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  • 201.
    Khodabakhsh, Amir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Westerlind, Jenny
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kontrollplan för inspektion av pulpeter, skåp, lådor samt internkablage2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis control plans for junction boxes, cabinets, one-piece consoles and internal wiring within Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant are created to give a better overview. This work includes two different types of objects: junction boxes labeled .41 in drawings and cabinets with requirements for electromagnetic noise immunity. Consequently, the report will therefore be divided into two separate areas because the mentioned objects require different control plans

    Junction boxes .41

    In the development of the control plan, knowledge about junction boxes, environmental conditions and potential failures were required. The junction boxes that are hundreds in number can vary to the exterior and interior. Many of the malfunctions are caused by aging effects due to degradation mechanisms in synergy with the environments. The work to determine a statistical sample, which will be controlled by visual inspection, has been carried out in consultation with expertise in junction boxes and statistics. The number of boxes has been compared to the statistical calculation model to ensure that the amount is enough to provide an overview of .41 boxes. The developed control plan consists of an aging analysis of degradation mechanisms, acceptance criteria and documentation intended for visual inspections. Despite the wide variety of .41 boxes and environmental conditions, the authors consider the developed control plan comprehensive and it also includes divergent boxes and environments.

    EMC cabinet

    No statistical selection has been taken place in the work with interference resistance cabinets because it was not included in this project and the EMC cabinets are fewer in number than the .41 boxes. The construction of the cabinet is important for the suppression of electromagnetic interference. Components are affected by different degradation mechanisms depending on material which affect the aging negative. The degradation mechanisms have been compiled in an aging analysis as part of the work to develop the control plan. The acceptance criteria are based on the aging analysis and in turn result in documentation to be used in visual inspections. The control plan developed is expected to meet the main goal of the project to create a better overview of EMC cabinets. The authors believe that the resulting control plan could have looked differently and still achieve the main goal. For example, more preventative measures such as changing the gasket to extend the time interval between inspections.

  • 202.
    Kjellsson, Henrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Concept development of re-assemblable eductor tube in Turbine Rear Frame2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the possibilities to design a re-assemblable eductor tube in the GEnx Turbine Rear Frame (TRF). The eductor tube is mounted inside one of the struts of the TRF and provides pressurized air from the compressor to the center vent tube to support positive pressure differential over bearing seals in the engine. The goal was to develop a basic concept for an eductor tube which can be assembled without welding and disassembled without destructive processing.

    Two concepts were selected from the product development process for possible implementation in future TRF models.

    • Concept 1, which is designed with a bolt joint that provides a reliable and recognized fastening method.

    • Concept 2, which contains a strut tube with flange and retaining plates between the TRF and cast fitting for fixing of the tube.

    The project has been executed through a structured product development process through identifying customer needs, product specification, concept generation and concept selection. The goal through the process had been to generate concepts based on customer needs. The concepts have been generated through observations, TRIZ methodology, consulting experts, brainstorming and a concept combination table. To ensure that the concepts were based on customer needs, methods such as House of quality, focus group sessions and a scoring matrix was utilized in the project.

    Furthermore, analytical prototypes of the two concepts were created. The prototypes were utilized in order to illustrate the concepts and to determine the geometric boundaries of the concept by detect interference between other components. Hand calculations of concept DG were also performed using a joint diagram in order to determent the concepts mechanical properties for axial loadings.

  • 203.
    Kjellsson, Henrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    High temperature low cycle fatigue performance of electron beam powder bed fusion manufactured Alloy 7182021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of additively manufactured (AM) parts have been shown to be different from that of cast and wrought counterparts. In this study, electron beam powder bed fusion fabricated (EB-PBF) Alloy 718 was exposed to three different heat-treatment routes followed by strain-controlled fatigue testing at 550 °C. The fatigue testswere performed with specimens built with their center axis parallel and transverse relative to the build direction. The microstructure showed saturated precipitation of δ-Ni3Nb after repeated solution treatment at 954 °C. In contrast, no δ-Ni3Nb precipitates could be observed after a single-step solution treatment at 1025 °C. However, the disparity of secondary phases showed no noticeable influence on the fatigue life. A significant difference in fatigue behavior was noted between the parallel and transverse directions. The specimens loaded parallel to the elongated grains showed on average ~5X greater life in comparison to the perpendicularly loaded specimens. Compared to the corresponding material conditions tested at ambient temperature, the specimens showed lower life at high strain amplitude and superior life at low strain amplitude. Moreover, competitive internal and surface failure modes were observed in the lower strain amplitudes.

  • 204.
    Koca, Serhat
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Uca, Rodem
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kartläggning av problemområden i godshanteringen vid införande av en digital truckapplikation: Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB i Trollhättan2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the spring term of 2019 a thesis was carried out. The aim and goal were to identify possible problem areas on goods handling before introducing a digital truck application at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB in Trollhättan. The thesis will not address the implementation process of Ubertruck. No recommendations on digital design for eventual adjustments of Ubertruck throughout the thesis was suggested.

    In order to identify possible problem areas when introducing Ubertruck, the goods handling at both SIT-Trollhättan and SIT-Finspång was surveyed with the help of interviews and observation, five interviews was carried throughout this project.

    With the help of the results from the surveys, two problem areas were identified at SIT Trollhättan, lacking traceability and unnecessary transports. It was established that these problem areas occur in inventory and production. The lacking traceability in inventory is because use of a system which only indicates which inventory the goods is placed, however it does not indicate were in inventory (which shelf) it is placed. The lacking traceability in production is because there is no system for tracing the goods to the operations, therefore it is only the goods deliverer and operator who receives the goods that knows where in production the goods is located. Because of that the goods deliverer must look for goods that have undergone an operation and leads to unnecessary transport. The unnecessary transports are also due to the fact that the inventories are spread out throughout the production facility.

    Based on the result, it is considered that the aim and goal of the thesis is fulfilled to the level possible. The drawn conclusion is that the problem areas at the introduction of Ubertruck are lacking traceability and unnecessary transport, which are located in inventory and production at SIT-Trollhättan.

  • 205.
    Kockgård, Rasmus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konceptstudie av generering och uppsamlingsnät för förnyelsebar elproduktion från vågkraft2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete visar på olika metoder att hantera den el som genereras i vågkraftverket av företaget Waves4Power. Denna rapport är baserad på Waves4Powers punktabsorberande vågkraftverk som är uppbyggt i form av en boj. Det finns flera möjliga strategier över hur generering och uppsamlingsnät kan se ut och därför är det av intresse att presentera olika alternativ och undersöka det mest lämpliga. Olika typer av generatorer samt omriktare presenteras. Vindkraftsparker offshore har flertalet likheter och liknande förutsättningar som vågkraftsparker, därför sammanförs information om vindkraft för att bidra med kunskap för valet av generator och omriktare. Valet av generator och omriktare är en central del för att leveransen av el ska vara pålitlig och för att relevanta beräkningar ska kunna genomföras. Uppsamlingsnätets design baseras på den tänkta vågkraftsparkens avstånd till land. Tre olika avstånd presenteras; kustnära, medellångt och avstånd långt ute till havs. Kustnära avstånd är aktuellt vid ett litet antal bojar och ett avstånd till land på några få kilometer. Om placering av vågkraftsparken sker långt ute till havs, med ett avstånd över ~50 km måste högspänd likström användas och blir relevant först vid ett stort antal bojar (ca 250 st.). En medellång överföring definieras som 20 – 40 km och detta fall är mest relevant för gällande förutsättningar. Uppsamlingsnätets föreslagna design består av maximalt tio bojar med en total maximal effekt på 2 MW sammankopplade till en gemensam transformator. Överföringen undersöks med tre nominella standardiserade överföringsspänningar som är baserade på den effekt som ska överföras; 11, 22 samt 33 kV. Vid 33 kV överföringsspänning, 2 MW producerad aktiv effekt och en överföringslängd på 40 km är spänningsfallet 0,013 p.u, vid 22 kV överföringsspänning är spänningsfallet 0,024 p.u och vid 11 kV överföringsspänning är spänningsfallet 0,073 p.u. Vid samma förutsättningar är de aktiva effektförlusterna vid 33 kV 37 kW, vid 22 kV 72 kW samt vid 11 kV är förlusterna 215 kW. Även olika variationer på överföringseffekter och kablar undersöks och resultat presenteras. För 11 kV överföringsspänning visar sig ha oacceptabla nivåer på spänningsfall för de flesta undersökta förutsättningarna, därför bör 22 eller 33 kV överföringsspänning väljas. Valet av spänningsnivå och kabel baseras till stor del på ekonomiska faktorer, vilket denna rapport inte omfattar. Däremot visas skillnader mellan olika designer relativt varandra och underlättar därmed valet avsevärt.

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  • 206.
    Korkmaz, Imdat
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Sundström, Marcus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Solceller och batterilagring i Off-Grid-system för en besöksanläggning2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a pilot study that has been made with the purpose to make a new facility in Onsala operating Off-Grid by using solar cells, short-term storage based on batteries and a long-term storage with hydrogen combined with fuel cells. This report focuses only on the solar panels and the short-term storage.

    An Off-Grid-system is a system that is self-supported and isn't connected to the electrical grid. In this case the facility will be able to be electrically self-supported 365 days a year. The facility will mostly have visitors from schools and it has a footprint area of 431 m2 and a total area of 498 m2. An earlier pilot study of the facility regarding the power consumption has been produced by Bengt Dahlgren AB and it has provided the estimated energy consumption that is the basis for this study. The annual electricity consumption has been estimated to 14 700 kWh where the heat production for the facility is based on a geothermal heat pump. By counting on a best-case-scenario, that's used throughout all three scenarios, the surplus heat as water from producing hydrogen is used to heat up the facility, leading to less operational time for the geothermal heat pump. A more efficient geothermal heat pump has also been used in this study when counting on this best-case-scenario. With less hours running time the annual electricity consumption is lowered by almost half to 6 749 kWh.

