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  • 201.
    Molander, Elin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Emanuelsson, Mattias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Hållbar utveckling och den biologiska mångfalden: En studie om kommunernas förhållningssätt till hållbar utveckling i arbetet med den biologiska mångfalden i samhällsplaneringen.2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By Sweden signing the UN Convention on Biological Diversity and Agenda 21, the country undertook to both preserve and sustainably use biological diversity, and to strive for sustainable development. Global commitments are usually realized at a local level, which means that the municipalities become an important player in environmental and sustainability work, not least through community planning.

    Through urbanization and that we become more inhabitants in the country, it is required that more homes are built to counteract housing shortages. At the same time as this housing requirement exists, there are also requirements that the biological diversity and other natural values must be preserved to achieve sustainable development. Even though there are environmental quality goals and sustainability goals, only one of sixteen environmental quality goals is considered to be met. Furthermore, the municipalities themselves can also choose which environmental quality goals they want to work extra with depending on the municipalities' conditions. A reduced biodiversity leads to a lack of nutrition, reduced well-being and an increased risk of erosion. In community planning, it therefore becomes important to think from a holistic perspective.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate in which ways the two selected municipalities Linköping and Örebro consider the biological diversity in community planning and whether this is done from a sustainability perspective. The purpose is also to investigate whether the municipalities relate to the government's strategy for living cities regarding green infrastructure and whether ecological, economic, and social sustainability regarding biodiversity is followed in the municipalities' general plans. The study has been carried out through a qualitative document analysis of the selected municipalities' general plans and associated strategic documents that deal with biological diversity. This with the aim of examining concrete measures that the municipalities intend to carry out to preserve the biological diversity in the city and urban areas.

    Although the general plan is not legally binding, it is highly indicative in the municipalities' community planning. The overview plans show the municipality's direction for subsequent planning. When planning in urban environments, it is especially important to plan for green infrastructures, including designated high natural values where all aspects of the concept of sustainable development are considered, both social, economic, and ecological sustainability. When planning in detail, it is important that the municipality and the developer consider the designated natural values and the green infrastructure that exists within the area to be planned in detail. 

    The results of the study show that the municipalities work relatively equally with each other with the biological diversity about sustainable development. The municipalities have stated in the general plans that the cities will be densified with existing cohesive buildings. In the municipalities' nature conservation programs and nature plans, the municipalities have set concrete goals for working with the conservation of biological diversity and strategies for achieving these goals. Furthermore, the master plans with accompanying documents showed that green infrastructure was of great importance within the municipalities' districts. From the selected detailed plans, the results showed that the municipalities took biological diversity into account to a great extent. The municipalities planned new buildings near existing buildings to be frugal in paving natural land that has a negative effect on biological diversity. Furthermore, hatch plots are avoided by planning cohesive buildings as it reduces the risk of fragmentation of natural land.

  • 202.
    Mustakangas, Sanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Tallheden, Jenny
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Upplåtelse av allmän plats för enskilt ändamål2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Municipalities have the plan monopoly which means that they have the exclusive right to produce and adopt detailed plans. A detailed development plan regulates how land and water areas should be used and granted. The plan regulates which land that should constitute a land for public space and an area for building sites. Public space is for example land as parks, nature, squares or roads that are made for the public's needs. Public spaces are usually not allowed to be leased for private interests as they are made for public interests. The use of the site's must be reported in the map for the detailed plan, with associated plan regulations that both are legally conclusive. The public spaces should, among other things, also be available for emergency vehicles. Property formations should compliance with the current detailed plan. Minor deviations from the detailed plan can be made if the deviations are compatible with the purpose of the plan, according to the Real Property Formation Act 3:2. It has been questioned if it´s allowed to lease public spaces for private interests. Certain municipalities mean that the purpose with the public spaces disappears if it is leased for a private interest, but other municipalities think that there is a need. The selected authorities' reasons for the leases are minor deviation from the detailed plan, that the purpose of the detailed plan is not counteracted and that the public place's accessibility to the public is not affected that much. This thesis clear that land which is leased temporary regulates in the Order Act of Sweden and is leased with a police license. Permanent leases regulate in the Code of Land Laws forms part of the Statute Book of Sweden as well as in the Property Formation Act and make the leases with a use agreement or an easement. In this thesis public spaces definition that specifies in the Planning and Building Act and the corresponding definition in the Order Act of Sweden. The purpose of the thesis is to describe the legal situation concerning private leases on public places. The study is supposed to describe how four municipalities and two land survey authorities deal with the issue. The study also intends to clarify the underlying motives that the selected authorities have for their decisions. There are several rights to apply for private interests in public spaces. The authors of this thesis have defined to only investigate whether it is possible to grant land for private interests through easements or rights of user. After completing the study, we can conclude that there are shared opinions about whether the legislation should be clarified or changed. The authors of this study can see that the issue of granting public space should be dealt with early in the planning process. To start setting the issue up early, the authorities can avoid a time-consuming and expensive change of plan. We also can see that there is a need to change or clarify the legislation.

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  • 203.
    Mårtensson, Stig-Göran
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering. Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, University of Gävle, Gävle (SWE).
    Simple computation of coordinates and uncertainty of ‘hidden’ points from two coordinated points that are collinear with the hidden point2022In: Survey review - Directorate of Overseas Surveys, ISSN 0039-6265, E-ISSN 1752-2706, Vol. 54, no 387, p. 543-553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimating the measurement uncertainties of coordinates of points that are not accessible by direct geodetic surveying (hidden points) is the topic of this study. The simplicity by which the uncertainties can be found for such hidden points when practicing indirect observations by total station or by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is demonstrated. A three-dimensional solution is obtained by total station observations using a two-prism hidden-point rod and a two-dimensional solution by GNSS observations on the ground. An intention with the study is that methods and results should apply for general geodetic purposes, like engineering surveying. The derived uncertainty formulae have been verified by Monte Carlo simulations. An important finding is their geometric dependence by the quotient between the two distances involved when two coordinated points are collinear with a third hidden point.

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    T&F
  • 204.
    Niedomysl, Thomas
    et al.
    Lund University, Department of Human and Economic Geography, Lund SE-223 62, Sweden.
    Hall, Ola
    Lund University, Department of Human and Economic Geography, Lund SE-223 62, Sweden.
    Archila Bustos, Maria Francisca
    Lund University, Department of Human and Economic Geography, Lund SE-223 62, Sweden.
    Ernstson, Ulf
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering. University of Gothenburg, Department of Economy and Society, .
    Using Satellite Data on Nighttime Lights Intensity to Estimate Contemporary Human Migration Distances2017In: Annals of the American Association of Geographers, ISSN 2469-4452, E-ISSN 2469-4460, Vol. 107, no 3, p. 591-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For well over a century, migration researchers have recognized the lack of adequate distance measures to be a key obstacle for advancing understanding of internal migration. The problem arises from the convention of spatially defining migration as the crossing of administrative borders. Because administrative regions vary in size, shape, and settlement patterns, it is difficult to tell how far movers go, raising doubts about the generalizability of research in the field. This article shows that satellite data on nighttime lights can be used to infer accurate measures of migration distance. We first use the intensity of nighttime lights to locate mean population centers that closely correspond to mean population centers calculated from actual population data. Until now, locating mean population centers accurately has been problematic, as it has required highly disaggregated population data, which are lacking in many countries. The nighttime lights data, which are freely available on a yearly basis, solve this challenge. We then show that this information can be used to accurately estimate migration distances. © 2017 by American Association of Geographers.

  • 205.
    Nielsen, Linn
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Ovik, Anja
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Dagvatten: Vem har ansvaret?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's climate change means warmer temperatures and annual precipitation is expected to increase by 20-60 %. The increased rainfall means more stormwater on the ground. This water must be taken care of in a long-term sustainable manner, otherwise it can lead to problems. Therefore, society must adapt to the climate change that occurs. The study aims at investigating who is responsible for handling the water and clarifying the legal conditions for local stormwater treatment. The study also examines how water management looks like in the detailed plans in Västra Götaland County. The study focuses on looking at and how responsibility for stormwater is distributed in the detailed plan documents as well as the planning rules that are used for water treatment. The method we used is a combination of a qualitative and quantitative as well as a legal method.The study answers the following questions: o Who is responsible for the disposal of stormwater? o How does the municipalities distribute the responsibility of stormwater in the detailed plans? o Are there any plans for regulation of stormwater, which? o What is the distribution of responsibility in the plan descriptions? o Do municipalities have a legal basis for the use of local stormwater treatment, how do legal conditions look? The study results show that 28 % of municipal plans for stormwater are about local stormwater treatment, which is an illegal plan. Local stormwater treatment does not have the support from Chapter 4 Planning and Building Act required for a plan regulation to be used. The conclusion is that the municipalities should take responsibility for the discharge of stromwater if it is within the municipality's area of activity. Nevertheless, only in 16 % of the plans that the real estates are connected to the stormwater network.

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  • 206.
    Niklasson, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Hagström Russell, Christopher
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Stora bostadsfastigheter på landsbygden med kombinerade ändamål: En studie av gällande rätt och fastigheter bildade i Västra Götalands län år 20182019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the year 1991, the general suitability conditions in FBL 3:1 was revised and the statements in the preparatory work made it possible to form larger properties for housing with additional ground suitable for other purposes than housing, such as ground for smaller animal retention or cultivation. According to prior practice in the field, properties purposed for housing was limited to only containing enough ground to cover the space needed for buildings and gardens. This thesis applies the scientific method of legal dogmatics in order to examine the applicable law. The method includes analysis of preparatory work, court cases, and doctrines that is relevant to understanding how the general suitability condition should be applied in cases where large properties for housing with additional ground for other purposes in rural areas are formed. Based on the different sources of analysis some parts of what could be viewed as a framework for the law has been defined. The study shows that there are three typical cases when it is allowed to include forest land in properties for housing. Furthermore, it shows that the ordinary areal size of properties with the sole combined purpose of retention is considered to be 3,5 hectares. It can also be concluded that forming properties within the general protection area of beaches must be done with great restrictiveness and lastly it is allowed to form properties that consists of more than one unit as long as the units has a functional connection in relations to each other. The applicable law seems to vary from case to case depending on the many factors that must be considered when the general suitability condition is applied. Therefore, it has been difficult to draw more detailed conclusions from this part of the study. This thesis also contains a legal sociologic study in which the documentation from the creation of multipurpose properties in Västra Götaland, Sweden, has been converted into statistics and compared with the results of the legal dogmatics study in order to determine how the law is applied in reality. The study showed that a total of 269 properties had been created in the year 2018. The properties have been created in every council except two, the areal mean is 4,5 hectares and the most ordinary combined purpose is retention. Most properties are created as one sole unit and lastly there are 48 properties that are created within the general protection area of beaches. The legal sociologic study was concluded with five cases where the creation of multipurpose properties which had been appealed to the land and environment courts. They were studied in order to determine what the county government considers to be a property that does not conform with the general suitability conditions.

