifying factors that are important for the success of their campaign. We also want to investigate how these factors are interrelated and how the description of the project affects people to donate.

    The survey found that personal and targeted languages to different types of genres is important to motivate people to want to donate. Use of images to enhance text is a factor that proved to be effective. Moreover, it is important to work creatively with rewards given to people who donate. These factors motivate a person to both donate money to the campaign, but also spread it to other social media, which is crucial for the success of the campaign.

  • 281.
    Jonasson, Emelie
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Behov av dokumentation inom agila projekt vid systemförvaltning: En fallstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the documentation in the management of ERP- (Enterprise Resource Planning) systems and the challenges that exist around documentation in agile methods. The study provides knowledge about the needs for documentation in agile projects for system maintenance and the risks associated with a lack of documentation in the administration. A qualitative approach has been used by a case study. The study's conclusions are based on ob-servations, interviews and document analysis. Agile methods do not require as much docu-mentation of tasks and are based on personal collaborations between operators in the system. The study's final results show that the documentation cannot be excluded, but it should be used where it fits. If documentation support human interaction, rather than to replace it, can it still can be in line with agile development principles. There is a general consensus that that a major drawback of Agile methodologies is a loss of undocumented knowledge. Because doc-umentation is compromised when applying agile methods, important knowledge is lost during and after system development. Many companies are embracing Agile projects are told that they should not be document anything, without relying on open communication going on. People often misunderstand agile methods. Policies and practices for Agile methodologies introduced in organizations but not implemented fully.

  • 282.
    Karlsson, Emil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Nilsson, Lina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Animerad TV-vinjett: utsmyckning eller genre? En studie i animerad TV-vinjett2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the TV vignette is considered an embellishment to a TV program, despite its broad audiences and unique appearance. We wanted to find out if the television vignette has some common features and conventions but also find out how it relates to genre.We used a case study where we analyzed ten vignettes that we chose from certain criteria. We used a model based on image analysis that we modified to fit our needs. The main parts of each model consisted semiotics, imagery, dramaturgy and sound.We also made a couple of interviews with people who are active or used to work with vignettes. As a result we discovered that the television vignettes consist of certain conventions and that the vignette will not be considered as an independent genre, until the public has accepted it. However, we found that the vignette has common features and conventions that could fit into the established art form Motion Graphics. We see, however, that the vignette has the potential, thanks to digitization, to evolve and become a kind of its own.Today, the TV vignette is considered an embellishment to a TV program, despite its broad audiences and unique appearance. We wanted to find out if the television vignette has some common features and conventions but also find out how it relates to genre.We used a case study where we analyzed ten vignettes that we chose from certain criteria. We used a model based on image analysis that we modified to fit our needs. The main parts of each model consisted semiotics, imagery, dramaturgy and sound.We also made a couple of interviews with people who are active or used to work with vignettes. As a result we discovered that the television vignettes consist of certain conventions and that the vignette will not be considered as an independent genre, until the public has accepted it. However, we found that the vignette has common features and conventions that could fit into the established art form Motion Graphics. We see, however, that the vignette has the potential, thanks to digitization, to evolve and become a kind of its own.

  • 283.
    Karlsson, IC MariAnne
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Division Design and Human Factors, Department of Product and Production Development, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Engelbrektsson, Pontus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Division Design and Human Factors, Department of Product and Production Development, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Lena E.
    Region Vaestra Gotaland, Regionens hus, SE-462 80 Vaenersborg, Sweden.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Berndtsson, Bo
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Use-centred design of medical and healthcare technology: a pilot study of field tests as a development tool2011In: International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1752-6418, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 11-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the project has been to develop a process through which users, staff as well as patients, can be involved in field evaluations of medical and healthcare technology. Interviews with different stakeholders and the experiences from four case studies have led to the following conclusions. Users have the potential to act as active evaluators rather than passive subjects or participants only. However, user involvement in field evaluations must be supported by a formation of facilitators or 'door openers' to the healthcare organisation, moderators enhancing the dialogue between developers and users, and mentors for the users acting as evaluators

  • 284.
    Karlsson, Simon
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gustafsson, Gustaf
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Poängen med poäng: En studie av hur förhandsinformation påverkar acceptansen av ett poängsystem på en webbsida2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how well users accept badges as an element depending on prior information. This study conducts a user test where two user groups where created. The first group gets prior information about badges and that they are going to test a webpage, and participate in a survey. The secound groups dosen't get any information that the website contains badges. 34 participant conducted the survey and showed low acceptance towards badges. The results also showed that the prior information had negative impact on the user acceptance.

