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  • 201.
    Carlsson, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Designing teaching material for workplace pedagogy in school2022In: ICERI 2022 Proceedings, iated Digital Library , 2022, p. 1154-1159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vocational education is crucial for providing the labor market with professional vocational competence in a time of societal change, especially considering a technological change (Belaya, 2018). One of the challenges that vocational teachers face is to find, select and sometimes create appropriate teaching material for the pupils' learning (Persson 2020). Although vocational teaching constitutes an under-researched field of study, there is a stream of research that has explored a variety of e-learning tools such as blogs, video-based instructions, e-portfolios, workplace simulations, and hyper-videos (e.g., Belaya, 2018; Hamid et al., 2020; Jossberger et al., 2015;) and identify several possibilities. Thus, it is of interest to explore how vocational in-service teachers select teaching material and if they design their own teaching material. This study aims to explore the use of various teaching materials in vocational teaching in a Swedish context. A qualitative survey was conducted with a total of 22 teachers connected to a vocational teacher education in Sweden. Work-place pedagogy is used as a theoretical concept that can be understood as; “Guidance by others, situations, and artifacts are central to learning through work because the knowledge to be learned is historically, culturally, and situationally constituted” (Billett, 2002, p. 27). Early findings indicate that, what vocational teachers conceptualize as learning material, are varying and are both consisting of analog and digital tools. Vocational teachers also tend to create their own teaching material because of the need for scaffolding for their pupils as well as the need for mimicking the authentic working life. Contributions include identifying what teachers design and what aspects they consider in the design process.

  • 202.
    Carlsson, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Forbidden and necessary: making sense of smartphones in vocational teaching2023In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The digitalization of schools has intensified in recent years. It is reflected in policy documents as well as in extensive investments in digital technology and professional development initiatives to promote digitalization. At the same time, attempts are being made to “tame” the same digitization sometimes by regulations banning smartphones in class. This study aims to examine how smartphones are interpreted by vocational teachers in Sweden using the theoretical lens of technological frames.

    Design/methodology/approach – The data consist of ten semi-structured interviews with vocational teachers, representing eight vocational programs in Sweden.

    Findings – The results show breadth in how teachers understand, interpret and relate to the smartphone in vocational education. The authors show how the smartphone often forms an integral part of professional work and is thus difficult to separate from vocational teaching and nurturing vocational competencies.

    Originality/value – The authors’ contributions include using technological frames to explore how smartphones are interpreted and understood by vocational teachers by demonstrating how they relate to the nature of the smartphone, the strategy for the smartphone and the smartphone in use. The theoretical framework is used to interpret restrictions on technology use, in this case a smartphone, in education. The results could be of interest to researchers as well as to teachers, school leaders and policymakers.

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  • 203.
    Carlsson, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design. Department of Education, School of Education, Humanities and Social Sciences, Halmstad University (SWE).
    Teaching Here and Now but for the Future: Vocational Teachers' Perspective on Digitalization2022In: International Conference on Work Integrated Learning: Abstract Book, Trollhättan: University West , 2022, p. 70-71Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    When digital technology is introduced into work practice, it means that vocational practice develops and changes (Castells, 2011). New methods, tools, and processes in working life require vocational teachers to develop fundamental vocational competencies and preparedness for this change for their pupil's employability (Persson, 2020). The concept of vocational competencies is understood in different ways (Billett, 2001) yet is often described as tacit and situated (Gåfvels and Paul, 2019). Vocational competence can be described as a symmetric relationship between knowledge, skills, and attitudes (Hiim, 2020, Baartman and De Bruijn, 2011). As working life changes, it places new demands on vocational competence and the use of different technologies. Various attempts have been made to elaborate on the competence needed for teaching in a digitalized society and a digitalized school (Ferrari, 2012, Hatlevik and Christophersen, 2013, Howell, 2012, Kivunja, 2013, Krumsvik, 2008). Vocational practices are intimately associated with physical materials such as objects, bodies, technologies, and these settings permit some actions and prevent others (Carlsson et al., 2022; Fenwick, 2015). In this study, we explore vocational teachers' perspectives on preparing students for future working life and how they relate to teaching in a digitalized society.

    Theoretical perspective

    The TPACK framework, expressing Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge, has arisen as a theoretical framework that specifies what knowledge is required for teaching with technology. It emphasizes that teaching involves developing an understanding of the complex relationship between technology, pedagogy, and content and using this understanding to develop suitable context-specific strategies and representations (Mishra and Koehler, 2006; Willermark, 2018; Willermark and Pareto). In this study, we use TPACK as an analytical lens to explore vocational teachers' perspectives on preparing students for future working life and how they relate to teaching in a digitalized society.

    Method

    The data consists of 10 interviews with vocational teachers from 8 different vocational programs in Swedish upper secondary vocational education. The participants were recruited from a previous survey carried out by the authors (Carlsson & Willermark, 2022) that explored vocational teachers' experiences in using and developing teaching material. A qualitative content analysis was carried out.

    Findings and contributions

    Findings show how teachers benefit from digital technology to support pedagogical strategies as well as facilitate students' content knowledge. Still, digitalization entails challenges of keeping up with changes in professional life and providing students with appropriate vocational digital technologies. It is clear how intimately connected and intertwined digitalization is with pedagogy and the subject content of vocational education (Koehler and Mishra, 2009). Contributions include increased knowledge about digitalization in vocational education, and how it entails navigating tensions between a) teaching practice and vocational practice, b) between different curricula and c) supportive and disruptive digital technologies.

  • 204.
    Carlsson, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Teaching Here and Now but for the Future: Vocational Teachers Perspective on Teaching in Flux2023In: Vocations and Learning, ISSN 1874-785X, E-ISSN 1874-7868, Vol. 16, p. 443-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As working life changes, it places new demands on vocational competence and the use of different digital technologies. It affects vocational teaching, yet digitalization within vocational education constitutes a scarcely researched area. In this study, we explore how vocational teachers relate to teaching in a digitalized society from a socio-material perspective and explore the possibilities as well as the discursive manifestations of contradictions it gives rise to. Data includes semi-structured interviews with ten vocational teachers, representing eight vocational programs in Sweden. Findings show how vocational teachers benefit from digital technology to realize pedagogical strategies and facilitate students’ vocational competence. At the same time, digitalization entails challenges of keeping up with changes in working life and providing students with relevant vocational digital technologies. Contributions include increased knowledge about digitalization in vocational education, and how it entails navigating different contradictions.

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  • 205.
    Carrasco Henriksson, Rebecka
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    En läkande lek: Digitala spel som stöd till ett barn i sorg2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Games are a natural part of many people's everyday lives and have gone from being a divergent interest to become Sweden's biggest cultural export. As a result from this expansion, digital tools had to be further developed and through this progress these tools have reached new areas of usage, which has created new challenges for game developers. The games that offers a higher purpose than pure entertainment goes under the genre serious games. Serious games are used in various application areas such as; in the military, health care, education, business, and psychology, which is the framework of this thesis. By combining and unifying previous research grounded in psychology and game science I want to answer the questions: How can games be used as a therapeutic tool in a child's grieving process? and, Which features should such a game focus on? These questions are answered through the information gathered from two interviews conducted with respondents that have different expertise within the area of this study, this to reach a broader perspective.

    A child's grieving process can manifest itself in various ways depending on the individual's level of sensitivity. It is therefore difficult to draw any general conclusions on how such a game should be designed. All games have the opportunity to motivate and engage, but this is not unique to a serious game and therefore a measurement function is essential in a digital rehabilitation tool to provide the therapist with valuable information about the patient.

    The figurative language makes it possible for the child to communicate where the spoken language sometimes has limits. For older children social support can be important as it creates opportunities to meet others in similar situations and together work towards improvement.

    Grief is a non-linear process and can present itself in many different ways and it is therefore important that the game should offer various turn-outs to make it adaptable for the individual.

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  • 206.
    Crusner, Maria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Funktioner för förbättrad träning: En kvalitativ studie om Quantified-selfers uppfattning och erfarenheter kring beteendeförändring i Runkeeper2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to find out how fitness applications should be designed to help Quantified-selfers to change a behavior. This was investigated by interviewing users of the fitness-tracking application Runkeeper, and focused on users experiences, how they use it and in what way their behavior has changed. The study showed that the application had overall improved the users training behavior, but it differed in the way in which it had succeeded. The app was seen as a positive resource that allowed the users to follow and compare their results, which led to that they progressed in their training. What features the users used, which they did not use and which they wanted was individually and depended on the users desired outcome of their training. Finally, it is suggested how future wearable tech regarding fitness can be designed to help Quantified-selfers further to change a behavior.