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  • 207.
    Nilsson, Galina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Peer-Assisted Learning in Mathematics in Higher Education.2010In: LTH:s Pedagogiska Inspirationskonferens: 6:e Pedagogiska inspirationskonferensen, dec 2010. Lund, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores opportunities for implementing a peer-tutoring system in mathematics in two contrasting settings: a traditional classroom environment with a teacher-centred educational process and the higher education environment where a range of student-centred teaching and learning methods has already been introduced. After a series of PAL sessions a questionnaire was distributed and in-depth interviews with the peer tutors were conducted. The analysis of the impact of peer-assisted learning (PAL) on the students' learning experience showed that the majority of students positively evaluated their PAL experience. The students felt that they were more actively engaged with and more in control of the learning process than during a traditional tutorial. This study demonstrated that the size of the groups, timing and the number of PAL sessions are crucial for successful implementation of PAL. The paper concludes with the recommendations for using PAL in a variety of educational settings.The higher education sector has been experiencing a dramatic change during the past decade: it is rapidly expanding both in the number and diversity of students. Student to staff ratio has enormously increased. The students are coming from different ethnic, social, and cultural backgrounds and have different levels of knowledge. The change in higher education from an "elite" to a "mass" system creates new challenges for educators. At the same time, the main features of the modern knowledge-based society, the society we live in, are the fast pace of technological advancements, interdisciplinary work organisation and globalisation of the work market. Educators in Europe are facing new challenges in preparing young people for their social and professional integration, successful career and personal development.

    The appropriate choice of teaching methods which meet the demands of the knowledge-based society, influence the learning process and accommodate the needs of young generation is crucial in achieving these tasks. Implementing student-centred approaches in the educational process creates the learning environment which stimulates students' learning developing their ability of independent and deep learning. 

  • 208.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Luchinskaja, Elena
    Leeds Universitet, UK.
    Providing university students vith effective maths support2013In: The 41st Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association: Disruptions and eruptions as opportunities for transforming education. Abstract book., Reykjavik: Nordic Educational Research Association, NERA , 2013, p. 143-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European universities are facing the fact that students entering higher education have a diverse

    level of maths knowledge which is often below university requirements. Teaching such a diverse

    student body is a challenging and complex task. In addition, students struggle with their studies

    which affects the university drop-out rate. This paper addresses the use and organisation of

    maths support provision in two universities: University West, Sweden and Leeds Metropolitan

    University, UK and is part of an on-going research collaboration between the two universities.

    The present study evaluates the efficiency of maths support in these institutions from both the

    academic staff and students’ perspective. Our study was conducted in two stages, based on

    qualitative methodology. We used mixed methods for our data collection: questionnaires for

    students, interviews with tutors and observations during the sessions. The combination of these

    methods gave us a fuller picture of the effectiveness of maths support in these two universities.

    Our study showed that students’ maths abilities and maths support requirements varied a lot.

    First year undergraduate students were mainly struggling to cope with their assignments and

    were looking for additional support to help with that. Often the lack of maths knowledge was

    intertwined with a lack of subject-specific knowledge. From the observations and interviews with

    tutors it was noticeable that students tended to adopt a ’solve it for me’ approach. From students’

    feedback it was clear that they highly appreciated the maths support provision. They found the

    environment more friendly and supportive than normal tutorials. They felt at ease to ask more

    questions and to clearly indicate what they did not know. They appreciated that tutors were able

    to meet their needs and explained the problems in a variety of ways and in small, easy to follow,

    steps.

    The paper concludes with recommendations for improving the effectiveness of maths support for

    students and discusses how the research can be taken further.

  • 209.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, D.
    Provision of maths support for student in higher education institutions2012In: The 40th Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association: March 8-10, 2012, Copenhagen, Aarhus: Department of Eduation, Aarhus University , 2012, p. 283-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European countries including Scandinavian countries are facing a crisis in preparing qualified staff for working in science and engineering. Declining numbers of students pursuing careers in these areas and poor quality of maths education in secondary schools are the principal factors contributing to this problem.

    Students entering universities have a diverse level of maths knowledge which is often below university requirements. University teachers face a challenging and complex task of teaching such a diverse student body. One of the most common ways to tackle this problem and to raise the level of students' maths knowledge to the required standard is to introduce a maths foundation course prior to mainstream teaching. However, this is not always possible because of academic staff availability and/or time and cost constraints.

    Another solution is to provide additional help with maths-related problems by running drop-in sessions, workshops and/or tutorials.

    This study analyses the efficiency of maths support provision in two universities: Leeds Metropolitan University, UK and Högskolan Väst, Sweden. This is an on-going collaboration between two universities and in this paper we present the results of this study focussing on the academic staff prospective, using questionnaires, observations and interviews with tutors.

    Based on the collected data we concluded that often students are not fully engaged during workshops. They prefer a 'solve this for me' approach which they try to achieve during individual sessions and which is not always possible with the course tutor. However, implementing methods which increase students' engagement with the learning process (e.g. problem-based learning andpeer-assisted learning) can be more useful. Running subject-specific workshops (e.g. for nurses, business students or teachers) helps to focus on students' particular needs, and individual tutorials can accommodate other needs.

    The paper concludes with recommendations for improving the efficiency of maths support for students.

  • 210.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, E
    Developing generic and subject specific competences through non-traditional teaching methods2009In: European Educational Research Association conference: ECER 2009, 25-30 september, Vienna, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 211.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, E
    Enhancing student employability prospects through competence development: using non-traditional methods in teaching mathematics in higher education2010In: NERA ‘ s 38 th Congress: Malmö, 11-13 March 2010, Malmö University School of Teacher Education, Malmö: Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA) , 2010, p. 144-144Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic/aim: This paper analyses student and academic experience in generic and subject specific competence development to evaluate the potential of using problem-based learning (PBL) and peer-assisted learning (PAL) in raising student employability prospects. The fast pace of technological advancements, interdisciplinary work organisation and globalisation of the work market are the main features of the modern knowledge-based society. Equipping students with competences that are required for their social and professional integration, successful career and personal development is becoming a key mission of the higher education sector. Fostering effective teaching and learning methods facilitates the acquisition of professional skills and competences. This paper explores the opportunities for implementing PBL and PAL in delivering mathematics on a range of programmes at the University Väst in Sweden focusing on the development of generic and subject specific competences. Theoretical framework: This study is underpinned by the socio-cultural theory of the learning processes which was originally formulated by Vygotsky and is currently experiences a tremendous peak of its popularity. PBL encourages deeper learning via meaning construction and connecting ideas. It stimulates collaborative knowledge building process among participants and develops self-directed learning. PAL is an example of a student-to student support scheme grounded in collaborative learning. PAL is aimed to improve student performance and develop a range of study skills through creating an informal environment for learning. The introduction of both methods into the educational process independently and at the same has a broad potential. Methodology/research design: Our study was carried out in the University Väst, Sweden in 2005-2009. The first year students on the ‘Land Surveyors’ and ‘Computer Science’ undergraduate programme participated in this study. Two pedagogical methods — PBL and a combination of PBL and PAL were incorporated into the mathematics modules delivery. The lectures were delivered in a traditional way; PBL and PAL were used throughout tutorials. The students were solving applied mathematical problems working in small groups. The problems selected were aimed to acquire a set of competences relevant to their future career. To evaluate the outcomes of this study, a questionnaire consisted of multiple choice and openended questions was designed where the students could comment on their learning experience. The interviews with tutors were conducted. The study has drawn a comparison between the development of particular competences and the use of PBL, PAL and traditional methods. Expected conclusions/findings: The results showed that the students evaluated PAL and PBL methods as useful and valuable. The students indicated that have developed problem solving skills, advanced their analytical skills and ability to apply mathematical tools. These competences are important for their future employment. The students highly rated collaboration with peers. It was noted that the selection of the problems, the number of students enrolled on the course, the choice of peer tutors, the way how training sessions are organised, the number and timing of the sessions are crucial for the successful implementation of PAL and PBL. Relevance for Nordic Educational research: Higher education systems in Europe including Scandinavia are facing new challenges in raising employability of students. The appropriate choice of teaching methods is instrumental to a successful implementation of this task. The paper concludes with recommendations for fostering PAL and PBL as they represent a useful educational tool which encourages the development of generic and subject specific competences.

  • 212.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, E
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Using Problem-based and Peer-assisted Learning in Teaching Mathematics to University Students: Focus on Competence Development2009In: British Educational Research Association conference: BERA 2009, Manchester University, Manchester, UK, 2-5 September 2009, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The harmonisation and internationalisation of higher education systems in Europe driven by the principles encapsulated in the Bologna Declaration [1] are offering new agendas for educators. The shift towards a student centred educational paradigm with the focus on learning outcomes and acquired competences highlights various ways in which this process can be mediated. An appropriate choice of teaching methods is instrumental to a successful educational process. The use of different teaching and learning styles such as discussions, group work, case studies, problem-based learning (PBL), peer-assisted learning (PAL) and critical thinking enables deeper engagement of learners within the learning process and at the same time facilitates the acquisition of professional skills and competences [2, 3].

    The paper assesses the impact of PAL and PBL methods applied in teaching Mathematics to students on the 'Land Surveyors' programme, on student experience across generic and subject specific competence development.

    The carried out research had the following objectives:

    To plan and select tasks for tutorials where students can practise PBL;To design and implement several PAL sessions to facilitate the development of problem solving skills;To design questionnaires to evaluate the quality of student experience;To analyse the challenges university teachers face in implementing innovative approaches to teaching and the competence development.

    There is a substantial body of literature on the PAL [e.g. 4] and PBL methodology [e.g. 5, 6]. PAL is an example of a student-to student support scheme grounded in collaborative learning. PAL  is aimed to improve student performance and  develop a range of study skills through creating an informal environment for learning. At the same time PBL encourages deeper learning via meaning construction and connecting ideas. It stimulates collaborative knowledge building process among participants and develops self-directed learning. The introduction of both methods into the educational process at the same has a broad potential.

    Our study was carried out in the University Väst, Sweden during 9 weeks in 2008. The 'Core  Mathematics' module (7.5 credits) is one of the cornerstone modules of the 'Land Surveyors' programme curriculum. The competences acquired by students while on this module are fundamental for the future study. 42 first year students on the 'Land Surveyors' undergraduate programme participated in this study. Two pedagogical methods – PAL and PBL have been incorporated into the programme delivery. PBL method has been already introduced before in University Vast in Computer Science programmes [7] and this method was highly appreciated by students. In order to introduce PBL and PAL methods into the course design and to stimulate student involvement in the educational process, it was decided to keep a traditional layout of lectures but to change the way seminars were conducted. PBL method was used throughout the tutorials but three PAL sessions were introduced at the end of the course.

    The students were solving applied mathematical problems working in small groups of five. The selection of problems was based on the relevance of the competences acquired through this activity to their future career. The introduction of PAL and PBL methods was focused in particular on the developing problem-solving and analytical skills as well as developing ability to formulate the problem mathematically. A peer tutor from the same student cohort was assigned to each group and training sessions for them were organised. To evaluate the outcomes of this study, the questionnaire was designed where the students could evaluate their learning experience. In addition, the peer tutors were interviewed. The results of the survey were statistically analysed. The results showed that the students evaluated PAL and PBL methods as useful and valuable. The students positively evaluated the peer tutors' performance. They thought that the group leaders were well-prepared, competent and could clearly explain the problems to peers.

    The analysed data indicated that over 60 percent of the students estimated that have developed problem solving skills, while 35 percent indicated that they advanced their analytical skills and ability to apply mathematical tools. The students highly rated working in groups and commented on the positive effects of collaboration with peers. In their comments they pointed out that it was easier for them to ask questions, get support and explanation The students perceived the use of PAL and PBL approaches as a useful contribution to their learning experience.

