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  • 201.
    Carlsson, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Forbidden and necessary: making sense of smartphones in vocational teaching2023In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The digitalization of schools has intensified in recent years. It is reflected in policy documents as well as in extensive investments in digital technology and professional development initiatives to promote digitalization. At the same time, attempts are being made to “tame” the same digitization sometimes by regulations banning smartphones in class. This study aims to examine how smartphones are interpreted by vocational teachers in Sweden using the theoretical lens of technological frames.

    Design/methodology/approach – The data consist of ten semi-structured interviews with vocational teachers, representing eight vocational programs in Sweden.

    Findings – The results show breadth in how teachers understand, interpret and relate to the smartphone in vocational education. The authors show how the smartphone often forms an integral part of professional work and is thus difficult to separate from vocational teaching and nurturing vocational competencies.

    Originality/value – The authors’ contributions include using technological frames to explore how smartphones are interpreted and understood by vocational teachers by demonstrating how they relate to the nature of the smartphone, the strategy for the smartphone and the smartphone in use. The theoretical framework is used to interpret restrictions on technology use, in this case a smartphone, in education. The results could be of interest to researchers as well as to teachers, school leaders and policymakers.

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  • 202.
    Carlsson, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design. Department of Education, School of Education, Humanities and Social Sciences, Halmstad University (SWE).
    Teaching Here and Now but for the Future: Vocational Teachers' Perspective on Digitalization2022In: International Conference on Work Integrated Learning: Abstract Book, Trollhättan: University West , 2022, p. 70-71Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    When digital technology is introduced into work practice, it means that vocational practice develops and changes (Castells, 2011). New methods, tools, and processes in working life require vocational teachers to develop fundamental vocational competencies and preparedness for this change for their pupil's employability (Persson, 2020). The concept of vocational competencies is understood in different ways (Billett, 2001) yet is often described as tacit and situated (Gåfvels and Paul, 2019). Vocational competence can be described as a symmetric relationship between knowledge, skills, and attitudes (Hiim, 2020, Baartman and De Bruijn, 2011). As working life changes, it places new demands on vocational competence and the use of different technologies. Various attempts have been made to elaborate on the competence needed for teaching in a digitalized society and a digitalized school (Ferrari, 2012, Hatlevik and Christophersen, 2013, Howell, 2012, Kivunja, 2013, Krumsvik, 2008). Vocational practices are intimately associated with physical materials such as objects, bodies, technologies, and these settings permit some actions and prevent others (Carlsson et al., 2022; Fenwick, 2015). In this study, we explore vocational teachers' perspectives on preparing students for future working life and how they relate to teaching in a digitalized society.

    Theoretical perspective

    The TPACK framework, expressing Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge, has arisen as a theoretical framework that specifies what knowledge is required for teaching with technology. It emphasizes that teaching involves developing an understanding of the complex relationship between technology, pedagogy, and content and using this understanding to develop suitable context-specific strategies and representations (Mishra and Koehler, 2006; Willermark, 2018; Willermark and Pareto). In this study, we use TPACK as an analytical lens to explore vocational teachers' perspectives on preparing students for future working life and how they relate to teaching in a digitalized society.

    Method

    The data consists of 10 interviews with vocational teachers from 8 different vocational programs in Swedish upper secondary vocational education. The participants were recruited from a previous survey carried out by the authors (Carlsson & Willermark, 2022) that explored vocational teachers' experiences in using and developing teaching material. A qualitative content analysis was carried out.

    Findings and contributions

    Findings show how teachers benefit from digital technology to support pedagogical strategies as well as facilitate students' content knowledge. Still, digitalization entails challenges of keeping up with changes in professional life and providing students with appropriate vocational digital technologies. It is clear how intimately connected and intertwined digitalization is with pedagogy and the subject content of vocational education (Koehler and Mishra, 2009). Contributions include increased knowledge about digitalization in vocational education, and how it entails navigating tensions between a) teaching practice and vocational practice, b) between different curricula and c) supportive and disruptive digital technologies.

  • 203.
    Carlsson, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Teaching Here and Now but for the Future: Vocational Teachers Perspective on Teaching in Flux2023In: Vocations and Learning, ISSN 1874-785X, E-ISSN 1874-7868, Vol. 16, p. 443-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As working life changes, it places new demands on vocational competence and the use of different digital technologies. It affects vocational teaching, yet digitalization within vocational education constitutes a scarcely researched area. In this study, we explore how vocational teachers relate to teaching in a digitalized society from a socio-material perspective and explore the possibilities as well as the discursive manifestations of contradictions it gives rise to. Data includes semi-structured interviews with ten vocational teachers, representing eight vocational programs in Sweden. Findings show how vocational teachers benefit from digital technology to realize pedagogical strategies and facilitate students’ vocational competence. At the same time, digitalization entails challenges of keeping up with changes in working life and providing students with relevant vocational digital technologies. Contributions include increased knowledge about digitalization in vocational education, and how it entails navigating different contradictions.

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  • 204.
    Carlsson, Therese
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kaur, Rimmy
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Resultat och kassaflöde vid värdering av fastigheter till verkligt värde: i börsnoterade fastighetsbolag2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the fact that the Swedish real estate com-panies value their properties at fair value constitute problems or not. The particularly most tangible effect of real estate companies valuing at fair value is an unrealized gain that is in-cluded in the profit or loss. The unrealized gain may potentially induce an increase in the out-come as the companies do not receive cash due to the increase. The higher result in combina-tion can tempt companies to give a higher dividend than the company would have done, with-out regard to the unrealized profits' impact on the outcome. In addition, the tax payment for a given year is based on the net income, which means that the higher net income a company account for, the higher the tax payment will be. The potentially higher dividend, combined with the higher tax payment may result in companies not having coverage for the payments, in liquid funds.

    The study of the potential problems was carried out by initially studying the Swedish listed property companies' annual reports. This was followed by studying companies' income state-ments and cash flow statements. The research of the aforementioned reports were conducted in order to determine the extent to which the unrealized gain affects earnings, cash flow , div-idends and tax payment. In our opinion, an in-depth analysis of the companies income- and cash flow statements was necessary to answer the research question, and in order to fulfill the purpose of the study, a qualitative method approach by interpretations and comparisons was chosen. A comparison was made between four annual reports for the years following the adoption of IAS 40 and four annual reports for the years before the introduction of IAS 40. We calculated average values for relation between different values in the statements for each company.

    The conclusion of this study is that the valuation at fair value has the effect that the companies provide less dividends in relation to the net income after the introduction of fair value. The relation between dividends and cash flow increased after the introduction of fair value. The identical conclusion was made regarding the average tax payments in relation to cash flow from operating activities. Since both the dividend and tax payments in relation to cash flow increased, the tendency for companies to borrow money may potentially increase. The reason for the increased tendency is a result of the fact that companies' dividends and tax payments represent a higher percentage of the cash flow in the years following the adoption of IAS 40, compared to the years before the adoption. Because of this, the cash flow decreases to a great-er extent after the adoption compared to before the adoption. However, it cannot be deter-mined with certainty, that the companies are borrowing money to cover the payments directly or indirectly

  • 205.
    Carlund, Helene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Det ansvarstagande företaget: Drivkrafterna bakom tre företags CSR-arbete2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 206.
    Carnemark, Anna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Marknadskommunikation på Instagram: Vilken påverkan har kanalen på företagets marknadskommunikation?2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of social media and Instagram has become a natural part of our digital everyday life. Companies increasingly use Instagram as a consumer marketing channel. The object of my survey is to find out if Instagram has affected the marketing communication of companies and in what way it has been affected.   

