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  • 201.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. School of Health and Education and Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Honesty-Humility predicting self-estimated academic performance2016In: International Journal of Personality Psychology, E-ISSN 2451-9243, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has established relationships between the Big Five personality factors, cognitive ability, and aca-demic performance. A more recent personality trait, Honesty-Humility with its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty) is suggested to have predictive value especially in self-promoting behaviors. The aim of the present study was to find out whether lower Honesty-Humility would predict higher self-reported academic performance, and account for additional variance, after controlling for the Big Five and cognitive ability. The partic-ipants were Swedish 17-19 year-old students (N = 154) in late secondary high school. The results revealed a signifi-cant negative correlation between Honesty-Humility and self-estimated academic performance, mainly through low scores in the facets Sincerity and Modesty, as well as an additional 7% accounted for variance. The discussion con-cludes that the new trait Honesty-Humility may be a welcomed addition to the understanding of how students use self-promoting strategies in contemporary school

  • 202.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    The Big Five Factors in Perceived Elderly Care Quality: An Evaluation Model in the Behavioral Sciences for User-Oriented Professions2016In: ViLär 2016, konferens 8-9 december, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Perceived care quality (i.e., how care is enacted by a care worker toward a client at the interpersonal level) is a strong predictor of satisfaction in a wide range of health care services. The present research aimed at compiling a model containing the basic elements of care quality from a behavioral science perspective. Specifically, such a model could help reveal how and why quality in user-oriented care professions vary.

    Design –We interviewed, observed, and took notes about care workers’ interactions with the older persons in both home care and nursing homes during two weeks.

    Findings – A model for categorising perceived quality variation, the Big Five of user-oriented care (Task-focus, Person-focus, Affect, Cooperation, and Time-use; T-PACT) was discerned with help of thematic analysis.

    Value – The proposed model may be useful for describing general user-oriented quality and its variations (see Table 1). These Big Five categories (TPACT) can be of relevance for future quality developments of user-oriented professions, as well as be implemented in educational programs.

  • 203.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    The Future of Personalized Care: Scientific, Measurement, and Practical Advancements in Personality and Brain Disorders2019In: Personality and Brain Disorders: Associations and Interventions / [ed] Garcia, Danilo; Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M., Springer International Publishing , 2019, p. 269-281Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Person-centered care sciences are experiencing rapid progress. Personalization in care services is becoming the norm, and implementation from scientific knowledge is increasingly acknowledged and mandated. Advances in personality and brain disorder research are crucial in assisting the future development of personalized care. Aim: We will attempt to present glimpses into the future of personalized care with support from frontline science, measurement, and practice, updating with input from personality genetics and measurement theory. Outline: We present three broad developments: (1) scientific advancements in understanding how personality and genetics are central in predicting mental health and disorders, with the potential to increase predictive diagnosis and treatment validity; (2) measurement advancements with help of trait dimensions and latent structures, with the potential to increase reliability in assessing personalized care needs and functioning; (3) practical advancements in implementing a personalized approach in care services, with the potential to increase effectiveness and satisfaction with patients. We review this glimpse into the future by referencing key findings in personality and assessment meta-analyses, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and trait measurements in psychiatric disorders. Conclusion: Personalizing care services will benefit practitioners and patients. We suggest and recommend that personalized care diagnosis and treatment is the way forward and that the future will be potentially revolutionized by incorporating the presented advancements in personality research and brain sciences.

  • 204.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    The Quality Agents Model: A Generalized Model for How to Evaluate Service Organizations2016In: ViLär 2016, konferens 8-9 december 2016, Vänersborg / [ed] Kristina Johansson, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Service-oriented quality (i.e., how a service is enacted by a worker toward a customer) is a strong predictor of satisfaction in a wide range of customer services. The present research aimed at describing the organization and impact of various levels of the service organization on customer satisfaction.

    Design –In an attempt to gain a deeper understanding of how and why perceived quality in terms of service-orientation varies, we conducted interviews with care workers and care unit managers in the context of elderly care.

    Results – A new model for understanding the impact of various levels of the organization on customer satisfaction, the Quality Agents Model, is proposed. Perceived reasons for quality variation suggest that service evaluations may be explained from at multiple levels (e.g., older person, care worker-, unit-, department-, and municipality-level; see Figure 1). The Quality Agents Model suggests that the closer the agent is to the center (i.e., the customer), the larger the impact on satisfaction evaluations.

    Discussion – The proposed model may be useful for describing customer-related service quality. The strength of the model is that it acknowledges the many contextual inputs involved in forming an opinion about service quality, and thus might be a useful tool for most service-organizations.

    Empirical testing – We subsequently were able to test the model empirically with 95,000 respondents from national care service surveys, statistically showing that the level (agent) closest to the customer has the most influence on service-satisfaction (50%), while the surrounding organization only 5% (See Figure 1).

  • 205.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. University of Skövde, Sweden .
    The Short Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and its Conjoined structure with the Common Five-Factor Model2017In: International Journal of Testing, ISSN 1530-5058, E-ISSN 1532-7574, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 372-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research is currently testing how the new maladaptive personality inventory for DSM (PID-5) and the well-established common Five-Factor Model (FFM) together can serve as an empirical and theoretical foundation for clinical psychology. The present study investigated the official short version of the PID-5 together with a common short version of FFM, reflecting the time-constraints often imposed in all types of assessment. The objective was to model the dependency of maladaptive traits on common traits, hypothesized to show a mutual structure of latent higher order factors. A Swedish adult community sample was surveyed. The results showed that all five maladaptive traits shared a conjoint higher order organization with all the five common traits through the higher order factors of positive and negative emotion, and internalizing and externalizing. In conclusion, the study results support the nascent theory and practice in section III in DSM-5 basing psychopathology on personality traits. 2017 Copyright © International Test Commission

  • 206.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology, Göteborg, Sweden. University of Skövde,Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Skövde, Sweden.
    Björkman, Therese
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Dark malevolent traits and everyday perceived stress2018In: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is a factor that greatly impacts our lives. Previous research has examined individual differences in relation to stress. However, research regarding malevolent personality traits in relation to how stress is perceived is limited. The purpose of the present study was to investigate relationships between dark malevolent personality traits; psychopathy (EPA), Machiavellianism (MACH-IV), vulnerable narcissism (HSNS), grandiose narcissism (NPI-13), and perceived stress (PSS-10) in a community sample (N = 346). The results showed a strong positive relationship between vulnerable narcissism and perceived stress, while grandiose narcissism and psychopathy showed a small negative relationship with perceived stress. The discussion centers on that narcissism should be treated as two separate traits, and that psychopathy and Machiavellianism overlap in relation to the experience of stress in everyday life.

  • 207.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. University of Gothenburg,Department of Psychology, Sweden;University of Skövde, Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Sweden .
    Björkman, Therese
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Individuals with dark traits have the ability but not the disposition to empathize2020In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empathy is fundamental to social cognition and societal values. Empathy is theorized as having both the ability as well as the disposition to imagine the content of other people’s minds. We tested whether the notorious low empathy in dark personalities (Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism; the Dark Triad) is best characterized by a lack of capacity (ability) or lack of disposition (trait). Data was collected for 278 international participants through an anonymous online survey shared on the online platform LinkedIn, consisting of trait-based Dark Triad personality (SD3) and empathy (IRI), and cognitive ability (ICAR16) and ability-based empathy (MET). Dark personality traits had no relationship with ability-based empathy, but strongly so with trait-based empathy (β = -0.47). Instead, cognitive ability explained ability-based empathy (β = 0.31). The finding is that dark personalities in a community sample is normally cognizant to empathize but has a low disposition to do so. This finding may help shed further light on how personality is interlinked with ability.