    The introduction of non-traditional methods into educational process creates new challenges for tutors. The selection of the problems, the number of students enrolled on the course, the choice of peer tutors, the way how training sessions are organised, the number and timing of the sessions are crucial for the successful implementation of the PAL and PBL.

    In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the use PAL and PBL was rewarding and overall well received by the students at University Vast. The results of the final exams showed an improvement in student grades compared to previous years. The opportunity of implementing a more individual and flexible approach to the educational process led to improved generic and subject specific competences.

    References

     

    1. The Bologna Declaration of 19 June 1999 http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/hogeronderwijs/bologna/documents/MDC/BOLOGNA_DECLARATION1.pdf

    2. Moon, J. (2002) The module and programme development handbook. London: Kogan Page.

    3. Ramsden, P. (2003) Learning to teach in higher education (2nd ed). New York: Routledge Falmer.

    4. Peer Assisted Learning, Topping, K. and Ehly, S. (Eds.),  Lawrence Erlbaum, 1998

    5. Dahlgren, M. (2003) PBL through the looking glass: Comparing applications in computer engineering, psychology, physiotherapy. International Journal of Engineering Education, 19 (5), 672-681.

    6. Dahlgren. L. O. (1998) "Problembaserat lärande - Idé, Praktik Och Effeter", Linköpings Universitet.

    Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E. "Developing Competences Using Problem-based Learning: a Case Study of Teaching Mathematics to Computer Science Students", Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 2007, No 3. p 13-21. 

  • 213.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, E.
    Nilsson, R.
    Using peer-assisted learning in mathematics and physics in higher education in Sweden and Russia2010In: British Educational Research Association conference 2010: BERA 2010, 1-4 Sept, University of Warwick, Warwick, 2010, p. 0581-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores students' experience of peer tutor system in Mathematics and Physics education in two contrasting settings. The first one is a traditional classroom environment with a teacher centred educational process, the other is tutorials in the higher education where a range of student-centred teaching and learning methods has already been introduced [1-3].

    The education systems in Europe are facing new challenges in preparing young people for their social and professional integration, successful career and personal development in the modern knowledge-based society. The implementation of this task influences approaches to teaching and learning in so far as greater emphasis is placed on learner, learning outcomes and student competence. As a consequence, the old educational paradigm and didactical approaches which stress knowledge acquisition are being replaced by new pedagogical approaches with a focus on students and their learning process, particular on meeting learning outcomes and students' competence development.

    The appropriate choice of teaching methods is instrumental to a successful implementation this task. Fostering effective teaching and learning methods such as discussions, group work, case studies, problem-based learning, peer-assisted learning and critical thinking facilitates the acquisition of professional skills and competences.

    This paper explores the opportunities for fostering peer assisted learning (PAL) in teaching Physics at A-level and in delivering Mathematics at the university level. The study was carried out at University Väst, Sweden and School No 99 (with profound mathematics and physics education, in association with Moscow State Institute of Radio-engineering, Electronics and Automation), Moscow, Russia. The Physics education curriculum in this school corresponds to the first year curriculum in the UK and Swedish universities.

    There is a substantial body of literature on the PAL methodology. [e.g. 4, 5]. PAL is an example of a student-to student support scheme grounded in collaborative learning. PAL is aimed to improve student performance and to develop a range of study skills through creating an informal environment for learning. This method has been applied across a range of disciplines and is becoming an important part in programmes' delivery.

    The carried out research had the following objectives:

    to explore opportunities for fostering PAL in traditional classroom and in university practice to enhance students' performance.to evaluate and compare the quality of students' experience of using PAL in both settings;to analyse the challenges teachers face in implementing innovative approaches to teaching and learning in two different settings.

     

    Methodology

    Our study was carried out in 2008. 31 A-level student studying Physics and 42 first year students on the 'Land Surveyors' undergraduate programme participated in this study. PAL sessions have been incorporated into the Physics subject and 'Core  Mathematics' module delivery. The lectures were delivered in a traditional way; several PAL sessions were introduced during tutorials.

    The students worked in groups of five. A-level students were grouped according to their performance. The university students were randomly divided into groups.

    A peer tutor from the same student cohort was assigned to each group and trained. Peer tutors were selected from the more advanced students. The tutors decided themselves which teaching method they were going to use.

    The questionnaire was designed to evaluate the students' learning experience. In addition, the peer tutors were interviewed. The results of the survey were statistically analysed and compared with the previous test results.

    Findings

    Our findings showed that all A-level students and over 60% of the students at University Vast evaluated PAL method as useful and valuable. The students highly rated collaboration with peers and commented that it was easier to ask questions, get support and explanation. Over 80% of A-level students and over 50% of university students felt that PAL stimulated their activity. They felt that they were more in control of their learning and found it more enjoyable. However, the university students, having experienced the use of problem based learning (PBL), rated PBL higher than PAL.

    Both student samples positively evaluated the peer tutors' performance.

    Our study showed that the number of students enrolled on the course, the choice of peer tutors and timing of the sessions are crucial for the successful implementation of PAL. The test results showed an improvement in student grades.

    The paper concludes with recommendations for fostering PAL.

    References

    Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E. "Problem-based Learning and competence development: a Case Study of Teaching Mathematics to Computer Science Students", Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 2007, No 3. p 13-21.Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E, "Developing students' competences through problem based learning: a case study of delivering 'Decision Mathematics' module on Computer Science programme". Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Conference BERA 2008, Edinburgh, September, 2008Luchinskaya E., Nilsson G. and Williams C., "Developing students' competences in the light of Bologna process: the responses from Sweden and Russia". Paper presented at the European Educational Research Conference, ECER 2008, Gothenburg, Sweden, September 2008.Peer Assisted Learning, Topping, K. and Ehly, S. (Eds.), Lawrence Erlbaum, 1998 Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, Volume 12, Issue 2 June 2001 , pages 113 - 132Peer Learning in Higher Education. Learning from & with each other. Boud D., Cohen R. and Sampson J.(Eds.) Kogan Page, 2001. 

  • 214.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, E
    Ratbil, E
    Using peer-assisted learning in Sweden and Russia: preparing active citizens for their future professional life2010In: NERA’s 38th Congress.: 11-13 March 2010, Malmö University School of Teacher Education, Malmö: Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA) , 2010, p. 129-130Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic/aim: This paper evaluates and compares students’ and academics’ experience of peer tutor system in Mathematics and Physics education in two contrasting settings. The first one is a traditional classroom environment with a teacher centred educational process (Russia), the other is tutorials in the higher education where a range of student-centred teaching and learning methods has already been introduced (Sweden). The education systems in Europe including Scandinavia are facing new challenges in preparingyoung people for their social and professional integration, successful career and personal development in the modern knowledge-based society. The implementation of this task influences approaches to teaching and learning in so far as greater emphasis is placed on learner, learning outcomes and student competence. The appropriate choice of teaching methods is instrumental to a successful implementation this task. Theoretical framework: This study is underpinned by the socio-cultural theory of the learning processes which was originally formulated by Vygotsky and is based on the idea that knowledge is socially and culturally constructed. The research has also demonstrated that the teaching practices that teachers adopt affect students’ learning process. Our study adopted teaching methods based on the learning-focused conception. PAL is an example of a student-to student support scheme grounded in collaborative learning. PAL is aimed to improve student performance and to develop a range of study skills through creating an informal environment for learning. This method has been applied across a range of disciplines and is becoming an important part in programmes’ delivery. Methodology/research design: Our study was carried out in 2008. 31 A-level student studying Physics and 42 first year students on the ‘Land Surveyors’ undergraduate programme participated in this study. PAL sessions have been incorporated into the Physics subject and Core Mathematics’ module delivery. The lectures were delivered in a traditional way; several PAL sessions were introduced during tutorials. A-level students were grouped according to their performance. The university students were randomly divided into groups. A peer tutor from the same student cohort was assigned to each group and trained. Peer tutors were selected from the more advanced students. The tutors decided themselves which teaching method they were going to use. The questionnaire was designed to evaluate the students’ learning experience with the focus on competence development. In addition, the peer tutors and both lecturers were interviewed.Expected conclusions/findings: Our findings showed that all A-level students and over 60% of the students at University Vast evaluated PAL method as useful and valuable. The students highly rated collaboration with peers and commented that it was easier to ask questions, get support and explanation. Both groups of students felt that PAL stimulated their activity, that they were more in control of their learning and found it more enjoyable. The evaluation of students’ level of generic and subject specific competences prior to the study and after the study was analysed. The analysis shows that students developed such competences as critical thinking, problem solving, decision making etc which are importance for becoming active members of the society. Our study showed that the number of students enrolled on the course, the choice of peer tutors and timing of the sessions are crucial for the successful implementation of PAL. Relevance for Nordic Educational research: The results of this study enable to identify the ways to further develop student competences which are necessary for their active participation in a democratic society through the use of best practice and knowledge transfer.

  • 215.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, Elena
    Leeds Metropolitan University.
    Do We Deliver Effective Maths Support for Students?2012In: The European Conference on Educational Research 2012: Cadiz, 18-21 september 2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    European countries are facing a crisis in preparing qualified staff for working in science and engineering. Declining numbers of students pursuing careers in these areas and poor quality of maths education in secondary schools are the principal factors contributing to this problem.

    Students entering universities have a diverse level of maths knowledge which is often below university requirements. University teachers often face a challenging and complex task of teaching such a diverse student body. One of the most common ways to tackle this problem and to raise the level of students' maths knowledge to the required standard is to introduce a maths foundation course before to mainstream teaching begins. However, this is not always possible because of academic staff availability and/or time and cost constraints. Another solution is to provide additional help with maths-related problems by running drop-in sessions, workshops and/or tutorials.

    This study analyses the efficiency of maths support provision in two universities: Leeds Metropolitan University, UK and University West, Sweden and is part of an ongoing research collaboration between the two universities. The present work reflects the first stage of this research and is focused on evaluating the efficiency of the maths support in these two institutions from the perspectives of academic staff. The next stage of our research will include the analysis of this provision from the students' perspectives.

    The literature on this topic is growing but limited and is mainly focussed either on quantitative indicators: the numbers of maths support centres and staff employed, hours when this support is available, numbers of students attending etc. [e.g.1, 2] or at the correlation between maths support session attendance and students' test or exam results [3].

    However, there has been little research about how the tutors who deliver this maths support evaluate the effectiveness of their work and what they think can be done to provide maths support which can successfully meet students' needs.

    In both universities the main part of maths support provision consists of drop-in workshops which are available throughout the week. Leeds Metropolitan University does not offer very maths intensive courses, however, maths elements are incorporated into a number of subject areas such as  nursing, business, sports science psychology, education etc. There are specific workshops for maths and statistics. Two dedicated members of staff from the maths support centre run these one hour sessions. University West offers both maths intensive courses such as engineering and computer science, and less maths intensive courses such as education and nursing. Its maths workshops are open to all students and cover all subject areas. Selected academic staff from the Maths department are appointed to run three-to-four hour sessions three times a week as part of their teaching load.

    One tutor from Leeds Metropolitan University and three tutors from University West participated in the study.