    For dimensioning of the solar panels, the simulating-program PV-SOL has been used. The program is taking weather, roof-angles, shading, insolation, the angle against the sun and losses in cables and components into account when calculating the annual electricity produced during a year. Scenario 1 gave the result of 16 621 kWh as annual electricity produced. After reduction for direct consumption in the facility and the energy demanded by the batteries, 12 371 kWh goes to production of hydrogen. This results in an over production of 759 kWh that's not used. In scenario 2 the same types of solar panels used on the roof are also placed on the outer south wall. The annual electricity produced now increases to 22 001 kWh. The excess energy after the facility and the battery consumption now increases to 17 248 kWh that is used for hydrogen production. This gives an increased surplus of 2 635 kWh. In this last scenario, scenario 3, a new solar panel was used and placed on the ground with an angle of 15˚ from the horizontal plane, directed to the south, i.e. a perfect condition. The total annual electricity produced then reached 26 573 kWh and the excess energy after the facility and the battery consumption is now increased to 21 743 kWh that is used for hydrogen production. This results in an over production of 3 909 kWh as surplus electricity for the facility. With this amount of electrical surplus energy, the facility can operate with a 58 % power increase. That's 47 % more than in scenario 1 and 19 % more than in scenario 2.

  • 207.
    Korsbo, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Woxvold Bjönness, Egil
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Analys av kvalitetsproblemen på rear quarter panel stationen hos Volvo Cars i Torslanda2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study analyzes the quality issues occurring during the assembly of the expander around the fuel cap while manufacturing Volvo v90. The assembling process is done manually at the rear quarter panel station. The main objective of the current investigation was to analyze the problems that Volvo Cars AB is facing currently and suggest quality improvement tools and techniques. 

    To define, measure and analyze the above-mentioned problem, the DMAIC method has been used. Interviews, observations, and a thorough literature study has been conducted and potential improvement proposals are suggested. 

    As a result of the current study, three new techniques for detecting quality problems early in the production process, several improvement suggestions with Lean as guideline and a suggestion for design change is proposed. Furthermore, suggestions are also given on how Volvo Cars can continue to work with improvements in the future to maintain a high quality throughout.

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  • 208.
    Krantz, Linus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utveckling av offertkalkyleringsmall för installation av laddningsstationer för elbilar2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the last years there has been a growth in the use of electric vehicles and it is expected for the growth to continue. This means that there is also a growth in the demand for the infrastructure for charging. Electric installation corporations will get more offer requests for charging stations. Thus, the project has simulated a numerous of imaginary projects. This is made to develop a template which could be used by the planners from the corporation to calculate the costs when an offer request is received by the company.

    This project sees everything from below in the grid and has no consideration of how the grid looks further up. The project has only a consideration up to the main fuse of said customer. This assumption is made due to the fact that when a private person has bought an electric car, he or she won't bother how the grid looks further up, he/she just assumes that the charging station will work.

    In the project there is also a discussion whether or not a car salesman can offer a charging station with installation from a registered electrical installation corporation to the customer.

    In the report results from the project will be shown in charts which later on will be used by the planners when calculating an offer. The results were expected by the corporation. The corporation did not know where the results would end up in the chart, but now when they have the results they have a better understanding of where the results ended up. The planner should be able to use the template even if the request expands the limits that the imaginary projects were calculated in.

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  • 209.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ståhl, Carl-Oscar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Informationsbehov vid användning av maskindata för beslutsfattande2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The supporters of Industry 4.0 promise large advantages for companies who implement it, but it does not come all that easily. This thesis investigates what challenges and demands industry personnel experience with introducing connected machines and also what user needs exists for the different functions within a value stream at GKN.

    A qualitative case study was carried out in order to answer these questions. The case study consisted of ten interviews with respondents who serve different roles within the same value stream. Two of the respondents are developing the systems required between the machines and an acquired tool for visualization. The remaining respondents were personnel from four different functions, CAM, PME, operators and management.

    The result was analyzed and compiled with the use of tree maps in order to show the end-users needs. The analysis also showed that the information needed differed between functions, though two themes were recurring amongst all users. The relationship of temperature i.e. the temperature inside the machine, of the cooling liquid and ambient temperature and also machine status i.e. if, for how long and why a machine has stopped. It is these user needs that should be prioritized and a focus on the Deckel Maho, multiple operation-machines, is needed since the respondents discloses that the toughest tolerances are set in these. In order for the system developers to be able to develop the system is such a way that it is used and therefore is able to be of value they need to procure what type of information is of use to the users. They also need to collaborate with the IT-department to ensure smooth implementation. Moreover, the knowledge needs to be documentated which is lacking today.

    In order to succeed in taking the step into the future, it is important that the entire organization supports the future work and engages in the development. If one is to be able to make the quick decisions that connected machines make possible and the future requires, then all parts of the organization must be capable of doing so.

  • 210.
    Kristiansson, Lilia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Competence development through Project-based learning in higher education i Sweden and England2012In: 40th annual congress of the Nordic Educational Research association, NPFP/NERA: 8-10 mars, 2012, Copenhagen, Aarhus: Department of Eduation, Aarhus University , 2012, p. 286-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of higher education curricula has been changing from factual knowledge acquisition to developing students competences in response to a changing professional environment in the context of a knowledge economy and labour market globalisation.

    Despite these social changes, existing teaching and learning strategies in Engineering are still mainly lecture-based.

    We investigate competence development using a Project- Based Learning (PrBL) environment on a range of Engineering programmes at Lancaster University, UK and Högskolan Väst, Sweden. We evaluate the PrBL potential to enhance student employability prospects.

    PrBL is an example of collaborative student-focussed learning underpinned by constructivist theory which encourages deeper learning via construction of meaning, connection of ideas and creation of meaningful artefacts. PrBL stimulates collaborative knowledge building among participants and develops a range of skills through creating an informal learning environment. First and second-year students on undergraduate programmes in Engineering departments in both universities with projects as part of their course participated in this study. In the UK the students had to design, build and test two types of robots. The Swedish students were given a project to make calculations for a pump with preset parameters. The projects were designed to help the students acquire competences relevant to their future career. All students worked in small groups. After finishing their projects, the students completed an open-ended questionnaire about their experiences.

    The students evaluated PrBL positively, stating that they developed problem solving and analytical skills and the ability to apply mathematical tools. They highly rated collaboration with peers and emphasised the necessity of developing time management, communication and organisational skills.

    Higher education systems in Europe including Scandinavia are facing new challenges in developing students' employability. We conclude with recommendations for promoting PrBL in university courses as it contributes to competence development and is an efficient tool when administrative resources are limited and when academic staff are faced with large student numbers.

  • 211.
    Kristiansson, Lilia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    The impact of Industry Placements on Motivation and Competence Development of Engineering Students in Sweden2013In: The 41st Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association: Disruptions and eruptions as opportunities for transforming education. Abstract book., Reykjavik: Northeastern Educational Research Association, NERA , 2013, p. 333-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current economic climate increasing pressure is put on universities to provide opportunities

    for students to develop skills necessary for their future employment. Courses which offer a

    placement in industry are becoming more appealing to students. We investigate the impact of

    undertaking an industry placement on engineering students’ motivation for learning and

    competence development.

    Research demonstrates that industry experience increases students’ interest and makes them

    more aware of how theoretical course knowledge is applied to practical situations. This increases

    their interest in the subject because they are more aware of its relevance to their future work. In

    this study we looked at students’ experiences from their work placements and the competences

    they developed. On the basis on this knowledge we investigated the opportunities to introduce

    new elements in course delivery to increase the motivation of non-placement students and

    compared the competences developed by the students who undertook placements and those who

    did not.

    The study was carried out at the University West, Sweden in 2010-2012 among the mechanical

    engineering undergraduates. The students were asked to complete a questionnaire. The students

    who went on placements had to answer an extended set of questions about their placement

    experience and competence development. The non-placement students answered questions about

    competence development only.

    The collected data showed that the placement students gave very positive feedback about their

    practice and the analysis demonstrated that this practical experience supports and inspires their

    further study. The students’ evaluation has encouraged tutors to introduce new practice-based

    problems in relevant courses, conduct mixed group tutorials and share placement students’

    experience with all of their peers. We believe that these new practices will improve motivation

    among non-placement students and enhance their learning process. We also anticipate that

    placement and non-placement students will have developed different sets of competences, which

    will inform our teaching practices. This study will be important for other tutors who have students

    on courses with an industry experience option who are interested in using the placement

    students’ experiences and competence development to enhance motivation in the class as a

    whole.

  • 212.
    Kristiansson, Lilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, Daria
    Is co-op education a source of increased motivation for learning?2012In: The European Conference on Educational Research, ECER 2012: 18-21 sept, 2012, Cádiz, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many universities across the world offer a model for course delivery which combines academic study with a placement in industry. This educational model originated in the U.S., where the automobile industry wanted to ensure a supply of skilled engineers. This educational process has been described in different ways, for example in America it is known as 'cooperative education', or co-op, while in the UK it adopted the name of 'sandwich courses'.

    There is a vast amount of literature which assesses the role of work practice in the development of competences and skills of future professionals, the effect it has on the transition of graduates into the work environment, how it shapes their career aspirations etc. At the same time there are studies which look into the effect of placements on students' motivation in their academic performance.  The research results demonstrate that students who have chosen a co-op model are more motivated in their studies than those students who have chosen not to go on placements [e.g. 1, 2]. The main reasons for the increased motivation of students who chose the co-op route were that their work experience provided them with evidence that the theoretical knowledge they learn at the university is relevant to their work.

    Despite of the benefits that co-op model can bring into students' learning experience, the success of this model across different countries varies. For example, in Sweden the co-op model is very popular among students. However, in the UK the number of students entering this route is decreasing [3].

    In this paper we address the success of the co-op model, especially in relation to students' motivation for their academic study using the co-op programme offered by the Engineering department, University West, Sweden as an example. The aim of this study is to investigate which aspects of academic knowledge students find useful for their practical placements and how their experience of applying this knowledge can be put into practice to increase to motivation for learning of the other students who choose the traditional educational route.