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  • 207.
    Danielsson, Kristoffer
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Mäki, Albin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Hur påverkar eWOM kryptovärlden?: En studie om konsumenters beteende gällande kryptografiska valutor2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is more relevant today than ever before to speak about cryptocurrencies sinceBitcoin and other alternative cryptocurrencies break their own records time and time again. Large corporations like Tesla and Mastercard both show an interest in integrating different cryptocurrencies’ use-cases and invest in them directly, which thus legitimizes them on a whole new level. In today’s climate surrounding cryptocurrencies there is an incredible amount of information being shared daily, consisting of news, restrictions, updates and much more. All of this happens largely on digital platforms and navigating this enormous amount of information that is shared on the internet can become a challenge.In this paper we seek to investigate how Electronic Word-of-Mouth (eWOM) affects individuals within the cryptocurrency market. To gain perspective on this we have conducted a quantitative survey and several qualitative interviews, as well as weighed the given answers against existing scientific literature. Our results show that the volume of opinions matters more to users than the actual opinions in of themselves. We can see that various users utilize different platforms, often to fill different purposes. The users primarily focus on several specific criteria to judge the trustworthiness of a source. These are mainly: a source with a proven track record, a highly regarded source or one with experience, information backed by proof and fact, and well-presented information. When it comes to negative versus positive sentiment, we did not reach consistent results, neither regarding which sentiment affects more in general, nor based on previous experience. This is an area that could benefit from further research.

  • 208.
    Darell, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Henriksson, Matilda
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Min smartphone & jag: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om det emotionella bandet till smartphones2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Smartphones implements many user areas, and it is an artifact that reflects and reshapes our society. During the year 2013, over a billion smartphones were sold around the world, and that was the first time more smartphones than traditional cellphones was sold (Westlund, 2014, s. 103). Smartphones let the user engage in activities that satisfies their needs and is therefore ranked as the most valuable artifact (Turner & Turner, 2011).

    The study uses qualitative group interviews with respondents between ages 20 to 25. The empirical research has analyzed how these experienced users are affected by and perceive their smartphones. Theory shows that all people act based on their life goals and user experience. By examining these aspects user values can be distinguished regarding smartphones. Smartphones possess the ability to satisfy three user themes: social, utilitarian and hedonic. It’s when one or more of these user needs are satisfied an emotional attachment to the artifact is created. The emotional attachment affects users in such a way that they tolerate the eventual negative aspects of smartphones

  • 209.
    Diaz, Patricia
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm (SWE).
    Frykman, Malin
    Innovitaskolan (SWE).
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lärande i en digitaliserad värld2023Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett av skolans uppdrag är att utveckla elevernas digitala kompetens. Lärande i en digitaliserad värld, som är en konkret och undervisningsnära handbok, är tänkt att stödja läraren i arbetet med detta.

    Enligt Skolverket omfattar arbetet med digital kompetens fyra övergripande punkter, som alla behandlas i boken. Dessa är att förstå digitaliseringens påverkan på samhälletatt kunna använda och förstå digitala verktyg och medieratt ha ett kritiskt och ansvarsfullt förhållningssättatt kunna lösa problem och omsätta idéer i handling.Bokens författare konkretiserar och problematiserar vad lärande i en digitaliserad värld innebär i praktiken. I varje kapitel ges konkreta exempel på hur lärare kan designa undervisningen så att eleverna ges tillfälle att använda digitala verktyg för att söka kunskap, bearbeta information, lösa problem, skapa, kommunicera och lära.

    Boken riktar sig till verksamma och blivande lärare inom grundskolan. Även lärare på gymnasium och vuxenutbildning kan ha glädje av bokens innehåll. [Förlagets bokinformation]

  • 210.
    Diehl, Catarina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Kuzet, Stanko
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Immersion och checkpoints inom Singelplayerspel: Bidrar spelets checkpointsystem till immersionen?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our intent was to examine the checkpoint system in Witcher 3; The Wild Hunt to see if it creates a better experience for the user but the results also show how immersion is generally perceived. With greater understanding of key factors to the game and checkpoints in general based on interviews and an online survey, our goal is to aid game developers during their process. The interviews are supplemented with the survey to compare our results to ensure a reliable report. The participants gave us an interesting insight to what makes a checkpoint system a contributing factor. Our result shows that checkpoints can contribute to immersion but it can also counteract with it when the game autosaves before a larger event. Yet our participants consider the checkpoints to be a positive factor. The majority of our participants consider playing without checkpoints to increase the immersion but it is has a negative effect to the gameplay. Our solution benefits all participants and the design is to let the users design their own personal checkpoint system, including visual indicators, not to reveal key moments throughout the game.

  • 211.
    Diels, Cyriel
    et al.
    ntelligent Mobility Design Centre, Royal College of Art, London, (GBR); Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence in Design, Hong Kong, (HKG).
    Stylidis, Kostas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design. Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Mausbach, Artur
    Intelligent Mobility Design Centre, Royal College of Art, London (GBR).
    Harrow, Dale
    Intelligent Mobility Design Centre, Royal College of Art, London, (GBR); Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence in Design, Hong Kong, (HKG).
    Shaping Autonomous Vehicles: Towards a Taxonomy of Design Features Instilling a Sense of Safety2022In: Communications in Computer and Information Science, ISSN 1865-0929, E-ISSN 1865-0937, Vol. 1583 CCIS, p. 172-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are Artificial Intelligence (AI)-enabled service robots. Whilst having the potential to enhance our transport systems and journey experiences, there are concerns that the public may be reluctant to adopt AVs, largely driven by doubts about their safety. In this study, we focussed on the role of the exterior vehicle design to instil a sense of safety on behalf of the passenger and bystander, i.e. pedestrians and cyclists. Senior automotive and transport designers were interviewed to identify key design features which revealed a common understanding of key features but also an apparent dichotomy or incompatibility in terms of design directions when considering passengers versus bystanders. Furthermore, designers’ understanding was largely based on their experience of conventional vehicles leading to uncertainty as to the validity in the context of future AVs. The results provide an initial set of design features that will be tested and evaluated with prospective AV users to explore the potential knowledge gap between designers’ intentions and customers’ expectation. This will provide design practitioners tangible, relatable anchors to direct activities towards critical design features whilst enabling design management to introduce more objectivity in their decision making.  

  • 212.
    Dosé, Madeleine
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Tedenbrant, Natalie
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    "Spela, pausa, återuppta!": En kvantitativ studie om Netflixanvändares preferenser i strömmande serier och varför de väljer att återkomma2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examine what Netflixs users prefer in a streamed serie and what makes them resume watching it after a break. The theoretical framework that the essay will presuppose from is convergence culture, continuity editing and narrative strategies. Convergence culture is used in this essay to view how media have converged through the interplay between media producers and users. The users nowadays are more active in their choice of media. They only consume what they find personally interesting. Streaming services such as Netflix give the users the opportunity to freely govern the way they want to consume it. What is it that makes the users stay in a serie or resume watching it when they just as simply could choose something different? In continuity editing the structure of a serie is all about lifting the story and emotions in the audience without being noticable. Narrative strategies can according to theory be used to evoke curiosity and the sense of wanting to see more. The quantitative questionnaire in this essay was answered by 67 participants and it aims to measure the users preferences in a serie as well as what makes them choose to resume watching. The questions concerned the participants user habits, whether they felt involvement in series and what narrative strategies they prefer. The results show that the participants prefer narrative questions, suggestion and story-delaying. The main reason why the participants resumed watching a serie was the desire to know what is going to happen next. The second reason was wanting to know how the series end.

  • 213.
    Dubois, Andrea
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Larsson, Thilda
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Studenternas möte med arbetslivet: Digitala jobbportalers potentiella värde för studenter i samspel med traditionella kontaktnätverk2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on students’ encounters with working life. The thesis aims to contribute to an increased understanding of the potential value of digital job portals in interplay with traditional social networks by capturing students’ perceptions of their paths to working life.

    A qualitative research method has been applied where respondents from University West have been interviewed both individually and in groups. Both current and previous students were included in the study. Eleven semi-structured individual interviews and two group interviews were conducted and recorded with the support of field notes. Based on this combined approach, which also permitted interaction among the respondents, the study could capture a greater variety of both current and previous students’ experiences.