    MethodOur study is conducted in two stages and uses mixed methods for data collection: questionnaires for students, interviews with tutors and observations during the sessions. The combination of these methods will give us a fuller picture of the effectiveness of maths support in these two universities. At this stage of our research we collected information about which students used the sessions – their departments, year and course of study, why they attended and what problems they needed help with – which we then analysed. We also observed how tutors were coping with a wide range of maths topics and teaching methods. We conducted interviews with the tutors to understand in more detail how they work, the difficulties they face, the types of problems that arise and the ways students expect help to be provided as well as tutors' ideas about more effective ways of providing maths support. At the next stage of our research we will be analysing the feedback from students and their suggestions on how maths support provision can be improved. The two-stage approach will provide us with a better understanding of the students' real needs and will facilitate the deployment of more effective student support.

    Expected OutcomesThe academic staff from both universities noticed a broad variation in students' maths abilities. The majority of workshop attendees were first year students struggling with their assignments as well as undergraduates who failed their exams and wanted help as part of their resit preparation. High performing students sometimes came to perfect their knowledge. In Leeds, postgraduate students often attended the workshops, particularly on statistical data analysis. The students came from a wide range of subject areas and tutors found that sometimes it took extra time to answer the students' subject-specific questions. The number of attendees increased before exams or project submission deadlines. Based on the interviews and observations we concluded that students are often not fully engaged during the workshops, instead preferring a 'solve this for me' approach. However, implementing student-centred methods which increase students' engagement with the learning process (e.g. problem-based learning and peer-assisted learning [4-6]) can help.  Subject-specific workshops (e.g. for nurses, business students or teachers) help to focus on students' particular needs, and individual tutorials can accommodate other needs. The paper concludes with recommendations for improving the effectiveness of maths support for students and discusses the next stage of the research.

    References1. Perkin G. and Croft T. (2004), "Mathematics Support Centres – the extent of current provision", MSOR Connections, May 2004, Vol. 6 No 2 p 14-18. 2. Lawson, D.A. and Reed J. (2002), "University mathematics support centres: help for struggling students". In Ivanchev, D. and Todorov, M.D (eds.), Applications of Mathematics in Engineering and Economics. Heron Press, Sofia, pp.686-692 3. Pell G. and Croft T., (2008), "Mathematics Support – Support for all?" Teaching Mathematics and its Applications, 27 (4), pp. 167-173. 4. Anari M., (2006) An analysis of a maths workshop – students with mathematical difficulties. (in Swedish). Thesis. Mälardalen University, the Library of the Institute for Mathematics and  Physics. 5. Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E. (2007), "Problem-based Learning and competence development: a Case Study of Teaching Mathematics to Computer Science Students", Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 2007, No 3. p 13-21. 6. Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E. (2009), " Using Problem-based and Peer-assisted Learning in Teaching Mathematics to University Students: Focus on Competence Development." Paper presented at the European Educational Research Conference, ECER 2009, Vienna, Austria, September 2009.

  • 216.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, Elena
    Kristiansson, Lilia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Process and Product Development. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, Daria
    Competence Development and Employability Prospects: Using Non-traditional teaching Methods in a Changing Higher Education Environment2010In: European Conference on educational research: ECER 2010, 23-27 August, Helsinki, 2010, p. 451-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The cultural changes in the modern society create new challenges for educators in Europe. The higher education curriculum has changed from factual knowledge acquisition to developing students' competences and skills in response to a changing professional environment. This paper analyses student experience and academic results in generic and subject-specific competence development in order to evaluate the potential of using problem-based learning (PBL) and project-based (PrBL) learning to increase the  students´ prospects of employment. The fast pace of technological advancements, interdisciplinary work, changing organisations and globalisation of the workplace characterize the modern knowledge-based society. Equipping students with competences required for their social and professional integration, successful career and personal development is a key mission of the higher education sector. Promoting effective teaching and learning methods facilitates the acquisition of professional skills and competence, and at the same time addresses the needs of a diverse student body in higher education. 

    This paper explores the opportunities for implementing PBL and PrBL in a range of programmes at the University West, Sweden and Lancaster University, UK focusing on the development of generic and subject specific competences. This is an on-going collaboration between two universities [1-3]. 

    PBL and PrBL are the examples of collaborative student-focused learning and are supported by constructivist theory [4-6]. These methods encourage deeper learning via meaning construction, connecting ideas as well as creating meaningful artifacts. They stimulate a collaborative process of building among participants, develop self-directed learning, improve student performance and develop a range of study skills through creating an informal environment for learning. 

    Our study was carried out at the University West, Sweden and Lancaster University, UK in 2009. The objectives of the study were: 

    • To assess the level of student-acquired competences, generic and subject-specific (mathematics, engineering)

    • To evaluate the quality of student experience by assessing the impact of PBL and PrBL on students' competence development;

    • To identify the best practice and opportunities for promoting effective teaching and learning methods to enhance student employability prospects. 

    Method

    In Sweden, the first-year students in the ' Surveyors' and the second-year students on 'Basic Principles of Turbomachinery and Hydraulics' undergraduate programmes participated in this study. The lectures were delivered in a traditional way; PBL was used throughout tutorials. The students solved applied mathematical problems aimed at acquiring a set of competences working in small groups. To evaluate the outcomes of this study, each group had to reflect on what they learned during each PBL session, how the session affected their learning process and their competence development. At Lancaster University the first-year mechanical engineering students reflected on their experience of project-based learning. The students had to design, build and test a lifting device working in groups of four. The lectures and tutorials in the programme were conducted in a traditional way. By the end of the project the students responded to a questionnaire consisted of open-ended questions.

    Expected Outcomes

    The results showed that the Swedish students evaluated PBL method highly, finding it useful, activating and valuable. The students indicated they developed problem-solving skills, advanced their analytical skills and ability to apply mathematical tools. These competences are important for their future employment. The students rated collaboration with peers highly. The students at Lancaster University pointed out the necessity of developing time management, communication with peers in the groups and organisational skills. The students stressed that problem-solving and decision-making were very important as they had to choose the right design concept to work with. Assigning tasks and requiring completion by a required date were the skills that the students had to learn while working as a team. The paper concludes with recommendations for promoting PBL and PrBL as they represent useful educational tools which encourage the development of generic and subject-specific competences. They also provide the opportunities to accommodate a diverse range of student learning-styles and academic backgrounds.

     

    References

    1. Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E. "Problem-based Learning and competence development: a Case Study of Teaching Mathematics to Computer Science Students", Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 2007, No 3. p 13-21.

    2. Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E. Using Problem-based and Peer-assisted Learning in Teaching Mathematics to University Students: Focus on Competence Development. Paper presented at the European Educational Research Conference, ECER 2009, Vienna, Austria, September 2009.

    3. Luchinskaya E., Nilsson G. and Williams C., "Developing students' competences in the light of Bologna process: the responses from Sweden and Russia". Paper presented at the European Educational Research Conference, ECER 2008, Gothenburg, Sweden, September 2008.

    4. Vygotsky, L. S. Mind in society. The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1978

    5. Phillips, D. Constructivism in education: Opinions and second opinions on controversial issues. Chicago, IL University of Chicago Press, 2000

    6. Light, G., Cox, R., & Calkins, S. (2009) Teaching and learning in higher education: The reflective professional. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2009. 

  • 217.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, Elena
    Nilsson, Rimma
    Higher Education in Change: Peer-assisted Learning Applied to Mathematics and Physical Science for Engineers in Sweden and Russia2010In: European Conference on educational research: ECER 2010, 23-27 August, Helsinki, 2010, p. 1581-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates and compares the students' and academics' experience of peer tutoring system in mathematics and physics for engineers in higher education. The higher education sector has been experiencing a dramatic change during the past decade: it is rapidly expanding both in the number and diversity of students. Student to staff ratio has enormously increased. The students are coming from different ethnic, social, and cultural backgrounds and have different levels of knowledge. The change in higher education from an "elite" to a "mass" system creates new challenges for educators. At the same time, the main features of the modern knowledge-based society, the society we live in, are the fast pace of technological advancements, interdisciplinary work organisation and globalisation of the work market. Educators in Europe are facing new challenges in preparing young people for their social and professional integration, successful career and personal development.

     The appropriate choice of teaching methods which meet the demands of the knowledge-based society, influence the learning process and accommodate the needs of young generation is crucial in achieving these tasks. Implementing student-centred approaches in the educational process creates the learning environment which stimulates students' learning and develops their ability of independent and deep learning [1].

    This study is underpinned by the socio-cultural theory of the learning processes which was originally formulated by Vygotsky and is based on the idea that knowledge is socially and culturally constructed [2-4]. On the other hand, the research has also demonstrated that the teaching practices that teachers adopt affect students' learning process. Our study adopted teaching methods based on the learning-focused conception.  PAL is an example of a student-to student support scheme grounded in collaborative learning. PAL is aimed to improve student performance and to develop a range of study skills through creating an informal environment for learning. This method has been applied across a range of disciplines and is becoming an important part in programmes' delivery.

    This study is an on-going collaboration between University West, Sweden, Lancaster University, UK and School No. 99, Moscow Russia [5-7]. Our study was carried out in 2008-2009. The Russian educational environment can be characterised as traditional classroom environment with a teacher centred educational process. In the case of Sweden, a range of student-centred teaching and learning methods has already been introduced.

     The research carried out had the following objectives:  

    ·       To explore opportunities for implementing PAL in traditional classroom and in university settings to enhance students' performance.

    ·       To evaluate and compare the quality of students' experience of using PAL in both settings and at different levels  (AS, A levels) in the case of Russian students.

    ·       To analyse the challenges teachers face in implementing innovative approaches to teaching and learning in two different settings.

    AS and A-level students studying Physics at the School No. 99 (which specialises in mathematics and physics education), Moscow took part in this research. First year students on the 'Land Surveyors' and 'Mechanical Engineering' undergraduate programmes from the University West (Sweden) participated in this study.

     

    MethodPAL sessions have been incorporated into the Physics subject and 'Mathematics' module delivery. The lectures were delivered in a traditional way; several PAL sessions were introduced during tutorials. AS-level students were grouped according to their performance. A-level students formed the groups according to their choice. The university students were randomly divided into groups. A peer tutor from the same student cohort was assigned to each group and trained. Peer tutors were selected from the more advanced students. The questionnaire was designed to evaluate the students' learning experience. Group interviews and the interviews with group leaders and both lecturers were carried out.

    Expected OutcomesOur findings showed that all AS and A-level students and the majority of the students at University Vast evaluated PAL method as useful and valuable. The students highly rated collaboration with peers and commented that it was easier to ask questions, get support and explanation although the AS students did not feel confident at the beginning. Both groups of students felt that PAL stimulated their activity, that they were more in control of their learning and found it more enjoyable. The Russian students felt more relaxed and were not afraid of getting a low mark as they normally would be in a traditional classroom. Our study showed that the number of students enrolled on the course, the choice of peer tutors and timing of the sessions are crucial for the successful implementation of PAL. During the interviews both lecturers stressed that they could use their time more efficiently. This activity gave an opportunity to a Russian tutor to prepare the additional material. The Russian students were so taken by this experience that they recommended the other tutors to introduce this method. The paper concludes with the suggestions for further development in using PAL in a variety of settings. 