    The method has been to conduct qualitative interviews with three Swedish companies that all use Instagram as a primary channel for their marketing communication. I have also interviewed a consultant with excellence in the field of social media and have also analysed an Instagram feed of a company that uses Instagram very successfully.   

    My theoretical approach starts at the basis and purpose of marketing communication through target group, subject and channel for communication with consumers. Further, it moves on to assign goals and strategies for implementation in the digital communication process together with the impact of the consumer commitment. Finally I examine the feedback as to effect and response in order to make changes and improvements in the marketing communication.   

    I conclude that Instagram has an effect on the companies' marketing communication as long as the investment in the channel is targeted, extensive and thought through. Otherwise the market communication has no effect. The effect Instagram has today is to help companies adapt to the digital future in the sense that the investment in tradition media is reduced. Instagram also helps companies use more visual messages and it also gives companies a clear channel to the younger generations, the targeting group of the future.

  • 207.
    Cau Nicklasson, Annelie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Janiak, Pamela
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    YouTube som marknadsföringsstrategi: Svenska företagsföreträdares attityder för användning av YouTube i marknadsföringssyfte2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 208.
    Cederlund, Emmy
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Fransson, Malin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Intern- eller extern rekrytering av chefstjänst?: en studie utförd i olika branscher av olika storlekar2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har gjort en studie som belyser skillnader mellan intern- respektive extern chefsrekrytering i olika organisationer av olika storlekar. Studien utgår från fyra chefers uppfattningar och erfarenheter av chefsrekrytering. Avsikten med rapporten är att ta reda på ifall det finns markanta skillnader mellan de olika chefernas uppfattningar och vi har tagit reda på vad det kan bero på. Resultatet har visat tillvägagångsätt som kan påverka valet, så som kompetensutveckling. Vårt resultat har även visat att storlek på organisationen, samt vilken typ av chefsposition det gäller kan vara styrande ifall rekryteringen sker intern eller externt.

  • 209.
    Cederlund, Emmy
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Fransson, Malin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Våga satsa på ledare!: en studie om chefers upplevelser av ledarutvecklingsinsatser2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the experience of leader development in three different organizations, by eight manager's perspective. We want to contribute with increased knowledge of leader development as concepts and its importance in organizations. In the study, about twenty scientific articles have been analyzed and processed to gain a deeper understanding of the subject. Previous research has shown that leadership development is an area that organizations should focus on as leadership is an important component of organizational success, and that choice of method is important for successful development efforts. The theory of the study is first presented with an overall description of leadership and leadership development in general, and then we will describe different models and methods in leadership development and criticism of the subject. A qualitative case study with semistructured interviews has been conducted with a motivation to gather the respondents own perception and experience in the subject.

    We can see that the majority of our respondents believe leadership development is important in organizations and that it promotes the individual, both knowledge and personality. The result of the study shows that leadership development is a topical and important area that is perceived differently from individual to individual and that it is about expanding the theoretical knowledge as well as the personal ability. We have also come to the conclusion that how knowledge is used in the daily work given by leadership development is individual and that networking is the method most appreciated by the respondents of the study. Another conclusion we have drawn is that there are problems with leadership development in the form of poor planning, irrelevant information, if those delivering the initiative are less credible and if organizations do not identify potential candidates who want to develop their leadership but instead are looking for more power. However, we believe that leadership development is important to constantly work in organizations as we believe that all individuals can always be better at their leadership.

  • 210.
    Celik, Mona
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Edeskog, Kristin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Den interna kommunikationen vid en organisationsförändring: Medarbetarperspektiv2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through working life, people have gained experiences of organizational changes that have affected them in one way or another, positively or negatively. How the organization informs its employees through internal communication is noticeably important and can have unforeseen consequences. In the event of organizational change, the role of internal communication is thus not only to transfer information, but also to build a value-creating system that creates an ideology for change that motivates and develops employees' skills. In many cases, communication can create a social structure where organizations are created and maintained through internal communication. The goal of communication is a means to achieve community within the organization. This shows that internal communication has several important aspects for an organization.

    The purpose of this study is to examine from an employee perspective how the internal communication was experienced and how great the need for clear communication was during the change. In order to be able to answer the purpose of the study, a qualitative method has been used. This has been done through eight semi-structured interviews with people working in the organization where a relocation took place. 

    The study shows that internal communication is a crucial tool for organizations to succeed with change. The study also shows that clear and transparent communication is demanded by employees.

  • 211.
    Celik, Mona
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Åberg, Signe
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Motiveras de anställda av individanpassad lön?2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lön är något man förväntar sig erhålla när man utför ett arbete. Dock ser bilden av lön olika ut om du frågar den anställde gentemot om du frågar en chef. Det finns kort sagt två grunder för hur man sätter lön, det är lika lön för lika arbete eller lön efter prestation och arbete. Det sistnämnda är det som utvecklar sig till individuell lön vilket är det vi kommer beröra i den här rapporten.I följande rapport har det studerats närmare om individuell lön kan motivera de anställda och om den skulle ge effekt. Resultatet grundas på en intervju med organisationens personalledare samt en enkät som de anställda fick besvara. Då det användes både intervju och enkät så är metoden både kvalitativ och kvantitativ. Resultatet går delvis emot teorin. Individuell lön fungerar bättre i teorin än i praktiken har vi insett att det är många andra faktorer som påverkar den eventuella motivationen som individuell lön skulle ge. Studiens slutstats är att anställda delvis motiveras av lön men det är inte den största motivatorn. Individuell lönesättning kan förbättra arbetsprestation och ge effekt men organisationen måste vara medveten om andra faktorer som kan komma ha en roll vid införandet av individanpassad lön. Samtidigt tror vi att man motiveras mer av lön än vad man själv tror. Med stöd av vår teori och insamling av data tror vi därför att denna organisation skulle lyckats med ett nytt lönesystem.

  • 212.
    Cevirci, Sultan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Flink, Nancy
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ledarskap ur medarbetarens perspektiv: En kvalitativ studie om vilka upplevelser och föreställningar medarbetare har på ett manligt och kvinnligt ledarskap2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här studien har vi undersökt vad fyra medarbetare på Företaget AB har för föreställningar och upplevelser kring ledarskap/chefskap, ledarstilar och manligt respektive kvinnligt ledarskap.

    Vi har utgått från litterära studier och semistrukturerade intervjuer för att få svar på våra frågor.