  • 285.
    Khalayleh, Tamer
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Misic, Emir
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Införande av distansmöte via video: Vid samordnad vård- och omsorgspanering i Västra Götalandsregionen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Region Västra Götaland has introduced a video implementation meeting on health and long-term care planning for released patients. This is a tripartite cooperation in which the municipality, hospital and primary care are supposed to participate. In this study, we delimit ourselves to primary care and the implications of this technology at their part. The initial thought is that you should make use of distance meetings via video on every occasion where the opportunity to do so exists, but we can see that the utilization rate today is at a low level. This raises questions. We have therefore asked ourselves how the change process had an impact on usage. We have also asked ourselves what the flaws were and what kind of resistance arose against the change. In order to answer the questions, we have been using the interview method and because we want to examine the change process, we focused on interviewing management lines and managers that have been involved in the change. In our theoretical framework, we have been using Kurt Lewin’s recognized model of change, Arnfalk’s theory of distance meetings and how it should be introduced, the “caught in the middle” role of middle managers in the public sector, and theories relevant to resistance. Theories in relation with the empirical results made it possible for us to answer the questions.

    Since this was qualitative study, the results are presented in the form of the summary of respondents' quotes. Secondary data were taken from the public documents that had been published by the region Västra Götaland. Finally, we tested our empiricism against, in particular, Lewin's change theory and concluded that the implementation has not gone past the first, so-called unfreezing phase. Consequently, the change affected the use negatively as they have not succeeded in destabilizing everyday activities and change attitudes. Information and communication have not communicated properly down the management line and middle managers have, because of this, failed to involve their staff. Distance meetings is a new process for primary care where the situation is already strained, which means that middle managers end up "caught in the middle” and not showing enough commitment and desire for change. One should always in a process of change, regardless size, ensuring that everyone involved understands the importance of the change before starting working on it, otherwise the resistance will occur.

  • 286. Kiamehr, Ramin
    et al.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    EGMlab, a scientific software for determining the gravity and gradient components from global geopotential models2008In: Earth Science Informatics, ISSN 1865-0473, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 93-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, Global Geopotential Models (GGMs) are used as a routine stage in the procedures to compute a gravimetric geoid. The GGMs based geoidal height also can be used for GPS/levelling and navigation purposes in developing countries which do not have accurate gravimetric geoid models. Also, the GGM based gravity anomaly including the digital elevation model can be used in evaluation and outlier detections schemes of the ground gravity anomaly data. Further, the deflection of vertical and gravity gradients components from the GGMs can be used for different geodetic and geophysical interpretation purposes. However, still a complete and user-friendly software package is not available for universities and geosciences communities. In this article, first we review the procedure for determination of the basic gravity field and gradient components from the GGMs, then general MATLAB based software is presented and applied as a sample case study for determination of gravity components based on the most recent EIGEN-GL04C GRACE model in Sweden