  • 218.
    Nilsson, Galina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Land Surveying and Mathematics. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Luchinskaya, G
    Ratbil, E
    Comparative case study of using non-traditional methods in two contrasting educational environments: implementing peer-assisted learning in Sweden and Russia2009In: The European Conference on Educational Research. ECER 2009: Vienna, Austria from  25 - 26 September 2009, 2009, p. 1105-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores students' experience of peer tutor system in Mathematics and Physics education in two contrasting settings. The first one is a traditional classroom environment with a teacher centred educational process, the other is tutorials in the higher education where a range of student-centred teaching and learning methods has already been introduced [1-3]. The education systems in Europe are facing new challenges in preparing young people for their social and professional integration, successful career and personal development in the modern knowledge-based society. The implementation of this task influences approaches to teaching and learning in so far as greater emphasis is placed on learner, learning outcomes and student competence. As a consequence, the old educational paradigm and didactical approaches which stress knowledge acquisition are being replaced by new pedagogical approaches with a focus on students and their learning process, particular on meeting learning outcomes and students' competence development. The appropriate choice of teaching methods is instrumental to a successful implementation this task. Fostering effective teaching and learning methods such as discussions, group work, case studies, problem-based learning, peer-assisted learning and critical thinking facilitates the acquisition of professional skills and competences. This paper explores the opportunities for fostering peer assisted learning (PAL) in teaching Physics at A-level and in delivering Mathematics at the university level. The study was carried out at University Väst, Sweden and School No 99 (with profound mathematics and physics education, in association with Moscow State Institute of Radio-engineering, Electronics and Automation), Moscow, Russia. The Physics education curriculum in this school corresponds to the first year curriculum in the UK and Swedish universities. There is a substantial body of literature on the PAL methodology. [e.g. 4, 5]. PAL is an example of a student-to student support scheme grounded in collaborative learning. PAL is aimed to improve student performance and to develop a range of study skills through creating an informal environment for learning. This method has been applied across a range of disciplines and is becoming an important part in programmes' delivery. The carried out research had the following objectives: • to explore opportunities for fostering PAL in traditional classroom and in university practice to enhance students' performance. • to evaluate and compare the quality of students' experience of using PAL in both settings; • to analyse the challenges teachers face in implementing innovative approaches to teaching and learning in two different settings.

    MethodOur study was carried out in 2008. 31 A-level student studying Physics and 42 first year students on the 'Land Surveyors' undergraduate programme participated in this study. PAL sessions have been incorporated into the Physics subject and 'Core Mathematics' module delivery. The lectures were delivered in a traditional way; several PAL sessions were introduced during tutorials. The students worked in groups of five. A-level students were grouped according to their performance. The university students were randomly divided into groups. A peer tutor from the same student cohort was assigned to each group and trained. Peer tutors were selected from the more advanced students. The tutors decided themselves which teaching method they were going to use. The questionnaire was designed to evaluate the students' learning experience. In addition, the peer tutors were interviewed. The results of the survey were statistically analysed and compared with the previous test results.

    Expected OutcomesOur findings showed that all A-level students and over 60% of the students at University Vast evaluated PAL method as useful and valuable. The students highly rated collaboration with peers and commented that it was easier to ask questions, get support and explanation. Over 80% of A-level students and over 50% of university students felt that PAL stimulated their activity. They felt that they were more in control of their learning and found it more enjoyable. However, the university students, having experienced the use of problem based learning (PBL), rated PBL higher than PAL. Both student samples positively evaluated the peer tutors' performance. Our study showed that the number of students enrolled on the course, the choice of peer tutors and timing of the sessions are crucial for the successful implementation of PAL. The test results showed an improvement in student grades. The paper concludes with recommendations for fostering PAL.

    References1. Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E. "Problem-based Learning and competence development: a Case Study of Teaching Mathematics to Computer Science Students", Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 2007, No 3. p 13-21. 2. Nilsson G. and Luchinskaya E, "Developing students' competences through problem based learning: a case study of delivering 'Decision Mathematics' module on Computer Science programme". Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Conference BERA 2008, Edinburgh, September, 2008 3. Luchinskaya E., Nilsson G. and Williams C., "Developing students' competences in the light of Bologna process: the responses from Sweden and Russia". Paper presented at the European Educational Research Conference, ECER 2008, Gothenburg, Sweden, September 2008. 4. Peer Assisted Learning, Topping, K. and Ehly, S. (Eds.), Lawrence Erlbaum, 1998 Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, Volume 12, Issue 2 June 2001 , pages 113 - 132 5. Peer Learning in Higher Education. Learning from & with each other. Boud D., Cohen R. and Sampson J.(Eds.) Kogan Page, 2001. 

  • 219.
    Nilsson, Niklas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Kan exploateringsavtal bli för gamla?: En rättsdogmatisk och rättssociologisk studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Land development agreements can be established between a municipality and a developer in order to regulate rights and obligations to accomplishing detailed development plans when the municipality does not own the land to be exploited. The agreements are based on civil contract rights and on the principles such as contractual freedom and contractual obligation.

    Several factors may complicate the establishment and accomplishment of a land development agreement. The agreement regulates juridical as well as technical questions and typically has a relatively long term. Several parties with different interests are also involved in the process which means that activities and decisions need to be coordinated. For these reasons, accomplishment of the land development agreement can be a protracted process and parties may not fulfil their obligations in time.

    The aim of this study is, therefore, to investigate whether obligations in land development agreements can expire due to a long period of times passed and if there have been any problems or controversies in connection to this. To achieve the aim of the study, laws and literature have been studied and a survey has been sent to all 290 Swedish municipalities, where answers were received from 122 municipalities.

    The juridical study proves that more or less all obligations in land development agreements can expire due to statue of limitation. Moreover, two relatively new verdicts from the Swedish supreme court show that obligations can expire already before statue of limitation occurs due to one party neglecting to enforce the obligations of the other. Furthermore, later occurred circumstances can, as a consequence of long time elapsed, result in adjustment or annulment of obligations provided that the circumstances reach the level of excessiveness described in Contracts Act 36 §.

    The result of the survey indicates that there is uncertainty among Swedish municipalities around the question of whether land development agreements can expire due to a long period of time passed. Approximately 33% of the respondents deem that the agreements can expire due to a long time passed while 39% deem the contrary. Further, the survey shows that only a few of the municipalities experienced troubles with a protracted exploitation process. Also, in those cases, there has not been any major controversy between the municipality and the developer over the issue of whether the land development agreement is current or not.

  • 220.
    Nilsson Sparf, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Karlsson, Josefin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Riktvärdet på tomtmark: En jämförelse mellan lantbruk och småhus som visar orsaker till värdeskillnaden2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, all properties are assessed every three years (except industrial and electricity production properties that has every six years) with either a general or simplified property assessment. A team consisting of persons from Skatteverket, Lantmäteriet and a valuation company works together with the preparation work for a tax assessment where all properties are mass valued and different tables, benchmarks and value factors are established.

    A comparison of farm rateable values in 2017 and single-family houses in 2018 showed that there were differences in the benchmark of plots of land of farms compared to land for detached houses in rural areas. The benchmark for farms was higher in many value areas in Sweden, which they should sometimes be due to different underlying reasons, but when such reasons are missing, Lantmäteriet wants an explanation for why these differences in the benchmark have arisen.

    The aim is to investigate the underlying reasons why the guide values on plots of land can separated as much as they do in many places in Sweden. The aim is to clarify whether the geographical location of the value areas has any impact and connection with each other. Furthermore, it is hoped that the result will contribute to a more equal valuation in the future and reduce geographical differences. The study has been limited to comparing the counties with the most value areas with value differences, which was the counties of Västra Götaland, Stockholm and Skåne. Further delimitation has been made by only include value ranges that have a difference of 20% or more. The methods used are a combination of archival study, interviews and mapping.

    Many possible reasons for differences in the benchmark are based on how the assessment system is structured, how the valuation is carried out by the different property types and how the geographical situation affects the differences in value. These are reasons such as the assessment of so-called 'horse farms', the small local price material for farms, the reliability of the assessment data, a lack of local knowledge, the different methods used, the impact of aid tables and the different training and specialisation of valuation techniques. The location in Sweden, close to urban- or beachfront locations and the often high locations of farms also play a role in the valuations and can be a cause of differences in the value of the benchmark on the plot of land. 

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  • 221.
    Nobari, Ali
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Fridström, Krister
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    IPSec VPN och hur DES & AES-256 påverkar hastigheten på en ASA 55102020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport består av prestandamätningar i ett nätverk som använder olika krypteringsnivåer via en IPSec VPN tunnel mellan två Cisco ASA-enheter. Rapporten kommer att med hjälp av testverktyg fastställa prestandaskillnader och flödeshantering mellan lägsta krypteringen DES samt AES-256. Krypteringsstyrkorna kommer därefter jämföras med varandra samt ett scenario där ingen VPN tunnel eller kryptering används. I båda ändarna av nätverket sitter en dator varav den ena agerar klient och den andra server. Rapporten beskriver dessutom vad IPSec ramverket är och hur det fungerar. Resultatet av denna studie kan därefter komma att bidra till valet av krypteringsnivå i liknande kommande nätverk. I resultatet fastställs att Cisco ASA 5510 har samma hastighet på DES som AES-256 vilket gör att man skall välja den högre krypterings formen AES-256.

  • 222.
    Nordgren, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Yazdani Pajouh, Hossein
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Improving a graphical interaction modelfor pedestrian and driver multi user simulations2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been done with the intention of looking closer at simulations of natural behaviours of a pedestrian to be able to communicate with a driver.The software used for the simulation of this project is Unreal Engine 4 and the hardware used was HTC Vive headset, two HTC motion controllers and a HTC Vive tracker.The model used was downloaded from mixamo.com and modified in 3Ds Max and Unreal Engine 4.

    The model and its animation should be able to stand idly, be able to walk, make a stop gesture and make a gesture to beckon someone to itself. Signals were taken from different sensors that were translated to their positions and rotations. After signals were taken a constant monitoring of the signals was done to interpret which animation could be triggered. The different possible animations go through a hierarchical logic which finally decides which animation should be triggered.The work has also included a test design to be able to test the logic. The design was worked outwith the help of stakeholders.

    The systems architecture was worked on as a “Pipe and Filter” architecture where the authors had little insight of the whole system and instead worked around what the system could give as output to work out an input to give to the system. After this the system gave an output. The work itself was centered around what natural behaviours could be and how motion can be translated to behaviors in a simulator.

    The work could fulfill all the hard requirements that the developers and stakeholders agreed on.The project was to simulate a pedestrian from scratch and that it should be done in 15 weeks. It could be expanded upon in the future by using acceleration for the pedestrian to adjust the speed of the animation. This was outside of the scope but could be fixed in future projects if stakeholders had any interest in doing so.

    Future work could be to have more animations or blend animation with each other, this was also outside of our scope. 

  • 223.
    Nordling, Emil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Frants, Pavel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    En nätverksbaserad prestandajämförelse av direktmigreringar i tre olika virtualiseringsplattformar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Live migration is a technology that allows a virtual machine to migrate from one hypervisor to another hypervisor while the guest operating system is still operational. One or more users will usually not notice any interruptions when interacting with the services of a virtual machine when a migration is in progress.

    The purpose of this study was to set up the virtualization platforms VMware ESXi, Citrix XenServer and Microsoft Hyper-V Server against each other and examine how the live migration techniques of each virtualization platform perform under different network conditions.