    The main two objectives of educators are: first, to contribute to students' subject knowledge; second, to motivate students to learn. We assume that students coming into higher education have a so-called intrinsic motivation when they begin their studies although it is not always the case in practice. Our task as educators is to stimulate individuals, offer them external motivation to improve their skills and to ensure that they do not lose interest in their selected topics [4].

    To achieve this goal a university teacher can build on positive students' attitudes by creating an open and imaginative atmosphere at lectures and tutorials, for example through the use of alternative teaching methods, such as problem-based learning or project-based learning.

    The study was carried out at the University West in 2010/11. The students who participated in the study opted for the co-op model and the participating tutor taught a module on Solid Mechanics on both co-op and traditional routes.

    MethodFor this study, a mixed-methods approach was used comprising open-ended questionnaires and observations. The students who went on placements were asked to complete a questionnaire at the end of each placement period. The questionnaire was designed to capture the students' experience during their practice focusing on the effect of the placements on their motivation in their further academic study. As part of the existing curriculum the students who went on placements had also to give a presentation to their peers at the end of each placement period where they summarised their work, the responsibilities they had, the engineering problems they were solving, and reflected on their experience. These presentations were observed by the tutor. The data from the questionnaires and presentations were later analysed for students' opinions about the opportunities that they received during their placements for deepening their academic knowledge. Based on the results of this analysis, new engineering problems adapted from the students' practice were introduced into the Solid Mechanics course delivery together with new teaching methods, such as problem-based learning and project-based learning, to achieve higher motivation in students who have not opted for a co-op model [5, 6].

    Expected OutcomesThe collected data showed that the students gave very positive feedback about their practice and the analysis demonstrated that this practical experience supports and inspires further study. In their reports students suggested using new practical-based problems in relevant courses. Using real-life problems can make learning richer and more rewarding for all students.The co-op students can share their work experience with their non-co-op peers by giving presentations regarding the relevance of the academic course content to their job, the problems they were solving while on the placements, the opportunities for challenging future jobs as well as increased confidence and self-esteem. The tutor observed that problem-based learning and project-based learning based on working in groups as well as the use of the real-life problems increased motivation in non-co-op students. They became more responsible, active, and knowledge-seeking and improved their communication with peers. The tutor also observed that having a mix of students who had placements and those who did not in the groups formed a stimulating learning environment. In conclusion, suggestions were made in relation to what can be incorporated into a range of engineering programmes to increase students' motivation and enhance their engagement with the learning process.

  • 213.
    Kumar, Kiran
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Virtual Welding Lab2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Training to weld using instruments and machines can depend on factors such as accessibility to equipment, material availability, and time consumption for the process. And so, repeatability of the welding process to practice can be limited. By creating a virtual welding lab containing virtual instruments in a 3D environment, can overcome the mentioned factors. The virtual welding lab can be accessed using a VR headset and motion controllers or by a functional computer.

    Instruments are reconstructed in 3D space using the concepts of photogrammetry. Photogrammetry is a process of reconstructing an object using the data of images captured from different positions and angles around the object. To create a virtual environment, game engines were used. In this project, there were two microscopes with different interfaces and a welding machine reconstructed, using photogrammetry. The virtual environment built using the game engine allows the user to interact with these instruments, enabling the users to have an immersive learning experience. Using photogrammetry for reconstructing instruments, and game engines to create a virtual environment can be found efficient in building a virtual welding lab, which can assist the students in a better learning experience.

  • 214.
    Kyrk, Ellinor
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    An analysis of the logistic elements needed to successfully introduce a new product2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The market is constantly growing for E-commerce companies and it is expanding globally. The world is more united than ever before and can easily reach out to import or export. For E-commerce companies it is crucial to create a structure within the warehouse that is beneficial both in terms of material handling and worker efficiency. A company's efficiency is perhaps its most valued quality – giving logistics an extremely important role to play. For smaller companies it can become problematic with an increase in sales if it means they need to expand their inventory in order to complete larger orders and purchases. The workflow also needs to be able to handle the increase in material handling and orders.

    The purpose with the thesis was to evaluate the current structure in a small warehouse and present ideas to increase efficiency and eliminate waste. With unnecessary waste eliminated, the objective was to optimize the work space and provide ideal conditions for further growth.

    The analyzed company was Ecodi AB. An e-commerce company founded in 2010, the main product is Snus and the company has four suppliers located around Sweden. To expand further they are looking into the possibility of implementing a new product to the current collection.

    To evaluate the structure, the workflow within the warehouse was mapped out and analyzed. Using theories from Lean production and Supply Chain Management, wastes and inefficiencies were highlighted. To gain insight and knowledge of the company, information was gathered using interviews, observations, brainstorming and general research. Connections could then be made using Quality tools (such as the seven quality management tools and the seven quality control tools).

    The results show that implementing the lean production system, along with systems from the supply chain management, increases the efficiency within the warehouse and eliminates waste. The efficiency results in a chain reaction and improves communication which therefore relieves stress from workers. Potential improvements are presented and further research highlighted.

  • 215.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    The Quality Café: developing the World-Café method for organizational learning by including quality management tools2019In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 30, no 13-14, p. 1515-1527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the possibility of integrating the World Café method with the affinity diagram tool from quality management. The proposed combination is called the Quality Café. Quality Cafés were carried out at seven spa hotels, one municipality and two student organisations. The cafés were assessed with feedback seminars and questionnaires. The findings show that the method was appreciated by the participants. It contributed to profound dialogues with deepening insights, which stimulated creativity, increased understanding for quality issues and allowed a more holistic view. In addition, the method was experienced as enjoyable and in itself creating coherence. The findings were related to organisational learning theory and several connections were found. The Quality Café should be a useful method for researchers in social science as well as for practitioners. A limitation is that determining the specific effects of the Quality Café method compared to the original World Café is difficult.

  • 216.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Axgärde, Åsa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    External customer satisfaction through team-development based on appreciative inquiry2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 217.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Lagrosen, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Department of Marketing, Vaxjo, Sweden.
    Workplace health in wellness: a study of Swedish spa-hotels2019In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 395-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In previous research, quality management practices have been found to be related to better health for employees. Dimensions of health-promoting quality leadership have been defined. The purpose of this study was to identify dimensions of workplace health in the wellness industry and relate them to the dimensions of health-promoting quality leadership. Design/methodology/approach: An empirical study involving seven leading spa-hotels in Sweden has been carried out. The first part of the study consisted of quality cafés carried out at each of the hotels. The quality café is a novel method, which has the World Café-method as its basis, combined with quality management techniques. Based on the findings from the quality cafés, an employee survey was developed. Findings: The findings from the study include a definition of five major health dimensions for the employees, namely, happiness, kinship, respect, physical health conditions and control. The dimensions were found to be statistically consistent and correlated with the self-reported health of the respondents. Research limitations/implications: The findings are related to health promotion theory and the dimensions of health-promoting quality leadership. A framework for health leadership in the wellness industry is proposed. The study was only carried out in one country. Practical implications: The framework and the findings should be useful for managers, particularly in the wellness sector, when designing their operations and health promotion activities. Originality/value: Workplace health in the wellness sector, which is growing worldwide, is very scarcely researched. © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 218.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Lagrosen, Stefan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lind, Linda
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Employee health in the wellness industry2013In: Toulon-Verona Conference XVI. USB-minne, Toulon-Verona Conference , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employee health is becoming increasingly focused as lacking health cause unnecessary costs while better health has been related to higher quality and performance. This paper reports a study in the wellness sector. As this industry has health as its business mission, it might be reasonable to assume that it is populated by health conscious individuals. The purpose has been to investigate health creating dimensions in the wellness industry. Seven leading Swedish SPA-hotels have been studied using a novel methodology based on the quality café-method. This method has the ‘world café-method’ at its basis but has been developed by inclusion of quality management methods. Quality cafés focusing on health creating aspects have been carried out at the seven hotels with staff from different departments as participants. The resulting data were analysed with the constant comparative method from the grounded theory approach. As a result four dimensions of employee health have been defined. In the paper, the dimensions are described and related to theories of quality management and health promotion. The findings should be valuable for the theoretical understanding of health creating factors in the wellness industry as well as for managers striving to improve the health status of their employees.

  • 219.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Travis, Frederick
    Maharishi University of Management, Center for Brain, Consciousness and Cognition, Fairfield, Iowa, USA).
    Lagrosen, Stefan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Brain integration as a driver for quality management success2012In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 253-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper research leading to quality management success is examined, elaborated, and highlighted in a new profound way by focusing on the most fundamental aspect of the human dimension, the brain. The purpose is to examine the relationship between brain functioning and quality management success. In this examination, the role of core values, profound organizational learning and values of quality management are explained.

     

    Design/methodology/approach

    The paper builds on a conceptual review of research in the areas of quality management success, values of quality management, core values and neurophysiology with focus on brain integration. 

     

    Findings

    The relation of core values with brain functioning is described based on previous research. A framework with logical steps from brain integration, via core values, quality management values and quality management practices to quality management success is developed.

     

    Research limitations/implications

    The paper adds to the understanding of the role brain integration has for success in quality management efforts. A limitation is that it only builds on previous research.

     

    Practical implications

    The findings provide a deeper understanding of quality management success and should thus be valuable for quality managers and leaders striving for excellence for their organisations.

     

    Originality/value

    The importance and crucial role of brain integration for quality management success has not been elaborated in the literature of quality management before.