  • 287.
    Kiamehr, Ramin
    et al.
    Department of Geodesy and Geomatics, Zanjan University, Iran.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Estimating variance components of ellipsoidal, orthometric and geoidalheights through the GPS/levelling Network in Iran2008In: Journal of the Earth and Space Physics, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Best Quadratic Unbiased Estimation (BQUE) of variance components in the Gauss-Helmert model is used to combine adjustment of GPS/levelling and geoid to determinethe individual variance components for each of the three height types. Through theresearch, different reasons for achievement of the negative variance components werediscussed and a new modified version of the Best Quadratic Unbiased Non-negativeEstimator (MBQUNE) was successfully developed and applied. This estimation could beuseful for estimating the absolute accuracy level which can be achieved using theGPS/levelling method. A general MATLAB function is presented for numericalestimation of variance components by using the different parametric models. Themodified BQUNE and developed software was successfully applied for estimating thevariance components through the sample GPS/levelling network in Iran. In the followingresearch, we used the 75 outlier free and well distributed GPS/levelling data. Threecorrective surface models based on the 4, 5 and 7 parameter models were used throughthe combined adjustment of the GPS/levelling and geoidal heights. Using the 7-parametermodel, the standard deviation indexes of the geoidal, geodetic and orthometric heights inIran were estimated to be about 27, 39 and 35 cm, respectively.

  • 288.
    Kiamehr, Ramin
    et al.
    Department of Geodesy and Geomatics, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    Division of Geodesy, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    Division of Geodesy, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Interpretation of the general geophysical patterns of Iran based on the gradient components analysis of the GRACE2008In: Acta Geophysica, ISSN 1895-6572, E-ISSN 1895-7455, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 440-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Only with satellites it is possible to cover the entire Earth densely with gravityfield related measurements of uniform quality within a short period of time. However,due to the altitude of the satellite orbits, the signals of individual local massesare strongly damped. Based on the approach of Petrovskaya and Vershkov we determinethe gravity gradient tensor directly from the spherical harmonic coefficientsof the recent EIGEN-GL04C combined model of the GRACE satellite mission. Satellitegradiometry can be used as a complementary tool to gravity and geoid informationin interpreting the general geophysical and geodynamical features of theEarth. Due to the high altitude of the satellite, the effects of the topography and theinternal masses of the Earth are strongly damped. However, the gradiometer data,which are nothing else than the second order spatial derivatives of the gravity potential,efficiently counteract signal attenuation at the low and medium frequencies.In this article we review the procedure for estimating the gravity gradientcomponents directly from spherical harmonics coefficients. Then we apply thismethod as a case study for the interpretation of possible geophysical or geodynamicalpatterns in Iran. We found strong correlations between the cross-components ofthe gravity gradient tensor and the components of the deflection of vertical, and weshow that this result agrees with theory. Also, strong correlations of the gravityanomaly, geoid model and a digital elevation model were found with the diagonalelements of the gradient tensor.

  • 289.
    Kihlberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Williams, Theodor R
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Berättande i independentspel2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we are researching the development of storytelling in games, in particular independent game productions. By looking at the already established development in the American cinema we compare the mainstream and independent productions to modern societies' producer patterns in games.We explore differences and similarities of storytelling in mainstream-and independent games by making a comparative analysis of two games: the mainstream production L.ANoire, 2011, and the independent production Journey,2012. By using theories such as Aristotle's three act structure, mise-en-scen and character development we are able to get an overall impression of the aspects storytelling has in these games. To further strengthen our analysis we conducted two interviews with established game developers. One of them has an extensive history of working with mainstream productions and the other is an independent game developer with a successful production history.We manage to argue for the impact independent game development has on the mainstream productions in regard to storytelling. Both the interviews and analysis show that independent game productions are using storytelling in a much more experimental manner, adapting it from the American cinema to the medium of games. However, wefailed to give a clear representation to how storytelling, as a new language, is developing in games.

  • 290.
    Kolbaek, Ditte
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Online learning: "In between" University studies and professional work2019In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 164-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores learning when professionals return to education and use their professional work experience to fulfil their study objectives. The research question is: How do students learn from experiences in two contexts-a master’s course at a university and their organisations of employment-by attending a blended learning course? The study builds on Engeström’s (2001) expansive learning model of two interacting activity systems, namely, the students’ master’s degree programme and their professional workplaces. As the study context is an online learning environment it follows a "netnographic" approach. The findings show that the students integrated requirements from their university studies with interventions in their professional work situations. The online learning environment enabled reification of reflections which the students could use later in their study and supported them to become more skilled professionals and influencers in their organisations of employment. © Universitetsforlaget.

