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  • 201.
    Larsfelt, Martina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ekvall, Julia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Producenter och projektledare i medieproduktionsbolag: En undersökning om yrkesval, kompetenser och kvalifikationer inom medieproduktionsbolag2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 202.
    Lebar Sanders, Anna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    "Man åldras för varje produktion!": Några filmarbetares upplevelser av hälsotillstånd i sin yrkesutövning2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 203.
    Liljegren, Kristian
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Mozart, Therése
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    När Hollywood gör svensk film: En studie om skillnader mellan ideologiska reproduktioner i en svensk originalfilm och en amerikansk remake.2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    The aim is to gain a deeper understanding of the structure of ideological messages in the Swedish film Män som hatar kvinnor (2009) as compared to the U.S. American version The Girl ith the Dragon Tattoo (2011) through a qualitative approach and a multi-perspective film analysis as research method.

    Method and materials:

    Through the use of a qualitative approach we have analyzed the films Män som hatar kvinnor (2009) and The Girl with The Dragon Tattoo (2011). We have compared the films in order to read out the differences in ideological reproductions and films stylistic appearance.

    Results:

    The research has shown that the films relate differently to the theoretical premises that formed the basis of our analysis. The films narrative and methods of using cinematic basic elements, such as choices of actors, editing and lighting, are in some ways different from each other. At the same time it follows a line that is faithful to each film's cultural context and typical genre traditions.

    Män som hatar kvinnor is focusing on political elements and the film's gender representation violates traditional gender roles while The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo has a classic film style with commercial and spectacular elements.

  • 204.
    Lillerskog, Marcus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Svenberg, Daniel
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    De osynliga visuella effekterna: Filmeffekterna som ska verka utan att synas2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of effects in filmmaking is not a new innovation. But today more film productions choose to use visual effects to achieve other things than spectacular explosions, space ships that invade earth or resurrected dinosaurs. Today effects are also used to create everything from natural elements like fog and snow to city scenes and buildings.

    These effects reinforce a filmed scene rather than standing out and drawing attention in them selves, hence the term "invisible effects".

    In an analysis of three different films, this essay examines the concept of "Visual Effects" and how these are used to create and reinforce the realism of the natural and urban environments. The essay and the analysis covers a variety of concepts and theories of, among other things, semiotics, perceptual realism, digital imaging and visual communication.

    The result shows that the visual impact is the sum of the different tools that form a realistic result.

    Among other things, you should customize the created visual effects for the filmed material and its attributes, such as lighting, motion and structure.

  • 205.
    Linderot, Rebecka
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Kreativitet som första steget mot innovation: Hur man kan skapa ett kreativt klimat för att främja innovation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is about how a creative climate can be created to support creativity. The study has been implemented with a survey which has been sent to specially selected people whom might work with creativity. Results has shown that the creative climate and what creates it is highly individual. However if we work in teams there are general factors which affect the creative climate. Two of these factors are the teams communication climate and members psychological safety. When members are feeling safe and trust, they dare sharing their ideas. Teams are less creative than the individual but by creating a positive communication climates and psychological safety teams can work more effectively with creativity. By using both teams and individual work we can take advantage of a broad knowledge base by simultaneously utilizing that the individual is more creative.

  • 206.
    Lindroth, Tomas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design. Göteborgs universitet, IT-fakulteten.
    Being Multisituated: Characterizing laptoping in networked situations2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last 30 years mobile IT has gone from being an exotic ingredient to an everyday artifact. This thesis presents an ethnographic study of laptop use in a university setting. The thesis concludes that it is no longer enough to describe the use of portable IT as an activity in its own right, i.e. using a laptop computer as an activity similar to reading a book or writing an essay. Additionally, describing a person as merely a user of digital technology fails to capture the intervowennessbetween the technology, situation, person and other actors. In order to find more nuanced answers about laptop use the thesis discuss what characterize the use of laptops in everyday life. With support from Actor-Network Theory, the Interaction Order and Experiential computing the thesis explores the hybrid combination of a person-laptop. The contribution is a framework of the driving forces behind the laptoper’s everyday activities. Additionally a model of the networked situation is presented, that uncovers the effects of the laptoper over time, that is, the laptoping process. The contribution is a framework with key characteristics and typified interactions where the multisituated and network dimensions are understood as fundamental elements of hybrid interaction.

  • 207.
    Lindroth, Tomas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    The laptop as an alibi: Use patterns of unfocused interaction2012In: Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, ISSN 1891-943X, E-ISSN 1891-943X, Vol. 2012, no 2, p. 132-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a qualitative study of laptop-equipped university students, this article investigates the laptop's role in educational practice. Goffman's framework on unfocused interaction was used to develop and analyze three use patterns: screen peeking, online tics and screensaver fear. These patterns advance our understanding of laptop use, unfocused interaction and the the role of the laptop in the studied situations. The laptop introduces an interpretative flexibility that allows a greater range of different behaviors relative to the dominant involvement. © 2012 Universitetsforlaget.

  • 208.
    Lindroth, Tomas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bergquist, M.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Characterizing the Laptoper: The sustainability struggle of onlineness, content curation and visibilityArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 209.
    Lindroth, Tomas
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design. Department of Applied IT, IT Faculty, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Islind, Anna Sigridur
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lundin, Johan
    Department of Applied IT, IT Faculty, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden3.
    Data Supported Practice for Co-Creation of Value in HealthcareIn: Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of information systems in healthcare enables the use of health data for purposes related to data-driven decision-making. The technology "promise" is to make healthcare organizations more efficient. Despite the increased interest in health data in general and patient generated data in particular, there is a need for additional research on how data support health practices. This paper therefore conducts a case study of a nurse-led clinic for cancer rehabilitation to examine how a data-supported practice achieves value. By breaking down the data-gathering process, with a focus on value, we show how value is co-created by a range of different actors, including patients, nurses and researchers. In this case, the value co-creation consist of two parallel processes. A knowledge process revolving around a research practice with the aim to produce new knowledge. It is a process which provide a foundation and structure for the clinical practice. The interactional process work in parallel and describes the interaction with and about data between the different actors and how the interaction is an essential resource to achieve data value.