     

    Keywords

    Quality management, brain integration, core values, organisational learning, quality management success, culture, quality management values, decision-making

     

     

  • 220.
    Larsen, Tobias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konstruktion och modularisering av en vagn för en batterilyft2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to design and modularize a trolley that will be used to mobilize a scissor lift for National Electric Vehicle Sweden AB (NEVS). During a pilot study, it was decided that the product would be modularized in order to fulfill the stakeholder’s different requests with minimal change in the product. Thus, will the trolley in this thesis be designed with modularization in mind NEVS is one of many companies who are developing a fully electrical car with a goal of driving range close to that of a car with a combustion engine. This requires the installation and removal of the power source which is under development, as NEVS tries to find the optimal energy storage for the electrical car.  The method used to develop a modularized product, was modular function deployment (MFD) which contains five-steps. These five steps in the MFD process are; clarify customer requirement, select technical solution, module indication matrix, evaluate concepts, and improve the modules. The heart of MFD is the module indication matrix (MIM) which is done by screening the generated sub-functions against several modular drivers. MFD helps the design engineer to develop a good and robust product structure. The modular drivers in MIM can be company specific or generic for the users.   Another helpful method to develop and design a product is a generic product development, in which the design engineer goes through several steps; e.g. project planning, identification of customer needs, specifies a product specification, concept generation and selection, and concept improvement. These two methods are very like one another and was therefore combined during this thesis since several of the steps relates to one another. The combination of these methods resulted in a modularized product containing; trolley, scissor lift, floating table, jig, positioning indicator, stabilizers, and a diagnostic table.  Whilst this thesis describes the modularisation and development of the mentioned trolley. The modules had different drivers that made them modules; i.e. the trolley had the drivers’ common unit and technical specification whereas the scissor lift was chosen to be a black box since it was a standardized product from a subcontractor.  This thesis resulted in that the end user can choose either a manually operated scissor lift or a power assisted scissor lift depending on their needs. Depending on which type of scissor lift is chosen, does the components of the trolley described in this thesis differ.

  • 221.
    Larsson, Elvira
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Requirements for Wearable Safety Protection for Competitive- and Recreational athletes at Mountainbikes, Enduro- and Motocross motorbikes2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Few previous studies have examined safety protection and injuries for competitive- and recreational athletes in mountain bike, enduro- and motocross compared to cyclists and motorcyclists in traffic. By studying requirements and standards and collecting data about safety protection and injuries from athletes in the sports, the objective was to find out and describe user's needs and requirements based on appearance, comfort, handling of equipment during training/competition to gain an understanding of the needs for increased protection. Data has been collected through interviews, surveys and contact with federations/organizations. In order to maintain a high safety for the athletes, it is important to increase the use of safety protection and work to prevent injuries by developing safety protection with high mobilityand fit intended for training and competition in mountain bike, enduro and motocross. Among the mountain bikers who responded to the survey, 61 percent only used a helmet as safety protection. 58 percent (n=188) of those who responded to the survey had injured themselves during training or competition in the past two years. The injuries usually occurred when the driver lost the control of the bike due to technical surface, a jump or drop-off. The average speed of the estimated speed at the time an accident occur is 18 km/h. The most common types of injuries are open wounds (n=75), fractures (74) and ligament injuries (40). The parts of the body where fractures and ligament injuries occur to the highest degree are the shoulders/collarbones and ribs. The requirement specification created for mountainbiking recommends an active safety protection that can protect shoulders/collarbones, chest and upper back in the event of an accident. In enduro and motocross, the attitude to wearing safety protection was good. The reason why riders choose not to use more safety protection than they do today is that it become inflexible and the mobility is reduced. The proportion who have been injured during training or competition during the past two years amounts to 56 percent. The injuries usually occur in connection with a jump and the average speed of the estimated speed at the time of the accident is just over 30 km/h. Common types of injuries that occur are concussions (n=11),cracked ribs (9) and fractures and ligament injuries at the shoulder/collarbone (9+6). The requirement specification created for enduro and motocross recommends a combined passive and active safety protection that will protect the chest, back, shoulder/collarbone and elbows.  

  • 222.
    Larsson, Joakim
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    The effect of tool wear on the wire drawing process2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wire drawing is a cold working process where hot rolled wire is processed, the tolerances and the material properties are enhanced as the wire is being drawn. The wire cross-sectionis reduced as the wire is pulled through conical holes. The tools used for the process are called drawing dies, these tools can be made of either diamond or cemented carbide. As wire passes through the dies, the dies will wear, when the dies are out of dimension the need tobe changed. What is happening with the process and the properties of the drawn wire as the die wearand how do the drawing dies wear on a macroscopic scale? These are the research questions this thesis work has investigated. To be able to answer these questions, experimental work was performed, both in industrial and laboratory environments. Industrial wire drawing experiments were performed to investigate the wear behavior and to get worn drawing dies for the laboratory wire drawing experiments. Three different dies with different amount of wear were used in the experiments: New (100% lifetime left), Worn (around 10% lifetime left) and Worn-out (0% lifetimeleft). Some of the major results found in the investigations performed in this thesis were that drawing dies do not wear linear and that there is no significant differences between a wiredrawn using a new or a worn drawing die. It was also found that it is possible to use sensors to identify changes in the wire drawing process that occur due to wear. 

  • 223.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Mikaela
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Wiberg, Caroline
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beredning av lokalnät Ängås, Etapp 32018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns a preparation work for TROLK El and Tele AB, commissioned by Ellevio. The preparation work covers field visits, construction maps, power grid calculation, state and contract search. The thesis work has been accomplished in addition to the same stage already being prepared by preparers at the company, which enabled comparison in the final phase of our work with the company's preparation. The purpose of this work is to achieve higher operational reliability and thus replace existing overhead cable with underground cable. This is to reduce the long interruptions in the area, which today is a problem, partly due to the ages of the lines and the salty winds. The current area is located in Ängås, Svanesund in the south eastern part of Orust. The work has been limited to Stage 3, which concerns a total of 43 subscribers and is one of four stages in the area. Today, the power grid consists mostly of overhead lines, both low and medium voltage, 0.4 to 12 kV. The stage consists of four pole-mounted and two ground stations replaced by four seriesatellite- and two ELIT-stations. There are also 12 new cable cabinets. The result of the preparation is that approximately 10.6 km of overhead lines is scheduled to be demolished and approximately 12.8 km of underground cable is being prepared. These cables have been dimensioned to meet the conditions for network calculations. A cost calculation for the preparation has been planned according to Ellevio's internal unit price list. The total final cost of the project amounts to SEK 3.1 million. A preparation binder has been established where all material is available at TROLK El and Tele AB in Uddevalla

  • 224.
    Leander Nilsson, Jonas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Övervakning av kapacitetsbegränsningar i kraftsystemet2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is carried out on behalf of Vattenfall Eldistribution. As parties within the company believe that operational monitoring today is somewhat conservative and traditional. The goal is to clarify the current monitoring philosophy and try to find any improvements and changes that can be introduced in Vattenfall's electricity distribution's governing documents and operational monitoring system. Electric power transmission is an efficient and flexible way of transporting energy. However, the transmission capacity of an electricity network is limited, and the limitation is determined by the capacity limits of the components. The limitations are usually of a thermal or mechanical nature, and sometimes even a combination of these. The power system can consist of several components, such as overhead line sections, cable sections, disconnectors, switches, current and power transformers and relay protection. The report shows that overhead lines are the component that limits the transmission capacity of the system the most, followed by current transformers. The rated current is the current that sets the limitation on the transmission capacity of the overhead lines, it is based on continuous operation and under certain conditions where the environment's ability to cool is crucial. When calculations of the transmission capacity are performed, parameters with the worst possible cooling ratio are assumed. The estimation of the transmission capacity is not always in accordance with how the alarm limits are determined, because the alarm limits are determined with caution as it is a help function for the operating operators. The alarms are a tool for the operator that always requires an active action. The overload capacity is linked to aging and breakdowns, but also to plant safety. The report shows that appliances and cables are generally something that is not overloaded while overhead lines and transformers are assumed to have room for it. All components are dependent on their environment, but still this is not taken into account in the capacity assessment for all components. The network will be used harder in the future and in order to utilize the network's full capacity, measures are required for a more accurate assessment of the available capacity. The results that have emerged from the thesis shows the importance of introducing a newrate, a capacity limit for appliances and a function to be able to assess the dynamic capacity of the electricity grid in real time to a greater extent in the form of weather areas refines and optimizes current operational monitoring.

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  • 225.
    Leikvoll, Angela
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Reservdelshållning och kartläggningav PLC-system som underlag till utbytesplan på Perstorp Oxo, Stenungsund2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis project was performed at Perstorp Oxo, a specialty chemicals manufacturer in Stenungsund. There is a need for replacement of switchgear and PLC systems since the access to spare parts is limited and the equipment has exceeded the technical life. A PLC is a programmable logic controller which is used, among other things, in industries to gather information and to control external devices.

    The purpose for this thesis is to produce a basis for an exchange plan for all the PLC systems at the plant by the manufacturers Mitsubishi and Beijer Electronics by survey the plant's installed PLC systems and the access to spare parts.

    The report presents a technical description of PLC-systems including its most important components and a description of maintenance with focus on process industry.

    A survey of the PLC systems at the Perstorp Oxo plant in Stenungsund was produced through the product data management system SmarTeam and in place in the plant. Information of the spare parts was then gathered from Perstorp Oxo's inventory, the asset management system Maximo and from the suppliers. The gathered data was compiled in two Excel documents.

    Many of the installed systems are from the Mitsubishi A-series of which they ceased production in 2006, which means there is limited amounts of spare parts available. Due to this, the PLC systems with components from the A-series should be prioritised for replacement to minimize downtime if a failure occurs.

  • 226.
    Lennartsson, Edvin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Thorleifsdottir, Birgitta
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Steglöst växelsystem för cykel2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project tackles the idea of developing a continuous variable transmission (CVT) for bicycles in order to make shifting gears while riding uphill easier. This problem was chosen in hopes of making a difference in the world of cycling for commuters and leisure cyclists, as well as contributing to the environment and society's health and wellbeing. The goal was to design a seamless transmission, where one could choose from an infinite amount of gears on a given interval. Originally, the possibility of shifting gears while stationary was considered a desirable addition, as well as the possibility of an automatic transmission, although neither of these ideas were included in the final concept.

    The project primarily focused on product development, where benchmarking played a large role, especially when it came to gathering knowledge and information on existing CVT's from all markets. The reason for this was that existing commercially successful CVT's within the bicycle market were rather scarce, thus the need for ideas from other markets. Out of all existing CVT's, four types were considered likely to be possibly implemented as bicycle gears. Out of these four, one type surpassed the others during selection: the Variable Diameter Pulley (VDP).