  • 208.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Univ Gothenburg, Dept Psychol, POB 500, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden and Univ Skovde, Dept Cognit Neurosci, Skovde, Sweden.
    Carlander, Anders
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Psychol, POB 500, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Who gets ahead in life?: Personality traits and childhood background in economic success2017In: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 59, p. 164-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many societies around the world, the ideal is that anyone can achieve a successful life independent of family background. An indication of such social mobility could be that personality characteristics have stronger impact than childhood background on economic success. The present study investigated how much of life outcomes (i.e., educational attainment, annual income, and life outcome satisfaction) were accounted for by adult personality traits (the Big Five), when controlled for childhood socio-economic status (SES). The results from a large, representative Swedish sample (N = 5280) showed that personality traits (especially neuroticism) were associated as much as or more than childhood SES to annual income and life outcome satisfaction, whereas childhood SES related more to educational attainment. These results may help facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms behind individual economic success. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 209.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Conceptualizations of Personality Disorders with the Five Factor Model-count and Empathy Traits2017In: International Journal of Testing, ISSN 1530-5058, E-ISSN 1532-7574, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 141-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has long advocated that emotional and behavioral disorders are related to general personality traits, such as the Five Factor Model (FFM). The addition of section III in the latest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) recommends that extremity in personality traits together with maladaptive interpersonal functioning, such as lack of empathy, are used for identifying psychopathology and particularly personality disorders (PD). The objective of the present study was to measure dispositions for DSM categories based on normal personality continuums, and to conceptualize these with empathy traits. We used a validated FFM-count method based on the five personality factors (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), and related these to 4 empathy traits (emphatic concern, perspective-taking, fantasy, and personal distress). The results showed that FFM-based PD scores overall could be conceptualized using only two of the empathy traits, low emphatic concern and high personal distress. Further, specific dispositions for personality disorders were characterized with distinct empathy traits (e.g., histrionic with high fantasy, and paranoid with low perspective-taking). These findings may have both theoretical and practical implications in capturing potential for personality disorders with ease and efficiency. © 2017, Copyright © International Test Commission.

  • 210.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology, Sweden, University of Skövde, Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Sweden.
    Johnson, John
    Pennsylvania State University, Department of Psychology, United States.
    Sex differences in 30 facets of the five factor model of personality in the large public (N = 320,128)2018In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 129, p. 126-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study reports on the scope and size of sex differences in 30 personality facet traits, using one of the largest US samples to date (N = 320,128). The study was one of the first to utilize the open access version of the Five-Factor Model of personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the large public. Overall, across age-groups 19–69 years old, women scored notably higher than men in Agreeableness (d = 0.58) and Neuroticism (d = 0.40). Specifically, women scored d > 0.50 in facet traits Anxiety, Vulnerability, Openness to Emotions, Altruism, and Sympathy, while men only scored slightly higher (d > 0.20) than women in facet traits Excitement-seeking and Openness to Intellect. Sex gaps in the five trait domains were fairly constant across all age-groups, with the exception for age-group 19–29 years old. The discussion centers on how to interpret effects sizes in sex differences in personality traits, and tentative consequences. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 211.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology, Gothenburg, Sweden; University of Skövde, Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Johnson, John A.
    Pennsylvania State University, State College, Department of Psychology, United States.
    Assessing the structure of the five factor model of personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the public domain2019In: Europe's Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1841-0413, E-ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 260-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of individual differences in personality traits is arguably one of the hallmarks of psychological research. Testing the structural validity of trait measurements is paramount in this endeavor. In the current study, we investigated 30 facet traits in one of the accessible and comprehensive public-domain Five Factor Model (FFM) personality inventories, IPIP-NEO-120 (Johnson, 2014), using one of the largest US samples to date (N = 320,128). We present structural loadings for all trait facets organized into respective FFM-trait domain (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Both hierarchical second-order and bi-factor models showed tolerable model fit indices, using confirmatory factor analysis in a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework. Some facet traits were substantially more representative than others for their respective trait domain, which facilitate further discussions on FFM-construct content. We conclude that IPIP-NEO is sufficiently structurally robust for future use, for the benefit of research and practice in personality assessment. © 2019, PsychOpen. All rights reserved.

  • 212.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Johnson, John A.
    Supplementary materials to "Assessing the structure of the Five Factor Model of Personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the public domain"2019Data set
    Abstract [en]

    Supplementary materials to "Kajonius, P. J., & Johnson, J. A. (2019). Assessing the structure of the Five Factor Model of Personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the public domain. Europe's Journal of Psychology, 12(2), 260-275. https://doi.org/10.5964/ejop.v15i2.1671"1.) Scoring Key for the IPIP-NEO-300 and IPIP-NEO-120; 2.) Files containing data from the Johnson (2005) JRP study and documentation for those files: a) ipip20993.dat contains 20,993 cases of item responses to the IPIP-NEO-300 in ASCII format. The file also contains facet and domain scale scores and two measures of intra-individual reliability described in the publication. Variables are listed at the top of the file; b) ipip20993.por contains these same data in portable SPSS format, and ipip20993.sav contains these data in SPSS 10.0 sav format; c) DAT20993.doc is a MS Word file that describes the variables in these files and how they are coded. 3.) Files containing data from the Johnson (2014) JRP study and documentation for those files: a) IPIP300.dat contains 307,313 cases of item responses to the IPIP-NEO-300 in ASCII format; b) IPIP300.por.zip contains those data in portable SPSS format; c) DAT300.doc is a MS Word file that describes the formatting of these data files; d) IPIP120.dat contains 619,150 cases of item responses to the IPIP-NEO-120; e) IPIP120-.por.zip contains those data in portable SPSS format; f) DAT120.doc is a MS Word file that describes the formatting of these data files.

  • 213.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Kazemi, Ali
    School of Health and Education, University of Skövde.
    Cost and Satisfaction Trends in Swedish Elderly Home Care2016In: Home Health Care Management & Practice, ISSN 1084-8223, E-ISSN 1552-6739, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 250-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a widespread belief among the public and policy makers that quality of care in terms of user satisfaction can beimproved with increased spending. However, recent research indicates that structural resources (e.g., budget per elderly)in elderly home care do not predict quality of care in terms of older persons’ satisfaction with care. In the present study,we analyzed the longitudinal trends in costs and perceived quality of care across 3 years using nationwide data in Swedishelderly home care. The results showed that although costs have been steadily increasing, perceived quality of interpersonaltreatment in care has remained at the same level. An important implication is that future research and policy efforts toimprove quality should more directly target the mechanisms generating satisfaction.

  • 214.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology, Gothenburg, Sweden. Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Mac Giolla, Erik
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Personality traits across countries: Support for similarities rather than differences2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, article id e0179646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current climate of migration and globalization, personality characteristics of individuals from different countries have received a growing interest. Previous research has established reliable differences in personality traits across countries. The present study extends this research by examining 30 personality traits in 22 countries, based on an online survey in English with large national samples (NTotal = 130,602). The instrument used was a comprehensive, open-source measure of the Five Factor Model (FFM) (IPIP-NEO-120). We postulated that differences in personality traits between countries would be small, labeling this a Similarities Hypothesis. We found support for this in three stages. First, similarities across countries were observed for model fits for each of the five personality trait structures. Second, within-country sex differences for the five personality traits showed similar patterns across countries. Finally, the overall the contribution to personality traits from countries was less than 2%. In other words, the relationship between a country and an individual's personality traits, however interesting, are small. We conclude that the most parsimonious explanation for the current and past findings is a cross-country personality Similarities Hypothesis.

  • 215.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Department of Social Psychology, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Persson, Björn N.
    Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden; Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosenberg, Patricia
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden; Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The (mis)measurement of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen: exploitation at the core of the scale2016In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background.

    The dark side of human character has been conceptualized in the Dark Triad Model: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. These three dark traits are often measured using single long instruments for each one of the traits. Nevertheless, there is a necessity of short and valid personality measures in psychological research. As an independent research group, we replicated the factor structure, convergent validity and item response for one of the most recent and widely used short measures to operationalize these malevolent traits, namely, Jonason’s Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. We aimed to expand the understanding of what the Dirty Dozen really captures because the mixed results on construct validity in previous research.