    I vissa fall delade respondenterna liknande föreställningar och upplevelser kring de olika områdena medan de i andra fall skiljdes åt. Vår studie visar främst att majoriteten av ledarna är auktoritära och att stereotyper inte alltid måste stämma på alla människor

  • 213.
    Chen, Xuelin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Huang, Youyue
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Mobile marketing communications: A study of Chinese and Swedish consumer perception2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – Developments of Internet and mobile technology make new opportunities for both companies and customer. As a result, mobile devices become new medium conveying messages between firms and consumers. The purpose of this paper is to gain a better understanding of mobile marketing communication from consumers' perception. To fulfil this purpose, this study contains comprehensive dimensions regarding consumers' perception and mobile marketing. Based on these dimensions, two different countries, Sweden and China, were chosen to analyse and compare the differences in consumers' perception as well. The final result is expected to provide effective information on the field.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – In this study, a conceptual framework is developed based on earlier studies. Due to numerical data, a quantitative method was adapted in this study. To collect data, we chose survey contains a self-completed questionnaire with closed questions. The responses from the two countries (Sweden and China) were compared.

    Findings

    – From this result it reveals that the development of mobile marketing communications is relatively more mature in Sweden than in China. Higher consumers' anticipation of receiving messages containing positive attributes are exposed in the Swedish market while more incentives and credibility are necessary to make Chinese consumers active and positive in mobile marketing communications.

    Research limitations/implications

    – This study is limited to consider all dimensions regards to consumers' perception and mobile marketing. Also, by using a non-probability sample, the respondents are limited to include all age group. However, it also shows the valuable insights and understanding in this area. Future research should consider measuring effectiveness from both firms and customers perspective.

    Originality/value

    –Little attention has been devoted to the efficiency of mobile marketing communications in attracting customers from an international marketing perspective. This study is to fill this gap in the literature, connecting consumers perception and companies' mobile marketing. This study also provides the understanding for the companies who plan to expand marketing through mobile communicating with international clients.

  • 214.
    Cheung, Cathy
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ekström, Magnus
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hur ledarskapet påverkarupplevelsen av visionen: En fallstudie i Uddevallas kommunledningskontor2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are different factors that contribute to the success of an organisation. Leadership and vision are among these factors. An organization that lacks a vision has difficulties to prevail in the market. The leadership must possess the ability to guide the organization's members towards it's goal. The co-workers perception of vision is limited because it is general and abstract. If the co-workers perception of the vision is not consistent with the intended, it can raise a demand for extra resources thus weaken the economic result. Therefore it is important that the leadership sends out the correct message to it's co-workers. The purpose of this study is to gain increased knowledge of how the leadership affects the perception of vision. This study has taken on that task with use of a qualitative method. We have interviewed 15 respondents working in the municipal administration in the city of Uddevalla, Sweden. Twelve of them are co-workers, two are department managers and one is head of a department section. The theories applied in this study are transformative-, charismatic- and transactional leadership, Leader-member exchange theory (LMX) and Path-Goal Theory. Other than those we have applied Senge's views on vision. The result shows that there is no specific leadership that has the most impact on the co-workers perception of the vision in the municipal administration, despite the fact that leadership is an important tool for leaders in influencing their followers. The result also shows that the values are emphasized in the departments rather than the general vision of the city of Uddevalla. The co-workers perception of the vision can also be affected by other factors such as if the co-workers are residents of the city, their personal interests, that individual have their own set of values, work experience and age.

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  • 215.
    Christensson, Linda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Dahlin, Susanne
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Är budgetering tillfredsställande i svenska storföretag?: Kvantitativ studie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine large Swedish corporations approach on their budgets as management control systems. Recent research indicates that corporations tend to disagree with the widespread criticism against budgeting. Critics claims, among many other things, that the budget is costly, inflexible, outdated and give rise to manipulation. The more radical critics argue that the alternative would be to abandon the budget and work completely with alternative solutions. Resent research indicates that corporations are still working with budgeting but with an improved version that is re-evaluated over time to adapt better to the business. Another important aspect that previous research shows was that the preferred option in beyond budgeting does not require the budget to be totally abandoned to become useful. Previous studies on corporations attitude towards budget were made, inter alia, in the Netherlands and North America. Thus, there was no study that measured the Swedish corporate attitude towards budgeting. Swedish corporations distinguish themselves partly by culture but mostly by their leadership. The selection group in this study was based on the complexity of large corporations. We examine the population by an independent random sample with a positivistic view. That means a quantitative approach with survey as a tool to reach the population. In 2013 the population of large Swedish corporations consisted of 1850 corporations. By comparing the sample in this study to the entire population, we found that turnover and number of employees does not differ significantly between the groups. A non-response analysis was performed between respondents who answered before and after a reminder were sent out and resulted in statistically reliable results where groups responded homogeneously. The majority of large corporations are currently working with budgeting. This results includes answers from 41 respondents' and in a largely, it is to be said, statistically significant. There are some statements in which too much uncertainty exists but the conclusion was based on the statistically significant findings that the budget is here to stay. The budget aims to create economic overview and is improved and supplemented with the help of the tools beyond budgeting advocates. Largely the criticism could be rejected as false. We believe that further research examine budgeting through a qualitative approach to the same population or a change of the population but with similar research question to see if the smaller corporations share larger corporations' opinion about budgeting.

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  • 216.
    Chéron, Charlotte
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Somon, Samuel
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Factors influencing Swedish consumersbuying of organic products: With the participation of the company Wästgötarna2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A product can be labeled organic if it respects the rules from policies of specialized organisms. Nowadays, more and more individuals consume organic food for diverse reasons. In Sweden, people are concerned about this topic, and seek to improve their habits. Several studies have shown different aspects regarding the perception of the organic concept through demography, attitudes and values factors. Those studies remained general and did not focus their analysis on a country like Sweden. Thus, it will be interesting to investigate the subject, to understand and to analyze which factors influence the Swedish population to buy organic food in order to help the local farming producers to be aware of their target and to focus their strategies on consumers. Thus, we would like to examine the relationship between the individual characteristics of consumers and the motivations toward the organic food purchase, in Sweden. Through a quantitative method, and the creation of a survey, we would like to determine what kind of consumers they are and, what criteria explain their choices. From the theoretical framework, we had some theories that help us to analyze our findings. Indeed, different Green behaviors exist taking into account the quality, the environmental factor, the health reasons, the local production and the food safety. In order to have an overview of the Swedish consumer, we collaborated with a local cooperative, Wästgötarna. We surveyed 30 people who consume Wästgötarna's products. It drives us to the study of this survey through an in-depth analysis of univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis of data by the use of crosstabs. We focused our research on the criteria we found out from the theoretical framework (quality, environmental impact, origin...). Our survey has shown us that women are more concerned by the organic food than men. It is even more obvious when the household gets children. Mostly, consumers, between 25 and 34 y.o. and between 46y.o. and more, buy the more often organic products. These consumers purchase organic products because of Swedish production, health reasons and environmental concerns. However, their knowledge about this field stays low on the benefits of this kind of products. We concluded our thesis with the general overview of Swedish consumers; our respondents seem to appear in the Green consumerism, as humanist people, i.e. they avoid the industrial food to encourage local production. However, due to our small sample size, we cannot generalize the fact but only suggest it

