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  • 201.
    Tengelin, Ellinor
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Dahlborg Lyckhage, Elisabeth
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Berndtsson, Ina
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Constructing the Norm-critical awareness scale: A scale for use in educational contexts promoting awareness of prejudice, discrimination, and marginalisation2019In: Equality, Diversity and Inclusion, ISSN 2040-7149, E-ISSN 2040-7157, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 652-667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Healthcare professionals' conscious or unconscious norms, values and attitudes have been identified as partial explanations of healthcare inequity. Norm criticism is an approach that questions what is generally accepted as "normal" in society, and it enables professionals to identify norms that might cause prejudice, discrimination and marginalisation. In order to assess norm-critical awareness, a measurement scale is needed. The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale for measuring norm-critical awareness. Design/methodology/approach: The scale-development process comprised a qualitative item-generating phase and a statistical reduction phase. The item pool was generated from key literature on norm criticism and was revised according to an expert panel, pilot studies and one "think aloud" session. To investigate the dimensionality and to reduce the number of items of the scale, confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Findings: The item-generation phase resulted in a 46-item scale comprising five theoretically derived dimensions revolving around function, consequences, identity, resistance and learning related to norms. The item-reduction phase resulted in an instrument consisting of five dimensions and 20 items. The analyses indicated that a summary score on the scale could be used to reflect the broad dimension of norm-critical awareness. Originality/value: The Norm-critical awareness scale comprises five theoretically derived dimensions and can be used as a summary score to indicate the level of norm-critical awareness in educational contexts. This knowledge is valuable for identifying areas in greater need of attention. © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 202.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Teachers' Grading Assignment and the Predictive Validity of Norm-Referenced Grades2011In: The European Conference on Educational Research (ECER), Berlin, 12-16 September 2011: Urban Education, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 203.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Gustafsson, Jan-Eric
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Effects of Gf and Gc on the development of knowledge and skills2013In: The 15th Biennial Conference, European Association for Research and Learning and Instruction (EARLI), Munich, 27-31 August, 2013: Book of Abstracts, 2013, p. 968-969Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Investment theory (Cattell, 1987) states that learning in different fields is dependent on a general ability to reason in novel situations (Gf), and that development of knowledge and skill therefore is influenced by Gf, among other things. The Encapsulation theory (Gustafsson & Carlstedt,2006) makes the inference that Gf is encapsulated in measures of General Crystallized intelligence(Gc) and that information about Gf therefore does not add to prediction of further learning. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of Gf and Gc on knowledge acquisition indifferent subjects in school. In all 9002 individuals from the Evaluation Through Follow-up longitudinal database were included. A path model was fitted to measures of Gf and Gc. Results showed that Gf had influence on measures of early and late Gc. However, there were no additional effects of Gf on subject grades, which was interpreted as providing partial support for the Encapsulation theory.

  • 204.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    The case of a missing person? The current L2 self and the L2Motivational Self System2017In: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Dörnyei's (2009a) theorizing, motivation is conceptualized to be generated by discomfort associated with the learner's experience of a discrepancy between their current L2 self, and their ideal L2 self. However, in the L2 Motivational Self System, this discrepancy is not operationalized. A questionnaire containing measures of current L2 selves was administered to two cohorts of students learning English in Sweden, one in grade 7, and one in grade 9. Using structural equation modelling, results revealed that the discrepancy between the ideal L2 self and the current L2 selfwas greater for the grade 7 cohort. So too was the impact on a criterion variable measuring intended effort. Arguments for the operationalization of the selfdiscrepancy process in research designs are put forward. In studies tracking changes over time, it is suggested that the inclusion of a variable measuring the current L2self could provide important insights into self-discrepancy trajectories, facilitate the investigation of motivational dynamics, and bring greater sensitivity to intervention design.