    The study contributes with knowledge based on a number of students’ experiences of their encounters with working life, both before and after completing their studies at the university. The results of the study suggest that the interplay between digital job portals and traditional contact networks is of great importance. Digital job portals seem to provide a broad picture of the job opportunities in relation to the education, while the contact networks provide more in-depth understanding as well as relationships that might contribute to actual job offers. Hence, values are created as a result of their interplay. In addition, the study shows that the practice part of the work integrated learning approach at University West is instrumental for students in enriching their contact networks and that this, in turn, often result in their first jobs. On the basis of the results, recommendations are suggested for further studies as well as for actions that might improve the students’ paths to working life.The recommendations concern capturing of previous students’ experiences, analysis of the effects of Work Integrated Learning and in particular different forms of practice, exploringmore aspects of comp

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  • 214.
    Dughem, Petrus
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Karinsdotter, Matilda
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Utvecklare och designers upplevelse av samarbete i praktiken: Varför är det på ett visst sätt?2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report intends to delve into how professionals in UX design and development work together in practice. We also examine why professional roles are divided into developers and designers. In literature studies, we can see that over the years, the collaboration between developers and designers has been investigated in various ways abroad. In Sweden, there is unfortunately a lack of scientific research on cooperation. Inevitable preconceived notions about how the working method and the collaboration between developers and designers were with us, due to previous literature studies, which made a qualitative interview study well suited to map and nuance the situation in practice.

    The results we found through our interview study indicate that the collaboration between the professional roles in smaller companies can be influenced to a greater extent than in larger companies. A close collaboration where ideas and thoughts are shared between developers and designers proved to be common in the respondents’ workplaces. We were surprised to see that strict theoretical methods were used to a lesser extent. The knowledge about the agile method, on the other hand, was great, but was not fully applied according to the theory.

    We found that a merging of the roles is possible, however at the expense of the quality of the work performed, as the area of responsibility is often large. Which may therefore be the reason why it is currently not so common to perform both roles professionally. Specializing in a profession can therefore be beneficial. We also found that it was more common to start from one professional role, and then move on from there to the other.

  • 215.
    Ekholm, Sara
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Falk Friberg, Linn
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Personlig eller professionell?: Konsumenters tillit för svenska modeföretag på Facebook2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Communication in the context of social media has created new opportunities for companies to interact with their customers. There are several business categories available on these platforms where fashion companies playing an important part. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that contribute to the reliability of Swedish companies Facebook pages in fashion for women. This research examines companies Facebook post by looking at patterns in consumers perceptions. The study applies a qualitative approach where our primary data collection consists of twelve interviews. With the support of theoretical concepts such as brand awareness, corporate communication, electronic word-of-mouth and trust we created a base for strengthening our results. In our research, we describe how brand awareness and individuals reviews are distinguished in an aspect of trust. According to these subjects we discovered that consumers experiences is in a greater importance than other customers perception of a product or company. Furthermore, we describe whether the company’s communication and tonality matters in an aspect of creating credibility on brand pages. The result of our survey shows that respondents have shared sentences about which tonality companies should apply to confirm their seriousity. This research also explains how consumers use Facebook posts different dimension in terms of comments and reactions, to investigate whether the post is reliable or not. Reactions are used by customers to investigate whether individuals interpretation reflects on what themselves are experiencing. Likewise, the comment field is used as a place where consumers can create reviews about the content in a specific post. Lastly, we present how the design of images is important for the perception of the company’s credibility and seriousity.   

  • 216.
    Eklund Taavo, Mia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Appelgren, Therese
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Popup-rutor på eget initiativ: En kvalitativ studie om implementering av click-popups i webbgränssnitt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, alternative popup windows have been investigated from a user perspective by being implemented in the web interface of an e-commerce website. This was done with the aim of improving the interaction and user experience on websites where popup windows are applied as a marketing tool. The intention was to eliminate a negative suser experience that popup windows cause when they occur in the form of internal or external events that interrupt the user and leads the attention away from the main focus. A website prototype for e-commerce was designed where popup windows were placed in the interface, in the shape of so-called click-popups. The prototype was then used as a tool for implementing a user test, where 13 participants were allowed to navigate the site, thereby giving the opportunity to interact with the click-popups found in the interface. A subsequent questionnaire then answered what the participants thought about their experience. The result of our study showed that the click-popups reformed both interaction and user experience in a positive direction. This could be distinguished because the majority of participants interacted with several click-popups and we received positive response regarding their experience, which is different from previous research regarding other types of popup windows where similar results could not be found. We could conclude that the reason for this was the possibility of making own decisions as well as the lack of interruption. It was thus found that the disapproved properties that popup windows usually are associated with in fact can be reduced.

  • 217.
    Ekström, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Experiences Of Teaching And Learning With Social Robots2022In: ICERI2022 Proceedings, iated Digital Library , 2022, p. 1678-1685Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing interest in exploring how social robots can be used for teaching and learning and robots are now studied in a variety of subjects. When robots are used for teaching, they are often assigned a role with a social character appropriate for the intended learning activity. This study focuses on a learning activity where a child plays a digital mathematics game together with a social robot in a middle school classroom. The activity is based on the idea of learning-by-teaching, where the robot has been designed as a tutee and the child is assigned the role of tutor. Through interviews and questionnaires, the children’s, and the teacher's experiences of the learning activity were captured. How does the social robot perform as a tool for teaching and learning? How should the activity be organized and how should the teacher act?

    The study shows that the children think that the robot can express itself verbally and ask appropriate questions. They experience it as a social and fun co-player. However, the robot has several limitations, where difficulties in verbal communication are the most characteristic, such as language recognition, timing, and strange comments. In addition, children react negatively to the robot losing attention to the child and not being able to play the game properly. Moreover, the children think that the activity can be carried out both individually and in groups but consider that the teacher must be in the classroom to explain the activity and above all, to support the child-robot interaction both verbally and technically.

    In many ways, the teacher expresses similar thoughts as the children. The robot engages students and through its questions, the robot makes them reflect and communicate mathematics. As the robot gives students continuous responses, students become more persistent in their learning. The teacher also mentions problems with verbal child-robot communication. The students need to speak loud and clear with reasonably long sentences and the right timing. In addition, the teacher experiences technical problems, such as the players losing contact with each other.

    The teacher considers the activity challenging to carry out in a classroom partly because background noise interferes with the robot interaction and partly because the activity is not suitable for all students. The teacher also mentions the importance of introducing the game and declaring the purpose of the activity, since it may be hard for students to focus on the game and the robot simultaneously. If using the activity in teaching, the teacher imagines that [s]he needs to support the child-robot interaction, i.e., repeat and explain the robot's questions and help the child with what, how, and when to answer the robot. Besides, the teacher may also help with mathematics and encourage strategies and detailed explanations. Unlike the children, the teacher thinks that the activity enables opportunities for assessment of the playing students.

    Finally, the study also revealed some ethical dilemmas with using social robots in educational contexts. It was partly about renegotiating prevailing social norms and partly about the deception of assigning a tool human characteristic. Together with the technical and didactic experiences of teaching and learning with social robots, the study provided an insight into a[n] [in]possible future.

  • 218.
    Ekström, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lära tillsammans genom digitala medier2022In: Använd rummet: högskolepedagogiska metoder för aktiva lärosalar / [ed] Veronica Alfredsson, Noomi Asker, Christel Backman & Sara Uhnoo, Studentlitteratur AB, 2022, 1, p. 127-135Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 219.
    Ekström, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Teaching with social robots2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The school's digitalization is an ongoing process that brings new didactic opportunities, but also challenges. Social educational robots entail a complex teaching situation and affect the teacher's role, actions, and responsibilities in the classroom. Through observations in an authentic classroom context, this thesis aims to provide a nuanced and realistic picture of how teaching with social robots can unfold. Social educational robots have previously been explored in different educational contexts, but few studies shed light on the teacher role. Nor is it discussed what new aspects of digital competence become important when teaching with educational technologies that exhibit social behaviour. This thesis studies teacher actions and intended actions in a learning activity where a child collaborates with a social educational robot. In the activity, the robot is designed to act as a learning companion (tutee), the child acts as a teacher (tutor), and sometimes a few peers participate. The study is based on video observations of teachers' dialogues and behaviours in this learning activity, and a total of 25 hours of recorded video material has been analysed. The observations are supplemented with interviews, workshops, and questionnaires, where more teachers reflect on teaching with social robots.

    The result shows that social educational robots may contribute to relevant learning situations but also introduce new teacher roles, bringing additional challenges. The teacher's most prominent role in this learning activity is as an interaction mentor, in which the teacher assists the verbal and non-verbal interaction between the child and the robot, such as verbal communication fluency, explaining the robot's behaviour to the child, and maintaining attention.The result also identifies challenges that may emerge if social educational robots are used for teaching and learning. One of these challenges is due to the teacher relating to the robot as a didactic tool as well as a social actor, interchangeably. This duality causes conflicts in the teacher's actions, as the two perspectives call for different behaviours. The thesis also shows that using social educational robots entails new demands for adequate digital competence.