  • 217.
    Civic, Eldina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kadi, Manal
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Belöningars effekt: En kvalitativ studie kring belöningar och dess effekt inom detaljhandeln.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rewards have been discussed as a method to motivate employees into achieving corporate goals. The difficulty in that lies in the fact that managers do not always know what type of rewards should be used as a tool in the company so that they achieve performance improvement. We will in this study highlight how managers can, by using rewards as an incentive, motivate store employees to achieve targets that the company sets for the employee. The purpose of this study is to get an idea of how different types of rewards affect the employee's motivation, well-being and performance in different retail stores. The study is based on store employee's experiences of receiving rewards in different situations and it is described from management and employees perspective. We hope that the study will provide useful information in how to use different kind of rewards. We also hope that store managers in various retail stores can use this study as guidance and support when it becomes relevant to use rewards as a tool. We choose to do a qualitative study with a hermeneutic inquiry approach on our study. And the method we choose to use in this study is several interviews, face-to-face, and telephone interviews to structure our empirical chapter of this essay. The analysis is presented as a link and discussion between the empirical chapter and the theoretical chapter.

    The conclusion in this study is that store employees in retail sector value non-monetary rewards more than monetary rewards. However, employee's motivation increases when both reward forms are combined. According to this study, store employee's values the psychosocial factors and satisfaction, which increases the well-being, motivation and job performance. Therefore, by managers knowing what their employees value as rewards, managers can be able to motivate them into improving their performances. This is crucial, because the company's success depends on the employee's productiveness.

  • 218.
    Colakovic, Narcisa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Sivertsson, Julia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hantering av osäkerheter vid budgetering och verksamhetsplanering: En fallstudie utförd på akutavdelningar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Budgeting and business planning is used to control the operations and allocate resources in a good way so that the organization can achieve their goals. The problem of cost controlling is that the health care main purpose overrides, which is saving lives and help people who need care. We have done a study based on the emergency departments at Norra Älvsborgs Länssjukhus (hospital) that is operating in an uncertain environment. The purpose of the study is to investigate the uncertainties that the emergency departments are exposed to and how they handle the problem of uncertainties with budget and business planning. By examining the problem we want to get a better understanding of how management of uncertainties in budgeting and business planning takes place. A qualitative methodology with the influence of the inductive approach is used in the study. Altogether, five people were interviewed at NÄL hospital in Trollhattan, in order to get the overall understanding of the chosen topic. The theory that we have been selecting for the study is mostly based on researchers Hartmann, Abbott and Boutsioli, further applied scientific articles and literature in the theoretical framework. The theory indicates that it is important to analyze the uncertainties in order to plan the future in a good way. It is also important to look back at the past to get a good picture of the future and use the past experiences in decision-making. Based on the results, we did an interpretation and analysis of the types of uncertainties the emergency departments are exposed to and how they manage them through budgeting and business planning. What we came up with was that some uncertainty variables can be affected, while other environmental uncertainties are harder to affect. We have also concluded that emergency departments have difficult to establish a long term business plan that goes to pursue and achieve the set goals, since it always happens unexpected events.

  • 219.
    Coppin, Valentin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Sellier, Louis
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Millennials’ socially responsible consumption2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis in business administration is an investigation on the socially responsible consumption of millennials. In order to attain the aim of our thesis, which is to shed some light on the variables which explained the socially responsible consumption of millennials, we investigated 150 millennials from Sweden and France. This paper is based on a quantitative research about this both countries and the research question was presented as “Why millennials consume in a socially responsible way?”. To investigate the millennials, a survey was built on previous theories,, and the survey was shared on the social media, Facebook. The main findings of this thesis are that the millennials consider the quality and taste as the most important attributes to buy ethically, then that they attach a great importance to biospheric motivations and environmental concerns. Lastly, we found out that the millennials make their choices of responsible products by taking into consideration mainly security and hedonism values, but also that millennials are deeply influenced by the social group.

  • 220.
    Crosby, Michelle
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hansson, Hanna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    E-handel med livsmedel: en studie ur ett kundperspektiv om påverkande faktorer på konsument köpbeteendet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    "E-commerce with groceries- A study based on a consumer perspective about the factors affecting consumer buying behaviour". A bachelor thesis in Business (EXC504) written by Hanna Hansson and Michelle Crosby at University West (spring 2016). ). Tutor: Akbar Khodabandehloo och examiner Ellinor Torsein. Today the internet has become a big part of people's lives all over the world, and this importance as well as usage will keep on growing. This development has motivated companies to improve their existing businesses on the e-commerce and also to move their focus from the traditional in store retailing to trading online. The development enables companies to reach many and large consumer groups with little effort. The grocery shopping on the e-commerce has grown and become successful. This growth is possible because of the household today who has turned to trading on the internet due to lack of inspiration and time in their everyday lives as well as them seeing the benefits in ease of use and home delivery provided. The e-commerce with food has grown with as much as 40 percent in 2015. Although it is still thought to be in its initial stages and is seen to have great growing potential in the coming years. The purpose of this paper is to identify and investigate the factors which have an effect on the consumer buying behaviour and preferences towards the e-commerce of groceries. The authors hope to bring clarity and to fill in the gap of knowledge stated by earlier researchers concerning the fast growing e-commerce with groceries, by centring the study on the consumer perspective. The paper is established on a quantitative study conducted through a web based survey. The survey was distributed on the social media channel Facebook and the answers from 110 respondents were collected. The theoretical framework exists of general model for consumer buying behaviour as well as current and relevant research on the subject e-commerce and grocery shopping. The study shows that the only factors that have a statistically significant relationship to the consumer's shopping behaviour in e-commerce with food is the perceived risk on product quality as well as the convenience and timesaving in usage. Demographic factors such as gender, age, income and housing conditions along with the price and supply was not found to have any effect on purchasing behaviour.

  • 221.
    Cäker, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Siverbo, Sven
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Effects of performance measurement system inconsistency on managers' role clarity and well-being2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 256-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore the impact of PMS inconsistency on managerial role clarity and well-being. In addition,we investigate if problems with PMS inconsistency can be dealt with by convincing superiors to loosen their control reactions to variances, giving managers job autonomy and providing managers with support from superiors, peers and staff functions. Based on survey responses from 799 managers in one public sector organizationand 187 managers in one private sector organization we conclude that PMS inconsistency has negative effects on managers' role clarity and well-being. This situation does not improve if superiors practice loose control; on the contrary, it seems to make managers' work situation worse. Job autonomy and support appear to be better coping methods since they have direct positive impacts on managers' role clarity and well-being that counteracts the negative effects of PMS inconsistency.