  • 210.
    Lindroth, Tomas
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Islind, Anna Sigridur
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Steineck, G.
    University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Academy, Clinical Science, Sweden.
    Lundin, J.
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied IT, Sweden.
    From narratives to numbers: Data work and patient-generated health data in consultations2018In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics / [ed] Klein G.O.,Karlsson D.,Moen A.,Ugon A., IOS Press, 2018, Vol. 247, p. 491-495Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents preliminary findings on how the introduction of patient-generated health data (PGHD) triggers changes during patient-nurse consultations. This article builds on a two-year case study, examining the work practice at a cancer rehabilitation clinic at a Swedish Hospital using PGHD. The study focuses on how nurses’ use data, gathered by patients with a mobile phone app, during consultations. The use of PGHD introduce a change in the translation work, the work of turning rich patient descriptions and transform them into data, during the consultation for documentation and clinical decision-making. This change affects precision, questions asked and the use of visualizations as well as the patient-nurse decision making. © 2018 European Federation for Medical Informatics (EFMI) and IOS Press.

  • 211.
    Lindroth, Tomas
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundin, Johan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Laptops in classroom interaction: Deconstructing the networked situation2015In: International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-Long Learning, ISSN 1560-4624, E-ISSN 1741-5055, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 226-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The screen, as part of networked technologies such as phones, tablets and laptops is at present a debated subject as it affects how people behave in meetings, lectures and other social gatherings. As these networked technologies attract attention and mediates interaction during physical social gatherings, they also change how we perceive and define what a situation is. In this article we focus on the different types of screen related interactions identified in a higher education classroom. Since these networked technologies are commonplace at university campuses it is important to describe their effects on everyday situations such as lectures. While a range of studies have raised questions regarding the negative effects of multitasking, screen peeking and other laptop related side effects this article emphasise the situational impact of student-laptop interaction. The contribution emphasises on the computer mediated interaction with both other students, external others as well as a range of digital resources. The research thus aims at providing educators and researchers with a model to advance their understanding of the laptoped and networked situation.

  • 212.
    Ljungdahl Eriksson, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Atienza, Ricardo
    University College of Arts, Crafts and Design, Department of Fine Art, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    The Sound Bubble: A context-sensitive space in the space2017In: Organised Sound, ISSN 1355-7718, E-ISSN 1469-8153, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 130-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of sonic environments is in need of more active strategies, taking into account not only the physical but also the social and sensorial aspects of a place. This implies abandoning traditional, mono-disciplinary responses in favour of interdisciplinary methods and approaches. In this study we explored the possibility of inserting context-sensitive sound textures to improve the experience of an activity-based office workplace. For this purpose, we developed the concept of the ’sound bubble’ - a micro-space in which the user is embedded by a semi-transparent added sound environment that will operate as a subtle sound mask, attracting the attention without needing to hide the disturbing environment. This should help users (the workers) to stay in an ’everyday listening’ mode. This means, not focusing on the environment in particular but on their tasks, while preserving the link with the surrounding space and activities. 

  • 213.
    Ljungdahl Eriksson, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Atienza, Ricardo
    University of Arts, Crafts and Design, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Falkenberg Hansen, Kjetil
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Swede.
    My sound space: An attentional shield for immersive redirection2018In: AM'18 Proceedings of the Audio Mostly 2018 on Sound in Immersion and Emotion: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2018, article id a9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of extended reality, the term immersion is commonly used as a property denoting to which extent a technology can deliver an illusion of reality while occluding the users’ sensory access to the physical environment. In this paper we discuss an alternative interpretation of immersion, used in the My Sound Space project. The project is a research endeavor aiming to develop a sound environment system that enables a personalized sound space suitable for individual work places. The medium, which in our case is sound, is transparent and thus becomes an entangled part of the surrounding environment. This type of immersion is only partly occluding the users sensory access to physical reality. The purpose of using the sound space is not to become immersed by the sounds, rather to use the sounds to direct cognitive attention to get immersed in another cognitive activity. © 2018 Association for Computing Machinery.

  • 214.
    Ljungdahl Eriksson, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Designing activity-based and context-sensitive ambient sound environments in open-plan offices2015In: Proceedings of the 38th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS 38), Oulo, Finland, 9-12 August, 2015. / [ed] Anssi Öörni, Netta Iivari, Kari Kuutti, Harri Oinas-Kukkonen and Mikko Rajanen, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper address the problem of sound disturbance in open office environments. We have in a design-based research study explored how digital, real time generated sound can be added to a work environment and how these sound environments are perceived by respondents when performing work tasks. Being such a complex situation, we have in this first explorative study chosen to focus on designing a digital sound system for activity-based offices, where the physical environment is already designed for particular activities. Our approach is to explore if workplaces can be enhanced by adding appropriate acoustic designs to the ambient environment. Our results show that test subjects perceived that acoustic design could enhance the ambient environments if the acoustic design is pertinent with the environment as a whole. 

  • 215.
    Ljungdahl Eriksson, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Designing Activity-Based and Context-Sensitive Ambient Sound Environments in Open-Plan Offices2015In: IRIS Selected Papers of the Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, ISSN 1891-9863, E-ISSN 2387-3353, no 6, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of sound disturbance in open office environments. We have in a design-based research study explored how digital, real time generated sound can be added to a work environment and how these sound environments are perceived by respondents when performing work tasks. In this first explorative study we have chosen to focus on designing a digital sound system for activity-based offices, where the physical environment is already designed for particular activities. Our approach is to explore if adding appropriate acoustic designs to the ambient environment can enhance workplaces. Our results show that test subjects perceived that acoustic design could enhance the ambient environments if the acoustic design is pertinent with the environment as a whole.