  • 205.
    Täljemark, Jakob
    et al.
    Lund University, Medical Faculty, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Child and Adolescent PsychiatryLundSweden.
    Råstam, Maria
    Lund University, Medical Faculty, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Child and Adolescent PsychiatryLundSweden; Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Karolinska Institutet Stockholm Sweden.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    CELAM (Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology University of Gothenburg Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    The coexistence of psychiatric and gastrointestinal problems in children with restrictive eating in a nationwide Swedish twin study2017In: Journal of Eating Disorders, E-ISSN 2050-2974, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Restrictive eating problems are rare in children but overrepresented in those with neurodevelopmental problems. Comorbidities decrease wellbeing in affected individuals but research in the area is relatively scarce. This study describes phenotypes, regarding psychiatric and gastrointestinal comorbidities, in children with restrictive eating problems.

    Methods

    A parental telephone interview was conducted in 9- or 12-year old twins (n = 19,130) in the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden. Cases of restrictive eating problems and comorbid problems were established using the Autism, Tics-AD/HD and other Comorbidities inventory, parental reports of comorbidity as well as data from a national patient register. In restrictive eating problem cases, presence of psychiatric and gastrointestinal comorbidity was mapped individually in probands and their co-twin. Two-tailed Mann–Whitney U tests were used to test differences in the mean number of coexisting disorders between boys and girls. Odds ratios were used to compare prevalence figures between individuals with or without restrictive eating problems, and Fisher exact test was used to establish significance.

    Results

    Prevalence of restrictive eating problems was 0.6% (concordant in 15% monozygotic and 3% of dizygotic twins). The presence of restrictive eating problems drastically increased odds of all psychiatric problems, especially autism spectrum disorder in both sexes (odds ratio = 11.9 in boys, odds ratio = 10.1 in girls), obsessive-compulsive disorder in boys (odds ratio = 11.6) and oppositional defiant disorder in girls (odds ratio = 9.22). Comorbid gastrointestinal problems, such as lactose intolerance (odds ratio = 4.43) and constipation (odds ratio = 2.91), were the most frequent in girls. Boy co-twins to a proband with restrictive eating problems generally had more psychiatric problems than girl co-twins and more girl co-twins had neither somatic nor any psychiatric problems at all.

    Conclusions

    In children with restrictive eating problems odds of all coexisting psychiatric problems and gastrointestinal problems are significantly increased. The study shows the importance of considering comorbidities in clinical assessment of children with restrictive eating problems.

  • 206.
    Vermehren, Jannike
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Shabani, Vlora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Hinder och möjligheter till rehabilitering för narkotikamissbrukare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is estimated that 0.5% of the population is a problem drug-user worldwide and only one fifth of them receives care. Do they get the help they need when they want to leave the drug addiction? With the review of relevant literature, we aim to collect those factors that can help or prevent addicts to reach a successful rehabilitation. The litterateur shows that when a drug addict doesn't want help to leave the addiction she or he can't be forced. The social network and caregivers play an important part in the rehabilitation process. If patients accept the help, caregivers and the patients' social network can be those who may help them to a better life-quality.

  • 207.
    Viking, Tuija
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    En studie om interprofessionellt lärande i teamarbete: Fallet med en 'best practice´ för tvångsvård2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det interprofessionella lärandet, IPL, i team har blivit ett populärt medel för att öka samarbete och kvalité i den sociala sektorn och hälso- och sjukvård. En alltmer specialiserad och fragmentiserad vård, som ofta genomförs i team, har lett till stor spridning av interprofessionell utbildning, IPE. Studerande och/eller medlemmar från olika professioner lär sig därmed, med, från och om varandra. Sådant lärande antas ske vid utbyte av och reflektion över varandras olika erfarenheter, perspektiv och kunskaper, d.v.s. professionella skillnader, och leda till förbättrad effektivitet och kvalitet i vården.