  • 222.
    Cäker, Mikael
    et al.
    Department of Business Administration, School of Business, Economics & Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Siverbo, Sven
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Åkesson, Johan
    Department of Business Administration, School of Business, Economics & Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (SWE).
    Performance measurement systems, hierarchical accountability and enabling control2022In: Accounting and Business Research, ISSN 0001-4788, E-ISSN 2159-4260, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 865-889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The theory of enabling control explains how the development and design of performance measurement systems (PMSs) induce subordinate managers to experience PMSs as enabling. However, PMSs are often vital to superior managers' control. The empirical research indicates that PMSs cease to be enabling when given a large degree of attention in control processes. We use a qualitative case study, abductive research, and a hierarchical accountability perspective to explore how superior managers' use of PMSs for control purposes may support subordinate managers' experience of PMSs as enabling. We show how superior managers' choices of how to use PMSs to demand and react to accounts may trigger subordinate managers to use the design characteristics of enabling control. We also show how PMSs can be important to superior managers' control and still be experienced as enabling by subordinate managers. We show the importance of two choices for superior managers' use of PMSs in hierarchical accountability: (1) extend performance evaluation over time and (2) limit the discretion for subordinate managers to play out within hierarchical communication.

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  • 223. Cäker, Mikael
    et al.
    Siverbo, Sven
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Åkesson, Johan
    The role of performance measurement in public sector control: a system perspective2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 224.
    Dah, Frederick Kwasi
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Sulemana, Mwinibuobu
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
     The contribution of oil to the economic development of Ghana: the role of foreign direct investments (FDI) and government policies2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Crude oil can attract a lot of investments and development into a country but when not managed well can as well cause a lot of destruction and conflict. Like fire, crude oil is a good servant but can be a bad master too depending on how it is handled. Using Dunning‟s eclectic paradigm, a positive relationship between foreign direct investment and locational attraction was established. Of the two components within the locational attraction, natural resource attracts more foreign direct investment than market size in the case of Africa. It was established through our case study of Angola that oil attracts foreign direct investment because oil is a location attraction which attracts foreign firms. These investments on the other hand contribute to the productive capacity of the receiving country thus stimulating economic development. However, the availability of natural resources (oil) and its ability to attract foreign investment does not guarantee economic development. The establishment of appropriate institutions, mechanisms and policies would ensure efficient use of oil revenue for sustained economic growth. We identified vital policy options (the Fund mechanism and spending rule) available to Ghana , with inference from Norway, which could help evade the „Dutch Disease‟. Oil production could thus attract more foreign direct investment and contribute to the economic development of Ghana only on condition that appropriate oil revenue management policies are implemented.

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  • 225.
    Dahl, Julia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Enh, Anna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Belöningssystemets påverkan för intern styrning: En studie med fokus på acceptans, beteendeförändring & resultatstyrning2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following case study regards reward systems, with the purpose of examining the implication of performance-based processes as a means for internal management. The practices advance towards desirable behavior, which are beneficial for the operational objectives, where emphasis remains on defining the required parameters for acknow-ledgment of the wage system. The study is characterized in methodology by its qualitative interviews involving eight respondents’ deliberations as a foundation for the empirical framework. A hermeneutic outlook has been applied with the objective to interpret and comprehend the context. The paper is written by Julia Dahl and Anna Ehn, spring 2014 semester within the course "Examensarbete i Företagsekonomi/Thesis report in Business Economics", Högskolan Väst.

    A decent business structure and a fine business concept are alone not measures for suc-cess. The ability to thrive involves additional capabilities in a growing market with pro-gressive competitiveness. Thereof it is of upmost importance to regard employees as the most valued resource. In turn the amount of incentive will be a presumption of a well-adjusted organization. A step towards motivating coworkers and also keeping staff competence within the business, can be to introduce a performance-based reward system that is expected to yield higher efficiency and flexibility.

    The studies theoretical chapter is divided within two main areas; motivation and reward. Succeeding each of the two topics, explanatory information relevant to incentives is introduced. Delineation for theories regard; McClelland’s Theory of Needs, Two-Factor Theory, Principal Agent-Theory and Expectancy Theory. The chapter includes other remaining significant aspects, which are of great relevance for reward systems being functioning within the organization.

    The collection of empirical data gathered, relative to the studies theoretical chapter has resulted in a profound analysis and inference. The respondent’s account for diverse ex-pectations in an implementation, which can be related to their varied level of knowledge and previous experience from reward systems. Important issues, which have arisen in discussions during the interviews regard the distress of employees might burnout them-selves and the difficulty of establishing a method of incentives that is experienced fair for the individuals involved.

    Conclusion-wise the analytical framework has represented the result of reward systems being a functioning means for direction within organizations, given it being design in a justly manner in between coworkers. It is also highly significant to provide the employees with the information necessary for how to affect their performance-based fragment, as uncertainty in its design shall not occur. To produce a system fairly is about letting all employees be covered in it, also, involving the coworkers in the phase of planning linking them to the initiation process

  • 226.
    Dahl, Viljo
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kommuner och hållbarhet: En studie om hur fem kommuner i Jönköpings Län arbetar med hållbarhet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2016 the UN's agenda 2030 officially came into force where Sweden, in common with the countries of the world, will work for a sustainable world by taking responsibility for social, economic and environmental issues. Government companiesare legally bound to sustainability reporting in accordance with the Global Reporting Initiatives (GRI) standard. Since 2016, even larger Swedish companies and corporate groups have been regulated under the Sustainability Act to draw up sustainability reports. But for municipalities there is no such requirement, which has meant that the municipalities' work with sustainability and sustainability reporting have fallen behind. This paper has studied the concept of sustainability and what it means seen from amunicipality's point of view. The purpose of this paper was to create a betterunderstanding of how five municipalities in Jönköping County work with sustainability, how they report this and how they look at increased standardization of accounting. The study takes on a qualitative method and empirics has been collected through semistructured telephone interviews with environmental strategists in five municipalities and from the municipalities' websites. Empirics has been analyzed and interpreted using the theoretical framework, based on the triple bottom line, Bennett's pyramid, the legitimacy model, stakeholder theory, institutional theory and prevalent standards. The study's results show that the municipality is influenced by its stakeholders and that they exert a kind of institutional pressure on the municipality when it comes to the municipality's choice of sustainability activities and how they should be reported. Furthermore, the results show that the municipalities have a lot to work with in thefuture as no one has a sustainability policy or a unified sustainability report today.

  • 227.
    Dahlgren, Angelika
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lammer, Elin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Marknadsföringskanaler: En granskning av användningen och effekten2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och problem: Företag kan idag marknadsföra sig via Internet, sociala medier, Tv, direkt reklam och mässor. De traditionella kanalerna börjar sakta försvinna för att ge plats för de nya och mer populära. Marknadsföringen är en dyr del av den dagliga verksamheten men trots det väljer företag allt mer att fokusera på flera kanaler samtidigt. En studie som beskriver vad företag får ut av att använda flera kanaler vore intressant. Därför kommer en studie göras om hur det påverkar företag samt varför de väljer att arbeta på detta sättet.

    Syfte: Uppsatsen har för avsikt att undersöka vilka argument våra valda företag har till att marknadsföra sig genom flera kanaler samtidigt.