    The result show that the Live Migration in Microsoft Hyper-V completes a live migration of virtual machines faster than vMotion in VMware and XenMotion in Citrix Xen at lower latencies, but the average bandwidth utilization for Live Migration decreases rapidly at higher latencies compared to the other virtualization platforms, which leads to Live Migration failing to complete live migrations of virtual machines at higher latencies. vMotion and XenMotion are more tolerant of latency and thus complete live migrations at higher latencies, but XenMotion is much slower in completing a live migration at both lower and higher latencies compared to other virtualization platforms.

  • 224.
    Nordling, Emil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Frants, Pavel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Skalbarhets- och protokollanalys av EoMPLS och Q-in-Q på Cisco IOS switchar2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En VPN är ett nätverk som innehåller klienter och andra slags enheter som är lokaliserade på skilda platser, VPN:er gör det möjligt för klienter och system att kommunicera med varann oavsett geografisk plats. Förr i tiden var WAN tekniker som ATM och Frame Relay vanligt förekommande i ett ISP nätverk för att ha möjlighet att erbjuda sina kunder en internetanslutning. I dagens moderna nätverk används nya tekniker för att på ett framförallt snabbare och mer effektivt sätt erbjuda kunder konnektivitet. MPLS är den mest förekommande WAN tekniken som nyttjas hos en ISP idag, MPLS används i kombination med andra tekniker som OSPF, BGP och VPN för att binda samman flera nätverk. När dessa tekniker kombineras, kallas WAN teknologin för en MPLS lager 3 VPN. Trots att konnektivitet erbjuds och fungerar utmärkt med hjälp av en lager 3 VPN, har efterfrågan ökat om att kunna länka ihop LAN och det är endast möjligt med hjälp utav en lager 2 VPN. En lager 2 VPN kan transportera flera VLAN samt sända andra typer av lager 2 information mellan en kunds geografiskt spridda kontor. För att ha möjlighet att uppnå transportering av VLAN och en förlängning av lager 2 domänen, har ISP:n behov av att implementera lager 2 tekniker som EoMPLS och Q-in-Q.

    ISP:n behöver anpassa sitt nätverk efter nya tekniker som planeras att implementeras, en faktor spelar oerhört mycket roll i det här sammanhanget och det är skalbarhet. Skalbarhet måste idag räknas med innan en ny teknik introduceras i ett nätverk och kan enkelt förbises.

    Målet med den här studien är att undersöka skalbarheten hos två lager 2 VPN tekniker, EoMPLS och Q-in-Q. Vi implementerar teknikerna var för sig i varsin topologi och undersöker RAM nyttjandet, overhead skillnader mellan teknologierna samt mängd konfiguration som behövs för att få en funktionell lager 2 förbindelse mellan kunder. PE switcharna är ISP nätverkets nyckel till att få en fungerande lager 2 VPN, därför är de objekten som analyseras i den här studien.

  • 225.
    Norrman, Frida
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Larsson, Marcus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Markavvattningsföretag i plan- och genomförandeprocessen2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the Swedish population increases, municipalities plan to allocate forest and agricultural land to make room for residential areas, aiming to accommodate infrastructure and housing. Today, there are approximately 50,000 soil drainage organizations in Sweden that have been created as a result of Swedish legislation. Their legal standing still applies and cannot be overlooked.This study aims to investigate how municipalities describe the handling of soil drainage organizations during the planning process, and how the developers consequently manage the soil drainage organizations during the implementation process. The study intends to examine how municipalities describe soil drainage organizations in the planning documents, and whether this description is clear and following standards of PBL 4 chap. 33 § regarding organizational, technical, financial, and property law consequences. To answer the study’s queries, detailed development plans directly affected by soil drainage organizations, government reports on the subject, and relevant legislation were examined. To provide answers to questions that could not be gleaned from the planning documents, the study has included semistructured qualitative interviews with planning architects, developers and authorities. The results of the study show that the description and management of existing soil drainage organizations in the planning documents do not follow the requirements in PBL 4 chap. 33 § regarding the organizational, technical, financial and property law consequences. One of the detailed development plans examined failed to mention the soil drainage organizations throughout the entire planning process, despite input from the County Administrative Board. Whether or not the municipalities' inadequate handling is due to a lack of knowledge can definitely not be determined by reviewing only two municipalities. It can however be ascertained that the management of soil drainage organizations during the planning and implementation process differ between municipalities. 

  • 226.
    Nozari, Masoud
    et al.
    Department of Geodesy, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Natural Sciences and Electrical and Surveying Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    An alternative approach to Eulerian pole determination and unification of velocity fields of tectonic motions2014In: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 617, p. 79-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the methods of unifying the global positioning system (GPS) velocity fields (VFs) of tectonic motions is based on the Eulerian vector (EV) estimation. In this method the difference between each available local VF and a reference VF (REF) is derived and an EV is estimated for the differences in a least-squares sense. After that each local VF is unified with respect to REF using the EV. The classical approach to the EV determination is nonlinear and requires the approximate EV. To solve this problem a simple linear approach is developed in this paper for estimating the EV and applied for unifying the existing local VFs in Iran. Our approach is free of the approximate parameters of the EV, faster and more efficient than the classical one. Here, both of the classical and the new approaches are numerically applied and compared to each other; and used to unify the VFs covering a large part of Iran. The unified velocity field shows an overall northward motion with respect to Eurasia with a convergence pattern around the southern Caspian Basin and a little divergence in the central and southern areas.

  • 227.
    Nyblom, David
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Justerade bygglov2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Land and Environmental Court intended in a decision in 2020 that minor adjustmentswithin existing building permits could be granted. The wording about minor deviations indicated an adjusted outlook among The Land and environmental Court that in a decision from 2015 stated that the Planning and Building Act (2010:900) does not allow for adjustments of a building permit but instead referred to a new building permit. The Land and environmental court’s decision in 2015 also established that a new building permit demands the neighbors’ opportunity to remark on the measure.The purpose of the study is to investigate how the local building committees interpret adjustments in terms of a building permit decision. The following issues are treated: what articles are being reviewed by the local building committees in a situation of an adjusted building permit and how is the question of right for the neighbors to give one’s opinionbeing dealt with in a situation of an adjusted building permit. Furthermore, is the term minor deviation being reviewed and how it interprets in a building permit matter, and also how The Land and Environmental Court interprets adjustments of a building permit.Juridical method has been applied for the study. All 49 counties within Region Västra Götaland was contacted with a request of five building permit decisions from 2017 or 2018. 14 building permits had relevance towards the study. Three interviews were conducted with building permit administrators that are active in the Region Västra Götaland.

    An analysis of the collected building permits displayed among other things that adjustments of placing was processed in most cases. Respondents replied in interviews that relocation of the residence placing were a common deviation from building permits. The reviewed buildings permit act consisted of adjustments compared with prior building permits which yields that reviewed building permits consists of measures that are not tolerated within the prior granted building permit.

    The conclusions of the study includes established law of building permits are being complied by the local building permit committees but the study lacks basic data to evaluate whether local building permit committees relate to the latter decision by the Land and Environmental court regarding minor adjustments of building permits. The expression minor deviation in building permit validation is being managed restrictive according to the respondents.

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  • 228.
    Nystedt, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    A proof of the law of sines using the law of cosines2017In: Mathematics Magazine, ISSN 0025-570X, E-ISSN 1930-0980, Vol. 90, no 3, p. 180-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We give a proof of the law of sines using the law of cosines. © Mathematical Association of America.

  • 229.
    Nystedt, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Arc length of function graphs via Taylor’s formula2021In: International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, ISSN 0020-739X, E-ISSN 1464-5211, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 310-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use Taylor’s formula with Lagrange remainder to prove that functions with bounded second derivative are rectifiable in the case when polygonal paths are defined by interval subdivisions which are equally spaced. As a means for generating interesting examples of exact arc length calculations in calculus courses, we recall two large classes of functions f with the property that (Formula presented.) has a primitive, including classical examples by Neile, van Heuraet and Fermat, as well as more recent ones induced by Pythagorean triples of functions. We also discuss potential benefits for our proposed definition of arc length in introductory calculus courses. © 2020, © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 230.
    Nystedt, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Noncommutatively Graded Algebras2020In: Algebraic Structures and Applications / [ed] Silvestrov S., Malyarenko A., Rančić M. (eds), Springer, Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2020, Vol. 317, p. 371-383Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inspired by the commutator and anticommutator algebras derived from algebras graded by groups, we introduce noncommutatively graded algebras. We generalize various classical graded results to the noncommutatively graded situation concerning identity elements, inverses, existence of limits and colimits and adjointness of certain functors. In the particular instance of noncommutatively graded Lie algebras, we establish the existence of universal graded enveloping algebras and we show a graded version of the Poincaré-Birkhoff-Witt theorem.

  • 231.
    Nystedt, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Partial category actions on sets and topological spaces2018In: Communications in Algebra, ISSN 0092-7872, E-ISSN 1532-4125, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 671-683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce (continuous) partial category actions on sets (topological spaces) and show that each such action admits a universal globalization. Thereby, we obtain a simultaneous generalization of corresponding results for groups, by Abadie, and Kellendonk and Lawson, and for monoids, by Megrelishvili and Schroder. We apply this result to the special case of partial groupoid actions where we obtain a sharpening of a result by Gilbert, concerning ordered groupoids, in the sense that mediating functions between universal globalizations always are injective.

  • 232.
    Nystedt, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Poisson’s fundamental theorem of calculus via Taylor’s formula2020In: International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, ISSN 0020-739X, E-ISSN 1464-5211, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 799-805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use Taylor’s formula with Lagrange remainder to make a modern adaptation of Poisson’s proof of a version of the fundamental theorem of calculus in the case when the integral is defined by Euler sums, that is Riemann sums with left endpoints which are equally spaced. We discuss potential benefits for such an approach in basic calculus courses. © 2019, © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 233.
    Nystedt, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Simplicity of algebras via epsilon-strong systems2020In: Colloquium Mathematicum, ISSN 0010-1354, E-ISSN 1730-6302, Vol. 162, no 2, p. 279-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We obtain sufficient criteria for simplicity of systems, that is, rings R that are equipped with a family of additive subgroups R-s for s is an element of S, where S is a semigroup satisfying R = Sigma (s is an element of S) R-s and RsRt subset of R-st for s, t is an element of S. These criteria are specialized to obtain sufficient criteria for simplicity of what we call s-unital epsilon-strong systems, that is, systems where S is an inverse semigroup, R is coherent, in the sense that R-s subset of R-t for all s, t is an element of S with s <= t and for each s is an element of S, the RsRs*-Rs*Rs -bimodule R-s is s-unital. As an application, we obtain generalizations of recent criteria for simplicity of skew inverse semigroup rings by Beuter, Goncalves, Oinert and Royer, and then for Steinberg algebras over non-commutative rings by Brown, Farthing, Sims, Steinberg, Clark and Edie-Michell.