    Inom hälso- och sjukvårdsområdet har man dock bara i mindre skala undersökt vad IPL i etablerade team innebär och hur professionella skillnader påverkar lärandet. Denna licentiatuppsats hade som övergripande syfte att bidra med ökad kunskap inom detta område. Här studerades ett arbete, med kliniska riktlinjer för psykiatrisk tvångsvård, som skulle genomföras av ett interprofessionellt team. Huvudfrågan var hur teamet arbetade med riktlinjerna och hur professionella skillnader kom till uttryck och gav implikationer för IPL. Licentiatuppsatsen är en fallstudie. Undersökningen baseras dels på material (mötesprotokoll, mejlkommunikation, dokument och mediarapporter) från teamets tre-åriga arbete, dels nio intervjuer och en observation av seminariet där teammedlemmar presenterade de färdiga riktlinjerna. Studie 1 syftade till att undersöka hur teamet hanterade en kontrovers och hur de strategier som användes gav konsekvenser för interprofessionellt lärande. Studie 2 syftade till att studera hur teamet granskade kön/genus i arbetet med riktlinjerna och vilka implikationer det blev för riktlinjerna och för interprofessionellt lärande. Fokus här är därmed på ett lärande i ett "färdigt" team. Resultaten i studierna baseras på fallbeskrivning och narrativ analys. Fynden i studierna tolkades huvudsakligen utifrån sociokulturell teori och idéer och insikter från kontroversstudier (studie 1) och det genusvetenskapliga fältet (studie 2).

    Resultatet i studie 1 visade att kontroversen hanterades främst genom en kompromiss. Resultatet visar också hur lärandestrategier nyttjades vid användning av texter. Lärandet utmanades dock när maktstrategier användes genom hävdande av auktoritet snarare än utforskande av kunskapsläget.

    Resultatet i studie 2 visade hur kön/genus aktualiserades i en diskussion om könsskillnader i användning av tvångsbälten. I diskussionen användes professionsspecifika erfarenheter och kunskaper om kön/genus, vilket kan antas främjade IPL. Teamets lärande om komplexiteten kring kön/genus resulterade i riktlinjer som betonar makt och med fokus på den individuella patienten. Därmed ledde teamets analys och lärande relaterat till kön/genus paradoxalt till könsneutrala riktlinjer. Slutsatsen är att studierna, på olika sätt, visade förekomst av IPL och hur detta påverkades både positivt och negativt av professionella skillnader.

  • 208.
    Västlund, Sanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Roskvist, Emma
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Man visste inte vad som förväntades helt och hållet, man visste inte vad som kommer härnäst: En fenomenologiskt inspirerad studie kring områden vari man kan förstå unga kvinnors hälsa2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a qualitative study aimed to identify areas in which young girls' health can be understood, this is done through some of the lessons and experiences women brought with them from their teenage years. Reports and statistics confirm that young girl's health nowadays is to be considered a public health issue. The study is inspired by a phenomenological approach in which 14 interviews were conducted with women between the ages of 22-30 years. The choice of informants is based on the idea that you need to become an adult before you can identify what lessons you have brought along with you from your adolescence. The recordings of the interviews have been transcribed and analyzed in several steps to find common themes in the stories. The theoretical framework of this study is used as support in order to describe the subject's development and health.

    The results show four different themes from which the informants experienced the most lasting lessons from their adolescence. The first theme, "Up and down" is about the difficulties of being a teenager. Two other were identified as "Close relations" that take place in the primary group and "Ambient relations" that occur in the secondary group. Both of these describes the importance within the different levels. The last theme is about "Gender norms", which is connected to a community level. Through the four themes one can raise the level of understanding for the young girl's health. Each theme includes both a positive and negative aspect and can be split into two different groups. One where the feelings are left behind the when you grow up and one with lasting lessons which are brought along into the transition into an adult.