    Method. We used the largest sample to date to respond to the Dirty Dozen (N = 3,698). We firstly investigated the factor structure using Confirmatory Factor Analysis and an exploratory distribution analysis of the items in the Dirty Dozen. Secondly, using a sub-sample (n = 500) and correlation analyses, we investigated the Dirty Dozen dark traits convergent validity to Machiavellianism measured by the MachIV, psychopathy measured by Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire Revised, narcissism using the Narcissism Personality Inventory, and both neuroticism and extraversion from the Eysenck’s questionnaire. Finally, besides these Classic Test Theory analyses, we analyzed the responses for each Dirty Dozen item using Item Response Theory (IRT).

    Results. The results confirmed previous findings of a bi-factor model fit: one latent core dark trait and three dark traits. All three Dirty Dozen traits had a striking bi-modal distribution, which might indicate unconcealed social undesirability with the items. The three Dirty Dozen traits did converge too, although not strongly, with the contiguous single Dark Triad scales (r between .41 and .49). The probabilities of filling out steps on the Dirty Dozen narcissism-items were much higher than on the Dirty Dozen items for Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Overall, the Dirty Dozen instrument delivered the most predictive value with persons with average and high Dark Triad traits (theta > −0.5). Moreover, the Dirty Dozen scale was better conceptualized as a combined Machiavellianism-psychopathy factor, not narcissism, and is well captured with item 4: ‘I tend to exploit others towards my own end.

    Conclusion. The Dirty Dozen showed a consistent factor structure, a relatively convergent validity similar to that found in earlier studies. Narcissism measured using the Dirty Dozen, however, did not contribute with information to the core of the Dirty Dozen construct. More importantly, the results imply that the core of the Dirty Dozen scale, a manipulative and anti-social trait, can be measured by a Single Item Dirty Dark Dyad (SIDDD).

  • 216.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Mutual actions: developmental links between aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent risk behaviors2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescence is a critical time for the onset or intensification of engagement in risk behaviors, such as delinquency and alcohol use. Parents are often advised to supervise adolescents or set rules for behavior control in order to protect their adolescents from harm. But are such parenting strategies advantageous in preventing adolescents from engaging in risk behaviors? Little is known about what role adolescents play in the parent- adolescent relationship and their own psychosocial development? The overall aim of the dissertation was to investigate how parent- and adolescent-driven communication efforts occurring in the parent-adolescent relationship relate to risk behaviors in early to mid- adolescence.Findings show that adolescent-driven communication efforts (i.e. disclosure about their everyday activities) play a prominent role in the parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent engagement in risk behaviors. Adolescent disclosure is linked to parental knowledge of an adolescent's whereabouts, parent-adolescent emotional connectedness, and decreases in adolescent risk behaviors over time. While parental behavioral control of adolescent whereabouts can indeed be protective of adolescent engagement in risk behaviors, parents' soliciting efforts are related to higher levels of engagement in delinquency and substance use. This is particularly true for boys and adolescents with detached and fearless temperament. However, when adolescents are willing to communicate, parents can elicit more disclosure from their adolescents through soliciting efforts.This dissertation suggests that parents and adolescents both play important roles in parenting and parent-adolescent relationships. Parents can protect their adolescents from engagement in risk behaviors, especially when adolescents share information with their parents.

  • 217.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Boele, Savannah
    Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherland.
    Skoog, Therése
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Parent-Adolescent Communication and Adolescent Delinquency: Unraveling Within-Family Processes from Between-Family Differences.2019In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 48, no 9, p. 1707-1723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the factors that predict adolescent delinquency is a key topic in parenting research. An open question is whether prior results indicating relative differences between families reflect the dynamic processes occurring within families. Therefore, this study investigated concurrent and lagged associations among parental behavioral control, parental solicitation, adolescent disclosure, and adolescent delinquency by separating between-family and within-family effects in three-wave annual data (N = 1515; Mage = 13.01 years at T1; 50.6% girls). At the within-family level, parental behavioral control negatively predicted adolescent delinquency. Adolescent disclosure and delinquency, and adolescent disclosure and parental solicitation, reciprocally predicted each other. Parental solicitation negatively predicted parental behavioral control. The findings indicate a prominent role of adolescent disclosure in within-family processes concerning parental-adolescent communication and adolescent delinquency.

  • 218.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Göteborgs universitet.
    Skoog, Therese
    Gothenburg University, Department of Psychology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Gothenburg University, Department of Psychology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Structural relations between sources of parental knowledge, feelings of being overly controlled and risk behaviors in early adolescence2017In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we have investigated parental knowledge and its sources, namely adolescent disclosure, parental control, and parental solicitation; and how they relate to adolescents' feelings of being overly controlled, and to three types of adolescent risk behaviors, namely bullying, substance use, and delinquent behavior. This was studied in a sample of 1520 Swedish early adolescent boys and girls (M age = 13.0). A structural equation path model showed that adolescent disclosure and parental control were positively associated with parental knowledge, which in turn related to all three risk behaviors. Adolescent disclosure was related to lower levels of risk behaviors, while parental solicitation was linked to higher levels of adolescent engagement in risk behaviors, especially for boys, through feelings of being overly controlled. The findings support the idea of a functional role of open communication, as well as adequate levels of autonomy granting, for managing boys' and girls' risk behavior.

  • 219.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Boson, K.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Differences in parents' and adolescents' reports on parental knowledge and longitudinal associations to adolescents' psychological problems2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthy parent-adolescent relationships are central for positive adolescent development. However, parents and their adolescentchildren often perceive the aspects of their relationship differently. This could stem from underlying problems in parentadolescent relationship, which in turn is related to poor adolescent behavior or health. In this study, we investigate in what waydisagreement between parents' and adolescent reports on adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation, control and knowledgeare longitudinally related with psychological problems (internalizing and externalizing) and well-being in adolescence.Data from matching parent and child dyads (n=477), from the research program LoRDIA were included. The adolescents' meanage was 13.0 years (SD = 0.56) at T1 and 14.30 years (SD = 0.61) at T2, evenly distributed between boys (51.6%) and girls (48.4%)at baseline. Discrepancy score was calculated by subtracting child's score from the parent's score, meaning that higher scoreindicated that a parent responded with a higher number than the child.Structural analyses showed that higher levels of adolescent disclosure discrepancy were related to higher levels of adolescentinternalizing problems and lower levels of adolescent well-being over time. Higher levels of parental solicitation discrepancywere related to higher levels of adolescent externalizing problems over time and lower levels of well-being. Parental controldiscrepancy was related to lower levels of externalizing and internalizing problems at T1. Parental knowledge discrepancy wasrelated to higher levels of adolescent well-being over time and to higher levels of adolescent externalizing problems at T1.Discrepancies in parents' and adolescents' reports of aspects in their relationship matter in terms of healthy adolescentdevelopment. Adolescent healthy development is harmed when parents overestimate the level of knowledge of adolescentwhereabouts and parent-adolescent communication. However, when parents rate their behavioral control higher than theiradolescents, the adolescents tend to show less psychological problems.

  • 220.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Skog, Therése
    Jönköping University, Jönköping; Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden; Norwegian University of Science and technology, Norway.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Does one Size Fit All?: Linking Parenting With Adolescent Substance Use and Adolescent Temperament2019In: Journal of research on adolescence, ISSN 1050-8392, E-ISSN 1532-7795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using longitudinal Swedish data from 1,373 early‐adolescent youths, this study aims to answer the question of whether the previously established protective function of parental knowledge and its sources — adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control—on substance use among early‐adolescents is moderated by the adolescent's temperament. Adolescent temperament moderated several links between parental knowledge and its sources and adolescent substance use. The most pronounced moderating results were found for those adolescents with fearless, socially detached and thrill‐seeking tendencies. For these "detached thrill‐seekers", bidirectional links between adolescent disclosure and substance use, and negative links between parental solicitation and substance use were found. We recommend, therefore, that adolescent temperament is considered when designing parenting programs.