  • 216.
    Ljungdahl Eriksson, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Sound Bubbles for Productive Office Work2016In: Nordic Contributions in IS Research: 7th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems, SCIS 2016 and IFIP8.6 2016, Ljungskile, Sweden, August 7-10, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] Ulrika Lundh Snis, Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2016, Vol. 259, p. 29-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing number of organizations are moving towards more open and collaborative workplaces. In these offices workers share a common open space, often with flexible seating based on activities, so called activity-based offices. Most problems in these workplaces are related to sound. Thus, the question of how to design suitable acoustic environments, supporting both collaborative and individual work, has emerged. Noise-reduction approaches do not suffice. In this study we explored the possibility of adding context-sensitive, activity-based sound environments to enhance the office workplace. For this purpose, we developed the “sound bubble,” a prototype for individual work, sonically immersing the listener and generating a sensation of an encapsulating sonic environment. A total of 43 test subjects participated in an experience-based test using the sound bubble prototype while conducting self-selected, ordinary work tasks in their office landscape. Their behaviors during the test were observed and documented. All participants took a post-experience questionnaire about experiences working in the sound bubble, and two subjects were interviewed. The responses show that the sound bubble can enhance auditory work conditions for individual work that demands concentration.

  • 217.
    Ljungdahl Eriksson, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Atienza, Ricardo
    Konstfack, University College of Arts, Crafts and Design 126 27 Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Sound Bubble: An Aesthetic Additive Design Approach to Actively Enhance Acoustic Office Environments2016In: Proceedings of 13th conference on Sound and Music Computing, Hamburg 2016, 2016, p. 253-260Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving towards more open and collaborative workplaces has been an emerging trend in the last decades. This change has led to workers sharing a common open space, with seating’s based on current activity, so called activity-based offices. Consequently, it becomes difficult to design sonic environments that cater to different needs in the same space. In this study we explored the possibility of adding site-specific but location-adaptive sound environments to enhance the experience of an activity-based office workplace. For this purpose, we developed the concept of the “sound bubble,” a micro-space in which the user is embedded by a semi-transparent sound environment. The purpose of the bubble is to help the user ignore irrelevant and disturbing noise while working in an open landscape. The sound bubble supports the user to stay in “everyday listening” mode, i.e., not focusing on anything particular in the surrounding environment while being able to keep a link with it. The sound bubble was evaluated by a total of 43 test subjects participating in an experience-based test, conducting their usual work tasks in an office landscape. Our results show that the sound bubble can enhance auditory work conditions for individual work requiring concentration.

  • 218.
    Lorentzon, Jesper
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Nordin, Sofia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Livsstilsvloggare som förebild, inspiratör och stöd: En kvalitativ studie om hur följare uppfattar vloggare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of vlogs, short for video log, has become a part of the modern digital media landscape. It has also become a part of peoples’ lives when they follow the creators and watch their videos on a daily basis.  From the perspective of a follower, we have investigated the importance of the people behind the vlogs. More specific, the aim of the study is to examine how followers are influenced by the creator of a vlog and try to understand the relationship between them. By interviewing people aged 16-30 years, that follow at least one vlog of category lifestyle-vlog. We have examined parasocial relationships, norm-breaking and authenticity theories.   The result suggests that the parasocial relationship is insufficient to explain the relationship between a follower and the creator of a vlog. The main reasons for being followed are; entertainment, interest, inspiration and support. Moreover, we found that followers appreciate and choose vlogs that are authentic and honest. Finally, the result also indicates that there may be a difference between men and women's following of a vlogger.

  • 219.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lindroth, Tomas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Asplund, C
    mCity: A place to go for mobile commerce2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 220.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Nilsson, Ann
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Nilsson, Lena A.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison for Health, Culture and Educational Sciences. University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Petersen, Ann-Louise
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Sofkova Hashemi, Sylvana
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Spante, Maria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Wicke, Kurt
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Nordic Innovation Networks in Education: Dealing with Educational Challenges with Cross Boarder Collaboration and User Driven Design2012In: Uddevalla Symposium 2012 : Entrepreneurship and Innovation Networks. Revised papers presented at the 15th Uddevalla Symposium 14-16 June, 2012, Faro, Portugal. / [ed] Bernhard, Irene, 2012, p. 553-571Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an EU-funded project related to cross boarder collaboration for educational purposes supported by information and communication technologies between Danish, Norwegian and Swedish schools. The project started in 2011 and extends to 2014 so this empirically dominated paper reports on early findings related to cross-border collaboration challenges. The aim of the project is to develop innovative cross-border teaching models by the means of user-driven, practice-based co-design processes between practitioners and researchers. In the first year, 18 classes from 13 schools in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in the Öresund-Kattegatt-Skagerack region participated. Organized in so called Nordic class-match groups (consisting of students and teachers from one class in each country) new cross-border teaching models are co-created, tested and evaluated in an iterative process. Since teaching models are subject dependent, the project develop teaching models in several subject domains, i.e. math, language, science and social studies / history. Heretofore findings show, however, that organizational and technical issues have superseded and squeezed out subject-oriented discussions due to surprisingly many practical issues that needed to be handled first. We have identified three major thresholds to overcome. The first is related to technical difficulties in schools when diverse IT systems are to be synchronized. The second threshold concerns scheduling coordination difficulties in order to allow synchronous cross boarder collaboration. The third threshold concerns linguistic and communication difficulties rooted in participants communicating in their respective Nordic language. Being able to communicate within Nordic languages are explicit learning goals in all three schools systems, and therefore part of the project aim and consequently all participants are expected to use their native languages when communicating. The next phase of the project is therefore to find solutions to these technical, organizational and linguistic barriers, and already now we see some barrier breaking models taking shape in the active network of Nordic teachers, students, school leaders, IT support teams and researchers.

     

  • 221.
    Malm, Mikael
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Sundén, Patrik
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media Production.
    Intäktsmöjligheter för SMEs på internet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper was to identifying the opportunities for SMEs to obtain revenue with their productions online. The aim was also to investigate what SMEs think about how they can use the different revenue models.

    To investigate this, we used a mapping of revenue models and a group interview. The mapping was based on previous research and was used to obtain an overview of the revenue models used by companies today. The group interview was used to allow the company's to discuss with each other how different revenue models can be used, and how they feel about the use of alternative payment methods. In our study we found several different revenue models and that companies often use more than one revenue model. The interview showed us that SMEs often see more negative aspects of different revenue models than what they find the positive aspects. The study shows that there are a number of different revenue models that SMEs can make use of the internet, but they must be innovative and find ways to combine different revenue models to thrive online.