  • 291.
    Kolbæk, Ditte
    et al.
    Aalborg University Copenhagen, The Faculty of Humanities, Department of Learning and Philosophy.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Rethinking expansive learning: Experience from an educational design supporting authors in practice2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses an online community of master's students taking a course in ICT and organisational learning. The students initiated and facilitated an educational design for organisational learning called Proactive Review in the organisation where they are employed. By using an online discussion forum on Google groups, they created new ways of reflecting and learning. We used netnography to select qualitative postings from the online community and expansive learning concepts for data analysis. The findings show how students changed practices of organisational learning in their professional organisation and how they developed their identity to become more skilled practitioners. We discuss the effects of the written discussions and reflections on the students' endeavour to become authors in practice. Our contribution to the research consists of considerations of changing the spoken word to the written word, which lacks spontaneity but supports equality among students.

  • 292.
    Kristiansson, Lilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, Daria
    Is co-op education a source of increased motivation for learning?2012In: The European Conference on Educational Research, ECER 2012: 18-21 sept, 2012, Cádiz, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many universities across the world offer a model for course delivery which combines academic study with a placement in industry. This educational model originated in the U.S., where the automobile industry wanted to ensure a supply of skilled engineers. This educational process has been described in different ways, for example in America it is known as 'cooperative education', or co-op, while in the UK it adopted the name of 'sandwich courses'.

    There is a vast amount of literature which assesses the role of work practice in the development of competences and skills of future professionals, the effect it has on the transition of graduates into the work environment, how it shapes their career aspirations etc. At the same time there are studies which look into the effect of placements on students' motivation in their academic performance.  The research results demonstrate that students who have chosen a co-op model are more motivated in their studies than those students who have chosen not to go on placements [e.g. 1, 2]. The main reasons for the increased motivation of students who chose the co-op route were that their work experience provided them with evidence that the theoretical knowledge they learn at the university is relevant to their work.

    Despite of the benefits that co-op model can bring into students' learning experience, the success of this model across different countries varies. For example, in Sweden the co-op model is very popular among students. However, in the UK the number of students entering this route is decreasing [3].

    In this paper we address the success of the co-op model, especially in relation to students' motivation for their academic study using the co-op programme offered by the Engineering department, University West, Sweden as an example. The aim of this study is to investigate which aspects of academic knowledge students find useful for their practical placements and how their experience of applying this knowledge can be put into practice to increase to motivation for learning of the other students who choose the traditional educational route.

    The main two objectives of educators are: first, to contribute to students' subject knowledge; second, to motivate students to learn. We assume that students coming into higher education have a so-called intrinsic motivation when they begin their studies although it is not always the case in practice. Our task as educators is to stimulate individuals, offer them external motivation to improve their skills and to ensure that they do not lose interest in their selected topics [4].

    To achieve this goal a university teacher can build on positive students' attitudes by creating an open and imaginative atmosphere at lectures and tutorials, for example through the use of alternative teaching methods, such as problem-based learning or project-based learning.

    The study was carried out at the University West in 2010/11. The students who participated in the study opted for the co-op model and the participating tutor taught a module on Solid Mechanics on both co-op and traditional routes.

    MethodFor this study, a mixed-methods approach was used comprising open-ended questionnaires and observations. The students who went on placements were asked to complete a questionnaire at the end of each placement period. The questionnaire was designed to capture the students' experience during their practice focusing on the effect of the placements on their motivation in their further academic study. As part of the existing curriculum the students who went on placements had also to give a presentation to their peers at the end of each placement period where they summarised their work, the responsibilities they had, the engineering problems they were solving, and reflected on their experience. These presentations were observed by the tutor. The data from the questionnaires and presentations were later analysed for students' opinions about the opportunities that they received during their placements for deepening their academic knowledge. Based on the results of this analysis, new engineering problems adapted from the students' practice were introduced into the Solid Mechanics course delivery together with new teaching methods, such as problem-based learning and project-based learning, to achieve higher motivation in students who have not opted for a co-op model [5, 6].