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    spikblad
  • 220.
    Ekström, Sara
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Hermansson, Anna
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Ögren Jansson, Marie
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Lundström, Marita
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Micro-teaching i Grundlärarprogrammet: Ett utvecklings- och forskningsprojekt för att stödja lärarstudenter att utveckla yrkesspecifik kunskap i matematik2023In: Abstracts för Decemberkonferensen, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2023, p. 1-1Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid matematikutbildningen i lärarprogrammen vid Högskolan Väst (HV) genomförs ett utvecklings- och forskningsprojekt (med flera delstudier) för att stödja lärarstudenter att utveckla specifik yrkeskunskap som förbereder dem för undervisningens komplexitet. Kontexten i den här studien är förskoleklassen, den skolform som ska knyta samman förskolans och skolans pedagogik. I en granskning av undervisningen i förskoleklassen (Skolinspektionen, 2015) framkom att endast en fjärdedel av eleverna får en undervisning som motsvarar läroplanens övergripande mål för kunskaper. Det finns därför ett stort behov av att utveckla undervisningen i förskoleklass. Detta gäller särskilt undervisningen i matematik.

    Teoretisk utgångspunkt i projektet är Banduras teori om självtillit i att undervisa (1997). Forskningen behandlar individens föreställningar om sin kompetens och inte den reella undervisningsförmågan. Det finns dock en tydlig koppling mellan lärares uppfattningar om sin kompetens och vad deras elever presterar. I studien undersöker vi lärarstudenters tilltro till deras egen förmåga att undervisa i matematik och hur den förändras när studenterna får genomföra micro-teaching inför sin VFU (Pekdağ et al., 2020).

    Studien inleddes med att studenterna fick undervisning i matematik och därefter med handledningsstöd planera en matematiklektion. Lärarutbildare och studentkollegor gav feedback via ett strukturerat observationsprotokoll i ett intilliggande hybridklassrum. Samma undervisningssession genomfördes sedan på VFU där läraren observerade och gav feedback. Datainsamling har skett genom fokusgrupper för att fånga studenternas upplevelse av micro-teaching och om/hur den förändrat deras tillit till att undervisa i matematik. Teoretiskt analysverktyg är fyra aspekter som stöd för utveckling av självtillit (Bandura, 1997).

    Generellt upplevde studenterna micro-teaching som lärorikt och vill gärna möta liknande upplägg igen. Kontinuerlig återkoppling på ett begränsat innehåll upplevdes positivt. Studenterna tyckte tekniken med micro-teaching var en bra lärsituation, som blandade teori och praktik samt gav dem nya perspektiv på deras egen undervisning, en “levande kunskap”.

  • 221.
    Ekström, Sara
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Fuentes Martinez, Ana
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    New Critical Imaginaries and Reflections on Robots and Artificial Intelligence: How Teachers’ Programming Knowledge Could Affect Future Educational Technology2020In: INTED 2020: 14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference Valencia, Spain. 2-4 March, 2020, International Association for Technology, Education and Development, 2020, p. 3475-3483Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational Robots (ER) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) are rapidly evolving to meet the challenges that characterize school environments. The direction in which these emerging technologies will develop, and the effect they finally have on schools, will partially be shaped by how scholars and practitioners imagine future education. A recent study about the views of teachers and educational researchers regarding the use of ER and AI for learning purposes highlighted this issue [1]. This study revealed that, beside an urgent need for teacher professional development, the participants were concerned about human interrelations, individualization, educational management and ethics. However, both groups showed a rudimentary understanding of the differences between these two technologies. More importantly, there seemed to be a gap in the way teachers and researchers in that study approached new technologies in education. Whereas for teachers the purpose of technology was to enhance current teaching processes, for researchers, technology had a deeper transformational potential. Since then, a large national program aiming at increasing schoolteachers’ computational thinking and coding skills has been put into practice at several Swedish universities to support the introduction of computer programming in the K-12 curriculum. To account for these new developments, we wanted to investigate how these teacher professional development programs could reflect on upcoming school technologies. University teachers in charge of the programming courses could provide insightful information about how ER and AI can mold future school practices since they represent an entrance point for teachers into these technologies. Delegates from several universities involved in the development of programming courses for K-12 teachers were therefore invited to give their vision of a future classroom. In order to compare with the previous study, seventeen university teachers were also asked to imagine a teaching situation in a school in which a) social robots and b) robots with artificial intelligence, were a reality. They were further requested to reflect upon which challenges and possibilities could emerge when using ER and AI in post-digital K-12 education. Which differences appear relevant compared to the participants in the previous study? The analysis showed that the university teachers participating in our study coincide in pointing out potential gains in individualizing teaching and relieving teachers from routine tasks. Our informants adhered to the position of schoolteachers and did not predict any fundamental transformations in the current teaching practices. Unique for our participants was their ability to discern between ER and AI and that, while they were largely sceptic toward the cognitive benefits of a physical robot, they trusted the software to achieve similar results in a traditional computer. Given the premises in this investigation “future teachers that already knew how to program”, the participants in our study did not suggest further need for professional development, which contrasts with the prevalent opinion in the previous study. If university teachers believe that programming knowledge is enough to bridge the competence gap, and they do not expect any radical transformation in education, maybe ER and AI could be fully integrated in the teaching practice more easily than it was predicted earlier

  • 222.
    Ekström, Sara
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    New Teacher Roles With Social Robots as Actors in the Classroom2020In: INTED 2020: 14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference Valencia, Spain. 2-4 March, 2020, International Association for Technology, Education and Development, 2020, International Association for Technology, Education and Development, 2020, p. 6636-6644Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots are entering the classrooms and provide new opportunities for education. Educational robots can either be used for programming, or as new types of social actors where these robots are designed to play different roles such as teachers, tutors, peers or tutees. However, new social actors affect the scene for learning by altering the social dynamics in the classroom, which in turn affects the roles of the other actors. In this study we explore the role of teachers in robot-enhanced classrooms, and ask the question: What new teacher roles emerge when robots enter the classroom as social actors? In this study we explore a setting where a student plays an educational mathematics game together with a humanoid robot on an interactive whiteboard, guided and supported by teachers and peers from the class. Four classes of school children in 2nd and 41h grade participated and played for about 5 minutes each. The game playing sessions were video-recorded, and 32 sessions were randomly selected, transcribed, coded and thematically analyzed using Interaction Analysis. Situations in which the teacher acted were analyzed to investigate when and why the teacher intervened and what types of support that was provided to the student. Results show that the teacher took several roles during the sessions. Traditional roles include moderator organizing the learning and managing social interactions as well as educator supporting the student’s learning by scaffolding mathematical problems and game-playing strategies. In addition, the teacher had to act technical facilitator handling problems and challenges with using the robot, and the role as interaction mentor guiding and supporting the student to manage the social interaction with the robot. The latter two roles are challenging and unfamiliar to most teachers. We conclude that using robots as social actors in education introduce new, challenging teacher roles requiring substantial and specific digital competence.

  • 223.
    Ekström, Sara
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design. Department of Education, Communication and Learning, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (SWE).
    The dual role of humanoid robots in education: As didactic tools and social actors2022In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of using social robots for teaching and learning has become increasingly prevalent and robots are assigned various roles in different educational settings. However, there are still few authentic studies conducted over time. Our study explores teachers’ perceptions of a learning activity in which a child plays a digital mathematics game together with a humanoid robot. The activity is based on the idea of learning-by-teaching where the robot is designed to act as a tutee while the child is assigned the role of a tutor. The question is how teachers perceive and talk about the robot in this collaborative child-robot learning activity? The study is based on data produced during a 2-years long co-design process involving teachers and students. Initially, the teachers reflected on the general concept of the learning activity, later in the process they participated in authentic game-play sessions in a classroom. All teachers’ statements were transcribed and thematically coded, then categorized into two different perspectives on the robot: as a social actor or didactic tool. Activity theory was used as an analytical lens to analyze these different views. Findings show that the teachers discussed the activity’s purpose, relation to curriculum, child-robot collaboration, and social norms. The study shows that teachers had, and frequently switched between, both robot-perspectives during all topics, and their perception changed during the process. The dual perspectives contribute to the understanding of social robots for teaching and learning, and to future development of educational robot design.

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    Springer
  • 224.
    El-Boustany, Elias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Persson, Adam
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    "Käftsmällar" i Hollywood: Hur våld konstrueras med berättartekniska verktyg2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this exam is to increase the understanding of how to use storytelling-techniques to emphasize the viewers experience of a fighting-scene. Throuhg an analisys of selected movieclips and interviews with persons who have knowledge about imagery and visual techniques.we have interpred and compared the techniques used in the clips, how they are used and what type of feeling is mediated to the audience.