  • 222.
    Mattsson, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Silfverlin, Jacob
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Det är insidan som räknas: En kvalitativ studie av grafiska formgivares förhållningssätt till akademisk samt erfarenhetsbaserad kunskap i det egna designarbetet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study treats the judgement of graphic designers, where the purpose was to investigate at what extent they apply academic knowledge to their daily design assessments. Through a qualitative study constructed of semi structured interviews with empiricism collected from five graphic designers, the study aimed to account for the designers’ approach to academic and experience-based knowledge in relation to their own judgement.

     Academic knowledge is highlighted in the study as a central part in a greater understanding of graphic design and its processes.  The designers’ demonstrates an overall approach, emphasizing judgment as a tool in the process of creating their own design work. The designers recounts academic knowledge as a part of their self, thus not needing to be defined to be able to rely on it. This enables for a quicker and more precise process in their design work. Furthermore the study reveals a gap where the respondents with longer experience recounts that the majority of their design work is based on judgments and intuition rather than previously acquired academic knowledge. The study concludes that graphic designers emphasize the importance of previous knowledge however they also consider it essential to rely on their own judgment. The knowledge underlying their judgment change over time, contributing to a deeper understanding of what is considered visually and communicatively appealing. Finally the study indicates a strong link between the development of judgment and new experiences. Thus, it is possible to see how the judgment, used by graphic designers, is based on previo

  • 223.
    Millgård, Jonas
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Sandhu, Lovisa
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wow! Tillsammans med andra adaptions- och acceptansaspekter av virtuell verklighet: En kvalitativ studie kring VR ur ett longitudinellt användarperspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the acceptance, usage and motivation of virtual reality users from a perspective of longitude to achieve a deeper understanding regarding the usage of technology as well as to which extent it aligns with the technology acceptance model UTAUT 2 and the seven variables known as determinants.

    The established determinants for technology adoption were evaluated through eight qualitative interviews. This study confirms the validity of UTAUT 2 but also contributes with suggestions for additional factors such as wow, hype, reality and social output as well as future usage.

    The suggested addition of the factors wow and hype generated the most data with tendencies to extend into a general technology context. Reality is another significant quality that is distinguishing for virtual reality and other mixed realities. Very much like other information technologies the virtual reality experience depends on content where aspects such as quality and the available range influences the will to adopt the technology. Since different technologies consist of a unique combination of qualities and possibilities this study suggests that there may be advantages to adjust or extend the adoption model depending on the technology that is to be examined.

  • 224.
    Moberg, Linnéa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Zagerholm, Katrin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Samarbete mellan företag och bloggare: Hur ska det egentligen gå till?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the regulations concerning collaborations between bloggers and companies. The purpose is also to investigate whether or not bloggers are more or less obvious about how they communicate collaborations with companies in the individual blogs. In the attempt to analyse blogs a qualitative content analysis is performed and specific texts during a determined period are inspected. A survey is used in the attempt to investigate if companies and bloggers are aware of the laws regulating how collaborations shall be performed. The result of this thesis indicate that bloggers are evolving their knowledge regarding how to correctly highlight collaborations with companies in their blog posts. The conclusion is that this a present topic, since there are a number of cases where bloggers have been convicted for false or hidden marketing. New guidelines are being presented to assist bloggers with how to become clearer about collaborations with companies.

  • 225.
    Mogren, Stefan
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Abrahamsson, Max
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Repetitionens påverkan på animation: Åskådares uppfattning av repetitiv spelanimation2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether repetition affects the experience of game animation. Through an experiment we divided people with gaming habits into two groups to view an animated run-cycle. The cycle, almost a second long, was repeated continuously. One of the groups viewed the cycle for 10 seconds whereas the other group viewed the same cycle, but for 120 seconds. The participants experiences were documented through a questionnaire that was later supplemented with a more thorough interview. Their statements were compiled using open coding in order to find similarities and differences between the two groups.The results of the experiment show tendencies that the group that viewed the cycle for 120 seconds expressed a change of experience with time, often for the worse, even if the animation itself didn't change. This differs from the other group, which had viewed the cycle for 10 seconds, which generally didn't report any changes of experience. From this we draw the conclusion that, in an experiment stripped of story, environment and context, game animation that repeats frequently tends to cause a change of experience with repetitions. How and why this change of experience occurs can only be discussed in this study even though there's similarities with theories as PECMA Flow and semanticsatiation. Further studies into the subject is required to fully understand the phenomenon and to apply the findings in real, complex games.

  • 226.
    Nehls, Agnes
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Leding, Linn
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Asså jag bryr mig inte, men ändå bryr jag mig.: En kvalitativ studie om ungas uppfattning och erfarenheter av Instagram.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media has come to play an increasingly important role in today's society. It’s hard in today’s world not to talk about youth culture without mentioning social media. Large amounts of research show that this type of media adversely affects young people, but at the same time, much of this research is written from an adult perspective. Our purpose in this bachelor thesis is to examine and highlight a young persons own perspective on this type of media. We have chosen to focus on younger people that use Instagram between the ages of thirteen through sixteen. The teens are most active on Instagram and it's their main social media platform.

    We have been studying Instagram accounts and have had interviews with focus groups to explore the culture that prevails on Instagram today. The study shows that young people today use Instagram in order to take advantage of the sharing of their everyday lives. All of the respondents believe that girls and boys use Instagram in different ways. The main difference is that girls seem to care more about their social media lives than boys do. Something that is demonstrated by all the girls is that they use two different accounts for two different audiences. In the discussion, we review why the culture looks like it does and how young people today jointly build rules about how to behave in this social medium. Then we finally arrive to the point that young people today have a better eye on social media than previous researchhas shown. We believe that the concerns many parents have about their children on social media in many cases is excessive.