    Expected OutcomesThe collected data showed that the students gave very positive feedback about their practice and the analysis demonstrated that this practical experience supports and inspires further study. In their reports students suggested using new practical-based problems in relevant courses. Using real-life problems can make learning richer and more rewarding for all students.The co-op students can share their work experience with their non-co-op peers by giving presentations regarding the relevance of the academic course content to their job, the problems they were solving while on the placements, the opportunities for challenging future jobs as well as increased confidence and self-esteem. The tutor observed that problem-based learning and project-based learning based on working in groups as well as the use of the real-life problems increased motivation in non-co-op students. They became more responsible, active, and knowledge-seeking and improved their communication with peers. The tutor also observed that having a mix of students who had placements and those who did not in the groups formed a stimulating learning environment. In conclusion, suggestions were made in relation to what can be incorporated into a range of engineering programmes to increase students' motivation and enhance their engagement with the learning process.

    References1. Gomez S., Lush D., and Clements M. (2004), Work Placements Enhance the Academic Performance of Bioscience Undergraduates, J. Voc. Ed. Training, V 56, 3, 363-386. 2. Duignan, J. (2003) Placement and Adding Value to the Academic Performance of Undergraduates:  J. Voc. Ed. Training, Volume 55, 3, 335-350. 3. Sandwich Courses in Higher Education (UK), A report on current provision and analysis of barriers to increasing participation, July 2011, Education for Engineering. 4. Eklann, A, Kjellen, B & Svensson, L.(2010). " Learning using case studies" (in Swedish). Studentlitteratur: Lund. 5. Sergiovanni, T. J. (1991). "The principals a reflective practice perspective" (2nd Ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 6. Norman G.R., Schmidt H.G. (1992)."The Psychologial Basic of Problem-Based Learning: A Review of the Evidence." Academic Medicine 67: 557-565.

  • 293.
    Köhler, Veronica
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    Co-Creators of Scope of Action: An exploration of the dynamic relationship between people, IT, and work in a nursing context2006Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information Technology (IT) is today widespread in our work places, in our spare time and in our society overall. Implementations of IT in organizations come with high expectations on effectiveness, revenue, smoother work processes and so on. However, this simplified view on IT ignores the fact that it is the IT usage rather than the IT artifact per se that in the end decides the effect of an implementation of IT. Although the IT artifact certainly has been designed to support certain tasks and processes, the success or failure of the Information System (IS) in the end depends on the individuals' actions, which ultimately depend on their perceptions and interpretations of the IS. Thus, when technology is being implemented and becomes an IS in use, it becomes a part of work, and as such more of a social system than a technological one.

    The actual result of a design process does not solely consist of things or artifacts, but above all changed action patterns for the users. From this follows that we must consider design of artifacts as something more than merely the constructing of actual objects with functions and properties that are easily measured. Rather, a large part of all design activities has to do with design of conceivable social milieus, not artifacts. Thus, design may be defined as the suggesting and establishing of scope of action. The concept scope of action aims at describing the fact that the design of, and consequently the implementation of, a specific IT artifact always aims at creating a certain scope of action; some actions are made easier, others are made more difficult or even impossible. This scope of action has to some extent been deliberately designed, but these changes may on the other hand also be undesired and not predicted in advance. The complexity of this phenomenon is great and hard to grasp in advance. However, this does not mean that we can allow ourselves to ignore exploring this phenomenon more deeply. On the contrary, with a usage perspective on IS success or failure, scope of action becomes very important.

    Although the term scope of action may seem a rather intuitive concept, we need more concrete knowledge about its character in order to be able to understand IT usage, both when designing a new IT artifact and when studying or evaluating IT. Thus, our intuitive understanding of the concept needs to be complemented with theory on the ‘constituents’ and effects of this phenomenon. For this purpose, in this thesis nurses’ use of the Electronic Patient record (EPR) is being explored in order to gain an empirically derived understanding of the character of scope of action.