  • 209.
    Wallin, Helene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Dezhlani, Hanna
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Personals upplevelse av hot och våldssituationer  inom vård för unga2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The number of incidents when employees of juvenile care institutes experience threats or violence in their working place increases dramatically during the past years. Aim: The aims of the present study were to (1.) measure the frequency of the experience of threat and violence during the past year (2.) and to investigate if the prevalence of the experience of threats and violent acts varies by gender, age, educational level or by experience. Method: Staff members of juvenile care institutes from the region of West-Gothenburg completed voluntary and anonymously a web-based questionnaire Results: The experience of threats and violent acts did not differed between male and female employees, neither by the employees’ education level. However, positive associations between the number of experienced threats/violent acts and the employees’ age, and their work experience was found. Conclusion: Even if the present study has strong limitations, such as a very low number of participants, the results suggest that more experienced employees may experience more threats and violent acts.

  • 210.
    Weckfors, Carina
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Kontaktsjuksköterskan – på väg mot personcentrerad kommunikation2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nurse coordinators are today obligated to form a person-centered communication with patients. Studies show that the communication with patients treated for cancer should be created from a sensitivity and a knowledge about different phases of illness and that the nurse coordinator need theory, work experience and systematic reflection to form the communication.

    Aim: To describe experiences of cancer nurse coordinators regarding person-centered communication and to headlight needs of work integrated learning related to a person-centered way of working.

    Method: A semi-structed interview study was conducted with seven cancer nurse coordinators from three different cancer care units in Västra Götalands region, Sweden. A qualitative content analysis was performed.

    Results: The analyze resulted in showing how cancer nurses use their experience working towards a person-centered communication and their thoughts about person-centered care. The result also headlights the nurses thoughts of work integrated learning related to person-centered way of working.

    Conclusion: The cancer nurse coordinators used their experience to shape a person-centered communication with the patient. The nurse was supported and developed the work through the support from knowledgeable co-workers. The results show that despite the support and learning trough co-workers, which gave partially development of the work integrated learning, the theoretical knowledge of a person-centered care was at times uncompleted.

  • 211.
    Wennerberg, Mia M.T.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Lundgren, Solveig M.
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Danielson, Ella
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Unravelling Swedish informal caregivers' Generalized Resistance Deficits2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 186-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In salutogenic theory, individual/contextual, immaterial/material characteristics enabling movements towards health are labelled Specific and Generalised Resistance Resources, SRRs/GRRs, and characteristics counteracting such movements Specific and Generalised Resistance Deficits, SRDs/GRDs. The aim of this paper was to present SRDs and GRDs described by caregivers as stemming from themselves and their care recipient. Guided by salutogenic theory, an explorative design was used to collect data through interviews with 32 Swedish informal caregivers. During the theory-driven analysis, SRDs were unravelled using within-case approaches. To be able to unite them as GRDs across cases, a serviceable GRD definition was developed from the existing theoretical GRR definition. In findings, SRDs are visualised in citations and GRDs described in detail. Caregivers' experiences of SRDs/GRDs are presented as themes: 'Experiencing personal deficiencies', when stemming from themselves; and 'Struggling with an uncooperative co-worker', when stemming from their care recipients. Findings indicate that if these themes dominate a caregiver's view of life, she/he seems to have reached the 'breaking point' when caregiving ends due to lack of usable SRRs/GRRs. To prolong the time until this occurs, support, making otherwise unusable SRRs/GRRs usable, is needed. When designing this type of 'salutogenic' support, it seems essential to involve the target group (e.g. caregivers, care recipients), to ascertain what their SRRs/GRRs and SRDs/GRDs may consist of. Such knowledge regarding SRRs/SRDs could be used to design individualised support, and regarding GRRs/GRDs to design generalised support at group level. This study suggests how such new knowledge regarding resistance resources and deficits could be acquired.