  • 227.
    Nilsson, Jacob
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Phan, Boimy
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Spelbranschens designprocesser: Teori vs verklighet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The game industry is a fast growing market. What have been seen recently are a high turnovers and a rapid increase of both game companies and their employees. The game market is developing and the game companies are trying to keep up with the market. Both when it comes to the development of games and also to reach new levels in the design process. The design process is unique and the game companies have different ways to develop their products. The methods are different depending on the game company but the basic foundation is to use support in the development process of the product. The question we ask ourselves is: How do game companies proceed in their design process when the surroundings are changing at a rapid pace?

    This thesis aim to find out how the deigns process function in the Swedish game industry. Focus will be on today´s design process but also on how the development is preceded. Through a quantitative interview and a qualitative survey we analyses the current situation of today‟s Swedish game companies in terms of the design processes. The result shows that all the respondents use their design process with a combination of their own methods and previous research. How to create an idea differs depending on the game companies. The implementation of the idea may vary and some of the methods are retained when they are considered important. The market also has a certain influence of how a design process should be performed. The customers have become more knowledgeable and have higher demands on how the game should perform. Therefore, the gaming companies need to adapt to the market development in order to achieve their success.

  • 228.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    A Notion of Presence: Exploring the Effects of Minimalistic ation on a Chat System2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 229.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Design Patterns for Visualization of User Activities in a Synchronous Shared Workspace2015In: International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning, ISSN 1867-5565, E-ISSN 1867-5565, Vol. 8, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars in fields such as Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) have extensively covered the general theme of distributed collaboration in the past few decades. Recent advances in web technologies have pushed forward the boundaries of what is possible to create on the web, aiding the development of various types of collaborative software. Standing on the shoulders of previous research, and in the light of the new web technologies, we here outline the development of what we label a "synchronous shared workspace". The purpose of the system is to serve as a web-based collaboration tool for small groups of geographically and/or temporally dispersed persons within a learning context. Designing this type of system presents interesting challenges on how to graphically visualize the presence of others and their activities, i.e. awareness information. Further, the system provides other types of functionalities such as visualizing previous activities and real-time manipulation of media objects that provides challenges for designers. Utilizing a "design pattern" approach, this paper explores visualization patterns for collaboration in shared workspaces in order to support mutual awareness and coordination activities. Five design patterns were implemented in the system and evaluated by a small group of online learners. The results support the notion that visualization of awareness information is a complex issue and that the work to provide effortless coordination of collaboration is a research interest that needs more attention.

  • 230.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Exploring Design Patterns of Shared Interfaces for Web Collaboration2015In: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on E-Learning in the Workplace / [ed] David Guralnick, Ph.D., 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars in fields such as Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) have extensively covered the general theme of distributed collaboration in the past few decades. Recent advances in web technologies havepushed forward the boundaries of what is possible to create on the web, aiding the development of various types of collaborative software. Standing on the shoulders of previous research, and in the light of the new web technologies, we here outline the development of what we label a "synchronous shared workspace". The purpose of the system is to serve as a web-based collaboration tool for small groups of geographically and/or temporally dispersed persons within a learning context. Designing this type ofsystem presents interesting challenges on how to graphically visualize the presence of others and their activities, i.e. awareness information. Further, the system provides other types of functionalities such as visualizing previous activities and real-time manipulation of media objects that provideschallenges for designers. Utilizing a "design pattern" approach, this paper explores visualization patterns for collaboration in shared workspaces in order to supportmutual awareness and coordination activities. Five design patterns were implemented in the system and evaluated by a small group of online learners. The results support the notion that visualization of awareness information is acomplex issue and that the work to provide effortless coordination of collaboration is a field that needs more attention.

  • 231.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Exploring the relationship between awareness information and user activities online2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contributes to the domain of awareness information. Awareness information can be viewed as a fundamental building-block of social media, visualizing people and their activities in an online setting. With life becoming more and more influenced by social media such as Facebook, Flickr, Twitter, Linkedin and Digg, it becomes important for designers of social media to have an understanding of how users respond to awareness information. An online gallery of pictures was developed and equipped with a chat and a basic awareness information system. Usage data was collected by the system and analyzed combining qualitative as well as quantitative approaches aiming to explore the influence awareness information have on the usage of the system. The analysis reveals that awareness information is a powerful tool triggering social behaviour. It is, at the same time, challenging to implement in a way that it provides a sound environment for social interaction. This was manifested by co-present users both stayed longer in the system and also was inclined to take a different path through the gallery than the solitary user. However, the interaction that took place in the gallery was characterized by frequent conversational break-downs and irritation among users. Results indicate that this is, in part, due to the lack of built-in social norms guiding users in their activities in the system. Subsequently, it is important to facilitate the creation, recreation and reinforcement of social norms when designing social systems.

  • 232.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Utilizing emerging web standards designing a Synchronous Shared Workspace2015In: Proceedings of E-Learn: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2015, Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, 2015, p. 1157-1161Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This brief paper is part of a larger project aimed at innovating mediated collaboration in higher education. In this paper, we will discuss technology needed to be able to develop a web based synchronous shared workspace. With the emerging HTML5 standard together with the JavaScript platform called "Node.js" utilizing WebSocket communication, it is possible to create able web based real-time systems. Preliminary testing reveals the setup very reliable, supporting collaborative processes even on bad wireless connections.

  • 233.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Hattinger, Monika
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Engineering.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pongolini, Malin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Designing the CloudBoard: an ICT Tool for Online Tutoring in Higher Education2011In: Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2011 / [ed] Matthew Koehler & Punya Mishra, Chesapeake, VA: AACE , 2011, p. 589-592Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns online tutoring in higher education. Observation studies of online tutoring sessions in two masters level engineering courses were conducted where teachers on campus tutored students located at different manufacturing plants doing their masters project. The tutoring regarded problems surrounding the construction of advanced 3D-models for manufacturing and required the shared view of the 3D-models as well as synchronous voice communication, e-mail and image sharing using a flora of different services. While advanced screen sharing applications like WebEX and TeamViewer were central in the tutoring sessions, the research presented here focus on the tools that supplemented the use of the screen sharing applications. Addressing issues such as the need to record historical data to be able for teachers to follow the progression of the project, sharing media files between participants and discussing the results, we here present a system to support online tutoring in higher education.