  • 234.
    Nystedt, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Öinert, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Karlskrona, SE-37179, Sweden.
    Group gradations on Leavitt path algebras2020In: Journal of Algebra and its Applications, ISSN 0219-4988, E-ISSN 1793-6829, Vol. 19, no 9, article id 2050165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given a directed graph E and an associative unital ring R one may define the Leavitt path algebra with coefficients in R, denoted by LR(E). For an arbitrary group G, LR(E) can be viewed as a G-graded ring. In this paper, we show that LR(E) is always nearly epsilon-strongly G-graded. We also show that if E is finite, then LR(E) is epsilon-strongly G-graded. We present a new proof of Hazrat’s characterization of strongly g-graded Leavitt path algebras, when E is finite. Moreover, if E is row-finite and has no source, then we show that LR(E) is strongly-graded if and only if E has no sink. We also use a result concerning Frobenius epsilon-strongly G-graded rings, where G is finite, to obtain criteria which ensure that LR(E) is Frobenius over its identity component. © 2020 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  • 235.
    Nystedt, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Öinert, Johan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Simple graded rings, nonassociative crossed products and Cayley-Dickson doublings2020In: Journal of Algebra and its Applications, ISSN 0219-4988, E-ISSN 1793-6829, Vol. 19, no 12, article id 2050231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    e show that if a nonassociative unital ring is graded by a hypercentral group, then the ring is simple if and only if it is graded simple and the center of the ring is a field. Thereby, we extend a result by Jespers to a nonassociative setting. By applying this result to nonassociative crossed products, we obtain nonassociative analogues of results by Bell, Jordan and Voskoglou. We also apply our result to Cayley-Dickson doublings, thereby obtaining a new proof of a classical result by McCrimmon. © 2020 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  • 236.
    Nystedt, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Öinert, Johan
    Blekinge Inst Technol, Dept Math & Nat Sci, SE-37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Pinedo, Hector
    Univ Ind Santander, Escuela Matemat, Carrera 27 Calle 9, Bucaramanga, Colombia (COL).
    Epsilon-Strongly Groupoid-Graded Rings, The Picard Inverse Category And Cohomology2020In: Glasgow Mathematical Journal, ISSN 0017-0895, E-ISSN 1469-509X, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 233-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce the class of partially invertible modules and show that it is an inverse category which we call the Picard inverse category. We use this category to generalize the classical construction of crossed products to, what we call, generalized epsilon-crossed products and show that these coincide with the class of epsilon-strongly groupoid-graded rings. We then use generalized epsilon-crossed groupoid products to obtain a generalization, from the group-graded situation to the groupoid-graded case, of the bijection from a certain second cohomology group, defined by the grading and the functor from the groupoid in question to the Picard inverse category, to the collection of equivalence classes of rings epsilon-strongly graded by the groupoid.

  • 237.
    Nystedt, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Öinert, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Pinedo, Héctor
    Universidad Industrial de Santander, Escuela de Matemáticas, Carrera 27 Calle 9, Edificio Camilo Torres Apartado de correos 678, Bucaramanga, Colombia.
    Artinian and noetherian partial skew groupoid rings2018In: Journal of Algebra, ISSN 0021-8693, E-ISSN 1090-266X, Vol. 503, p. 433-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Let alpha = {alpha(g) : Rg-1 -> R-g}(g is an element of mor(G)) be a partial action of a groupoid G on a (not necessarily associative) ring R and let S = R-star alpha G be the associated partial skew groupoid ring. We show that if a is global and unital, then S is left (right) artinian if and only if R is left (right) artinian and R-g = {0}, for all but finitely many g is an element of mor(G). We use this result to prove that if a is unital and R is alternative, then S is left (right) artinian if and only if R is left (right) artinian and R-g = {0}, for all but finitely many g is an element of mor(G). This result applies to partial skew group rings, in particular. Both of the above results generalize a theorem by J. K. Park for classical skew group rings, i.e. the case when R is unital and associative, and G is a group which acts globally on R. We provide two additional applications of our main results. Firstly, we generalize I. G. Connell's classical result for group rings by giving a characterization of artinian (not necessarily associative) groupoid rings. This result is in turn applied to partial group algebras. Secondly, we give a characterization of artinian Leavitt path algebras. At the end of the article, we relate noetherian and artinian properties of partial skew groupoid rings to those of global skew groupoid rings, as well as establish two Maschke-type results, thereby generalizing results by M. Ferrero and J. Lazzarin for partial skew group rings to the case of partial skew groupoid rings.

  • 238.
    Nystedt, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Öinert, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Karlskrona, SE-37179, Sweden.
    Pinedo, Héctor
    Universidad Industrial de Santander, Escuela de Matemáticas, Carrera 27 Calle 9, Edificio Camilo Torres Apartado de correos 678, Bucaramanga, Colombia.
    Epsilon-strongly graded rings, separability and semisimplicity2018In: Journal of Algebra, ISSN 0021-8693, E-ISSN 1090-266X, Vol. 514, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce the class of epsilon-strongly graded rings and show that it properly contains both the class of strongly graded rings and the class of unital partial crossed products. We determine precisely when an epsilon-strongly graded ring is separable over its principal component. Thereby, we simultaneously generalize a result for strongly group graded rings by Nǎstǎsescu, Van den Bergh and Van Oystaeyen, and a result for unital partial crossed products by Bagio, Lazzarin and Paques. We also show that the class of unital partial crossed products appears in the class of epsilon-strongly graded rings in a fashion similar to how the classical crossed products present themselves in the class of strongly graded rings. Thereby, we obtain, in the special case of unital partial crossed products, a short proof of a general result by Dokuchaev, Exel and Simón concerning when graded rings can be presented as partial crossed products. We also provide some interesting classes of examples of separable epsilon-strongly graded rings, with finite as well as infinite grading groups. In particular, we obtain an answer to a question raised by Le Bruyn, Van den Bergh and Van Oystaeyen in 1988. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

  • 239.
    Nystedt, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Öinert, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Richter, Johan
    Mälardalen University, Academy of Education, Culture and Communication,Västerås, Sweden.
    Non-associative Ore extensions2018In: Israel Journal of Mathematics, ISSN 0021-2172, E-ISSN 1565-8511, Vol. 224, no 1, p. 263-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce non-associative Ore extensions, S = R[X; sigma, delta], for any non-ssociative unital ring R and any additive maps sigma, delta : R -> R satisfying sigma(1) = 1 and delta(1) = 0. In the special case when delta is either left or right R-delta-linear, where R-delta = ker(delta), and R is delta-simple, i.e. 0 and R are the only delta-invariant ideals of R, we determine the ideal structure of the non-associative differential polynomial ring D = R[X; id(R),delta]. Namely, in that case, we show that all non-zero ideals of D are generated by monic polynomials in the center Z(D) of D. We also show that Z(D) = R-delta[p] for a monic p is an element of R-delta [X], unique up to addition of elements from Z(R)(delta) . Thereby, we generalize classical results by Amitsur on differential polynomial rings defined by derivations on associative and simple rings. Furthermore, we use the ideal structure of D to show that D is simple if and only if R is delta-simple and Z(D) equals the field R-delta boolean AND Z(R). This provides us with a non-associative generalization of a result by Oinert, Richter and Silve-strov. This result is in turn used to show a non-associative version of a classical result by Jordan concerning simplicity of D in the cases when the characteristic of the field R-delta boolean AND Z(R) is either zero or a prime. We use our findings to show simplicity results for both non-associative versions of Weyl algebras and non-associative differential polynomial rings defined by monoid/group actions on compact Hausdorff spaces.

  • 240.
    Nystedt, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Öinert, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Karlskrona, SE-37179, Sweden.
    Richter, Johan
    Mälardalen University, Academy of Education, Culture and Communication,Box 883, Västerås, SE-72123, Sweden.
    Simplicity of Ore monoid rings2019In: Journal of Algebra, ISSN 0021-8693, E-ISSN 1090-266X, Vol. 530, p. 69-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given a non-associative unital ring R, a monoid G and a set π of additive maps R→R, we introduce the Ore monoid ring R[π;G], and, in a special case, the differential monoid ring. We show that these structures generalize, in a natural way, not only the classical Ore extensions and differential polynomial rings, but also the constructions, introduced by Cojuhari, defined by so-called D-structures π. Moreover, for commutative monoids, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for differential monoid rings to be simple. We use this in a special case to obtain new and shorter proofs of classical simplicity results for differential polynomial rings in several variables previously obtained by Voskoglou and Malm by other means. We also give examples of new Ore-like structures defined by finite commutative monoids. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.

  • 241.
    Nyström, Oskar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Aziz, Simon
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Effektivisering av keepalive mekanism iIS-IS & OSPF i Spine-Leaf arkitektur2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report examined the link-state protocols OSPF and IS-IS ability to streamline the hello and dead mechanisms so they quickly could detect the cable failure. The goal was to find out which protocol fastest converged and examine how low-latency traffic would be affected compared to the specified requirements under convergence. The tests were made in a spine-leaf architecture which focuses more on layer three than the hierarchical architecture. The protocols were tested in five scenarios and the results were compared using the time of convergence and the VoIP requirements.The results show that depending on which property you prefer will decide which protocol to use, low convergence time or low packet loss. For the low convergence times IS-IS scenario three is the best choice and for low packet losses OSPF scenario five is the best. For OSPF scenario three whose value is in the middle of packet loss and convergence time can be seen as a compromise.

  • 242.
    Olofsson, Simon
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Olsson, Emrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Analyzing OpenMP Parallelization Capabilities and Finding Thread Handling Optimums2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As physical limitations limit the clock frequencies available for a single thread, processor vendors increasingly build multi-core systems with support for dividing processes across multiple threads for increased overall processing power. To examine parallelization capabilities, a fast fourier transform algorithm is used to benchmark parallel execution and compare brute-forced optimum with results from various search algorithms and scenarios across three different testbed systems. These algorithms use OpenMP instructions to directly specify number of threads available for program execution. For smaller problem sizes the tests heavily favour fewer threads, whereas the larger problems favour the native 'maximum' thread count. Several algorithms were used to compare ways of searching for the optimum thread values at runtime. We showed that running at maximum threads is not always the most optimum choice as there is a clear relationship between the problem size and the optimal thread-count in the experimental setup across all three machines. The methods used also made it possible to identify a way to dynamically adjust the thread-count during runtime of the benchmark, however it is not certain all applications would be suitable for this type of dynamic thread assignment

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  • 243.
    Olsson, Jacob
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Hägglund, Anton
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Samrådsrutiner vid delning av skogsbruksfastigheter2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2017, the National Land Survey decided that principle consultations and other local agreements on consultations between the cadastral authorities and the County Administrative Board would cease to apply. The previous agreements were replaced with a nationally valid document containing procedures for consultation with the County Administrative Board. There are no known routines for consultation with the Swedish Forest Agency even though they are mentioned as a consultation party in the Land Survey's handbook for property formation. This study examines consultation procedures between the aforementioned authorities when dividing forestry properties. One of the methods that formed the basis for this work is a legal dogmatic method whose purpose is to map the applicable law. The mapping has been done through the reading of preparatory materials, handbooks, legal cases and cadastral dossiers linked to consultation procedures when dividing forestry properties. The results in this section have resulted in a clear framework on how the consultation process with authorities should be exerted. Consultations should be made less frequently in individual cases but still used for major and principled issues. In what emerged from the legal cases when cadastral surveyors consulted the relevant authority, the outcome in the courts was similar to the authorities' opinions. Consultation increases legal certainty already in the investigation of the cadastral procedure. The second method was a forensic sociological method in the form of a questionnaire to map the cadastral surveyors' routines in practice. The result shows great differences in the working methods between municipal and national cadastral authority and location in the country. Despite the decisions and guidelines on a uniform working method, outdated routines are still used in consultation with the County Administrative Board, and that the new routines are applied in different ways. In principle, there are no routines for consultation with the Swedish Forest Agency, even though it is advocated by the legal literature. Here, too, there are major differences in working methods, since some do not consider the Swedish Forest Agency to be a consultative party, while some consult them on issues that they do not really have the task of monitoring.