    Metod: I studien har kvalitativ metod använts och fyra intervjuer har genomförts med företag som använder flera marknadsföringskanaler för att kommunicera med sina kunder.Slutsats: För företagen i studien är det viktigt att studera sina marknadsföringskanaler. De sätter upp mål som de vill uppnå och jämför kanalerna med varandra för att se likheter och skillnader.Effekten som företagen vill få ut av respektive valda kanaler drabbar dem ekonomiskt. Det kan antingen bidra till en vinst eller en förlust för verksamheten. Därför är valet av markandsföringskanaler ett beslut som kräver långsiktigtiga mål och en stor planering.

    Förslag till vidare forskning: Olika områden som är intressanta för vidare forskning har upptäckts genom arbetets gång. Ett alternativ är att studera företag inom samma bransch. Ett annat är att jämför med företag som enbart använder en kanal för att se skillnader i effekten.

  • 228.
    Dahlöf, Mikaela
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hellgren, Amanda
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Prestationsmätning som underlag för belöningssystem: En fallstudie på ett konsultbolag.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The primary purpose of performance measurement is to enable implementation of the organizations business strategy and facilitates the employees understanding for the business strategy. Performance can be measured based on both financial and non-financial measures, traditionally financial performance measures. The procedure for measuring performance has in recent years changed. The use of non-financial performance measures has increased in pace with a complex market. Furthermore, performance measures is a base for reward, which in conformity with performance, has been based on financial metrics. Reward based on financial measures, however, has been criticized, primarily because short-term performance is promoted. Despite the increased use of non-financial performance metrics for measuring performance and the criticism against reward based on financial criteria's, non-financial performance measures is used in a low degree as a basis for rewards.

    The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about how performance measurement and reward systems was expressed in a consulting company. The study further intended to gain knowledge if performance measurement and reward system was based on the same grounds. A section in a consulting firm has been studied thus organizations with a high degree of innovation, in greater extent than others, measures non-financial performance. A qualitative method with an inductive approach has been used in the study, where interviews with the organizations controller, department manager and team leader has been put through. To create a more vide empirical base, the interviews has been com-plemented with data from computer systems, tools and reports used to evaluate costumer- and employee satisfaction, leadership quality and hotel occupancy. The theoretical framework consisted of performance measures, financial perspective, non-financial per-spective, combined measurement system and reward. In all mentioned areas, definitions, advantages and disadvantages from previous research has been discussed. Our empirical data showed that the section uses a variety of performance metrics, both financial and non-financial. The dimension and the tools that was most important to the organization was EBIT, budget, customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, leadership quality and efficiency. Measurement of performance also constituted the base for the reward system. The study shows that the reward system was based on the same metrics and tools that's is used to evaluate the sections performance, but contains more non-financial goals and criteria's. This formation indicates that the section wants to influence and control the manager's behavior and highlight important aspects of its strategy. Despite a vast number of non-financial criteria's, the financial assessment criteria is of biggest weight in the reward system.

  • 229.
    Dahnér, Anders
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Tillämpning av IFRS under högkonjunktur: En undersökning av icke noterade K3-fastighetsbolag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essence of this paper has been to investigate to what degree real estate companies based in Stockholm, Sweden voluntarily adopt fair value accounting, FVA by using International Financial Reporting Standards, IFRS as accounting principle. This subject is currently interesting because of the high market values on real estates in Sweden right now, never have the prices been as high on the market as the current ones. The high pricing on real estates may be an incentive for real estate companies to move from the traditional acquisition value to the adoption of FVA when presenting the value of their real estates in their annual reports. The problem of the FVA is the complexity behind the valuation which makes it harder for creditors to evaluate the assets of companies. Previous research has highlighted incentives for FVA such as, the effort to effect or manipulate financial ratios to make the company look stronger. And that companies can have an incentive to evaluate their properties high if they are close to break their bond covenants with the bank. This paper has focused on real estate companies in the Swedish capital city, Stockholm. Where the companies chosen to be included in the study have been required to fulfil some credentials to be of interest for the survey. The study clearly present that the majority of the real estate companies in Stockholm, Sweden does not use FVA in their financial statement when book keeping their properties. Therefore, the normative isomorphic pattern among the companies is to book keep properties according to acquisition value. What extinguish these companies are their low debt to ratio and high ability to pay. The findings are inconsistent with prior studies that have been conducted arguing that companies use FVA when accounting to engage in result increasing actions. In Stockholm on the other hand there are only six percent of the companies that are accounting according to FVA, but there is a total of 72,6 percent of the companies not using FVA as their book keeping principle that provides the fair value of their real estates in their annual reports. The core of the paper has been to establish whether the companies use FVA or not. The paper also present breakdowns of the incentives that prior studies have concluded has an influence on companies when choosing FVA as accounting principle. Because of the quantitative method used when conducting the study not all the incentives that prior research has provided where able to be analysed. To be able to conclude a full picture, the issue needs to be addressed with both a quantitative and a qualitative method. Therefore, the result presented in this paper is to be regarded as an answer to if real estate companies in Stockholm, Sweden use FVA, not why they do it.

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  • 230.
    Dalhed, Sofia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Iversen, Lenika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Framgångsrecept för projektprocesser: En kvalitativ studie om kommunikation och ledarskap i en projektorganisation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Complexity and the possibility for interpretation in combination with the standardizations impact on flexibility is often in focus within organizations. Working in projects can also be defined in the same concepts. The purpose with this thesis was to shed light on the problems that may occur when working in projects and how it can be managed. To reach a result we conducted qualitative interviews with project leaders and co-workers in a company operating in the automotive industry. We also examined the company's internal documents regarding strategies for the management of work processes. During analysis of the empirical data, four distinct recurring themes occurred as a basis to continue the study. The themes we found were; Project processes, communication, project leadership and stress and competence. In practice, projects are rarely as straight-forward as theories suggest, and it was discussed whether the formulas and concepts were all applicable or not. The most interesting conclusion was that the project manager has great opportunity to influence the project and what strategies are assumed, through leadership style, knowledge and priorities. We also found that the communication and the channels used depend on the leader and the design of the project, which led us to the conclusion that the leader influences and the communication is impacted. The study has also resulted in us finding other important factors affecting projects. Experienced stress acts as a motivator rather than problematic and that projects are often characterized by high competence among employees.

  • 231.
    Daläng, Annika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Mot ett gemensamt mål: med eller utan en gemensam vision?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most organizations make use of, or has the intention to make use of a vision that demonstrates the organization's overall purpose. The vision is meant to serve as a tool to motivate the organization's employees to work in accordance with the organization's overall purpose. A crucial aspect of visionary work and the impact it has on its employees is how common, or shared the vision is. A shared vision is a vision shared by and understood in a similar manner by all of the organization's employees. The vision is ment to motivate employees to work in the same direction, wanting to give that little extra to work toward the organization's overall purpose. Many organizations does not reach all the way when it comes to vision process and the implementation of the vision. Partly because there is a lack of knowledge and lack of clarity around the concept of vision, where vision is often confused with the values and objectives, and visionary work is not a priority. This report examines how employees' work motivation is affected by indistinct vision-work, and what impact this will have on the organization's performance.