  • 234.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Awareness information and user behavior: A field experiment of an online collective system2005In: WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, ISSN 1790-0832, Vol. 2, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper sets out to investigate the effects synchronous non-verbal awareness information has on users of a collaborative system. The experiment was setup in on online picture exhibition where users were given a minimalistic indication of any co-present users present. Logs from the website were analyzed and revealed that users who were in the online gallery and were exposed to the notion that there were other visitors there at the same time spent a statistically significant longer time in the gallery as opposed to visitors who were given the information that they were all alone in the gallery. We also noted that although time in the gallery differed between the two groups, we cannot say anything conclusive as to whether use-patterns differed or not. 

  • 235.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Presenting the Kludd: A Shared Workspace for Collaboration2015In: GROUP '14 Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Supporting Group Work, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2015, p. 295-298Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this poster, we would like to present the current state of the Kludd system. Kludd is a web-based collaboration tool, enabling users to collaborate around various media objects like images, videos, texts and audio in a shared workspace. The design metaphor is an online whiteboard, where multiple actors can add, manipulate and remove objects, all while everyone sees the same view. The system is made with standard components like HTML5, CSS3 and a number of open-source javascript libraries enabling real-time collaboration in a browser. Utilizing a Design Science Research methodology, the initial design was based on 9 design requirements. In this poster, a further four requirements are presented as a result of the analysis of the first phase, and an initial design of the second phase of the project is presented

  • 236.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Supporting participation in online learning communities with awareness information2012In: International Journal of Web Based Communities, ISSN 1477-8394, E-ISSN 1741-8216, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 537-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article sets out to investigate the relationship between awareness information and participation in an online learning community (OLC). Inspired by the sociocultural notion of learning as social participation, this article will analyse the events that took place in an online photo gallery equipped with a system for visualising co-present users. The article discusses the importance of why social systems should support the creation, recreation and reinforcement of social norms to better facilitate participation. The article concludes by presenting four design implications of educational technologies supporting participation as well as a section referencing the importance of a transactional perspective in order to understand the effects of awareness information.                                                     

  • 237.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Jobe, William
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Supporting nomadic work- and study practices in groupware design2017In: Proceedings on E-Learn: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education, Oct 17, 2017 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada / [ed] Jon Dron; Sanjaya Mishra, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, 2017, p. 822-826Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This brief paper concerns the design of real-time collaborative systems adhering to a nomadic work- and study practice. Nomadic practices can be characterized as having a heterogeneous workplace, working or studying from different locations during a day. This practice has been enabled by advances in technology and formed by human behavior. This means that we now must consider this type of work when designing collaboration software. This brief paper outlines some major issues concerning technology-mediated collaboration arising from nomadic work practices; different network conditions, data cost and device heterogeneity, and proposes tentative design ideas addressing these issues.

  • 238.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lundin, Johan
    Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad IT.
    Working as an Online Educator: Challenges when scaling up distance education2013In: Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2013 / [ed] Ron McBride; Michael Searson, Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE) , 2013, p. 881-885Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years online and blended learning has scaled up from being a pilot endeavour driven by pioneers, to constituting a large portion of many institutions of higher education. In the process, the conditions for the online teacher has gradually changed, and the situation of today is in many ways problematic where student interaction and dialogue has to stand back in favour of time consuming content production, material delivery, and technical problem solving. This paper draws on the experiences from a Scandinavian University to illustrate how this transition can be understood in the light of rapid technological development in combination with slow evolution of pedagogical models for online education.

  • 239.
    Nomark, Sanna
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pålsson, Miriam
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Representation av äldre i animerad långfilm: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are few studies that investigate older characters in animated film. Older characters have been portrayed in a disproportionately negative manner according to previous studies. These studies were made over ten years ago, therefore new research is needed to investigate how older people are represented. The aim of this research is to examine how older characters are portrayed in mainstream animated films from 2017 by analyzing five animated films: Coco, Smurfs - The Lost Village, The Lego Ninjago Movie, Monster Family and Captain Underpants. Using a qualitative and semiotic content analysis, we investigate how identity markers, narrative functions, as well as stereotypes and signs are used to portray older people. The study shows a positive change in the representation of older people where the characters have more nuanced and important roles. The most common stereotypes around older people do not appear in these films, instead authority roles and archetypes such as the wise are used. Rather than a sign of chronological aging the appearance of elderly and signs of age primarily seems to be used to convey wisdom and experience.

  • 240.
    Nordling, Filip
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wiklund, Josef
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Platt fall – ur användarens perspektiv: En kvalitativ studie om minimalism och skeuomorfism med fokus på UI/UX2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how different designed interfaces are interpreted and perceived. The focus relied on investigating the difference between the skeuomorphic and the minimalistic design approach in websites and mobile apps. This has been done by performing an individual user test on 19 participants where each one of them has been evaluating a mobile application in two different executions; one designed to mimic today’s modern flat design and the other, with the same layout, in a skeuomorphic design approach. Later through the user test, we have initiated interviews related to the practical application evaluation in which we bring up relative questions regarding the test and the perceptions given by what good design may be. Lots of interesting phenomena have been found, one of which reveals that the majority of users, by a rather large margin, perceives skeuomorphism as the most modern and most usable design style. The conclusion we have drawn by this result is that skeuomorphism creates a kind of clarity for the application, which is more so appreciated by the user when navigating an application than aesthetically appealing elements of design. Our result made it clear that a more carefully considered development of user-centered interfaces has to be made in order to find a more balanced mix of functionality and usability. Therefore, we find a continuation of this study a necessity in order to fully understand this phenomenon.

  • 241.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Social Media as Sociomaterial Service: On Practicing Public Service Innovation in Municipalities2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Governments are in need to innovate public service. They struggle with complex societal problems, decreased citizen trust and the work of adapting to new demands related to how service should be delivered to fit contemporary living. Inspired by success stories from the private sector's "open innovation" approaches, governments are complementing internal competence with knowledge resources of external actors such as citizens. One increasingly growing strategy for knowledge expansion beyond government boundaries has been to use social media platforms, e.g. Facebook, Instagram and Twitter. This strategy has been shown to be especially effective at a local government level (henceforth municipality) where citizens are geographically close to the government and where government manages activities that citizens rely on in their daily lives.