    The question as to how a VDP would be designed, in order to implement and mount it on a bicycle, was answered trough many hours of idea generating and concept selections, until the final concept was left standing. The final concept is a spring and hydraulic controlled VDP transmission, which is regulated through a hand driven pump and has an infinite number of gear ratios within a 240% range.

    The main principle of the concept works, although it is noteworthy that due to large axial forces the springs in the design are far too large for the design to be successfully mounted on a bicycle. Furthermore, the range of the gear ratios can be considered quite small. The conclusion is that the idea is functional, however in order for it to become a successful CVT for a bicycle it requires further work, particularly in regards to finding replacements for the springs.

  • 227.
    Lidén, Carl
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Gamalielsson, Simon
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utvärdering av olika energilagringstekniker2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the realistic techniques that exists today to store energy, partly how they perform but also covers all the costs that comes with them. From reading upfront before this study it was decided to focus on pumped hydro storage and utility scale battery storage as there were the best.

    As of now there is a big change happening regarding the production of electricity. We are increasing the share of intermittent production, which causes the grid to become unbalanced unless proper regulators are put into the grid. We may have a large spike in production the same time we are seeing a low energy usage. The solutions to this are the type of energy storage mentioned in this report, pumped hydro and batteries. Using the energy storages, you can move the production to when it is needed.

    Chapter 9 in this study investigates profitability with both technologies. The profitability is investigated for daily cycles for both, but also covers weekly, monthly and yearly cycles. For pumped hydro storage the most profit was found using yearly cycles, but monthly was also profitable. Running it with yearly cycles results in a payback-time of 60 years, while monthly cycles gave was 87 years. Daily and weekly cycles were proven to not be profitable since they have a longer payback-time than the expected life of the plant.

    With a payback-time of 169 years battery storage using lithium-ion batteries did not come close to being profitable, however it's not impossible for them to soon considering the constant lowering cost of production for the lithium-ion batteries. An optimistic lifetime for lithium-ion batteries is 40 years and until they come down to that they will not be profitable.

    The conclusion for pumped hydro storage is that if you have the means to create and use the right type it can very well be profitable, you will have to wait at least 60 years however before it has payed of itself. The advantage it has over battery storage is that since it has a longer expected life it has longer time to pa itself off. One big advantage to hydro is however the geographical conditions that are required to being able to build the plant, battery-storages have none of these requirements.

    The conclusion for battery-storage is that they must become cheaper to make if that are to be used for moving power in daily cycles. A conclusion made in this study however suggests that they don't necessarily have to be profitable to see some use in today's energy market.

  • 228.
    Lindmark, Niklas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utredning av förläggning av kraftkablar i rör hos Göteborg Energi Nät AB2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor's thesis has been carried out at Göteborg Energi Nät AB (hereafter GENAB). Today most of GENAB's projects that deal with installation of cables in a city environment implement the use of pipes. This is done with the motivation that trenches can be closed quicker and that the entire trench section does not need to be open at the same time. There are, however, those who question whether this method is advantageous or not.

    The purpose of this investigation is to compile the different opinions that exist in the company and to identify the advantages and disadvantages with the use of pipes. The report contains a literature study on information about cable construction, dimensioning, fault localization and how this is affected when cables are placed in pipes. An interview study has been carried out with interviews of employees from different departments and professions within GENAB.

    The result of the literature and interview studies showed that the disadvantages with the use of pipes are that it is not possible to ensure that a cables jacket is faultless. Thermal dissipation deteriorates which can lead to being forced to use cables with bigger dimensions. Pipes will often be filled with water, which leads to corrosion of the conductor for cables that are not completely waterproof. Water filled pipes also improve thermal dissipation. Fault localization is made more difficult when cables are placed in pipes.

    The interview study also showed that most of the persons interviewed did not have a positive opinion of the use of pipes and that GENAB's governing documents instruct that the use of pipes should be avoided as much as possible. The reason for the extent of the use of pipes is not because of an active decision on GENAB's part but is rather a decision that is taken by external contractors regardless of the instructions given to them.

    Cost comparisons have been made between different methods of fault correction whether cables are placed in pipes or not. The compared methods were to localize and correct the fault, to localize and correct using halving method and to remove a 100 meter cable from pipe and replace. It could be concluded that it is more expensive to replace the cable than to localize and correct the fault, and using the halving method was the most expensive.

    Cost comparisons have also been done for a chosen project with and without the use of pipes. For five of the six contractor costs the differences relatively small and only one showed a significant difference in cost, being 24 % more expensive without the use of pipes. A suggestion for future work is to have a dialogue with contractors that are responsible for the installation of cables and to demand that the instructions given by GENAB are followed.

  • 229.
    Lindqvist, Hugo
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kristiansson, Robin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Viktoptimering av maskinrummet på lastfartyg: En studie i topologioptimering för dagens sjöfart2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis was twofold. First, to investigate whether or not the engine room in cargo ships constructed by Fartygskonstruktioner AB contained dimensions that exceed relevant acquis. Secondly, to give a proposal on how topology optimization could be used to reduce the overall weight of the engine room.

    In order to identify the dimensions of the structure in the engine room a review of drawings was conducted of two different cargo ships constructed by Fartygskonstruktioner AB. These dimensions were compared to acquis from Det Norske Veritas Germanischer Lloyd and Bureau Veritas as well as recommendations from the engine manufacturer. The review confirmed that the floors were oversized. Therefore, the thesis focused on reducing the weight of the floor and the surrounding structure.

    A three-dimensional model of the structure was created in order to make optimization and numerical calculations possible. A finite element analysis was conducted in order to investigate the maximum equivalent stresses. The stresses for the structure in the engine room before topology optimization were calculated to 6 MPa in contrast to 282 MPa which according to Det Norske Veritas Germanischer Lloydand were the lowest allowed maximum equivalent stress.

    The result of the topology optimization showed how the formulation of the floors, engine foundation and the structure below the main engine could be modified in order to reduce the weight of the engine room. The floors were replaced by structure closely resembling props. The engine foundation was altered in such a way that the transverse structure was partly eliminated and the structure between the main engine and the gear including the clutch was removed. The holes that were placed in the structure below the engine foundation attained an increased circumference. The weight of the structure was therefore reduced by 38 % which corresponded to 19 ton.

  • 230.
    Lindqvist, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utveckling av monteringsstation: Ett konceptförslag till Parker Hannifin2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis was performed at the Company Parker Hannifin AB in Trollhättan, Sweden. They develop and produce hydraulic pumps and engines. Their new product, the F12-XL engine will in future replace older product series. Therefor they need to update their current workstations for final assembly so they are optimized for the new engine and higher production rate. This report has investigated the needs and conditions for a new workstation and from this a concept of a new workstation is developed.

    A literature study was performed regarding workflow for the project, Lean Production and working environment to procure all necessary background information that were required for the project. Since a fully assembled F12-XL weighs 40kg and consist of heavy details the ergonomic aspects are important in this study.

    A pre-study of the current workstation was performed. This showed and confirmed the company suspicions. The result showed that the operator efficiency is about 35% and that the worker lifts up to 18kg without any lifting aid. Decision was taken to continue the project with the goal set to increase the efficiency and reduce the work load for the worker.

    A more refined status analysis was performed to identify the specific problems with the current stations and also taking in consideration the requests for the new one. After studying the analysis a requirement specification was made, here the work was split in to five unique identified problems. For every unique problem a concept generation process was performed and then the final concept parts was put together again to a complete station.

    When evaluating the new station in theory the result showed that the efficiency can be improved from 35% to 74% and the total assembly time for a F12-XL almost can be reduced by half. If using the developed lifting aid the worker never will lift more than 3.8kg, and the worker will maintain an ergonomic correct position during the whole assembly cycle.

  • 231.
    Lindroth, Sebastian
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Lund, Max
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Införande av digitaliserad beredning på Siemens Energy AB i Trollhättan2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At the beginning of the year 2021, a case study was carried out at Siemens Energy AB in Trollhättan. The purpose of the study was to come up with proposals of working methods for digitalized preparations in the program PLM2020 and how these can be introduced in the business. The purpose was also to develop a working method that streamlines and increases the degree of quality assurance regarding creation and change of production preparations. The questions that the work would answer were:

    How will Siemens Energy AB in Trollhättan introduce the work with digitalized productionpreparations?

    • How should the working method for production preparation be designed?

    • How should the work instructions be designed?

    • What new needs are being created at Siemens Energy AB in Trollhättan as a result of the new way of working?

    • How can the future way of working be standardized?

    • Can this approach be verified with a concrete example?

    A description of the current situation was made to map what different affected processes look like at present. Processes affected by the mapping of the current situation were the current preparation process, the current work in PLM2020, the current process with work instructions and Siemens Energy AB in Finspång's work with preparations in PLM2020. This was done with interviews of employees at Siemens Energy AB. Following the description of the current situation, a method was developed for preparation work in PLM2020, which will replace the current preparation process performed in the business system. The method that was developed promotes quality assurance in the business preparation process through review and audit management of preparations. Meanwhile, it was determined how workinstructions would be designed, what new needs occur and how standardization of the method would be designed. A concrete example of how the method works could not be fully implemented, as Siemens Energy had some system problems during the case study.

    The conclusion that could be drawn from the work was that the purpose was mostly fulfilled. There is some uncertainty as to whether the new way of working is more efficient than today. Prerequisites required for the new way of working to be effective are that the personsconcerned receive the right training and information before complete implementation. 