  • 225.
    Eliasson, Christoffer
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lauronen, Sanna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Användbarhet inom navigering på hemsidor för desktop- och mobilversion: En innehållsanalys på Sveriges regioners hemsidor2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the Covid-19 pandemic people are seeking information regarding local restrictions and guidelines, primarily on a regional level more than ever before. To best serve this influx of visitors to the webpages of the Swedish regions, their webpages need to have a high standard of usability implemented. Therefor the purpose of this paper is mainly to contribute with knowledge to future web developers about the importance of implementing usability in modern web pages. To fulfill this purpose, we constructed a few questions that this paper will find an answer to. Firstly, does the region’s web pages include any support for people with disabilities in their navigation in a usability perspective? Secondly, to what extent does the navigation system on the region’s web pages fulfill Nielsen's theories about usability? Thirdly, are there any differences in the navigation system in a usability perspective between the web pages on mobile compared to the desktop version. To answer these questions a quantitative content analysis method was chosen to give us the best result. This meant that a coding scheme was created containing 18 variables constructed from previous research in the field. From the result a dataset was created, using the program SPSS. From this, we could conclude that the navigation system on the regions web pages did include support in various degrees for people with disabilities. The result for this question was not perfect. It showed that there was some support for people with disabilities, but there is some work to be done before it can be considered a good result. In most of the cases studied, the web pages lived up well to Nielsen’s theories about usability. We also found out that there are differences between the mobile versions compared to the desktop versions of the web pages. This does not mean that it is a negative thing from a usability perspective that there are differences between them. Both versions lived up well to usability, but their methods of reaching this differed.

  • 226.
    Elmi, Nimo Musse
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ogbamichael, Miriam
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Personligt rekommenderat för dig: En kvalitativanalys om huruvida Netflixanvändare påverkas av rekommendationssystem och personliga rekommendationer2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we have examined Netflix users' general perception and understanding of filtering, recommender system and personal recommendations. We investigated from a user perspective because this perspective centered around users was lacking in previous research. To answer the research questions, we conducted a semi-structured internet-based interview that gave us the opportunity to understand the underlying cause of their opinion. We interviewed ten experienced Netflix users. The results showed that Netflix users we studied were generally not satisfied. They described that their decision-making process was influenced by the filtering and the recommendations they received from the service. Of the ten interviewed users, only two were satisfied with the recommendations and used the personal recommendations they received. The users' opinion about recommender system affected their views of personal recommendations and filtering. The result also showed that the users seek understanding of how Netflix recommends, they want to see a clear connection between their previously seen content with their current personal recommendations. At the end of the study, we gave future recommendations to further work in this subject.

  • 227.
    Eneroth Johansson, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ryås, Cornelia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Vad som påverkar animatörers val i skapandet av fotorealistisk 3D-animation2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to show some possible factors that affect the animators’ choices when working on photorealistic animation based on references. Research in computer graphics has since 1970 had as a main goal to achieve photorealism. When working on 3D-production for film, animation is a part of the process. This part aims to give life to digital characters, among other things. References are used as a tool to achieve photorealism. This could for example be a video of animals or people moving in the same way as the characters in the animation is supposed to do. But many experiences show that the animation could be uninteresting and lack credibility if the animator sticks to close to the reference. This forces the animator to deviate from the reference material in order to achieve a photorealistic animation. We want to find out which choices the animators are making in that situation and what they are based upon.

    The paper highlights six animators’ views on what affects their choices when working with photorealistic animation. From the interviews a number of factors that the animators themselves found to affect them, was distinguished. The factors that the paper highlights with the support of theories and the answers from the interviews are clarity, interest, characters, influence of others, time, intuition, judgment, experience, subconscious factors and personal background. 

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    Val_I_Animation
  • 228.
    Engborg, Victor
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Andersson, Johan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    ”Bilderna är ju identiska!”: En kvalitativ jämförelse mellan en datorgenererad bild och ett fotografi, i en modern tolkning av Meyer m.fl. (1986)2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research is a methodical assembly of already existing techniques and methods for assessing photorealistic rendering within the field of computer graphics. The aim of this study is to reproduce a three-dimensional familiar object that cannot be distinguished from a photograph and pinpoint different aspects between the images. The creation and the process of the computer-generated image is presented in this paper, which involves essential components such as the fundamentals of photography and how different Global illumination algorithms work. To put these theories in place, a physical experiment was conducted to verify the result. The results show that the respondents cannot determine with certainty which image is computer generated.

  • 229.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Persson, Sandra
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Hur Snapchat som applikation integreras i marknadsföringens utveckling inom företag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There have been changes in the way companies think about marketing. Developments in technology have made the communication easier and faster. Marketing has gone from focusing on the product or service to a customer-focused mindset where companies want to deepen their customer relationships in order to create more personalized and valuable offers according to the customer needs. Social media has become a major part of everyday life and companies therefore tries to reach their customers there. Since the emergence of new social media and it's growing in popularity, companies need to consider the benefits and how they will use the media in connection with its marketing purposes.

    Snapchat is an application that has increased in popularity and in users in recent years. In the current situation, Snapchat is one of the largest social media among teenagers. Companies therefore begin creating their own Snapchat accounts where users can follow and share their pictures and videos.

    Our thesis aims to examine how companies view the use of Snapchat, from a marketing purpose, and then compare this with previous research on the marketing and use of private Snapchat. We want to find out how Snapchat is different from other social media that companies use and what their strategies are, and how they look on the intimate communication with followers. Through qualitative interviews, we get an understanding of how companies view the topic.

    The result shows that all respondents appreciate the personal and rapid two-way communication. Respondents perceive the application as more spontaneous, unfiltered and playful compared to the other social media that they use. Snapchats interface, however, create problems for companies as they do not have access to a detailed statistical review of its followers and its published content. It is clear to see patterns of the companies' basic concept of marketing and previous research on the topic. Since the development of marketing is constantly changing, the companies are starting to think more different.

  • 230.
    Eriksson, Hampus
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Johansson, Andreas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Berättande miljöer: En tematisk studie av karaktärers inverkan på digitala miljöers narrativ2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine if and to what extent characters should be included in the concept of Environmental Storytelling, which treats environments,objects, and atmosphere as storytelling elements within digital environments. Contemporary use of Environmental storytelling is a means of conveying story within game design. This study sought to confirm or reject the hypothesis that game design is enhanced by incorporating characters as a part of Environmental Storytelling in the process of creating new games and digital spaces. The study shows through its survey how characters can tell stories about the environment just as much or even to a greater extent than the environment conveys narratives about its characters. To validate or contradict these claims, a digital scene was created were ten persons were asked to interpret this scene visually. In conjunction with the survey, each participant was expected to subjectively interpret and account for a fictitious chain of events and causes and effects in the scene independently. The group was split in half were fiveparticipants also had a character placed in the scene in order for the survey to examine to what extent this results in a more detailed and precise re-telling of what has happened, is happening and might occur in the room. Through a narrative data analysis of the qualitative data that was gathered through interviews with participants, the study could present exciting findings. The result showed that characters have a significant influence over the environment and how the participants perceive it. The study reveals how the respondents with a character present in the scene recalled more details and consistent theories regarding the sequence of events. The character had less impact on the result than expected. Though however, the presence of a character was useful for the participant´s analysis process regarding them describing and strengthening their interpretation of the environments story, genre and where the narrative takes place. The conclusion of the study based on the results points towards how game designers could benefit from the environment and character design approaching one another to mediate the narrative of the digital world. The study constitutes a good foundation on which further research through more detailed experiments and analysis of today's video games can be made on this alternative view of environmental storytelling.

  • 231.
    Eriksson, Matilda
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Förståelse och interaktion i Runkeeper: En kvalitativ studie av Quantified-selfers uppfattning och erfarenheter av förståelse och interaktion i Runkeeper2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to find out how Quantified-selfers' interpretation of the collected data occur by describing their experiences. As interaction with the system and the collected data is a contributive element to the interpretation, the purpose was also to see how the interaction occur in a system used by Quantified-selfers, and how the interaction influence and results in their understanding. This was investigated by interviewing users of the fitness-tracking application Runkeeper and observe, and discuss, a reconstruction of their interaction with the application.The study showed that the reflection and interpretation of the statistics of the collected data differed between the users as they saw different patterns and came to different conclusions based upon it. Mainly, the participants perceived the statistics as easy to understand but there were also some obstacles for the interpretation. Interaction played an essential part when the users were to look at the statistics and interpret it. It led to the interpretation by different goals and sub-targets and it occurred when the users explored and abstracted, or elaborated the collected data. In the discussion it is reviewed why the interaction and the interpretation occur the way they do. Finally it is suggested how systems for Quantified-selfers, in the future may be designed to facilitate the reflection and interpretation of the collected data.