    Despite an expansive rise of social media use in municipalities, and efforts to see beyond a traditional and New Public Management approach to public service, there is little knowledge about the participatory and innovative capacity of social media in a government context. This knowledge gap is reflected in researchers' and municipal administrators' uncertainty as to how to make use of social media for improvement of public service and how to handle tensions about what is possible to do with social media and what is legitimate to do as a public servant.

    The aim of the thesis is thus to map, unpack and conceptualize social media practice by municipal communicators to understand how tensions and dynamics between social media mechanisms and government rationales are shaping the practice and how new emerging practices can be understood as public service innovation. The research questions of the thesis are: RQ1: How are social mediamechanisms supporting different public service rationales?; RQ2: How is public service enacted in the social media practice by municipal communicators?; RQ 3: How can social media practice by municipal communicators be understood as public service innovation?

    With an engaged scholarship research approach, related research on social medialogic, e-government, e-governance and digital public service innovation, and with the help of the theoretical perspectives "service innovation," "practice perspective" and "sociomateriality," the thesis contributes extended insights into how social media platform mechanisms support different government rationales in processes of sociomaterial service, and how such practice can be understood as creative processes towards public service innovation.

    As a practical contribution I propose that both communicators and managers in government engage together in networks of others working with social media and to discuss for instance the mission of the government in relation to the aim of using social media, what tensions arise in the social media practice and why, and how algorithms are shaping the social media practice.

  • 242.
    Norström, Livia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Boundaries of Logics in Municipality Communicators' Facebook Practice: Towards a New Public Service Competence2019In: Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2019, 2019, p. 3097-3106Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With an increased use of external online platforms, digital government logics are gradually intertwined with external, algorithmic, crowd-influenced value logics of social media platforms. This new scene especially affects administration, which can no longer neutrally deliver public service, but becomes involved in processes of consideration and judging what rules and traditions seem most appropriate in the situation.Through deep interviews and workshops with municipal communicators, we examine this balancing act when communicators use social media for external communication. We use a practice perspective to characterize and conceptualize an emerging approach to public service.

  • 243.
    Norström, Livia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Two-Way Tools in Higher Education2013In: Inside the New University: Prerequisites for a Contemporary Knowledge Production / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Göran Lassbo and Eddy Nehls, Bentham eBooks, 2013, p. 28-41Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 244.
    Norström, Livia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Topics and Approaches: A Framework for Municipality Social Media Engagement2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 245.
    Norström, Livia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Hattinger, Monika
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production System.
    Efforts at the boundaries: Social media use in Swedish municipalities2016In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349, Vol. 9821, p. 123-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social media is used by the majority of Swedish municipalities. However, the highly interactive features of social media are often not taken advantage of. The study aims to get a better understanding of why social media is not used to its full potential in the municipality. Findings from an interview study with communicators in three Swedish municipalities reveal that the motivation for using social media is often difficult to turn into action. Tensions emerging in the use of social media result in hesitation, uncertainty and a slowing down of work practice. The processes of managing the tensions are characterized by boundary crossing between different communities, such as municipal communicators, elected officials and citizens, with social media itself as an equally important actor. The processes of boundary crossing by the municipal communicators are discussed in terms of learning processes and new emerging competences that might redefine the role of the municipal communicator and hence perhaps the public servant in general. © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2016.

  • 246.
    Norström, Livia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Islind, Anna Sigridur
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Vallo Hult, Helena
    NU-sjukvården.
    Balancing the Social Media Seesaw in Public Sector: A Sociomaterial Perspective2017In: IRIS Selected Papers of the Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, ISSN 1891-9863, E-ISSN 2387-3353, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of social media in the public sector changes the professionals' everyday work practice. This paper sheds light on the emerging challenges of using social media as a part of work, based on the analysis of three contexts within the public sector in Sweden and through the lens of sociomateriality and affordances. The approach is interpretive field studies with a narrative analysis, where we interpret and analyse key elements of the storylines, focusing on the transition to social media use among professionals (nurses, municipal communicators, and physicians) in the three contexts. Social media enables an open work environment where information is visible and potentially spreadable to an unknown audience. The process of interacting with an unknown audience and finding a professional tone is analysed here as context collapse. The unknown, and at times imagined complex audience, makes it hard to balance the seesaw between friendliness on the one hand and an authoritative tone on the other; a tonality which leaves most of the potential audience unreached. The interplay between social media and the professionals shapes the professionals' practice. We analyse this interplaying practice more specifically, as sociomateriality in action.

  • 247.
    Norström, Livia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Assmo, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Transgressions and Transformations at Work: Towards a Social Media Practice among Swedish Municipality Communicators2017In: Transitions, Transformations and Transgressions in Work and Learning & Work and Learning Research: Book of Abstracts, Grahamstown: Rhodes University , 2017, p. 81-, article id ID071Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses how communicators at the municipality, in their work, negotiate the tension between a traditional role of an 'informative administrator' and a 'promoting, engaging social media profile'. The work is learned by carefully transgressing municipality social media and IT policy and by transforming social media practice from private and commercial use of Facebook, towards a new practice founded in democratic values.