    The study was conducted using qualitative method where five semi -structured interviews in combination with participant observation and document study form the basis of the results. The study shows that an ambiguous and poorly implemented vision does not necessarily affect employees' work motivation. However, the consequence of an ambiguous and poorly implemented vision is that employees use their own personal visions as benchmarks to justify themselves in their work.

  • 232.
    Danielsson, Emma
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Johansson, Sarah
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    En kvalitativ studie om arbetslojalitet2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's working life offers a wide variety of work opportunities in varying occupations as well as with different employers. Hence a great deal of energy has been spent on analyzing how an employer can attract employees with the right competence. In this study, we have chosen a different approach and are interested in the factors that ensure that an employee remains loyal to his current employer and does not choose to pursue career opportunities outside the organization. We see it as important for an employer to be able to maintain the right competence within the organization by keeping down staff turnover and creating good conditions for job satisfaction. The purpose of this essay is to investigate the underlying reasons why employees are loyal to their employer. Furthermore, we want to find potential factors that an employer can work with to create work engagement and job satisfaction. The method we have chosen to use is a questionnaire survey. We have chosen this method to obtain a breadth of the answers we receive and to be able to analyze the area based on a larger group of employees. Our theoretical frame of reference presents research in work loyalty, leadership and feedback, work motivation and commitment as well as psychosocial work environment and social work factors. It is also these areas that we have chosen to focus our research questions on, in order to be able to distinguish how work loyalty relates to the other factors. The conclusions of our study are that there are many factors that affect work loyalty. We can see that our focus areas are involved in affecting work loyalty in different ways, but that there are individual opinions about the importance of the different areas. Our conclusion is that an employer by working with all of these factors can increase the likelihood that employees will be loyal.

  • 233.
    Daoud, Yasmin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Joffrey, Nathalie
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Mixat belöningssystem som motivation: En kvalitativ studie i en bank2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of companies applying reward systems is to promote the motivation of employees and the desire to strive towards the company's set goals. Since companies have different strategies and goals, the reward system must be designed after the company's environment and thus not be effective in another company. The reward system works as an instrument to control employee’s behaviour. It seems to have major financial risks with the introduction of reward system in banking industry. Previous research shows a positive attitude towards the introduction of reward systems, but on the other hand, they are more critical of monetary rewards due to the risks involved. The purpose was to investigate how the design of a mixed reward system is applied to motivate the employees, and whether the mix is effective to achieve the company's set goals. This study has been presented in a qualitative method, where the data collection was done through semistructured interviews in an anonymous bank in Gothenburg. Through the theoretical reference framework, it is possible to acknowledge and see a correlation between how the design of a reward system can motivate the employees. We take into account Stewardship and Agency principal theory, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, as well as monetary and non-monetary rewards. Following the interviews, it was found that employees in the anonymous bank had mixed opinions regarding the current design of the bank's reward system, most of which demanded more of the monetary rewards. Furthermore, when interpreting and analysing the empirical evidence it was found that during certain work situations it was agreed by the researchers and in other situations they were disagreed. At first, employees at the bank were identified as half stewards and half agencies, where stewards are driven by an intrinsic motivation and agencies of extrinsic motivation. It is important to take into account employees' opinions, maintain fairness and base their salary on the right behaviours in order to achieve the optimal reward system. Thus, the conclusion has become a mixed reward system is the optimal and efficient instrument in order to motivate the employees.

  • 234.
    Darius, Emma
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Enbom, Emma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Vilka motiv finns för att erbjuda respektive utnyttja friskvårdsbidrag?: En studie utifrån arbetsgivaren och arbetstagarens synvinkel2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we have investigated the motives of the employer and the employees to use their health care contribution. Good health and well-being provide the conditions for the staff to be able to perform and be productive in their daily work. This study also helps the company to get a clearer picture of what the staff think of the wellness that is offered. The focus of our study has been to review the employee's attitude and motives for the company's investments in health care grants and group training, as well as the employee's motives and thoughts about it. Along with information from the empiricism that comes from interviews, surveys and documentation, we have analyzed and looked at what the investment can give for effects of the employees. Our conclusion from the study is that the employees' main motive for using wellness is to feel good, to cope with everyday life and to stay healthy and that there are positive effects such as feeling more cheerful, happier, more motivated and less stressed. From the employer's perspective, the motive is to offer the staff health care allowance to make the staff feel appreciated, feel good and get more movement when the work itself is quite sedentary and stressful.

  • 235.
    Darius, Emma
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Enbom, Emma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Work-life balance vid tvingande distansarbete: en kvalitativ studie gjord i ett tillverkningsföretag under covid-19 pandemin2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since December 2019, a new virus has spread around the world, the disease caused by the virus has been named Covid-19 and the effects of the virus have been dramatic for organizations and employees around the world. Due to the new virus, a lot of organizations have been forced to change to try to prevent further spread, which has led to compulsory teleworking. We have therefore chosen to conduct a qualitative study in a company where employees are forced to work at home since the spring of 2020. In the study, we examined how the employees' work-life balance is experienced in the mandatory telework, which has arisen due to Covid-19. So far, it is unclear whether teleworking facilitates or rather complicates the combination of work and home. Teleworking can contribute to positive effects such as flexibility and self-control, but they can also lead to negative aspects such as stress and imbalance in life. Together with the information from the empirical data that comes from semi-structured interviews in which six people participated and previous research, we have analyzed and reviewed how the forced telework affects this organization's work-life balance. The results of our study shows that employees work longer working days, the boundary between work and private life has been blurred and social contact with colleagues has decreased since they started working from home. Our conclusion from the study is that employees experience a poorer balance between private life and working life when they work remotely.

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  • 236.
    Davidsson, Patricia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Beteendet bakom lyxkonsumtion: En studie om faktorer som påverkar lyxkonsumtion2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many factors are affecting luxury consumption. It is therefore important to study peoples' behavior, motivations and attitudes towards this kind of consumption. New technology and the evolution of society have led to new factors that affect luxury consumption. Therefore, both the digital and non-digital world must be investigated to get a better understanding of modern day factors. Luxury is a broad concept that must be understood and defined before further investigation can be done. This thesis describes a study with new results in this particular area.

    The purpose of the study is to gain an increased understanding of factors which influence luxury consumption in our modern times. For this study, a qualitative case study method has been used in the form of semi structured interviews with 6 subjects. The theoretical framework consists of new as well as established research within luxury consumption, particularly factors that affect luxury consumption, especially, psychological factors, digital medium and financial means.

    Through the collected data from the interview subjects several factors that affect luxury consumption have been identified. These factors are feelings, prestige, e-commerce, social media, and credits. The study showed that these factors are based on a behavior that leads to luxury consumption.