  • 232.
    Eriksson, Åsa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    "Strike a pose, there’s nothing to it": En kvalitativ studie om kvinnor & selfies2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A selfie is a self-portrait photograph, taken by holding a mobile camera device and pointing it at oneself. Today's technology opens for new imagery and new ways to communicate, and the selfie is a prominent expression in the communication of today. Before social media and the Internet, photos were just physical objects stored in a photo album or a box at home, and the potential audience were limited. With the introduction of social media sites such as Facebook and Instagram, along with the prevalence of smartphones, selfies has become a socially acceptable way of expression available to vast audiences all around the world at the click of a button. But, does a selfie tell as much of our personality as the clothes on our body? The furniture in our homes, or what kind of music we listen to? Can a selfie replace a verbal introduction? How much of an effort is there behind a selfie? The purpose of this study is to investigate how young women interpret, use and consume selfies with the mobile photo-sharing application Instagram as a starting point. In this study I have used a combination of image analysis and group interviews. I have used two different groups of candidates, one that takes "selfies" on a regular basis, and one with lesser "selfie" frequency. I will proceed from Erving Goffman's dramaturgical perspective. Goffman believes that the interaction between people is comparable with a stage performance. The individual chooses their performance based on what kind of stage and audience is at their disposal. Image analysis concludes that a majority of respondents are inclined to take selfies with others. When the respondent is in a group setting it is not uncommon for them to try to fit as many people as possible in the photo, and as a consequence end up themselves on the fringe of the photo. When taking an individual selfie, image analysis shows that the more common setting is indoors, focused on the face of the subject. The majority of the respondent takes their selfies with the mobile phone straight ahead of them. The respondent begins to tilt the mobile phone depending on what she wants to capture in the picture. The study shows that selfies is complex and difficult to define and the appearance is central in the creation of a selfie. As a phenomenon, the selfie is a double edged sword, on one hand a popular form of expression and communication, and on the other it can be received by its viewers as repetitive and vain.

  • 233.
    Ernstsson, Helen
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Relationen mellan spelare och karaktärer inom onlinespel2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Is there is a relationship between the player and the character the player use when playing online games? Why does a player pick his character? Does the player affect its character, and does the character in turn affects the player? Does this impact exist from the very moment the player creates their character and does it continues throughout the game? And how does this impact look? Would a player pay with real money to make their character look good in the game?

    I have chosen to dig deeper into this and interviewed players about their thoughts on their character and how they create them. I chose the online game Tera Online to start from. I want to bring up the player's actions by the character and the player's experience in the gaming world to helps us understand how a player takes their decisions and affect its character. How the player sees himself against his own made up character and if the player chooses to reflect himself in his character or any other character that the player wants to be. In this work I have done interviews describing the relationship between the player and the player's character. I describe different concepts in the subject and also the player's interactions and observations when they play online games. The result shows that there is a relationship between the player and the character and discusses how it may look. It shows that the attractiveness and social status affects the player's choice of the character. And that it may improve if the player changes the clothes and appearance to something fancier. It also shows that the social and teamwork in online games meet the player's needs and satisfaction of playing.

  • 234.
    Falkenberg Hansen, Kjertil
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljungdahl Eriksson, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design. Edsbyn.
    Atienza, Ricardo
    University College of Arts, Crafts and Design, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sound design through large audience interaction2019In: Proceedings of the Sound and Music Computing Conferences / [ed] Barbancho I.,Tardon L.J.,Peinado A.,Barbancho A.M., CERN , 2019, p. 119-126Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In collaboration with Volvo Cars, we presented a novel design tool to a large public of approximately three million people at the three leading motor shows in 2017 in Geneva, Shanghai and New York. The purpose of the tool was to explore the relevance of interactive audio-visual strategies for supporting the development of sound environments in future silent cars, i.e., a customised sonic identity that would alter the sonic ambience for the driver and by-passers. This new tool should be able to efficiently collect non-experts’ sonic preferences for different given contexts. The design process should allow for a high-level control of complex synthesised sounds. The audience interacted individually using a single-touch selection of colour from five palettes and applying it by pointing to areas in a colour-book painting showing a road scene. Each palette corresponded to a sound, and the colour nuance in the palette corresponded to certain tweaking of the sound. In effect, the user selected and altered each sound, added it to the composition, and finally would hear a mix of layered sounds based on the colouring of the scene. The installation involved large touch screens with high quality headphones. In the study presented here, we examine differences in sound preferences between two audiences and a control group, and evaluate the feasibility of the tool based on the sound designs that emerged. Copyright: © 2019 Kjetil Falkenberg Hansen et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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  • 235.
    Fock-Nilsson, Albin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Huusko, Max
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Äventyrsspelens visuella dragningskraft: En neuroestetisk näranalys av datorspel2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay we present a qualitative analysis of the aesthetics of the environments in the adventure computer games Machinarium (2009) and Superbrothers: Sword and Sworcery (2011). The aim is to find out what makes two so visually different productions visually appealing, and see if we can find a common denominator between them. Creating alluring environments is important in many fields and the results can be used in everything from classical painting to game productions.

    Our basis of analysis comes from neuroaesthetics - a field of empirical aesthetics where facts are based on studies of how our brains react to a diversity of stimuli. Humankind has always had the need to visually interpret the world around us. You have to detect predators, react to disease in potetial mates and find and interpret your surounding in order to find a suitable lands for habitation. This presumably has made it’s mark in our aesthetic appreciation and is what the study of empirical aesthetics and neuroaesthetics is based on. Especially prolific in the field is Vilayanur S. Ramachandran, a neuroscientist who together with William Hirsten created the speculative theory of human artistic experience, and this is the main inspiration for the analysis.

    The analysis is based on two scenes from each game, and it showed that one with relative ease could apply most of the artistic laws to the games, the difficulty however was in knowing how much one could twist and bend the laws, how exact they were to be followed. It was also an important aspect to learn that, just as in the design world, every rule is not to be followed exactly if you want to make an interesting composition

  • 236.
    Fogelberg, Louise
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Vallipour, Lisa
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Hur manifesteras könsstereotyper i DreamWorks Animations animerade filmer?2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are plenty of studies about how gender stereotypes manifest in different kinds of films. To date studies about how gender stereotypes manifest in the films of the company DreamWorks are missing. Therefore, three of DreamWorks most successfulfilms have undergone a content analysis to examine whether the studio sends messages of typically gender based stereotypes to its viewers.

    The analysis is based upon theories of masculinity, femininity, gender, and ageism. This investigation displays that the male characters who play the main characters in these films in some aspects expresses a gender stereotypical masculinity as well as feminine qualities. In conclusion DreamWorks male characters are multifaceted and deep characters who are not a stereotypical image of a certain type of masculinity. The female character’s qualities had a variation of masculinity and femininity, however, was still substantially bound to a feminine appearance, thin and beautiful.

  • 237.
    Forsberg, Emma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Age before beauty : Ett UX initiativ för den äldregenerationen: En social media app skapad för den äldre generationen2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study will show how individuals in the age group 60+ years uses social media and if todays social media is well adapted for the current age group. The purpose of this paper is to create a prototype for social media that the elder generation by using different UX-methods that will be explained further down in the paper.

    To create a user-friendly prototype for the elder generation I, the author will use both qualitative and quantitative methods such as interviews, peer reviewed texts/papers and other relevant references. After finishing this paper I, the author can come to an conclusion that todays social media is not well adapted to the age group named above. Through this paper it will be presented that there are specifics points that should be involved when a social media app is created for the current age group. For the result of the prototype the reader is referred to the section [Bilaga 5] below in the section "Bilagor".

  • 238.
    Forssell, Emma
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Mattsson, Sarah
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Användbarhet och tillgänglighet: En kvantitativ studie av svenska kommuners webbplatser2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Usability and accessibility are two important dimensions of a website. Accessibility refers to how easy users with disabilities can access website content, while usability refers to how effective and efficient a webpage is to use for all users, with and without disabilities. The main objective of this research is to analyze the usability and accessibility aspects of selected Swedish municipalities' websites and evaluate whether higher levels of usability are associated with higher levels of accessibility. The study examined the home pages of 40 municipalities' websites. The usability assessment of the websites was conducted with a revised heuristic checklist consisting of 43 questions. Accessibility assessment was conducted using two automated analysis tools, WAVE and TAW. The correlation between the different aspects of usability and the four main principles of availability was calculated. The results showed that all the evaluated websites to some degree, had usability problems and 35 out of 40 websites showed accessibility issues. The analysis also showed significant relationships between some of the usability aspects and some of the accessibility principles. These findings indicate that an improvement of websites accessibility may result in increased usability and vice versa. 