  • 244.
    Olsson, Victoria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Qvist, Moa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Bostadsfastigheter med kombinerade ändamål på landsbygden: En rättsociologisk studie om lämplighetsprövning, strandskydd och hållbarhet i Västra Götaland2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the beginning of the nineties a change was made in the third chapter of FBL, toenable properties for housing on the countryside to add additional ground forcombined purposes, such as retention or smaller farming purposes. When forming these properties for housing with additional grounds for combined purposes, the land surveyor must investigate the prerequisites according to the third chapter of FBL, including the suitability of the new property and if the measure collide withother legislations and regulations in the area. The purpose of the study is to find out how the land surveyors and county government relates to the applicable law. To get answers to the questions at issue, a qualitative method has been used. The study relies on a right sociological survey in terms of interviews. Secondary data has mainly been obtained through preparatory works, applicable practices, The Swedish National Land Surveys guidebook and one prior study on which this studyis based upon. Secondary data has been an important base to create the questions of issue who also serve as the study's primary data. Every property is unique with different prerequisites and the combination of very few or little practice around properties with additional grounds for combined purposes can make it difficult for the land surveyor to make the right decision according to the law. The result of the study showed that there is not possible to establish a general acreage for properties with additional grounds for combined purposes, but a crucial part in the suitability assessment was the acreage fitting the purpose of the property. The zoning of the property also had a big impact in the assessment of the suitability. When forming a property under the general protection of beaches, the land surveyors agreed that the public access and conserving the nature was the most important aspects. The county government who oversees public interests are particularly restrictive of forming properties in areas under the general protection of beaches, because of the high risk of privatization that comes with properties for housing with additional ground for combined purposes. In example, the newly formed property is sold to a wealthy buyer with more utilization in mind than the former owner. Consultation with the county government in these cases can be a winning method for the land surveyors in avoiding appeal. High workload at the county government can aggravate the possibility for consultation, which also can be a contributing factor to why some ordinances are appealed, and others are not.

  • 245.
    Opasinov, Aleksandar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Eftekhari, Sina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Improving the Cyber defence of an organisation based on IP Geolocation and security appliances2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As advancement and usage of data communication has increased exponentially on a global scale, with a devastating exposure to attacks and varying security threats to home offices as well as to large enterprises, there is always a need for enhanced network protection. The IT department of the company OneDefence, located in western Sweden, was chosen for the thesis and based on the stated information from the organisation, aims were set on how to improve their network defence capabilities. The aim of this thesis is to list ten countries posing the most serious IT threats, and to limit the attack surface of OneDefence’s IT network as much as possible while still providing the necessary services to users abroad. After researching the countries, a prototype was set up to mimic OneDefence’s topology of interest and test attacks were conducted as detailed in the Methodology chapter. The results of the investigations showed the countries posing most serious cyber threats included China, Russia and North Korea among others which were statistically calculated based on the total number of recognised cyberwarfare attacks. The results obtained from the different DoS attacks in the prototype showed that an IPS should be at the heart of an organisation's network defence for combating these intrusions, as well as potentially other types. With the help of a prototype built based on the organisation's topology, several attacks were somewhat successfully mitigated with the equipment used on hand, with only a low percentage of packets allowed to pass through the security unit. Lastly, to explore further enhancements of defence capabilities of OneDefence, a comparison between different products and devices were performed. This resulted in products from the Fortinet brand such as FortiGate NGFW and UTM capabilities as they are offering several advantages compared to competitors.

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  • 246.
    Patrik, Lundström
    University West, Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Division for Mathematics and Sciences. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Galois Module Structure of Field Extensions2007In: International Electronic Journal of Algebra, E-ISSN 1306-6048, Vol. 2, no 8, p. 100-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show, in two different ways, that every finite field extension has a basis with the property that the Galois group of the extension acts faithfully on it. We use this to prove a Galois correspondence theorem for general finite field extensions. We also show that if the characteristic of the base field is different from two and the field extension has a normal closure of odd degree, then the extension has a self-dual basis upon which the Galois group acts faithfully.

  • 247.
    Patriksson, Carola
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Tibell, Elin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    God bebyggd miljö med avseende på friyta på skol- och förskolegårdar2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that the physical environment is of great importance for children's health and learning. In order to enable a "well-built environment" and promote social sustainability, the design of school yards and pre-school yards can be an important part of community planning. Different laws concern the design of children's school environment and many politicians, authorities and other stakeholders stress the importance of a good outdoor environment for children. Nevertheless, the design of existing school and preschool centers does not seem to be a priority. In the case of new construction, however, the requirements for the layout of the free space are made visible in the approvement of the building permit.This means that the quality of school yards and pre-school yards can differ greatly within the same municipality.

    The report focusses on how Swedish municipalities relate to and interprets 8 chapter 10 § of the Planning and Construction Act. The paragraph specifies requirements for existing plots and how they can be imposed or forced on free space on existing school yards and preschool yards. The area should be large enough to fit playing and outdoor activities. The aim of this study is, among other things, to review how municipalities work with quality on existing school yards and preschool yards and how they ensured that PBL 8:10 is complied with. A nationwide survey has been conducted in which the municipal education administrations or equivalent administration answered questions regarding working methods and guidelines for existing school yards and preschool yards. The results are also based on various interviews, including responses from experts.

    The results show that more than half of Sweden's municipalities lack their own guidelines for size and design of existing school and preschool yards. Four percent of the municipalities do not know whether they have guidelines or not. The survey also shows that municipalities generally focus on the size of the free space, while if it is suitable for play and outdoor activities is in many cases secondary. Before 1987 the legislation did not state requirements for the contents of the free space, only that an area must be made available. The General Council of the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning, explains how the law should be interpreted, and shows examples of what the municipality should consider when planning a free space for appropriate activities. This means, according to the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning, that the free space can be used for play, and recreation, as well as physical and educational activities.

    The results also show that the paragraph is rarely applied and that officials interpret the paragraph in different ways and seem to have problems to interpret its intention. Not everyone seems to know that the requirements of the paragraph are active, even though no action is taken on the plot. Further on the results shows that control and assessment rarely take place based on the paragraph at hand. The responsibility lies with the Building Board, which only makes an evaluation when someone complains.

  • 248.
    Persson, Edmund
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Svanberg, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Enskilt huvudmannaskap för allmän plats: En studie av hur olika samhällsaktörer upplever enskilt huvudmannaskap2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine the perception of the arrangement between the county and the property owners, of when the county puts the responsibility of managing and maintaining the public areas within their residential area on the property owners. The study has focused on when this arrangement is made solely in a whole county like the island Orust. The study explored how the officials in the municipality, the politicians in the municipal government and also the community associations managed their interests and how this arrangement affected their work. The study also explored how the communication between the parties was perceived and what their opinion were about that the property owners had this responsibility. What the study wanted to investigate was where there possibly could be any problems and also possible reasons for them.

    The method applied was qualitative and the empirical material was acquired through semi-structured interviews. Those who were interviewed were two officials in the municipality, two politicians in the municipal government and also six board members from various community associations located on different places on the island Orust. The result that emerged was discussed and analyzed against what emerged from the other interviewed parties, in order to obtain an overall picture regarding the consequences of this arrangement.

    The result showed that there were conflicts between the municipality and the community and also that there were ambivalent perks from both sides. The community associations were happy with the opportunity they had gained to influence and they had also built good relationships with their neighbors. But they still felt that they should not have this responsibility and that the municipality should help with the responsibility in a better way. And on the other side is the municipality who succeeded in renouncing their responsibility to maintaining and also the cost thereof, but they did also lose their right to influence the area. Even though they had lost their right to influence they still tried to do so.

  • 249.
    Pieper, Jonatan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    A powerline network performance juxtaposition2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis will compare throughput of the network of two homeplugs in an ad-hoc environment. This will be accomplished by performing tests in different houses to compare the actual results between networks in several houses that are in daily use with normal operation of electronic devices. The thesis will include a background section detailing the homeplug and its usage as well as a technical overview. The method section will present what programs were used to obtain measurements. Furthermore, this section will explain how the testing was performed. In "collecting data and analyzing the results" section, charts and tables can be viewed as well as a concise but detailed description. "Results from testing homeplugs in different houses" section will show in detail how charts and tables are related. This section will also serve as a foundation for conclusion and further discussion. In the discussion section, recommendations, problems and challenges will be explored. This thesis will only include tests using two homeplugs. The thesis will not explain in detail the common networking terminologies nor abbreviations such as DNS and IP.

  • 250.
    Pitonak, Martin
    et al.
    University of West Bohemia, NTIS—New Technologies for the Information Society, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Technicka´ 8, 306 14 Plzen, Czech Republic.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Sprlak, Michal
    University of Newcastle, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.
    Tenzer, Robert
    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Department of Land Surveying and Geo-informatics, 181 Chatham Road South, Hung Hom, 999077 Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Novak, Pavel
    University of West Bohemia, NTIS—New Technologies for the Information Society, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Technicka´ 8, 306 14 Plzen, Czech Republic.
    Spectral combination of spherical gravitational curvature boundary-value problems2018In: Geophysical Journal International, ISSN 0956-540X, E-ISSN 1365-246X, Vol. 214, no 2, p. 773-791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four solutions of the spherical gravitational curvature boundary-value problems can be exploited for the determination of the Earth’s gravitational potential. In this paper we discuss the combination of simulated satellite gravitational curvatures, that is, components of the third-order gravitational tensor, by merging these solutions using the spectral combination method. For this purpose, integral estimators of biased-and unbiased-types are derived. In numerical studies, we investigate the performance of the developed mathematical models for the gravitational field modelling in the area of Central Europe based on simulated satellite measurements. First, we verify the correctness of the integral estimators for the spectral downward continuation by a closed-loop test. Estimated errors of the combined solution are about eight orders smaller than those from the individual solutions. Second, we perform a numerical experiment by considering the Gaussian noise with the standard deviation of 6.5 x 10(-17) m(-1) s(-2) in the input data at the satellite altitude of 250 km above the mean Earth sphere. This value of standard deviation is equivalent to a signal-to-noise ratio of 10. Superior results with respect to the global geopotential model TIM-r5 (Brockmann et al. 2014) are obtained by the spectral downward continuation of the vertical-vertical-vertical component with the standard deviation of 2.104 m(2) s(-2), but the root mean square error is the largest and reaches 9.734 m(2) s(-2). Using the spectral combination of all gravitational curvatures the root mean square error is more than 400 times smaller but the standard deviation reaches 17.234 m(2) s(-2). The combination of more components decreases the root mean square error of the corresponding solutions while the standard deviations of the combined solutions do not improve as compared to the solution from the vertical-vertical-vertical component. The presented method represents a weight mean in the spectral domain that minimizes the root mean square error of the combined solutions and improves standard deviation of the solution based only on the least accurate components.

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