  • 212.
    Wennerberg, Mia M.T.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Homecare Health and Nursing, Municipality of Orust , Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg , Sweden.
    Lundgren, Solveig M.
    University of Gothenburg , Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Gothenburg , Sweden.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Danielson, Ella
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Nursing , Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg , Sweden.
    Me and You in Caregivinghood: Dyadic resistance resources and deficits out of the informal caregiver's perspective2019In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1041-1048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:To present Specific and Generalized Resistance Resources (SRRs/GRRs) and Deficits (SRDs/GRDs) described by 32 informal caregivers as originating from themselves and their older adult carerecipients as dyads.METHOD:Salutogenic interviewing was used to assemble data from caregivers. A theory-driven, memo-guided and comparative analysis using within- and across- case analysis was applied to unravel resources and deficits influencing the outcomes when they managed tension associated with caregiving.FINDINGS:Living in fellowship in a well-functioning dyad unites the essence of having access to dyadic SRRs/GRRs. Such access enables dyads to use their specific dyadic tension management to resolve challenges through cooperation, derives 'positive' life-experiences and preserves dyad functioning. Struggling alone in a malfunctioning dyad indicates the presence of dyadic SRDs/GRDs counteracting such a development. If these SRDs/GRDs accumulate, the dyad become less able to resolve challenges, 'negative' life-experiences accumulates, the carerecipient's capability to cooperate decreases, caregiver's workload increases, the dyad becomes increasingly malfunctioning and moves towards the point where caregiving ends due to lack of usable SRRs/GRRs.CONCLUSIONS:Findings reveals the complex duality of caregiving and the necessity to assess all available SRRs/GRRs and SRDs/GRDs for caregiving dyads, including out of the carerecipient's perspective. Appropriate 'salutogenic' support reduces SRDs/GRDs, makes available SRRs/GRRs usable or provides alternative SRRs/GRRs, thereby dyadic tension management and dyadic functionality is preserved during this phase of life labelled Caregivinghood. The study adds new knowledge to the salutogenic framework regarding central, theoretical concepts and suggests how data for health promoting initiatives conducted the 'salutogenic way' may be acquired.

  • 213.
    Winroth, Jan
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Organisationshälsa: En bok om hållbart arbetsliv2018Book (Other academic)
  • 214.
    Zouini, Btissame
    et al.
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Senhaji, Meftaha
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences,Tetouan, Morocco.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Self-reported aggressive and antisocial behaviors in Moroccan high school students2019In: Psihologija, ISSN 1451-9283, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 235-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the present study were to map the level and distribution of aggressive and antisocial behaviors in a sample of Moroccan high school students and to define the level of these behaviors in adolescents who reported parental alcohol use problems and/or experienced abuse. In total, 375 high school students completed the "Mental and Somatic Health without borders (MeSHe)" survey that includes the Life History of Aggression scale. Male students had significantly higher scores for aggression and antisocial behaviors than female. The students who reported experience of abuse or parental alcohol use problems scored significantly higher for aggression, self-directed aggression, and antisocial behaviors compared to students not reporting these negative psychosocial factors. Previously shown gender-specific patterns in aggressive and antisocial behaviors, but not in self-harm behaviors were confirmed in these Moroccan high school students. Reported experience of abuse and/or parental alcohol use problems were associated with increased frequency of aggressive and antisocial behaviors.