  • 239.
    Fröjdendahl, Richard
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Catwalk på webben: En studie om en produktorienterad användarupplevelse2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The cost of returns is a big problem for a webshop. The purpose of this studie was to examine a user-experience related function on a webshop with clothes, additional to regular product pictures. It takes a closer look at a function called catwalk, which is a video where a model shows off clothes in movement. This studie was created with the purpose to see if this function could have any impact on the consumers positive experiences within searching for a specific product, in this case clothes. It also observes if the function provides a safer feeling for the consumer when it comes to evaluate a potential item for purchase. This, to see if the amount of return products eventually could be reduced. Six girls in the age span of 20-35 years old was observed when they searched for clothes, and afterwards they was interviewed about their thoughts of the catwalk-function. Results ars showing that the participants was given a safer feeling when it came to choosing the right product, and was given more help in the search progress. By experiences like these, the consumers desire to return a product reduces. The function was used mainly in the ending process of selecting a product, and could be compared to a changing room in a physical clothing store. This function is a distinct indication of user-experience (UX).

  • 240.
    Fuentes Martinez, Ana
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    A Practice Acceptance Model Beyond Technology When Programming And Mathematics Converge2022In: ICERI2022 Proceedings / [ed] Luis Gómez Chova, Agustín López Martínez, Joanna Lees, iated Digital Library , 2022, p. 6228-6237Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The technology acceptance model (TAM) that guided many behavioristic investigations during the last three decades has been gradually expanded and even replaced by subsequent explanation models that attempt to predict the uptake of digital technologies in organizations. In the era of postdigital education, where the distinction between digital and non-digital becomes inessential to the design and implementation of learning activities (Fawns 2019), we face the challenge of explaining, predicting, and promoting new school practices that go beyond technology. To this endeavor, a Practice Acceptance Model was outlined as a next step to capture the nature of acceptance in relation to technologies, in which the artifacts themselves were not the object of acceptance or rejection, but rather the practices that a technology class brought about (Fuentes-Martinez 2020). In this paper, we delve further into the ideas of a Practice Acceptance Model in the context of interspersing mathematics and computer programming in education. The discussion takes up the preceding ideas that rebrand computer programming as a practice rather than a technology, along with other pedagogical practices of mathematics teachers. Therefore, the parameters that traditionally characterize TAM evaluations are here reframed to better reflect the nuances of teachers’ everyday practices. The present longitudinal study serves to postulate new variables that mediate between the advantages and disadvantages expected when teaching mathematics with elements of programming and the prevalence of this practice in subsequent teaching ventures. Two external variables stand out from these data. First, the teacher’s perceived programming readiness among their students seems to be a decisive factor in whether or not to include coding activities. Also, the perceived frequency of programming opportunities in the national exams appears to have a decisive impact on a conjoint practice. While these two factors resemble the “perceive Ease of Use” and “perceived Usefulness” from TAM, the data suggest that teachers’ internal beliefs on how to practice their discipline play an important role and should be included in a Practice Acceptance Model. Those variables include how teachers regard the intrinsic connection between programming and mathematics, as well as their understanding of which mathematical knowledge is most valuable.

  • 241.
    Fuentes Martinez, Ana
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Dual Teaching and Interspersed Programming: Learning to teach with code2021In: ICERI2021 Proceedings, 2021, p. 807-813Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 242.
    Fuentes Martinez, Ana
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    From a Technology Acceptance Model to a Practice Acceptance Model2020In: Ars Educandi, ISSN 2083-0947, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 61-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the author presents a critical analysis of the technology acceptance model when applied to teaching mathematics with computer programming. Programming is argued to escape the affordances of the model because of the implications carried by the conception of technology, both as materiality and as an alien element introduced in an existing environment. Instead, a practice acceptance model is outlined to cater for the peculiarities of programming in education, as a practice to be endorsed by the teaching community.

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  • 243.
    Fuentes Martinez, Ana
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gender and prior knowledge factors in pupils’ beliefs about programming in mathematics2019In: ICERI2019 Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2019, p. 5703-5703Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent introduction of computer programming in all Swedish school curricula is a significant addition that came along together with several revisions aiming at enhancing pupils’ ICT skills. One of the reasons behind this implementation model was to accelerate the rate at which substantial results would be noticeable. It was also expected that teaching algorithmic thinking from early years would help to reduce the gender gap that has largely been observed in technology and engineering programs in higher education. In this study we wanted to explore students’ beliefs and performance in programming in relation to gender and previous experience. This paper reports on data obtained from first year high school students whose teachers actively attempted to incorporate programming into their mathematics lessons over the course of a school semester during the first year after the reform. We address three questions: a) Is there a difference in in attitudes or beliefs toward programming between students that had programming experience and those who had not? b) Is there a difference in attitudes or beliefs toward programming between male and female students? and c) Is there a difference in code understanding between male and female students? The third question is further analyzed to test the confidence gap hypothesis, which holds that women feel less confident than men in their own abilities. Five student groups from schools across Sweden were selected for the survey among those whose teachers were actively using programming in mathematics. A cross-sectional study was designed addressing the research questions based on data gathered from a group administered questionnaire (N=138). In order to assess students’ understanding of code, three programming exercises in increasing level of difficulty, concluded the survey. Alongside each programming exercise, the respondent had the possibility to express how confident he or she felt about the given answer. For the purposes of data comparison, the chi-squared test of independence was used. The analysis of the data indicates that there are relevant gender differences in students’ views and attitudes towards programming but not in their actual performance when answering code questions. In this case, differences could be attributed to previous programming experience which also seems to influence students’ anxiety toward the reform. However, previous programming instruction did not seem to influence pupil’s beliefs about how useful they thought programming will be in their upcoming education or professional life. Female students were on average less positive regarding how useful they think programming might be for them in the future. We could also confirm the tendency for women to underestimate their programming achievements. Most relevant, female students were more likely to state that they were unsure when the answer was right, whereas male students often felt sure about their wrong answers.

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  • 244.
    Fuentes Martinez, Ana
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Introduktion till programmering2021In: Introduktion till medieteknik / [ed] Pernilla Falkenberg Josefsson, Mikael Wiberg, Studentlitteratur AB, 2021, 1:1, p. 217-225Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 245.
    Fuentes Martinez, Ana
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Memoirs of an Old Teacher2023In: Postdigital Science and Education, ISSN 2524-485X, Vol. 5, p. 556-557Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 246.
    Fuentes Martinez, Ana
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Practice beyond technology when programming and mathematics teaching converge2024Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how computer programming and mathematics teaching converge in the presence of a revised mathematics curriculum for upper secondary education. The focus is on the stratified policy strategies deployed by the institutions; how teachers tactically navigated the tensions and contradictions that arose in their everyday teaching; and how these tactics later consolidated in practice.

    The empirical data for the study consists of two iterations of individual interviews with nine mathematics teachers who were already proficient inprogramming at the onset of the reform. The teachers’ unit plans and other programming activities, were used as starting points for in-depth discussions about their professional practices. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the context, the author also examined relevant policy documents, including the mathematics curriculum, official guidelines, and a collection of programming exercises and demonstrations provided by the Agency for Education.

    Along with these documents, the official strategies were also informed by the explicit decisions and implicit outcomes surrounding the National Exams. By analyzing teachers’ tactics and policy strategies, the thesis sheds light on the ways in which teachers adapted to the new curriculum and the challenges lenges they faced in integrating programming into their mathematics instruction.

    This research aims to contribute to a critical understanding of the complex relationship between curriculum reforms, teacher practices, and the integration of programming in mathematics education. When mathematics teachers started integrating computer programming into their subject, two tactical approaches became evident: dual teaching and interspersed programming. The teacher’s proclivity to implement dual teaching practices or interspersed programming are tactics shaped by and in response to the conditions of the new curriculum and their own preferences and views on student learning. These two tactics disclose different ontological commitments in relation to the strategies dictated by the curriculum and reflect a cardinal distinction between planning mathematics activities with elements of programming and planning programming activities with elements of mathematics. Of relevance for teachers and curriculum designers is the understanding of (a)how the notion of programming and mathematics as separate subjects oversimplifies teachers’ actual integration practices, and (b) how the curricular choices made by policy can shape the teaching tactics adopted by educators.

    Gradually, both the surrounding constraints and the reasons behind them evolved, rising new practices. The second iteration of interviews was designed to unveil the consequences of latter curricular constraints and delve into the teachers’ practices as they change over time. Teachers’ initial resolutions, trials and experiments with programming in mathematics are sometimes reinforced by means of perseverance and the teachers’ mature reflectionson their past experiences. Other tactics need to be refined or updated and yet some are discarded. Along this distinction, relevant categories emerged that illustrate the processes behind consolidated practices in the presence of new technologies. Furthermore, the thesis provides a discussion on how this transition is characterized by acceptance of new practices rather than acceptance of new technologies.