    Social media has become an important strategy for municipalities to disclose a massive amount of information with relatively low cost and to create engagement with citizens. However, fostering participation and citizen engagement on social media platforms is still a great challenge for municipality administration as well as for research. Despite a widespread diffusion of platforms such as Facebook in municipalities, interaction level is relatively low compared to private organisations. We know from previous research that citizens' engagement with municipalities on Facebook is related to the municipalities' tradition of openness and transparency and their local administration style. Municipalities with a tradition of transparency are to a greater extent using features in Facebook that enable citizen engagement.Hence the organisational context where the engagement takes place is a crucial factor.However, what is often forgotten when trying to understand how engagement emerges on municipality social media platforms is the intentions of the platform providers and the emerging social logic of the platforms in use. A digital platform such as Facebook cannot be regarded as one overall technology choice, but as a platform provider that promotes services and tools along with a considerable amount of conditions and regulations. As social platforms are being adopted and matured, the huge amount of data concerning user behaviour and interaction patterns has changed from being side business to core business for the platform providers. This is applied,for instance, in the possibility to harvest and sell data. Overtime, the logic of such platforms has become more advanced and its ability to shape and transform the communication patterns has grown stronger and become critical. So, what implications do such a platform logic have on municipality administrations' use of Facebook? A content analysis of online interaction on four municipalities' Facebook pages during a period of two years was conducted. Approximately 6000 posts and comments were categorised by content, media type and tone. Engagement such as likes, shares and comments were then measured for the different categories.Empirical findings indicate that municipality communicators have problems both to reach out with information and to create engagement on Facebook. It is important for the communicators to be politically neutral, correct and speak with the voice of the whole municipality (i.e. not too personal). This way of being, however, does not work so well on Facebook.They report having gradually adjusted their work (content, tone, media type and timing) to what is spreadable, sharable and commentable according to a Facebook logic. The communicators say they feel forced to post pictures of blossomtrees and check-ins from the lunch restaurant in order to get likes and shares. They know that if they don't do this they will lose citizens' attention and they will not reach out with more important posts. They are aware that posts that are interesting to see and read are not sufficient; posts also need to trigger people to like, share and comment. The socialmedia work needs to be designed in accordance with a unique Facebook platform logic.

    This paper aims to contribute to the body of knowledge on IT and learning at work with a special focus on new competence in the public sector. It also extends an existing framework of e-government transparency and citizen engagement by taking into account the role of Facebook as a platform with highly structured strategies for how to foster a special kind of sociality and engagement. The practical contribution implies new knowledge for staff and management in the public sector to develop competence to manage transparency and engagement through social media.

  • 248.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bachelor students in research projects: boosting WIL and University-Society Collaboration2019In: INTED2019 Proceedings / [ed] , L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, 2019, p. 3015-3021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing from the experiences of student projects organized and developed in accordance with work integrated learning, this paper contributes to the understanding of conditions necessary for successful implementation and sharing of knowledge in such projects as well as perceived benefits of university society collaboration. A case study was carried out focusing on student research projects on two parallelbusiness administration courses on Bachelor level. Students applied their skills in information literacy searching for and critically interpreting current research as well use of digital tools and social media platforms for data collection in their studies. The projects were initiated and presented by an external organization, which both supported the students in various ways during their work and received the completed results by the end of the courses. Students focused on themes such as the challenges of internal and external organizational communication, digital divides, inter-organizational collaboration,youth perspectives and sustainability. The empirical material of this study was collected from sourcess uch as course syllabi and instructions, observations, student reports and reflections, presentations,meetings, conversations and interviews members of the principal organization. The results show that the students perceived their tasks as stimulating and important due to the interaction and feedback received from the external principal, utilization of their course assignments as well as the opportunity to relate theory to practice. The external organization in turn received reports that may be used for decision-making purposes at a low cost, however what was perceived as most rewarding was the interaction and dialogue with students to get their perspectives on contemporary issues. Furthermore, collaboration with students was also viewed as means for future recruitment. In can thus be concluded that students, if allowed to interact and work with external organizations, play an important part in disseminating both results from and understanding for academic research in society. However, to realize successful student research projects this paper also discusses the need of legitimacy, access to external networks and organizations willing and able to deliver relevant topics for student research as well asstudent support along the way.

  • 249.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Challenges of collaboration in old townscapes2017In: 26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research, October 4-6 2017, Falun, Sweden. Book of Abstract: Tourism in a Hyper-Connected World: Challenges of Interactivity and Connectedness / [ed] Dalarna University, Falun, 2017, Vol. 1, p. 30-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Challenges of collaboration in old townscapes

    Contemporary cities are increasingly viewing cultural/heritage tourism as an area of tourism with great potential in city development, building city brands as well a local community. The relationship between heritage and tourism is complex since preservation and commercialization often are viewed as contrasts .Heritage tourism is among the most significant types of tourism and includes visits to sites of historical importance.  The concept of heritage is wide hence in this paper focus is on old town areas and the development of old townscapes. A townscape is here to be viewed as a holistic entity although there may be differences regarding the preservation, spatially and social objectives of the area. . An old townscape is sometimes a site for visitors (a destination), as well as a site for business (a workplace) and residents (a home). There are stakeholders from public, private and nonprofit sectors involved in the development of old townscapes. Hence there is a need for dialogue and cross-sector collaboration among stakeholders in order to develop heritage tourism that is beneficial to all. Existing research show that the inclusion of stakeholders in planning and implementation is crucial.  There are calls for further research to understand how collaboration work in different heritage sites. The purpose of this paper is to study the stakeholders’ challenges and views of collaboration and co-shaping of cultural heritage, here an old town in a fortress city. The data collection includes interviews with stakeholders and observations. Findings point out the importance of inclusion, communication, shared visions and strategies in order to balance the attractiveness of the old townscape for visitors, business and residents.

  • 250.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Friedrichs, Yvonne von
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund, Sverige.
    Approaches to inclusive networking in place development: an illustration from six smaller Scandinavian cities2018In: International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development, ISSN 1753-0660, E-ISSN 1753-0679, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 259-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to further explore and deepen research in place development with focus on inclusive networking related to renewal processes in smaller harbour cities in Scandinavia. The results are based on a multiple case study comprising in-depth interviews with driving network actors, document studies and observations from six different harbour cities in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The research questions focus on the characteristics of networks and inclusiveness, knowledge sharing and renewal processes related to networking. This study illustrates different inclusive network approaches for place development. Smaller harbour cities are dynamic places for cross-sector collaboration and networking, although driving network actors struggle with underlying mechanisms related to network characteristics, inclusiveness and governance. Furthermore, findings stress that communication, a sharing culture, transparency and democratic values are vital to enable trust, knowledge sharing and legitimacy for inclusive networking in place development.

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