  • 221.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Jönköping University, Sweden .
    Skoog, Therese
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gerdner, A.
    Jönköping University, Sweden .
    Does one size fit all?: Linking parenting wirh adolescent substgance use and adolescent temperament2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Parenting strategies, such as solicitation and behavioral control, as well as adolescent voluntary disclosure of their everyday activities can be protective of adolescent substance use involvement. But is that true for all adolescents? In this study, we explore whether adolescent temperament moderates the longitudinal associations between adolescent disclosure, parental knowledge, parental solicitation, parental control and adolescent substance use. We used longitudinal data from (N = 1373) early-adolescent Swedish youth of 13.02 years of age at the baseline (51.6 % girls). We performed cluster analysis to identify temperament configurations (of novelty seeking, harm avoidance and reward dependence) and conducted cross-lagged panel design to test the reciprocal associations between the constructs. Multi-group analyses were used to test moderation by temperament. Main results showed five distinct temperament clusters: detached and fearless, unstable, avoidant, sociable thrill-seekers, social and content. The bidirectional, negative associations between adolescent disclosure and substance use, and the positive longitudinal link between parental solicitation and adolescent substance use were moderated by temperament cluster. The link between T1 adolescent disclosure and T2 substance use was significant for adolescents in the detached and fearless and the unstable cluster, whereas the negative link between T1 adolescent substance use and T2 adolescent disclosure and the positive link between T1 parental solicitation and T2 substance use were significant for adolescents in the detached and fearless cluster. Individuals and their contexts, in this case adolescents and their parents, are dynamically interactive in the process of an individual's development. We suggest that parental soliciting efforts may be disadvantageous, while open communication between parents and adolescent is beneficial for adolescent psychosocial development, especially for adolescents who rate high in thrill-seeking, fearlessness, and low in sociability, thus detached and fearless adolescents.

  • 222.
    Kapetanovic, Sabina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sverige.
    Skoog, Therése
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden; Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Aspects of the Parent–Adolescent Relationship and Associations With Adolescent Risk Behaviors Over Time2019In: Journal of family psychology, ISSN 0893-3200, E-ISSN 1939-1293, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parents' actions and knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts play key roles in preventing risk behaviors in early adolescence, but what enables parents to know about their adolescents' activities and what links there are to adolescent risk behaviors, such as substance use and delinquent behavior, remain unclear. In this study,we investigated whether different aspects of the parent–adolescent relationship predict parental knowledge, and we examined the direct and indirect longitudinal associations between these aspects of the parent–dolescent relationship and adolescents' self-reported delinquent behavior and substance use. The participants were 550 parents and their adolescent children from two small and two midsized municipalities in Sweden. Parental data were collected when the adolescents were 13 years old (mean), and adolescent data on riskbehaviors were collected on two occasions, when they were 13 and 14 years of age (mean). Structural path analyses revealed that adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control predicted parental knowledge, with adolescent disclosure being the strongest source of parental knowledge and the strongest negative predictor of adolescent risk behaviors. Parenting competence and adolescents' connectedness to parents were indirectly, through adolescent disclosure and parental solicitation and parental control, associated with substance use and delinquent behavior. Some paths differed for boys and girls. In conclusion, confident parenting and a close parent–adolescent relationship in which adolescent disclosure is promoted, seem protective of adolescent engagement in risk behaviors

  • 223.
    Karlsson, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Lindén, Charlotte
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Vad får ungdomar att begå brott?: Undersökning om samband mellan Ungdomsbrottslighet och Personlighetsdrag, Familjerelationer, Vänners brottsliga beteende, bostadsområde och kön2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Juvenile delinquency is a widespread problem in the world and not least in Sweden. This study examined juvenile delinquency and the extent to which personality (the Cloningers biopsychosocial model for the young), family relationships and friends' criminal behavior relate to this. Furthermore, the extent to which crime differs depends on gender and residential area. The study was conducted on a selection of 1461 adolescents in 7th and 8th grade as a part of the LoRDIA project. The results describe a pronounced positive relationship between youngster's criminal behavior and the personality trait Novelty Seeking (i.e. the individual is impulsive, exploratory and sensational seeking). Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between crime and family cohesion and a positive correlation between crime and friends' criminal behavior, which suggests that good cohesion within the family seems to be a protective effect against crime while dealing with criminal friends increases the risk of criminal behavior. The study further showed that there are pronounced gender differences in youth patterns of crime. In addition to boys committing more crimes than girls, it appeared that the personality trait Novelty Seeking has not a generally statistically significant relationship with crime for boys living in a worse socioeconomic area. The study emphasizes that both individual characteristics and social ties are important for understanding the existence of juvenile delinquency.

  • 224.
    Karlsson Loodh, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Wilén, Therése
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Samband mellan människors värderingar och inställning till åldersmångfald i arbetslivet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Values control individual's behavior and attitude in various issues. The present study has been based on Schwartz's theory (1992) on basic human values to interpret the study results.

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether values that are considered more open and positive to differences may be associated with a positive attitude towards age diversity.

    The following questions were formulated: (1) is there a positive relationship between altruistic values and a positive attitude towards age diversity? (2) Is there a positive correlation between propensity to change and a positive attitude towards age diversity? (3) Is there a relationship between age and attitude towards age diversity? Participants in the survey consisted of 1206 people, of which 637 women (52.8%) and 569 men (47.2%) aged 18-85 years (M = 47.3 years, SD = 19.4 years). Correlation analyzes and regression analyzes were made on already collected data from the World Values Survey, wave 6 (2011) and the ten items in the questionnaire related to Schwartz values.

    The results from correlation analyzes showed that: (1) altruistic values had a weak positive relationship with attitudes towards age diversity (r = .18, p < .001), (2) change propensity had a near zero relationship with attitude towards age diversity (r = .03), (3) age had a weak positive relationship with attitude towards age diversity (r = .16, p < .001). The regression analysis showed that altruistic values and age can explain 4% of the variation of individuals' attitudes toward age diversity. The results were partly in line with the presented theory and previous research, which means that altruistic values correlate positively with diversity. An unexpected result was that a largely zero relationship arose between change propensity and attitude towards age diversity.

    The conclusion in this study was that people with propensity to change did not seem to have any opinion regarding age diversity and that people who have a positive attitude towards age diversity also tended to have more altruistic values. A further conclusion was that older employees tended to have a more positive attitude towards age diversity than their younger colleagues.

  • 225.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    School of Health and Education, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. School of Health and Education, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Variations in user-oriented elderly care: a multilevel approach2017In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 138-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – National Board of Health and Welfare claims that the quality of elderly care services differ considerably between municipalities in Sweden. This study aims to analyze to what extent these variations can be accounted for by the older person's municipality affiliation (i.e. receiving elderly care in a certain municipality). Design/methodology/approach – Addressing this issue, national survey data from 78,538 older respondents receiving elderly care services in Sweden were analyzed using multilevel modeling (MLM). Findings – The results showed that municipality affiliation only marginally explained the variance in satisfaction with care, i.e. its variations were larger within than between municipalities. Instead, user-oriented care accounted for the variation in satisfaction with care. Specifically, the way the care workers behave toward the older person proved to be much more crucial for satisfaction with care than municipality affiliation. Moreover, random effects analyses revealed that the effects of user-oriented care on satisfaction with care varied across municipalities. Care setting (i.e. home care or nursing home) only marginally accounted for its variance.Practical implications – Developing care quality should start and primarily be discussed at the interpersonal care level, and not, as is customary, at the municipality level. Originality/value – The present research is the first in its kind to quantitatively investigate the sources of variation in perceived quality of Swedish elderly care using MLM.

  • 226.
    Kecevic, Emma
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Salkovic, Rusmir
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    En kvalitativ studie om prestationsbaserad individuell lönesättnings inverkan på sociala relationer inom skola2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study aimed to examine the impact of individual performance-based pay on social relations in school. School personnel was interviewed, using seven semi-structured interviews, about their experiences. The study showed that individual performance-based pay requests, clarity, justice and confirmation of their work. The respondents experienced a lack of clearly defined pay criteria.

  • 227.
    Kedhammar, Anders
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Jul Yalla Jul: Hälsofrämjande skolutveckling ur ett salutogent elevperspektiv2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines if entrepreneurial learning can improve students' sense of coherence (C-SOC) in school in a child perspective. A music project focusing on entrepreneurship was carried out to improve the psychosocial health of students. Sixteen students in grade three to six participated in the study and were afterwards interviewed in tw focus groups. The result indicates that entrepreneurial learning may supplement the regular teaching with elements that were perceived as comprehensible, manageable and meaningful. The results indicate that entrepreneurial learning may be a way to contribute to health promoting school development in terms of pupils' sense of coherence.