    Recognizing these aspects can guide educators and curriculum designers towards a better understanding of the complexities and nuances involved in integrating programming into mathematics education. This understanding can inform more effective teaching practices and curriculum development that support meaningful integration and promote students’ learning in mathematics with the help of programming.

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  • 247.
    Fuentes Martinez, Ana
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Teachers’ tactics when programming and mathematics converge2021Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers’ everyday practices are embedded in school contexts in which their teaching autonomy is constrained by rules, moral obligations, physical settings,and official directives. When a curricular revision mandated that programming was to be a part of mathematics in upper secondary education, teachers’ conditions changed. How teachers adapted to the new curriculum and how they navigated the tensions and contradictions that they encountered is in this thesis analyzed in terms of teachers’ tactics and policy strategies. The overall goal of the investigation is to contribute to a critical understanding of how mathematics teachers integrate programming in their professional practice and how this integration aligns and diverges from the intentions behind the reform. The empirical material is drawn from nine individual interviews with mathematics teachers that were already proficient in programming. The teachers’ unit plans and other lesson materials featuring programming activities served as a trigger point to delve into further reflections upon their own professional practices. To complete the scene, the policy documents were also examined. These included the mathematics curriculum, as well as related official documents and a collection of institutionally sanctioned programming exercises and demonstrations.

    Two tactical approaches were made apparent when mathematics teachers began to integrate computer programming in their subject: Dual teaching and Interspersed programming. The teacher’s use of dual teaching practices or interspersed programming are tactics shaped by and in response to the conditions of the new curriculum and their own preferences and views on student learning. These two tactics disclose different ontological commitments in relation to the strategies dictated by the curriculum and reflect a cardinal distinction between planning mathematics activities with elements of programming and planning programming activities with elements of mathematics. Of relevance for teachers and curriculum designers is the understanding of (a) how the notion of programming and mathematics as separate subjects oversimplifies teachers’ actual integration practices, and (b) how the curricular choices made by policy can shape the teaching tactics adopted by educators.

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  • 248.
    Fuentes Martinez, Ana
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    The perks and perils of learning programming online: The case of teacher training2022In: EDULEARN22 Proceedings / [ed] Luis Gómez Chova, University of Valencia (ESP), Agustín López Martínez, University of Barcelona,(ESP) Joanna Lees, CEU Cardinal Herrera University (ESP), Valencia: IATED Academy , 2022, p. 5571-5579Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As computer programming is widely being introduced in school curricula around the world, many teacher training initiatives are being put into practice to address the competence needs linked to that endeavor. The imperative digitalization catalyzed by governments’ response to the Covid-19 emergency brought about  an  unexpected plot twist largely  affecting  most  professional development  efforts.  After  rapidly reprioritizing resources toward urgent matters of online teaching, some teachers also embraced the new opportunities that distance courses offered for their own education. Findings from these experiences are here synthesized to examine how teacher training in computer programming could be improved to better suit the affordances and constraints of online courses. The principal themes, problems, approaches, and solutions that emerged from this small-scale  qualitative  study are contrasted with the prevalent  ideasidentified in the literature, such that in adult learning experiences, blended and hybrid learning settings, and computer programming education. Among the common characteristics with these earlier paradigms, issues of idle time, asynchronousity, and unreliable tools were highlighted but also similar advantages regarding autonomy and equity. A particular factor that distinguished the  case of online programming training for educators was the gap between the learning that teachers themselves experienced during the programming course and the learning facilitation that they were expected to provide for their pupils in a school environment. This gap was not only related to the different  visions and purposes for their education but also, and to a larger extent, due to different contexts, including assessment traditions and subject  separation.  This work provides  hindsight  towards  an understanding  of  the  significance  and nature of learning programming for teaching and the challenges and benefits associated with adapting to online settings.

  • 249.
    Fuentes Martinez, Ana
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Understanding cooperative learning among teachers and pre-service teachers who integrate computer programming activities in their mathematics lessons2020In: INTED2020 Proceedings, International Association for Technology, Education and Development , 2020, p. 3564-3568Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students and professionals with background in technical subjects are increasingly opting for a teaching career as a result of a conscious plan from the Swedish government to facilitate transition and completion of a teaching degree. One of the expected benefits from this measure is that students with broader academical and professional experiences could bring that knowledge into their future teaching practice and share it with in-service teachers during their practicum. The purpose of this study is to understand the subjectivities and practices of teachers and pre-service teachers as they engage in professional development activities together. Michel de  Certeau’s work on practices of everyday life serves as a lens for bringing forward the tensions and opportunities that appear in cooperative learning settings within external policy constrains. The motivations of mathematics teachers and preservice teachers that participate in computer programming training activities are analyzed in terms of tactics and strategies that preserve individual autonomy and group coherence and that allow them to make their own spaces within imposed structures. Some teachers resorted to avoidance tactics to escape reporting about their programming assignment, such as postponing it to future meetings or claiming time constrains, while others considered programming  activities  as  intruders  that  obstructed  their mathematics lessons and introduced moments of struggle, deception, confrontation and resignation. This sheds light upon how the practical and intellectual production that schools expect to reap from the process is disseminated increative alliances but leaves also a sense of deprofessionalization in the community.

  • 250.
    Fuentes Martinez, Ana
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ekström, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Kritiska föreställningar och reflektioner om robotar och artificiell intelligens i svensk skola: när lärarnas programmeringskunskaper spelar roll2019In: VILÄR 5-6 december 2019, University West, Trollhättan: Abstracts / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: University West , 2019, p. 9-10Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Robotar och artificiell intelligens (AI) är redan en del av verkligheten och kan komma att göra intåg i skolan inom en snar framtid. I en studie av Hrastinski et al (2019) belyses lärares och forskares kritiska reflektioner om vad användningen av robotar och AI kan innebära för en utbildningskontext. Studien konstaterar ett ökat behov av kompetensutveckling, men påvisar också en viss oro över en förändrad lärarroll, mänskliga relationer, individualisering, pedagogisk ledning och etik. Både lärare och forskare visade upp en begränsad förståelse för skillnaderna mellan de två teknologierna. Dessutom framkom det i studien att det finns en skillnad mellan deltagarnas tankar om införandet av robotar och AI; lärarnas resonemang handlade om möjligheter att förbättra den nuvarande undervisningspraktiken medan forskarna såg en potential till att transformera undervisningen.

    I Sverige har läroplanen nyligen reviderats med följden att alla elever, från förskolan till gymnasiet, ska lära sig datalogiskt tänkande och programmering. Förändringen innebär ökade fortbildningskrav på lärarna, vilket har medfört att många svenska universitet erbjuder programmeringskurser för verksamma lärare. För att studera hur de ökade programmeringskunskaperna påverkar lärarnas syn på användningen av robotar och AI i undervisningen ombads sjutton universitetslärare, med ansvar för programmeringskurserna, att i en enkät reflektera över hur dessa teknologier kan forma framtidens undervisningspraktik. För att kunna jämföra med Hrastinskis tidigare studie, fick universitetslärarna föreställa sig en undervisningssituation där (a) sociala robotar och (b) robotar med artificiell intelligens var en realitet. De reflekterade över vilka utmaningar och möjligheter användningen av robotar och AI skulle kunna medföra i ett framtida klassrum. Hur skiljer sig universitetslärarnas reflektioner från resultatet i den tidigare studien?

    Analysen visade att universitetslärarna resonerade kring potentiella vinster med att individualisera undervisning och befria lärare från rutinuppgifter. Deras framtidssyn låg också närmare lärarnas än forskarnas i Hrastinskis studie, då de inte heller förutspådde någon betydande transformation av den nuvarande undervisningspraktiken. Resultatet indikerade att universitetslärarna generellt sett hade mer kunskap om robotar och AI än deltagarna i den tidigare studien. Trots det var de skeptiska till de kognitiva fördelarna med att använda en fysisk robot istället för en traditionell dator. Utifrån framtidsscenariot med programmeringskunniga lärare i klassrummen, föreslog universitetslärarna inte någon ytterligare kompetensutveckling, vilket står i kontrast till reflektionerna i Hrastinskis studie. Om universitetslärare tror att programmeringskunskaper kan överbrygga kompetensgapet, och de inte förväntar sig någon radikal förändring av undervisningspraktiken, då kanske tröskeln för att integrera robotar och AI i undervisning är lägre än vad den tidigare studien förutsåg.

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