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  • 232.
    Lundbäck, Jonas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Karlsson, Lars-Owe
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Uppdatering av selektivplan i ett industrinät2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When a selective coordination plan is to be updated, there are a lot of data to be collected, verified, and compiled. Understanding the types of fault currents that can occur and what affects their magnitude is fundamental when it comes to establishing and interpreting existing selective plan. There are several reasons for keeping the selective coordination plan in an industrial network updated. One of the primary ones is to limit the spread and impact of major fault currents. In addition, an updated selective plan contributes to maintaining a good facility knowledge, which provides improved conditions for rapid malfunctioning and investigation of deployment opportunities. The work has been carried out for a customer of the consulting company ÅF AB. The industrial network studied is owned by a company that is not mentioned in the report for reasons of confidentiality. Previously, installations have been affected by unselective disconnection, this has been rectified and the company's desire is now to have selectivity throughout the plant. Due to limited time, the provided and retrieved data for a demarcated part of the facility has been modeled in the Vision Network Analysis network software. In short wiring, it is usually difficult to achieve selectivity simply by coordinating the current level. The analysis of the routes detected several deficiencies in relay protection settings, however, the plant has the potential to obtain improved selectivity. Furthermore, proposals for updated selective plans have been developed. Some settings should be adjusted relatively quickly as they have unjustified settings. Other improvement proposals require a deeper investigation of load flows and how the plant is running before decisions can be made that changed settings will be applied. The report can be used as a basis for such a study to achieve full selectivity.

  • 233.
    Lundgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Montero Martinez, Salvador
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konceptutveckling av en hundsele som är säker för hunden och passagerare vid krock2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the work presented in this report is to develop a concept of a dog harness that is safe for both the passenger and the dog during crashes and while traveling in vehicles. The reason for the concept development is that MIM Construction believes that the harnesses available on the market are not properly dimensioned for the forces that arise during collisions. The concept has been developed to simplify its use, make it intuitive and to minimize the risk of incorrect use. The harness design and quality must reflect MIM Construction's vision of creating safety for their customers.

    The generic product development process described by Ulrich and Eppinger in the book Product Development, Construction and Design has been used to generate the concept for the dog harness. This process consists of identifying requirements, generating ideas and concepts, and then selecting one or a few concepts for further development. During this process, interviews have, among other things, been carried out to identify requirements. The house of quality has been used to create the product's target specification and brainstorming has been used to find possible solutions for the dog harness. Concept selection matrices have been used to select a concept for further development. The generic product development process described by Ulrich and Eppinger has proven to be useful for concept development. The method is clear and has clear targets, customer needs have become clear early in the process to the working group.

    The concept that has been developed is a dog harness that is easy to use. The harness is mounted onto the dog by placing the harness on the ground and placing the dog's legs in the openings for the front legs. Then the harness is lifted up and clamped around the dog's chest using a zipper. The adjustment for the harness can be made easy as the harness is mounted on the dog. These properties contribute to the ease of use. The collision safety is achieved through a loop in the harness. The loop extends around the dog's chest and foreleg which is the sturdy part of the dog. The loop is connected to the car's belt system without any components in between, fewer components results in minimized amount of error sources in case of accident.

  • 234.
    Lundgren, Mattias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Mether, Jonas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Optimering av projektflöden med hjälp av LEAN i en Agil och flexibel forskningsmiljö2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Visual planning is an important pillar in organizations with an Agile and flexible production because planning increases the flow of information in the organization. GKN is a company that is a world leader in the aerospace industry. The study took place at GKN’s research department at the Production Technology Center (PTC). The work includes an evaluation of Mevisio´s cell planning tools from a Lean perspective and improvement proposal have been developed for further development of the software. With Mevisio´s cell planning tool, the goal is to increase the visual overview of the planning. A case study has been conducted at PTC with interviews in a semi-structured form and with the help of a literature study where information was found in articles and book literature. Qualitative data that emerges has been analyzed and compiled. The authors have come to a conclusion and recommendations with the help of empirical and theoretical analyzes.

    It emerged that the planning tool currently covers PTC´s needs. However, the planning tool has only existed for a period of three to four weeks and has only been used in one project. Some of the recommendations that have been made for the further development of the cell planning tool are the following: 

    • Make it easier for users, the user should only fill in the most important and necessary information. Minimize the waste of non-value-adding activities.

    • Create another feature similar to an Obeya room that presents relevant key figures. This could be, for example, lead-time, how much the projects may be delayed and how much of the projects remains.

    • Create a feature where users can come up with improvement suggestions and a system where they can implement and follow up on this to achieve continuous improvement.

    • Increase communication in the tool to prevent information loss. This can be done through an information box that is regularly updated with, for example, information about the business or upcoming meetings. Also provide the opportunity to warn of any delays in the system or have more planning meetings.

  • 235.
    Långström, Rebecca
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Miljöutredning som verktyg i hållbarhetsarbetet2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study includes an environmental investigation at the company HMC in Västra Götaland with four centers located in different cities: Borås, Mölndal, Skövde and Uddevalla. HMC is a competence -and logistics center based on care providers' needs in the field of resources and includes various services to support the care chain. The business delivers, supplies and services all types of aids to the entire region. HMC is located under Regionservice, which in turn is part of the Västra Götalandregionen (VGR) and must therefore meet the goals and requirements that come from the top. The environmental study is a part of ensuring that HMC relates to VGR and Regionservice's new environmental plan 2017-2020. The purpose of the study is to investigate which HMC's significant environmental aspects are, and how they can / should be combined with VGR and Regionservice environmental plan for 20172020. In the beginning of the study, literature was studied related to the topic, such as environmental management systems and the impact they have on the corporation, what an environmental study is, and laws and requirements related to environmental issues. The study has been conducted using observations, surveys and interviews with employees at the various centers and data collected to quantify the environmental aspects. In total, 29 environmental aspects have been identified in the corporation and then valued using a routine template from Regionservice. At the evaluation, six environmental aspects were considered significant for the corporation, two of which were positive for HMC; conventional waste, aid, chemicals, transportation, procurement and purchasing and reuse of appliances. The study shows that HMC's corporation are well-connected with VGR and Regionservice new environmental plan for 2017-2020, the significant environmental aspects of the business can be linked to the goals set in the region. HMC should always strive to reduce its environmental impact starting with the significant environmental aspects, and to achieve all the goals, continuous improvements must be made throughout the business.

  • 236.
    Malki, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Shade, Omran
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Augmented Instructions: A study of methods for utilising 3D models in technical instructions2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis intends to identify and evaluate appropriate methods for ABB Capacitors to utilise their 3D models instead of 2D representations, with the purpose of reducing costumer’s misconceptions of installation manuals. ABB spends a significant amount of time designing detailed 3D models of their products. These are later converted into 2D representations of the models to create instructions with assembly drawings to their customers. 2D representations are less detailed than the 3D models and require prior experience to give an understanding of the products design. The customers don’t always possess the required experience to install capacitor solutions accordingly, this leads to wrong installations and increased lead-time. Three new visualisation methods were identified and evaluated on behalf of ABB Capacitors requirements and prerequisites. The three methods that were identified are Video recordings, Static-rotatable-3D Model and 3D sequence video. Next step was to identify and evaluate appropriate methods to present the 3D instructions. Initially two methods were considered: Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality. During the testing phase another opportunity was discovered, animated videos with camera views. The conclusion is that ABB Capacitors should replace the current instructions with animated videos with camera views and Augmented Reality experiences. Both suggested methods were demonstrated and evaluated for ABB Capacitors.

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  • 237.
    Mehmood, Faisal
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Laser Welding of Aluminium in Automotive Industry2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With all the advantages aluminium (Al) carries being the light weight and sustainable material, the laser welding of Al is tricky and complicated. The major challenges in laser welding of Al are the hot cracking, porosity and reflectivity. The experiments are done in order to understand the laser welding of Al process and analyse the process parameters impacts. In this thesis work, laser welding of Aluminium alloy is done in order to understand the process parameters effects on the weld quality. Experiments are done on the 5754-H22 and 6082-T6 alloys. Welding speed and laser power is kept constant for the experiments, however, laser focus position is varied on the plates. Focus position is kept on the surface of the plate as well as above and below the surface. The butt welding of same material alloy is done on the 3 mm plates. It is been analyzed that Al alloy 6082-T6 is easier to weld and give better weld quality as compared to 5754-H22. The overlap weld is done on 1.5 mm thick plates with CW (continuous wave) welding and PW (pulse weld). The laser welding is done with high speed, therefore, CW welding shows quality weld with no significant undercut or concavity as compared to PW welding method. The focus position above the surface shows quality weld in overlap weld with both PW and CW welding methods.

  • 238.
    Miller, Sebastian
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Genomförandeplan för utbyte av reläskydd2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been performed for the grid company Ellevio located in Kungsbacka at the Westcoast of Sweden. In several switch gears Ellevio has different components that must be replaced due to old age.

    The purpose of this thesis has been to come up with an implementation plan for how to be able to make the changes of the relay protections. The plan is to make it easier and save time for Ellevio and their subcontractors. Hopefully the AutoCad pictures will be easy to survey and will make it easier to make documentation about cabinets layout.

    The work has mostly been about documentation and different components which shall be replaced at the various stations. The work has also been focusing about using the right equipment for the installation of the relay protections and where they shall be replaced. Designs and drawings have been presented and how the new replacement is to be performed as compared to the old relays.

    Furthermore, a general cost estimation has been done for the material and work cost for each station. This has been compared to EBR-e which is a tool for estimating specific costs.

    The result presented shows that there are considerable differences between stations due to age and equipment, numbers of components needed to be exchanged and how well and accurate the documentation has been done over the years.

  • 239.
    Mohamed, Aboura
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Rslan, Hamza
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Anslutningstopp med pre-kompressionsvolym2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a thesis work where an end cap of a hydraulic truck pump has been developed and two new models have been designed. The work was carried out to develop the existing model by modeling two new models according to a requirement that they must contain cavity (pre-compression) with a certain volume at dead points (BDC and TDC). This is to reduce the pressure that arises at the dead points center of the end cap as pressure transients without affecting other functions negatively in the end cap. The degree project has been carried out at Parker Hannifin (Pump and motor) in Trollhattan. Three concepts have been compared and one concept has been selected. Two new models of the end cap according to the requirements have been developed. By cavity (pre-compression filter volume) is meant that a hole is drilled from the dead ends of the end cap which links the cylinder port to an additional volume obtained from the end cap. Based on a requirements specification that has been developed together with the marketing department, a concept has been selected and the geometry has been determined, regarding e.g. suction-port and pressure-ports dimensions the diameter of the drilled hole, the volume of the cavity and the customer requirements. Using the calculated geometry, two CAD models of the end cap have been made and the material determined. The models are then used for FEM calculations to check that no deformations at the end cap become too large. The models have shown that they meet the requirements set in the requirements specification and customer requirements and have also shown that they can withstand the working pressure of the F1 pump. The development of the end cap is very successful based on the FEM calculations, reconciliation with the requirements specification, customer requirements and scientific sources. 