  • 228.
    Kihlberg, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Nilsson, Mina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Hur ser sambandet ut mellan personlighetsdrag och konflikten mellan arbete och privatliv?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that external as well as internal factors have an impact on individuals' experience of work and privacy, as well as privacy and work. The purpose of the study was to investigate how the relationship looks between personalities and individuals' experience of the conflict between work and privacy, as well as privacy and work. A total of 124 participated were 31% men and 69% women. The average age of the participants was 28 years. Participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire that was composed of two well-established questionnaires. Data was analyzed by correlation analysis, t-test, and multiple regression analysis. The result showed that the personality trait neuroticism had a positive correlation between the work and privacy conflict (r = .29 p = .001) as well as personal life and work (r = .20 p = .03). It also showed that individuals experience the constraints between work and privacy (M = 3.26, p = 0.00) stronger than the conflict between privacy and work (M = 1.64, p = 0.00). The result was in line with previous research. It also showed that there was a correlation between personal traits and individuals' experience of the conflict between work and privacy, as well as privacy and work.

  • 229.
    Koltys, Julia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Mindedal, Moa
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Det gränslösa arbetet: En kvantitativ studie om flexibla arbetsförhållanden och upplevd balans mellan arbetsliv och privatliv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows both positive and negative effects of flexible working conditions on work-life balance. The aim of the study is to investigate whether there is a link between flexible working conditions and work-life balance. A web survey formulated with 38 questions was sent out on LinkedIn and Facebook. To measure flexible working conditions, we used a questionnaire from Clark (2002) and Leung and Zhang (2016) in addition to six self-formulated questions. Work-life balance was measured by a questionnaire from Netemeyer et al. (1996) translated to Swedish by Grankvist et al. (2017). The sample consisted of a total amount of 238 participants in the query - 77 were men (32.4%) and 161 women (67.6%) between the ages of 19-73 years (M = 37, SD = 12). Data was analyzed using Pearson's correlation and independent t-test. The most important results showed that the relationship between flexible working hours and imbalance between work and private-life neither were strong nor statistically significant, but also that there was a significant positive correlation between flexible working hours and imbalance between private-life and work. Significant correlations also showed that the more people use their own ITequipment to work-related assignments at home the greater the work-life imbalance was perceived. The results both confirm and contradicts previous research in the field and the conclusion is that there are several aspects proving that flexible working conditions can reduce the perceived work-life balance.

  • 230.
    Korén, Henrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Möller, Filip
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Upplevd stress och ledarskapsstilar: En kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie inom den svenska polisen i region väst2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the perceived stress of employees in the Swedish police in relation to the leadership of the immediate supervisor. Four research questions were designed based on the purpose, everyone was related to stress and / or leadership styles. A quantitative data collection method was conducted, where 239 employees in the police in the Western region participated. The participants were between the ages of 20 and 66, 142 were men, 89 were women and three of the participants did not identify themselves either as male or female. The participants answered a questionnaire that contained self-designed background questions, the Swedish version of the Developmental Leadership Questionnaire (ULL), where the participant estimated their closest supervisor based on the developmental leadership style, the conventional leadership style, non-leadership and desirable competencies. The last part of the survey was Perceived Stress Scale - 14 (PSS-14), where the participant self-assessed his or her perceived stress in the last month. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics, correlation analyzes and t-tests were used. The study results showed that there is a significant negative relationship between the developmental leadership style and the perceived stress level. This result is in line with previous research, which means that different leadership styles may affect employee's perceived stress, positively or negatively. Another result of the study was that women tended to experience a higher level of stress than men, even this result is in line with previous research. In conclusion, the study contributes to the illumination of the increasingly experienced stress among employees and how leaders can act to reduce stress.

  • 231.
    Kristensen, Alexia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Schön, Cecilia
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Kan ökad kompetensutveckling, arbetsengagemang och arbetstillfredsställelse öka arbetstagarens avsikt att stanna på arbetsplatsen?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations strive to maintain competence in the workplace in order to continue to be competitive in today's labor market. The study was based on social exchange theory (SET) and Job Demands-Resources (JD-R). Hypotheses were based on positive correlations between competence development (KU), work engagement (AE), job satisfaction (AT) and intention to stay (AS).

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the links between competence development, work engagement, job satisfaction and the intention to stay in the workplace. Furthermore, the study investigated which of these variables was most crucial for the employee's motivation to stay in the workplace.

    The participants in the study (N 56) answered a questionnaire intended to measure KU, AE, AT and AS. The survey questions were constructed from previously validated measuring instruments.

    The results analysis was carried out using Spearman's rank correlation analysis, which showed that all variables correlated highly with each other and showed statistical significance (p ≤ .001).

    The conclusion in the study was that all variables, correlated with each other, and that work involvement was the variable that showed the strongest correlation with intent to stay.

  • 232.
    Kristiansson, Frida
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Sjögren, Cecilia
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Feedback och arbetstillfredsställelse: En studie i en offentlig verksamhet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studies examining the relationship between job satisfaction and feedback in the public sector are lim-ited in Sweden. The public sector contains what Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting describes as "Sweden's most important jobs". Based on this background study purposes were phrased: to examine if there is a relationship between feedback that employees receive from their supervisors and job satisfaction, what demographic variables contribute to the experience of feedback and job satisfaction, and if there are differences regarding feedback and job satisfaction depending on those variables? A survey was conducted in a municipality, where 295 employees were asked to participate. A total of 86 employees participated, of which 65 were women and 21 were men. The average age was 47 years. The questionnaires used in the survey were Feedback Environment Scale to examine feedback, and The Generic Job Satisfaction Scale to examine job satisfaction. The data was analyzed by correlation studies, regression analyses, t-test and ANOVA. The most distinguished result was the strong, positive relationship between feedback and job satisfaction in the municipality, and that the variable "profession" had the strongest, significant prediction on both feedback and job satisfaction. The result showed that the healthcare profession differed the most from other professions regarding feedback and job satisfaction. This formed a discussion about the differences between the different areas of profession in the municipality. Overall the result of the study confirmed previous findings.

  • 233.
    Kurdian, Nancy
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    "... Jag utgår istället ifrån att träffa människor på rätt nivå...": En studie om professionellas erfarenheter av lärande i etableringsuppdraget för nyanlända på Arbetsförmedlingen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The influx of refugees to Europe has influenced the quantity of newly arrived immigrants in Sweden. The process of establishment of newly arrived has therefore become an important aspect of the country's public health. Significant aspects from a public health perspective involve employment and work, as it promotes stimulation and participation. The Employment Agency, Arbetsförmedlingen, is an authority on the Swedish labor market. It has the intension to establish newly arrived on the labor market, which is the purpose of to the establishment programme.

    The professionals at the Employment Agency could be considered a heterogeneous working group, as they have different academic backgrounds. The question is whether the professionals have competence, or can develop competence, to contribute to an establishment process where newly arrived will experience manageability and meaningfulness in their establishment. The study has had a qualitative method inspired by a phenomenological approach, with the purpose of conducting seven semi-structured interviews. A qualitative content analysis has been conducted to let the result appear independently.

    The result highlighted the importance of three themes, processes, learning and development, that may be interpreted as essential to the professionals' learning at the Employment Agency. Furthermore, the results indicate that support and conditions are important aspects for learning.