    The research findings highlight the emergent character of scope of action. It is obvious that an individual’s scope of action is not being created on one occasion, and above all not only by the IT artifact. Various co- creators such as the IT artifact, the usage and the social context create and re-create scope of action. Also, how the individual interprets and understands the IT artifact in IT usage will influence her scope of action. This since sensemaking and learning processes on both a personal and organizational level take place that are co-creators of the individual’s scope of action, at the same time as the individual’s knowledge and previous sensemaking and learning influences her use of the IT artifact.

    Thus, reasoning, thinking, learning, and the IT artifact co-evolve over time in adaptation and appropriation processes. This means that IT as a mediational means constitutes an important co-creator of scope of action. From this also follows that work integrated learning is an important co- creator of scope of action when using IT in a work setting, at the same time as work integrated learning is being influenced by the individual’s scope of action.

    Finally, in order to understand how scope of action emerges in use, merely focusing on structures is insufficient. Scope of action emerges as a product of interplay between complex processes involving artifacts, usage and context. This means that the user’s scope of action is co-created by both static structures as well as dynamic processes relating to the IT artifact, the organization, and the work practice. Thus, the IT artifact, and subsequently scope of action, must be must be understood in relation to the multi-aspectual context of which it is a part instead of merely in relation to the properties of the IT artifact per se.

  • 294.
    Liljedahl, Johanna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Jag ska bara ta en selfie: en kvalitativ fallstudie kring varför unga kvinnor använder sociala medier och tar selfies2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Together with the rapid technological development of the internet and smartphones, social media has quickly become a part of many people's everyday lives, especially among young women. Social media is used daily to receive news, entertainment, and keep in touch with friends, but also used as a platform to present themselves in pictures and text. Many young women choose to take pictures of themselves with their mobile that is, so-called selfies, which many then choose to add on such as Facebook, Instagram and Snapchat. The purpose of this study is to examine why young women choose to take selfies and post them on social media and how it affects the individual. A study was conducted where twelve young women aged 16-17 years were interviewed using semi-structured focus groups where discussions were held about the use of social media and taking selfies. The results showed that the interviewees felt pressure from friends and the community that they must be part of the social media to be accepted. Many of the interviewees chose to take selfies because it was an easy way to get quick confirmation from others. Pressure from friends and the community around the use of social media together with selfies create according to interviewees performance anxiety and social stress in one's everyday life that is difficult to get rid of.

  • 295.
    Lillerskog, Marcus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Svenberg, Daniel
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    De osynliga visuella effekterna: Filmeffekterna som ska verka utan att synas2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of effects in filmmaking is not a new innovation. But today more film productions choose to use visual effects to achieve other things than spectacular explosions, space ships that invade earth or resurrected dinosaurs. Today effects are also used to create everything from natural elements like fog and snow to city scenes and buildings.

    These effects reinforce a filmed scene rather than standing out and drawing attention in them selves, hence the term "invisible effects".

    In an analysis of three different films, this essay examines the concept of "Visual Effects" and how these are used to create and reinforce the realism of the natural and urban environments. The essay and the analysis covers a variety of concepts and theories of, among other things, semiotics, perceptual realism, digital imaging and visual communication.

    The result shows that the visual impact is the sum of the different tools that form a realistic result.

    Among other things, you should customize the created visual effects for the filmed material and its attributes, such as lighting, motion and structure.

  • 296.
    Lindman, Linus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Automation and Computer Engineering.
    Automatisering av serversäkerhetsvalidering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis evaluates whether there exists a tool that the corporation Zetup can use seeing that they search for a concept to validate standardized and secured installs of various servers. The validation of these installs should be able to be automated, verified continuously during a systems lifetime and should also be able to be modified for specific conditions.