  • 240.
    Mohandass, Venkataramanan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    EB-PBF additive manufacturing of Alloy 718: Effect of shot peening on surface characteristics and high temperature corrosion performance2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is an upsurge of research interest on Alloy 718 additively manufactured (AM) by electron beam powder bed fusion (EB-PBF) technique in aero and land-based gas turbine engines. However, the surface quality of the manufactured components has always been a major challenge. Several factors, including powder particle size, layer thickness, beam parameters, scanning strategies, and inclination angle of the build, govern the surface characteristics. Along with surface roughness resulted from partially melted powder particles, surface defects such as balls, satellites, microcracks as well as up-skin and down-skin surfaces can enhance the vulnerability of the manufactured parts to corrosion. When the surface is unable to withstand the exposed environment adequately, corrosion can be triggered. The surface-induced corrosion failures are increasingly becoming more challenging as the AM components often have complex geometries that render them even more difficult to finish. So, the relatively poor surface finish is the barrier to the full exploitation of the AM industry.

    In the present study, to achieve the desired surface quality, hence an improved high temperature corrosion performance, shot peening was implemented on Alloy 718 parts manufactured by EB-PBF. The high temperature corrosion behavior of the parts was investigated in an ambient air environment at 650 and 800 °C for up to 336 h. The underlying physical and chemical factors at play of the parts exposed to the corrosive environment were investigated too. The effect of topographical features (e.g., surface roughness) and microstructural characteristics (e.g., grain structure, phases, and defects) on high temperature corrosion behavior were analyzed by 3D surface profilometry, hardness test, optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The surface roughness and high temperature corrosion rate of the parts was significantly reduced after shot peening.

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  • 241.
    Molldén, Mikael
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kartläggning av projektet: ”Nyckelfritt” i Uddevalla kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, the purpose has been to examine how a project has worked. This includes collecting data from various documents and interviews with people involved in the project, but also by observations of how the project team have been working in the project. In this report, there is a theory section in which a literature study was conducted by looking into contemporary research. The data chapter consists of interviews with 21 different participants, consisting of people working with the project, but also outside the project like people in other municipalities with similar tasks, and people in the municipality who will be affected by the project. The goal has therefore been to map out how the work has been carried out in the project, and to identify possible problems to see what can be improved for future projects, but also how to proceed with this project. In this thesis, the project group's work has been compared with a project model presented in the theory section. The reason why its compared to the project model is to provide a structure to identify how they worked with different parts of the project. This provided a complete overview of the project and a base for identifying improvement opportunities for the project. Improvements include to develop a project model to work and communication must be improved from the lead and down the line (top-down). The competence must also be evaluated before the project starts to see if additional training is needed to avoid delays in the project. Finally, project content and initiatives must be prioritized to ensure good planning and that the project manager is allocated in accordance with time required so this person will be best utilized for the project.   Date

  • 242.
    Moussaoui, Adnan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Takkaloo, Farnam
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Projektering av laddstationer för elbilari ett flerbostadsområde2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As an increasing interest in electric cars is seen, demands are also made for a well-functioning charging infrastructure. This report investigates the possibility of establishing three charging stations divided into six charging points in an apartment building area belonging to Brf Stigbygeln.For Sweden to have a functioning infrastructure for charging vehicles, it is essential that there are charging stations when traveling longer distances outside urban areas but also in public places within the urban areas. It is also important that charging stations are placed near residential buildings. The charging of vehicles has a varying duration depending on the capacity of the battery but also the type of charging station used. This preliminary study presents three charging speeds called normal charging, semi-quick charging and quick charging, as well as four safety levels also called modes. The security level mode 3 is standard in the EU for normal and semi-quick charging and requires a special equipment at the charging station and in the electric vehicles. Mode 4 is standard in the EU for fast charging. Type 2 charging sockets are standard in the EU for normal charging and semi-quick charging, Type 2 sockets are used exclusively for all charging points in this report.Design of power requirements and cable area when establishing six charging points is presented with three alternatives based on the normal and semi-quick charging modes. The alternative recommended for Brf Stigbygeln is installation of six semi-quick charging points. The report's calculation of power requirements has been based on two existing 63A fuses as well as four existing cables of the type FKKJ 3x16/16 mm2. The study has also investigated the potential for future development plans, which proved to be good because an existing engine heater installation can be used as a starting point.The preliminary study also presents the results of a market survey in which four suppliers have been compared. The supplier that considered be the best to meet the specifications was the supplier InCharge, which is also the leading supplier in the municipality of Trollhättan.

  • 243.
    Mukhtar, Umer
    et al.
    Department of Management Sciences, GFT Business School, GIFT University, Gujranwala (PAK).
    Grönroos, Christian
    Department of Marketing, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki (FIN).
    Hilletofth, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering. Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, University of Gävle, Gävle (SWE).
    Pimenta, Marcio Lopes
    Management and Business College, Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlandia (BRA).
    Ferreira, Ana Cristina
    Department of Business Administration and Economics, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras (BRA).
    Inter-functional value co-creation as an antecedent of supply chain performance: a study based on the coordination theory2023In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is twofold. First, this study proposes to investigate the impact of inter-functional value co-creation (VCC) in a manufacturing firm’s value chain on supply chain performance, considering the moderating role of external integration. Second, this study proposes to validate a modified version of the VCC considering the inter-functional interaction context.

    Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative data were collected using survey approach from 129 managers from 51 departments of 22 manufacturing firms performing roles in several areas, such as procurement, logistics, sales, marketing and production. This study uses a PLS-SEM to analyze the model measurement, through confirmatory factor analysis.

    Findings: The empirical data supported the proposition of this study that the VCC degree (i.e. value co-production/value in use) between functions of the firm has significant positive effects on the performance of the supply chain, in customer service and flexibility. Practical implications: This study could be exceedingly useful for practitioners suggesting them to improve inter-functional integration by adopting VCC practices grounded on “value co-production” and “value in use.” Such practices may help to maximize supply chain performance.

    Originality/value: The coordination theory was useful to deepen the analysis of its quadrant named “participatory design,” considering the relationship between VCC and inter-functional integration. This paper extended the knowledge about the relationship between the participatory design quadrant and the quadrant referring to organizational structures and processes. 

  • 244.
    Munter, Martin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Uppvärmningsoptimering hos ExxonMobil i Uddevalla2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ExxonMobil in Uddevalla is a lubricating oil company that processes base oil for consumer oils such as engine oil, transmission oil, hydraulic oil and others. Due to high operating, service and fuel costs, the company sees the possibility of replacing its oil-fired steam boiler in the future with a more efficient, more environmentally friendly alternative. The steam boiler supplies the entire factory with steam in production but also to heat oil in storage tanks as well as heating offices and production premises.

    ExxonMobil seeks the opportunity to investigate alternatives and better heater systems for those areas that do not depend on steam as the heating medium and in this way be able to design the new future boiler for a smaller system.

    The task of the report is to identify a more efficient heating system for the Marin and Färud areas as well as for offices and production premises. Marin and Färud are two storage tank areas where oil is stored in cylindrical tanks between 50-145 m3 volume before delivery. Because the factory and the tanks are located down by the sea in Uddevalla oil harbor, they are constantly exposed to cooling by wind, rain, snow, etc. Which leads to the need of continuous heating.

    ExxonMobil lacks information on the amount of energy consumed in the respective areas as they are absorbed into the larger steam system common for the entire plant. Initially, energy measurements were carried out to investigate the energy consumed to further investigate which alternative systems are applicable to the energy size.

    Big savings are possible as the current oil boiler system only has an efficiency up to 88% according to inspection protocol. By installing air/water heat pumps, it is possible to reduce energy consumption by up to 70% depending on ambient temperature.

  • 245.
    Myrberg, Emil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Rudenstam, Simon
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Robotgradning: En förstudie för automatisering av gradnings- och slipningsprocesser i syfte att förbättra ergonomi2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Siemens has identified problems with ergonomics in their deburring and grinding processes.This was determined by a current situation analysis, which consisted of interviews with teamleaders, questionnaires for operators and through observation. During the current situation analysis, vibrations from the tools were noticed as a major problem, which results in approximately 50% of working time being devoted to breaks. To reduce the vibrations and subsequent downtime, the possibility of implementing an automatic solution in the form of a robot was evaluated. Robots exist in two forms: traditional industrial robots and collaborative robots, also known as cobots. The differences between the two are, among other things, that industrial robots are programmed by external companies, they work faster than cobots and they require a booth to be used. Cobots, on the other hand, can be programmed by Siemens themselves and can work alongside operators. The Wandelbots Tracepen tool was identified to further simplify the programming of cobots. With this information in mind, processes in the workshop that are most suitable for automation have been identified, these are groove grinding of inner and outer shells on SGT-800 and impingement on SGT-800. Other processes that are not related to deburring and grinding have also been identified as automatable but were not further investigated in this study. To determine which type of robot was most optimal for the purpose, the differences between industrial robots and cobots were further investigated through interviews with the Swedish Research Institute and ARHO, both of which are specialists in robot integration. Cobots have been defined as better suited due to their user-friendliness and flexibility as well as the lengthy but simplistic execution of the chosen processes. When identifying the optimal robotmodel, a decision matrix was used where performance, price and user-friendliness were weighed. Two robots from the company Universal Robots were compared to one robot from ABB. The model UR-10e from Universal Robots is determined to be best suited and is thereby visualized in a robot cell using the 3D program Siemens NX12. The conclusion that could be drawn from the current study was that a cobot investment would be effective for the improvement of operator’s ergonomic problems and elimination of their frequent breaks. Further, technological unemployment would also be avoided since cobots are designed to work side by side with human operators, removing the safety concerns associated with traditional robots. Although further work, mentioned in the current study, is required before complete implementation of recommended suggestion.