  • 234.
    Käkelä Johansson, Jonna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Lavén Lindh, Jonna
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Internet - ett laglöst land: en kvalitativ studie om hur elever uppfattar skolans arbete mot kränkningar på nätet.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to enlighten the problems that come with the society's digital growth.As young people spend more and more time online and on social media, the violations occurring in the physical environment become less and instead become more common in this new environment, which is the internet.Today, the The National Agency for Education has developed rules that require the school to take action if a student becomes a victim of cyber bullying, whether it happens in school or outside of the school.The National Agency for Education has discovered that schools now a days work too reactively, and that no action is taken before something happens.Through a qualitative study, in the form of interviews, we wanted to get a deeper understanding of the students in grade eight perspective on how the school is currently working towards prevent cyber bullying.We believer that the students are the source of what is happening online and their perceptions and experiences are important in order to develop preventive plans against cyber bullying.The result shows that students are quite unaware whether there are rules or not when it comes to cyber bullying. However, they feel more confident about rules relating the physical environment.The students continue to explain that there are a few things that make them hesitate in their decision,turning to teachers if cyber bullying would occur. They explain the reasons, such as lack of trust, not feeling safe and communication difficulties.

  • 235.
    Lama, Parash
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Sambandet mellan socialdans och upplevd lycka2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dance is an activity that evokes positive emotions and is associated with, among others: festivals, music, community, exercise and other positive occasions; factors that seem to contribute to happiness. The research community's curiosity within the field of recreational activities has for instance led to the fact that ballroom dancing, commonly viewed as a social and cultural activity, now has been accepted as an alternate form of treatment for mental illness, such as stress, anxiety and depression. However, in my literature overview I found that there were few studies on social dancing (basically ballroom dancing without the competitive components) and its effects on healthy human beings' happiness. Therefore, this study endeavors to investigate the relation between social dancing and happiness. To answer the questions, the independent variables duration, intensity and frequency in social dancing were measured and related to the dependent variables of perceived happiness, life satisfaction (cognitive happiness), and general well-being (affective happiness). The selfreport scale SWLS was used to measure life satisfaction and PANAS C to measure perceived well-being. The participants were 136 social dancers 2 between the ages of 19-70 years, with an average age of 37.8 years (SD = 12.1 years); 68 percent were women and 43 percent were men. Multiple linear regression was used for data analysis. The results show that only the variable duration showed significance in predicting cognitive happiness, i.e. satisfaction of life. However, the results showed that all the independent variables of duration, intensity and frequency showed a significant value for prediction of affective happiness, i.e.general well-being.

  • 236.
    Landegren, Stina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Persson, Jessica
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Arbetsmotivation: En kvantitativ studie om hur arbetstillfredsställelse och feedback samverkar med motivationen hos personliga assistenter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this quantitative study, the purpose was to investigate how job satisfaction and feedback relate to work motivation of municipal personal assistants in municipal activities. 

    The sample in this study consisted of personal assistants working in a small municipality in Västra Götaland. This survey consisted of three questionnaires distributed to the 85 assistants employed. It generated 34 responses in the end, of which 23 were women and 11 were men. Respondents age in this survey ranged from 20 - 63 years, where the middle age was 40 years. The surveys that were used as a basis were basic needs satisfaction at work scale (BNS), Minnesota satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) as well as feedback orientation scale (FOS).

    The result of the analyses showed a positive correlation between job satisfaction and work motivation, however no correlation between work motivation and feedback was found. According to the analysis, feedback did not predict work motivation while job satisfaction predicted work motivation. There were no differences in the results of how men and women experienced job satisfaction, work motivation or feedback.

  • 237.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    et al.
    Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan.
    Bacchini, Dario
    Second University of Naples, Caserta, Italy.
    Bornstein, Marc H.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, China.
    Chen, Bin-Bin
    Fudan University.
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya.
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Faculty of Psychology, Rome, Italy.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Icenogle, Grace
    Temple University.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Consultorio Psicológico Popular, Medellín, Colombia .
    Zelli, Arnaldo
    University of Rome Foro Italico, Italy..
    Parenting and Positive Adjustment for Adolescents in Nine Countries: Novel Approaches and Findings from Europe, Asia, Africa and America2017In: Well-Being of Youth and Emerging Adults across Cultures: Novel Approaches and Findings from Europe, Asia, Africa and America / [ed] Dimitrova, Radosveta, Springer International Publishing , 2017, p. 235-248Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes the theoretical background, methodology, and select empirical findings from the Parenting Across Cultures project, a longitudinal study of mothers, fathers, and youth in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and United States). The design of the study is well suited to addressing questions regarding within-family, between-family within-country, and between-country predictors of youth outcomes. Positive development may be characterized in unique ways in different countries, but adjustment outcomes such as social competence, prosocial behavior, and academic achievement also share features and parenting predictors in different countries. Combining emic (originating within a culture) and etic (originating outside a culture) approaches, operationalizing culture, and handling measurement invariance are challenges of international research. Understanding culturally specific and generalizable features of positive youth development as well as how youth are socialized in ways to promote positive adjustment are advantages of comparative international research.

  • 238.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    et al.
    Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
    Godwin, Jennifer
    Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan.
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”.
    Bornstein, Marc H.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, China.
    Chen, Bin-Bin
    Fudan University.
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Faculty of Psychology, Rome, Italy.
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Consultorio Psicológico Popular, Medellín, Colombia .
    Zelli, Arnaldo
    University of Rome Foro Italico, Italy..
    Longitudinal associations between parenting and youth adjustment in twelve cultural groups: Cultural normativeness of parenting as a moderator2018In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 362-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To examine whether the cultural normativeness of parents' beliefs and behaviors moderates the links between those beliefs and behaviors and youths' adjustment, mothers, fathers, and children (N = 1,298 families) from 12 cultural groups in 9 countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States) were interviewed when children were, on average, 10 years old and again when children were 12 years old. Multilevel models examined 5 aspects of parenting (expectations regarding family obligations, monitoring, psychological control, behavioral control, warmth/affection) in relation to 5 aspects of youth adjustment (social competence, prosocial behavior, academic achievement, externalizing behavior, internalizing behavior). Interactions between family level and culture-level predictors were tested to examine whether cultural normativeness of parenting behaviors moderated the link between those behaviors and children's adjustment. More evidence was found for within- than between-culture differences in parenting predictors of youth adjustment. In 7 of the 8 instances in which cultural normativeness was found to moderate the link between parenting and youth adjustment, the link between a particular parenting behavior and youth adjustment was magnified in cultural contexts in which the parenting behavior was more normative

  • 239.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    et al.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Godwin, Jennifer
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Bornstein, Marc H.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, China.
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Faculty of Psychology, Rome, Italy.
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Consultorio Psicológico Popular, Medellín, Colombia .
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan.
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Italy.
    Reward sensitivity, impulse control, and social cognition as mediators of the link between childhood family adversity and externalizing behavior in eight countries2017In: Development and psychopathology (Print), ISSN 0954-5794, E-ISSN 1469-2198, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 1675-1688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data from 1,177 families in eight countries (Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States), we tested a conceptual model of direct effects of childhood family adversity on subsequent externalizing behaviors as well as indirect effects through psychological mediators. When children were 9 years old, mothers and fathers reported on financial difficulties and their use of corporal punishment, and children reported perceptions of their parents' rejection. When children were 10 years old, they completed a computerized battery of tasks assessing reward sensitivity and impulse control and responded to questions about hypothetical social provocations to assess their hostile attributions and proclivity for aggressive responding. When children were 12 years old, they reported on their externalizing behavior. Multigroup structural equation models revealed that across all eight countries, childhood family adversity had direct effects on externalizing behaviors 3 years later, and childhood family adversity had indirect effects on externalizing behavior through psychological mediators. The findings suggest ways in which family-level adversity poses risk for children's subsequent development of problems at psychological and behavioral levels, situated within diverse cultural contexts.