  • 215.
    Zouini, Btissame
    et al.
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Sfendla, Anis
    Higher Institute of Nursing Professions and Health Techniques, Errachidia, Morocco.
    Hedman Ahlström, Britt
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Senhaji, Meftaha
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Mental health profile and its relation with parental alcohol use problems and/or the experience of abuse in a sample of Moroccan high school students: An explorative study2019In: Annals of General Psychiatry, ISSN 1744-859X, E-ISSN 1744-859X, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies on mental health are scarce from Arab countries, especially studies focusing on adolescents. In addition to the neurobiological and physiological changes that occur during adolescent development, psychological, societal and cultural influences have strong effects on adolescents’ behavior and on their somatic and mental health. The present study aimed (1) to describe the mental health profile, operationalized as psychological distress, of a sample of Moroccan adolescents, and (2) to investigate how specific psychosocial factors (parental alcohol use problems and the experience of physical and/or psychological abuse) may affect adolescents’ mental health. Methods: The sample included 375 adolescents from conveniently selected classes of four high schools in the city of Tetouan in Morocco. The participants responded to an anonymous survey containing, beside other inventories, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and identified those reporting parental alcohol use problems and/or the previous experience of abuse. The sample characteristics were defined using descriptive statistics. The effects of the defined psychosocial factors were identified using the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by the post hoc Fisher’s least significant difference test. Results: The most common problems found in high school students from an urban region of Morocco were memory problems, concentration difficulties, restlessness, fear, nervosity and feelings of inadequacy during interpersonal interactions. The female students reported significantly higher psychological distress levels when compared to the male students (p < 0.001). The adolescents reporting parental alcohol use problems and the experience of physical/psychological abuse showed significantly higher levels of psychological distress (p = 0.02), especially symptoms of somatization (p < 0.001), hostility (p = 0.005) and anxiety (p = 0.01), than those not reporting any of these psychosocial factors. Conclusion: The mental health profile of female adolescents from an urban area of Morocco is worse than that of their male fellow students. Adolescents reporting parental alcohol use problems and/or the experience of physical/psychological abuse need synchronized support from social- A nd healthcare services. © 2019 The Author(s).

  • 216.
    Zouini, Btissame
    et al.
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Sfendla, Anis
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Senhaji, Meftaha
    Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan, Morocco.
    Råstam, Maria
    Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences,Lund, Sweden.
    Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Somatic health and its association with negative psychosocial factors in a sample of Moroccan adolescents2019In: SAGE Open Medicine, E-ISSN 2050-3121, Vol. 7, article id 2050312119852527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adolescence is a distinct developmental phase characterized by multiple physical and psychological changes andby an increased vulnerability to somatic and mental health problems. These risk and vulnerability factors are part of a complexbiopsychosocial matrix, encompassing multiple factors, such as inherited biological determinants and psychological, societal,and cultural influences, which affect an adolescent's overall wellbeing. In Morocco, similar to other developing countries,adolescents (young people aged from 15 to 19years) constitute a substantial proportion of the population (almost 9%).However, studies about adolescents' health in developing countries are scarce. In this study, we describe adolescents' somatichealth in a sample of high school students from the city of Tetouan, Morocco, and investigate how negative psychosocialfactors, such as parental alcohol use problems and/or the experience of abuse, may influence them.Methods: The study sample included 655 adolescents (315 boys and 340 girls, M=16.64years, range=15–18years) fromconviniently selected classes of four high schools in the city of Tetouan in Morocco. The students responded to a survey thatassessed the prevalence of somatic complaints/disorders. They also indicated whether they had ever experienced physicaland/or psychological abuse and whether they had parents with alcohol use problems.Results: More than half of the adolescents suffered from headaches and one-third had substantial problems with diarrhea orconstipation. Both problems were more common in female students. The third most frequent somatic problem, affecting onein four in both genders, was allergy. Almost one-third of Moroccan adolescents (significantly more boys than girls; p=0.004)reported no somatic complaints. In adolescents who reported parental alcohol use problems and/or experience of physicaland/or psychological abuse, the prevalence of several somatic complaints (epilepsy, migraine, headache, diarrhea/constipation,gluten intolerance, allergy, and skin or thyroid disease) increased highly significantly compared to the adolescents whoreported no such psychosocial environmental factors.Conclusion: The results suggest that only 3 in 10 urban-living Moroccan adolescents are free of somatic complaints, whilethe majority suffer from some somatic problems, most often headaches and diarrhea/constipation. The association of certainnegative psychosocial factors with adolescents' somatic health suggests the need of a holistic approach to the treatment of affectedadolescents.

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