    The tool that was chosen for this evaluation was the security organization Center for Internet Security’s CIS-CAT Benchmark Assessment Tool which uses XML-files, so called benchmarks, consisting of a number of verifications which checks whether a target system is configured in conformity with security configurations that the Center for Internet Security has produced for maximal information security. A run of CIS-CAT results in a HTML-document which explicitly presents the result of each verification specified and grades the configuration of the target system. For this purpose, Zetup has chosen 22 requirements that their standard server should live up to. Most of these verifications were already configured, others had to be created.

    Initially, it was verified that the server was configured in accordance with the recommendations. Then, 10 misconfigurations were introduced to verify that the tool actually could find all misconfigurations.

    The evaluation showed that the tool is very useful. CIS-CAT was easily configured according to the organizations specific conditions and all introduced misconfigurations were found. CIS-CAT complies with the requirements Zetup has set although disadvantages also emerged. A great advantage is that with a tool such as this, you can start working proactively and discover misconfigurations before they affect a system negatively. Disadvantages worth mentioning are for example that the tool is not very helpful when it comes to error messages when misconfiguring the benchmark file. Another disadvantage is that a lot of resources are required when working with a tool like this; Benchmarks must be maintained and modified as new requirements emerge and old ones vanish. Also, someone must review the result of every run of CIS-CAT and fix each encountered misconfiguration

  • 297.
    Lindroth, Tomas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media Production.
    Bergquist, Magnus
    IT-University, Göteborg .
    Breadcrumbs of interaction: situating personal information management2008In: Proceedings of the 5th Nordic conference on Human-computer interaction: building bridges, ACM , 2008, p. 266-273Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 298.
    Lindroth, Tomas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media Production.
    Bergquist, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied Information Technology.
    Laptopers in an educational practice: Promoting the personal learning situation2010In: Computers and education, ISSN 0360-1315, E-ISSN 1873-782X, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 311-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article an ethnographical study of laptopers' activities during lectures in a university milieu is analyzed as different kinds of involvements. Through interviews and observations we have focused on how these involvements influence the laptopers' alignment towards the educational practice. The analysis shows the importance of separating the educational practice and the personal learning situation. Studying students' learning intentions, rather than certain laptop related activities, we get a deeper understanding of the role the laptop can take during learning activities. Five general characteristics of laptoping are found. Negotiating the laptops' different roles in the educational practice opens up for an understanding of the students personal learning situation as being more than just listening to a lecturer. Additionally, competent integration of digital tools into the learning situation extends the dimensions of the lecture beyond the lecturing hours and personal note taking. Such knowledge is vital for creating foundations for digital competency in a digitized society. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 299.
    Lindroth, Tomas
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Islind, Anna Sigridur
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Steineck, G.
    University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Academy, Clinical Science, Sweden.
    Lundin, J.
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied IT, Sweden.
    From narratives to numbers: Data work and patient-generated health data in consultations2018In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics / [ed] Klein G.O.,Karlsson D.,Moen A.,Ugon A., IOS Press, 2018, Vol. 247, p. 491-495Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents preliminary findings on how the introduction of patient-generated health data (PGHD) triggers changes during patient-nurse consultations. This article builds on a two-year case study, examining the work practice at a cancer rehabilitation clinic at a Swedish Hospital using PGHD. The study focuses on how nurses’ use data, gathered by patients with a mobile phone app, during consultations. The use of PGHD introduce a change in the translation work, the work of turning rich patient descriptions and transform them into data, during the consultation for documentation and clinical decision-making. This change affects precision, questions asked and the use of visualizations as well as the patient-nurse decision making. © 2018 European Federation for Medical Informatics (EFMI) and IOS Press.

  • 300.
    Lindström, David
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences.
    Evaluation of a Surrogate Based Method for Global Optimization2015In: International Journal of Computer, Electrical, Automation, Control and Information Engineering, E-ISSN 1307-6892, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 1636-1642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate the performance of a numerical method for global optimization of expensive functions. The method is using a response surface to guide the search for the global optimum. This metamodel could be based on radial basis functions, kriging, or a combination of different models. We discuss how to set the cyclic parameters of the optimization method to get a balance between local and global search. We also discuss the eventual problem with Runge oscillations in the response surface.

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