  • 240.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    et al.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Godwin, Jennifer
    Duke University, Durhamn, USA.
    Bornstein, Marc H.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology, China.
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Faculty of Psychology, Rome, Italy.
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Consultorio Psicológico Popular, Medellín, Colombia .
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan.
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Naples “Federico II”, Department of Psychology, Italy.
    Parenting, culture, and the development of externalizing behaviors from age 7 to 14 in nine countries2018In: Development and psychopathology (Print), ISSN 0954-5794, E-ISSN 1469-2198, Vol. 30, no SI, p. 1937-1958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using multilevel models, we examined mother-, father-, and child-reported (N = 1,336 families) externalizing behavior problem trajectories from age 7 to 14 in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). The intercept and slope of children's externalizing behavior trajectories varied both across individuals within culture and across cultures, and the variance was larger at the individual level than at the culture level. Mothers' and children's endorsement of aggression as well as mothers' authoritarian attitudes predicted higher age 8 intercepts of child externalizing behaviors. Furthermore, prediction from individual-level endorsement of aggression and authoritarian attitudes to more child externalizing behaviors was augmented by prediction from cultural-level endorsement of aggression and authoritarian attitudes, respectively. Cultures in which father-reported endorsement of aggression was higher and both mother- and father-reported authoritarian attitudes were higher also reported more child externalizing behavior problems at age 8. Among fathers, greater attributions regarding uncontrollable success in caregiving situations were associated with steeper declines in externalizing over time. Understanding cultural-level as well as individual-level correlates of children's externalizing behavior offers potential insights into prevention and intervention efforts that can be more effectively targeted at individual children and parents as well as targeted at changing cultural norms that increase the risk of children's and adolescents' externalizing behavior.

  • 241.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    et al.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Medellín, Colombia.
    Zelli, Arnaldo
    University of Rome Foro Italico, Italy..
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan and Emirates College for Advanced Education.
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Naples “Federico II”, Department of Psychology, Italy.
    Bornstein, Marc H.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology, China.
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Faculty of Psychology, Rome, Italy.
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA ; King Abdulaziz University.
    Household income predicts trajectories of child internalizing and externalizing behavior in high-, middle-, and low-income countries2019In: International Journal of Behavioral Development, ISSN 0165-0254, E-ISSN 1464-0651, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 74-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined longitudinal links between household income and parents' education and children's trajectories of internalizing and externalizing behaviors from age 8 to 10 reported by mothers, fathers, and children. Longitudinal data from 1,190 families in 11 cultural groups in eight countries (Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and United States) were included. Multigroup structural equation models revealed that household income, but not maternal or paternal education, was related to trajectories of mother-, father-, and child-reported internalizing and externalizing problems in each of the 11 cultural groups. Our findings highlight that in low-, middle-, and high-income countries, socioeconomic risk is related to children's internalizing and externalizing problems, extending the international focus beyond children's physical health to their emotional and behavioral development.

  • 242.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    et al.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Rothenberg, W. Andrew
    University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Jensen, Todd M.
    University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Lippold, Melissa A.
    University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Naples “Federico II”, Department of Psychology, Italy.
    Bornstein, Marc H.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology, China.
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Faculty of Psychology, Rome, Italy.
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA ; King Abdulaziz University.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Consultorio Psicológico Popular, Medellín, Colombia .
    Peña Alampay, Liana
    Ateneo de Manila University, Department of Psychology, 1000 Metro Manila National Capital Region, Philippin.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University and Emirates College for Advanced Education, Zarqa, Jordan.
    Bidirectional Relations Between Parenting and Behavior Problems From Age 8 to 13 in Nine Countries2018In: Journal of research on adolescence, ISSN 1050-8392, E-ISSN 1532-7795, Vol. 28, no 3, SI, p. 571-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study used data from 12 cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States; N=1,298) to understand the cross-cultural generalizability of how parental warmth and control are bidirectionally related to externalizing and internalizing behaviors from childhood to early adolescence. Mothers, fathers, and children completed measures when children were ages 8-13. Multiple-group autoregressive, cross-lagged structural equationmodels revealed that child effects rather than parent effects may better characterize how warmth and control are related to child externalizing and internalizing behaviors over time, and that parent effects may be more characteristic of relations between parental warmth and control and child externalizing and internalizing behavior during childhood than early adolescence.

  • 243.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    et al.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Education and Parenting: Conclusions and Implications2019In: School Systems, Parent Behavior, and Academic Achievement: An International Perspective / [ed] Sorbring, Emma; Lansford, Jennifer E., Springer, 2019, p. 139-151Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter begins by providing an overview of key points raised in the preceding chapters regarding education and parenting in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. We then highlight similarities and differences in education and parenting across the nine countries. For example, many countries have increased access to education in the last decades, but questions of quality remain; socioeconomic and geographic disparities in access and quality characterize many countries. Examples are provided of ways that education systems in different countries have attempted to build bridges between home and school contexts, such as through "mother tongue" education and interventions to increase parent involvement. Countries differ in the extent to which curricula are nationally standardized versus variable within the country and the extent to which learning is primarily teacher- versus student-directed. The countries included in this volume range from those performing among the best to those performing among the worst on international tests of student achievement. Many of the countries have high-stakes testing and entrance exams at different levels of education, which has implications for how parents attempt to help their children succeed in school. Parental education-related involvement, expectations, goal-orientation, and supportiveness are all importantly related to students' academic achievement. The chapter discusses implications for policy and practice, particularly in relation to the Sustainable Development Goals that are guiding the international development agenda through 2030. Understanding how different countries' education systems operate, steps countries have taken to improve access to and quality of education, and how parenting can promote students' academic achievement in the context of different education systems offers the potential for countries to learn from one another to offer quality education to all.

  • 244.
    Lantz, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Att tillhöra en föreställd social gemenskap eller att vara "de Andra"2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay was to study informants' feelings of belonging related to how norms about "Swedishness" are communicated in the Swedish society, with particular interest in the processes of Belonging and Othering. The study did not intend to attempt to define the existence or meaning of "Swedish" norms in itself, but was interested in what affect individuals' sense of belonging in social communities like the imagined social community in Sweden.

    The questions at issue was: How do the informants experience that "Swedishness" and "Swedish norms" are communicated in Swedish society and how do they relate to these? What factors affect the informants' sense of belonging to Swedish society?

    Semi-structured interviews were held with a total of six informants who all had experience of having immigrated to Sweden. The informants were aged between 19-36 years, three identified themselves as women and three as men. The range of variation of the length of stay in Sweden varied between 14 months - 8 years. In the result of the thematic analysis, six themes appeared: 1) To Become a Part of Sweden, "Swedish" Friends Are Required; 2) "The Native Language Here is Swedish"; 3) "Swedes" don't want anyone getting close to them; 4) Markers for Belonging; 5) To Handle Being Defined by Others as Non-Belonging and 6) Feeling different. 

    The result of the study largely resembled what previous research has shown - for example: the description of a "mid-position" in the discussions on Swedishness and belonging; the way the informants talk about "the others" as persons with immigration background who don't behave well and that non-white Swedes must prove their Swedishness and belonging.

    The result of this study gives an increased understanding of how complex the processes of othering and belonging are, and how the informants relate to these in their lives.

  • 245.
    Larsson, Jessica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Olsson, Sandra
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Betydelsen av kön för risken att utveckla ett alkoholmissbruk hos ungdomar: Utefter självskattad självkänsla & upplevd stress2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescents in Sweden tend to lie in the higher risk-zone then other age-groups, when it comes to the risk of alcohol abuse. Despite this, it's been observed in media that during the later years, there has been a decrease in adolescences consumption of alcohol.

    The aim was to, with a quantitative study, investigate if adolescents' self-esteem and perceived stress could be factors that could predict the risk of alcohol abuse. In this study it was investigated if the gender is of importance whether these factors correlate with each other or not.

    The study was conducted with questionnaires that were given to 122 participants, with an average age of 17,4 years. All the participants went to the same upper secondary school in the region of Västra Götalands län. The participants were 47 % women and 53 % men.

    The result from the analysis could not distinguish any statistical significant correlations that shows that it's possible to predict the risk of alcohol abuse after self-esteem and perceived stress. However, according to the analyzes that measured the men and women separately, differences were found in the results. Amongst the women there was a statistic significant correlation between their risk of alcohol abuse with perceived stress and their self-esteem. There was no statistic significant correlation amongst the men.

    This study may be relevant in later researches, to highlight the problematic consequences that are connected with long-standing perceived stress and what they can cause.