  • 246.
    Nandin, Felix
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Development of a method to measure multiple thermal cycles in subsequent layers in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing(WAAM) of thin walls2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to assess the thermal cycle and the application of thermocouples in WAAM (Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing) with CMT (Cold Metal Transfer). CMT is an arc welding method that uses regular off the shelf welding equipment. The process has been implemented in AM (Additive Manufacturing) through providing the movement to be controlled by a robot. CMT is one of many methods used to manufacture metal parts by AM but belongs to the section that has the highest deposition rates which decreases the production time. An important thermal cycle seen to production speed is the cooling time between peak temperature and the chosen interlayer temperature. This has vital part in the effectiveness of the WAAM process. Another important cooling time that is usually analyzed for structural steel is the 800 to 500°C time because it influences the materials microstructure.

    Two tests were performed to give the information around the objectives, which was to assess the thermal cycle, evaluate different thermocouples attachment methods and find out how ground connection of the thermocouples affect the measurements. To be able to measure the thermal cycles, thermocouples was attached to the substrate which is the base for the thin wall. The first test used three attachment methods to fix the thermocouples in place, where one used cement, another used epoxy mixed with metal shavings and the last one used a spot welded sheet metal. Seven layers were deposited, and every layer was inspected to assess the welding quality. The test showed that the sheet metal method contributed to themost stable weld pool and the finest welding quality. The second test was mainly conducted to test ground connection, which proved to increase the noise in the measurements and make them less trustworthy. Noise of different degrees did emerge in all measurements. The underlying cause of the noise is evaluated and can arise from several factors.

    The temperature measurements were saved as numerical data to allow evaluation of the thermal cycle. The first test had a chosen interlayer temperature of 50°C and proved to need a cooling time of 17 minutes to ensure that the workpiece is below 50°C before the next layer is deposited. The average cooling time between 800 and 500°C was calculated with three measurements in test two because there were no more reliable peak temperatures thatwas recorded over 800°C. This resulted in an average cooling time of 5,9 seconds.

  • 247.
    Nekkalapudi, Gopi Krishna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Process parameter optimization and tensile properties of LPBF 21-6-9 stainless steel2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    21-6-9 is a nitrogen strengthened austenitic stainless steel (ASS) with high strength, good corrosion resistance at high temperatures, and retained toughness at cryogenic temperatures. Due to its oxidation resistance at high temperature, this alloy is used in aerospace applications.

    Laser powder fusion (LPBF) is a promising metal additive manufacturing (AM) process that can produce components with complex geometries. AM is a manufacturing process that enhances the mechanical properties and reduced production time with minimal wastage.

    For the first time, 21-6-9 has been manufactured using the (AM) process laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). Therefore, a design of experiments (DOE) were performed to obtain optimized process parameters in regard to low defect density. With the optimized process parameters, another build was built for tensile testing in two directions i.e., vertical & horizontal.

    The tensile test was performed at 22 °C & 750 °C. By analysing the tensile test result, it was found that there is no anisotropic behaviour. The tensile test result shown a yield strength of 620 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 825 MPa & ductility of 41% at room temperature. However, the specimens tested at the evaluated temperature shown lower tensile properties than room temperature tested specimens

  • 248.
    Nilsen, Ida
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Investerings- och byggnationsanalys av integrerade och fristående strömtransformatorer i Ellevios regionnät2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this diploma thesis is to conduct a technical and economic investigation of two construction methods of current transformers in substations.

    In the report the power transformer, the instrument transformer, the current and voltage transformers are presented. The power transformer is one of the most important components in the power grid, whose main task is to transform electricity from one voltage level to another. The instrument transformers are used to separate high voltage circuits from the measuring instruments. The voltage transformers task is to transform the primary voltages into secondary measurement voltages, and the current transformer main task is to convert primary currents to smaller, standardized secondary currents to get less and more manageable currents that are easier to measure.

    In the thesis, pros and cons with the independent and integrated current transformers are compared in Ellevio's regional network. Two financial calculations are presented and a requirement study about Ellevio's current requirements for measurement with instrument transformers in the regional network is submitted. This has been through extensive surveying and interviews with expert stakeholders in the area.

    The theoretical and economic investigation shows that the investment cost of the integrated current transformer is considerably lower and that it is space saving and that it´s more complicated to correct possible errors on this type of current transformer.

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  • 249.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Elkvalitetsutredning för att säkerställa standardefterlevnad i ny anläggningsde2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project has been done on behalf of AFRY for a large manufacturing industry, with the purpose to investigate whether or not a new section of a plant complies with the compatibility levels specified in IEC 61000-2-2 and 61000-2-4. The project also included an investigation of available emission margins for a future expansion of the plant, based upon given planning levels.

    A power quality measurement was performed in order to determine compliance with the standards between 2020-04-15, 09:00 to 2020-05-05, 09:44. The instrument was setup on the low voltage switchgear incoming supply, +PR1-WB4+SA1-Q1. The compliance verification based upon the measurement indicated failed compliance for voltage variations, long term flicker and high levels of the 48th harmonic.

    An external event was registered on the 18th of April, 2020 at 04:45:48, which was the cause of the failed compliance checks for long term flicker and voltage variations.

    Since the switchgear feeds two separate plants, where both have been in operation for periods of time during the measurement period, operation logs for both plants were used to help determine the source of the 48th harmonic, resulting in the conclusion that +PR1-TA2 is the main source of the 48th harmonic.

    Since no EMC plan has been available and no planning levels outside of the compatibility levels specified in IEC 61000-2-2 have been identified, arguments to create one has been presented.

  • 250.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, Elena
    Kristiansson, Lilia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Process and Product Development. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, Daria
    Competence Development and Employability Prospects: Using Non-traditional teaching Methods in a Changing Higher Education Environment2010In: European Conference on educational research: ECER 2010, 23-27 August, Helsinki, 2010, p. 451-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The cultural changes in the modern society create new challenges for educators in Europe. The higher education curriculum has changed from factual knowledge acquisition to developing students' competences and skills in response to a changing professional environment. This paper analyses student experience and academic results in generic and subject-specific competence development in order to evaluate the potential of using problem-based learning (PBL) and project-based (PrBL) learning to increase the  students´ prospects of employment. The fast pace of technological advancements, interdisciplinary work, changing organisations and globalisation of the workplace characterize the modern knowledge-based society. Equipping students with competences required for their social and professional integration, successful career and personal development is a key mission of the higher education sector. Promoting effective teaching and learning methods facilitates the acquisition of professional skills and competence, and at the same time addresses the needs of a diverse student body in higher education. 

    This paper explores the opportunities for implementing PBL and PrBL in a range of programmes at the University West, Sweden and Lancaster University, UK focusing on the development of generic and subject specific competences. This is an on-going collaboration between two universities [1-3]. 

    PBL and PrBL are the examples of collaborative student-focused learning and are supported by constructivist theory [4-6]. These methods encourage deeper learning via meaning construction, connecting ideas as well as creating meaningful artifacts. They stimulate a collaborative process of building among participants, develop self-directed learning, improve student performance and develop a range of study skills through creating an informal environment for learning. 

    Our study was carried out at the University West, Sweden and Lancaster University, UK in 2009. The objectives of the study were: 

    • To assess the level of student-acquired competences, generic and subject-specific (mathematics, engineering)

    • To evaluate the quality of student experience by assessing the impact of PBL and PrBL on students' competence development;

    • To identify the best practice and opportunities for promoting effective teaching and learning methods to enhance student employability prospects. 

    Method

    In Sweden, the first-year students in the ' Surveyors' and the second-year students on 'Basic Principles of Turbomachinery and Hydraulics' undergraduate programmes participated in this study. The lectures were delivered in a traditional way; PBL was used throughout tutorials. The students solved applied mathematical problems aimed at acquiring a set of competences working in small groups. To evaluate the outcomes of this study, each group had to reflect on what they learned during each PBL session, how the session affected their learning process and their competence development. At Lancaster University the first-year mechanical engineering students reflected on their experience of project-based learning. The students had to design, build and test a lifting device working in groups of four. The lectures and tutorials in the programme were conducted in a traditional way. By the end of the project the students responded to a questionnaire consisted of open-ended questions.

    Expected Outcomes

    The results showed that the Swedish students evaluated PBL method highly, finding it useful, activating and valuable. The students indicated they developed problem-solving skills, advanced their analytical skills and ability to apply mathematical tools. These competences are important for their future employment. The students rated collaboration with peers highly. The students at Lancaster University pointed out the necessity of developing time management, communication with peers in the groups and organisational skills. The students stressed that problem-solving and decision-making were very important as they had to choose the right design concept to work with. Assigning tasks and requiring completion by a required date were the skills that the students had to learn while working as a team. The paper concludes with recommendations for promoting PBL and PrBL as they represent useful educational tools which encourage the development of generic and subject-specific competences. They also provide the opportunities to accommodate a diverse range of student learning-styles and academic backgrounds.

     

    References

    1. Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E. "Problem-based Learning and competence development: a Case Study of Teaching Mathematics to Computer Science Students", Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 2007, No 3. p 13-21.

    2. Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E. Using Problem-based and Peer-assisted Learning in Teaching Mathematics to University Students: Focus on Competence Development. Paper presented at the European Educational Research Conference, ECER 2009, Vienna, Austria, September 2009.

    3. Luchinskaya E., Nilsson G. and Williams C., "Developing students' competences in the light of Bologna process: the responses from Sweden and Russia". Paper presented at the European Educational Research Conference, ECER 2008, Gothenburg, Sweden, September 2008.

    4. Vygotsky, L. S. Mind in society. The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1978

    5. Phillips, D. Constructivism in education: Opinions and second opinions on controversial issues. Chicago, IL University of Chicago Press, 2000

    6. Light, G., Cox, R., & Calkins, S. (2009) Teaching and learning in higher education: The reflective professional. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2009. 

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