  • 246.
    Lernhag, Veronica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Shabani, Vlora
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Fortkörning: En mikrosociologisk studie om hur bilförare resonerar kring fortkörning som kriminell handling2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fortkörning är farligt och kan leda till att någon blir allvarligt skadad eller värre, någon dör, så varför väljer förare att köra över hastighetsgränsen? Och hur ser vi på det? Är det en kriminell handling? I Sverige kan en del av oss prata om fortkörning som att det är något som alla förare gör av olika skäl, men vi ser inte nödvändigtvis det som ett brott. Varför? I studien har sex förare intervjuats för att försöka förstå de olika orsakerna till varför bilförare kör fortare än hastighetsgränsen och hur de väljer att resonera om de. Ser de på fortkörning som en brottslig handling eller rättfärdigar de sitt beteende? Den använda metoden är en kvalitativ intervjustudie med aktiva intervjuer och de teoretiska perspektiven som användes var Erving Goffman, Max Weber och Mikael Foucault. Resultat och Slutsats: studien påvisar att bilförare har svårt att se fortkörning som något brottsligt men ser det gärna som en förseelse. Att komma fram fortare räknas som en av huvudanledningarna till att man väljer att köra fort.

  • 247.
    Lesén, Eva
    et al.
    Nordic Health Economics AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Björholt, Ingela
    Nordic Health Economics AB, Gothenburg, Sweden. Department of Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Scandinavian. Surgical Outcomes Research Group, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ingelgård, Anders
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Nordic Health Economics AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olson, Fredrik J.
    Nordic Health Economics AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Exploration and preferential ranking of patient benefits of medical devices: a new and generic instrument for health economic assessments2017In: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, ISSN 0266-4623, E-ISSN 1471-6348, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 463-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: For medical devices, benefits other than direct clinical effects may have a large impact on the patients' well-being, but a standardized method for measuring these benefits is unavailable. The objective was to explore potential patient benefits provided by medical devices, and to assess the relative preferences of these benefits in the general Swedish population.Methods: To identify attributes of patient benefit, healthcare personnel within a wide range of disease areas were interviewed. The generalized attributes were then validated among healthcare personnel, patient organizations, and manufacturers; in two pilot studies in the general population; and in two rounds of cognitive interviews. The general population's preferences of the attributes were measured with a usability-tested questionnaire in a final responding sample of 3,802 individuals, representative of the Swedish population.Results: Twenty attributes were identified, encompassing aspects of integrity, sense of security, social participation, and convenience. When measuring the relative preferences, the response rate was 37.0 percent, and the results showed that the attributes with the highest preferences concerned reliability, reduced need for assistance, and sense of control of the illness/disability.Conclusions: A set of twenty attributes of patient benefit relevant to users of medical devices was identified and validated. A questionnaire for patient-reported assessment of the benefits provided by a medical device was developed, based on the attributes. The questionnaire, designated MedTech20, provides a generic measurement method for the evaluation of medical devices used in a wide range of diseases/disabilities.

  • 248.
    Lind, Sara
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Privatekonomiska problem: En kvalitativ studie av deltagare i tv-programmet Lyxfällan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with financial problems readily do blame one special incident for their bad finances, as well as they miss or underestimate a behaviour in present time. It may depend on a lack of narrative for their present behaviour. The thesis shows that the individuals needs to create narratives out of incidents and situations it encounters in life to be able to raise awareness. The thesis also shows that individuals see expenses from others rather than from themselves. For example, individuals with the financial problems see leisure time activities of their children as something able to withdraw money from rather than their own use of cigarettes. Some of the participants use the word "man" (equivalent to English "you") instead of the word "jag" ("I"). This use is dependable on many things, among others a repression of information.

  • 249.
    Loodh, Katarina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Har välinformerade anställda en positiv attityd till organisationsförändring?: Och betydelsen av uppfyllt psykologiskt kontrakt, tillit och uppfattat förändringsbehov2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations are, more or less, in a constant process of change, which demands high ability to adapt to changing conditions. The purpose of the study was to replicate, and then compare the result, with a previous study (van den Heuvel, Schalk, & van Assen, 2015), to investigate the relationships between Change Information (the information you receive about a change) and Change Attitude (the attitude towards the change) during an organizational change. The purpose was also to investigate the relationship that Fulfilled Psychological Contract, Trust, and Perceived need for Change, have on the information and attitude towards an organizational change. A quantitative study was conducted with self-assessment surveys of 155 local government officials (M = 47 years, SD = 11.37), 95 women (61%) and 60 men (39%). The result showed that the change information had positive correlation with change attitudes, as well as with confidence and perceived need for change, which means that high experience of useful, timely, adequate and customized information to employees, coincided with a better experience of the confidence of the employer, and the perceived need for change. The percived need for change was also positively related to the affective, behavioral and cognitive dimension of the attitude towards change.

  • 250.
    Lundgren, Caroline
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Starkare än man tror!: En narrativ studie om tidigare hemlösa2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många i Sverige lever utan bostad av olika skäl och antalet hemlösa har ökat. Schablonbilden av hemlösa är att de missbrukande män, men de som befinner sig i hemlöshet är inte en homogen grupp. För kvinnor är en av de stora orsakerna till hemlöshet våld i nära relation. Mitt syfte med arbetet är att få en bild av tidigare hemlösa genom att höra deras berättelser. Min frågeställning har varit att få deras subjektiva bild av hur de upplevde tiden innan, under och efter hemlösheten. För att analysera informanternas berättelser och få en djupare förståelse för deras situation och upplevelser av dem har jag valt fyra teoretiska ansatser. Teorin om stigma, socialkonstruktivism/ socialkonstruktionism, narrativ teori och exitteorin. Teorin om stigma behandlar omgivningens syn på individer i svårigheter, vilken kan appliceras på informanternas tid i och efter hemlöshet. Teorierna om socialkonstruktivism och socialkonstruktionism förklarar hur individer påverkas av sin omgivning och hur omgivningen konstruerar bilden av individen inom en grupp. Exitteorin behandlar rollbyten; att gå från en roll till en annan och ändrar riktning på livet. Den narrativa teorin baseras på den narrativa metoden, vilken också är den jag kommer använda som metod. Den narrativa teorin handlar om berättelser; om hur vi söker mening och identitet genom våra livsberättelser. Jag har i mitt arbete valt en kvalitativ metod där jag gjort fyra semistrukturerade intervjuer med lika många informanter som tidigare befunnit sig i hemlöshet. Jag har, som redan nämnts, utgått från den narrativa metoden där informanterna tillåts ge liv åt sin berättelse. För att bearbeta och analysera intervjuerna har jag kodat dem utifrån teman (livet före, under och efter hemlösheten) och de teoretiska ansatserna. Tre av mina informanter var kvinnor och en av dem var man. Gemensamt för kvinnorna var att de hamnat i hemlöshet direkt eller indirekt på grund av våldsamma partners. Då de lämnat eller lämnats av partnern hamnade de i hemlöshet. Mannen hamnade i hemlöshet på grund av en brand i hans lägenhet som skedde till följd av hans missbruk. Gemensamt för dem alla var att det sociala skyddsnätet brast och att samhället inte kunde hjälpa dem med permanent bostad och de fick istället klara sig själva. I två av informanternas fall kunde socialtjänsten efter en längre tid bistå dem med bostäder, de andra två informanterna fick själva lösa sin bostadssituation. Informanterna har alla gett uttryck att de kommit till insikt att deras situation var tvungen att förändras, innan eller under hemlösheten, och dessa insikter kan bäst förklaras utifrån exitteorin. Samtliga informanterna menade också att de upptäckt en styrka hos sig själva under sina prövningar och att de inte känt sig stigmatiserade. Utifrån deras berättelser visar dock min studie att de faktiskt blivit stigmatiserade av socialtjänsten, den instans som borde stöttat dem. Då min studie har ett för litet urval kan jag inte dra några generella slutsatser. Att det sociala skyddsnätet brister i individuella fall står dock klart. Orsaken till att informanterna blivit stigmatiserade av just socialtjänsten behöver undersökas mer innan jag kan uttala mig mer generellt, men en förklaring kan vara de medel- och överklassideal som styr myndigheter och där avvikare förväntas anpassa sig för att passa in i det rådande systemet.

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