  • 237.
    de Blanche, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Belenki, Stanislav
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Hattinger, Monika
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Artificial and human aspects of Industry 4.0: an industrial work-integrated-learning research agenda2021In: VILÄR: 9-10 of December, 2021, University West, Trollhättan, 2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry is currently under extreme pressure to transform their organizations and competencies to reap the benefits of industry 4.0. The main driver for industry 4.0 is digitalization with disruptive technologies such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, internet of things, digital platforms, etc. Industrial applications and research studies have shown promising results, but they rarely involve a human-centric perspective. Given this, we argue there is a lack of knowledge on how disruptive technologies take part in human decision-making and learning practices, and to what extent disruptive technologies may support both employees and organizations to “learn”. In recent research the importance and need of including a human-centric perspective in industry 4.0 is raised including a human learning and decision-making approach. Hence, disruptive technologies, by themselves, no longer consider to solve the actual problems.

    Considering the richness of this topic, we propose an industrial work-integrated-learning research agenda to illuminate a human-centric perspective in Industry 4.0. This work-in-progress literature review aims to provide a research agenda on what and how application areas are covered in earlier research. Furthermore, the review identifies obstacles and opportunities that may affect manufacturing to reap the benefits of Industry 4.0. As part of the research, several inter-disciplinary areas are identified, in which industrial work-integrated-learning should be considered to enhance the design, implementation, and use of Industry 4.0 technologies. In conclusion, this study proposes a research agenda aimed at furthering research on how industrial digitalization can approach human and artificial intelligence through industrial work-integrated-learning for a future digitalized manufacturing.

    Download full text (pdf)
    VILÄR 2021
  • 238.
    De Miquel, Javier
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Customer switching behavior:: A study of customer switching behavior in the banking sector with the emergence of challenger banks2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been developed with the purpose of finding out what motivates traditional banking customers to migrate to challenger banks and what motivates them to make challenger banks as their primary bank. To respond the research question, a deductive approach has been chosen. A theoretical model has been created based on theories from existing studies on switching consumer behavior such as those of (Keaveney, 1995), (Manrai & Manrai, 2007) and (Thaichon, et al., 2017) . For the theoretical model of this thesis, factors such as service failures, response to service failures, price, service quality, diversified services, ease banking, ethical issues and word of mouth have been considered. This model has been empirically analysed through quantitative data from bank customers from all over the world who have used the banking services of both branches. The data has been collected through a questionnaire. Initially, it was going to be distributed only to residents in Spain but given that there was a lack of participation to consider the sample representative, it was decided to distribute the questionnaire on an international level. The results obtained indicate that the factors that most influence traditional bank customers to switch to challenger banks are the more competitive prices offered by challenger banks, their ability to offer the services in a simple and intuitive way in their applications, the quality of their service and the range of diversified services.

  • 239.
    Delamaere, Bastien
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Jabboury, Ouassim
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Adapting to the decline in sales within a regulated legislative framework: The French alcoholic beverages industry2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to understand the use of marketing communication with the aim of increasing or at least maintaining the profits for the companies operating in the French alcohol market. To fulfil this purpose, the study answered to these following two research questions: How do the alcohol companies deal with the growing decline in sales in a regulated legislation framework? How do alcohol companies adapt their marketing communications? A theoretical model has been developed, including the ways to increase a company's profits thanks to the use of marketing communication then the distinction of the different ways to attract individuals to consume through relational and economic values. It proposed that many ways could be used to attract more individuals and increase the sales, such as advertising, sponsorship and sales promotion. In addition, Public Relations (PR), direct marketing and word of mouth have been identified as impactful tools in order to build a successful relationship with the customer. With the aim of fulfilling the purpose of this study, qualitative research has been performed with two interviews and two observational studies targeting the same companies. The companies observed operate both of them in the French alcohol Market. The results for the research demonstrate that to deal successfully with the growing decline in sales volume within a regulated alcohol market as in France, the companies need to innovate and reinvent the offer. More specifically the taste, the product aesthetics and product format. Moreover, we observed that in order to ensure sales over the long term, the companies must first and foremost build an adapted relationship with the customer and its specific features.

  • 240.
    Demirel, Sarah
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Nalci, Jennifer
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Konflikten mellan två oförenliga syften: Hur förenar företag planering och prestationsutvärdering i en budget?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A budget is a financial tool in management control that the superiors in a firm can use to control the subordinates. The different purposes of the budget, planning and performance evaluation, are in conflict with each other since the setting of target has different aims. Although the theory suggests that organizations should use separate budgets for the different purposes, they rarely do so in practice. This leads to a dilemma for the superiors when it comes to setting targets in a budget that combines the planning- and the performance evaluation-purpose. Based on the planning purpose, the targets should be set at a realistic level and on the basis of a performance evaluation purpose, the targets should be set at a challenging level to motivate employees. The purpose of this study was to gain deeper knowledge of how organizations will have a budget that combines these two incompatible purposes, to work in practice and why they choose to use these two incompatible purposes in one budget. To fulfill the purpose we conducted a case study with two cases in different industries to get different perspectives and to see if there were variations in how they handled the problem. We collected data through qualitative interviews with three superiors and one subordinate. Previous research showed that the problem, by combining the two purposes in one budget, is that the target setting becomes a challenge for the superiors. Realistic targets counteract the motivation and challenging targets that motivates employees counteract an accurate planning. To address the problem, different methods that firms can use, were discussed: a rolling budget, changes in the budget targets based on certain events, fixed and flexible targets and participation in the budget process by the subordinates. What emerged from the study was that the superior found it easier to combine the two purposes in one budget. The problem with the targets was handled by putting the planning purpose as the dominant in the budget and then use other methods instead of performance evaluation to motivate the employees.

  • 241.
    Desurmont, Ombline
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Demarly, Manon
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    How does the hotel industry use E-marketing?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2015, the use of E-marketing by the hotel industry is spread widely, through a qualitative method, this thesis aimed to highlight the manner to use the E-marketing tools according to both theorists and hotels' managers. With a focus the six main E-marketing tools: the guest reviews, website design, online booking system, newsletter system, search engine optimization and online travel agencies. The theorists' opinions and point of views has been linked to the expertise of hotels managers in those domains. This research showed that the newsletter's efficiency was complex to evaluate because it was one of the numerous lever of sale but not the first one. Thereafter, the search engine optimization, often used in huge towns is not for the managers' of Trollhättan who preferred to use the natural referencing. Then, it showed that a clear and easy website design was the key to transform a simple visit to a booking. The online booking system was considered as the basis of the sales for hotels and the guest reviews as a stake for the hotels because it had a strong impact on the customer's decision of purchase and the bookings. Finally, the online travel agencies offered and permitted the same exposure for big brands as well as small brands by purposing the possibility to book online.

    Nowadays being on internet is not an option for the hospitality, but during the planning of the E-marketing strategy some risks have to be taken into account. The research about the use of E-marketing tools has been ended by an interest for the high competitive market in which those managers had to deal in Trollhättan and the complexity of the tools used. First of all, the use of E-marketing tools was an important investment for every hotel. Then the competitiveness of Trollhättan leads the hotels in a race for the lowest prices which has been accentuated by the price competition set by the online travel agencies. After all, the guest reviews has been discovered as a threat for the competitiveness of the hotels if they were not taken into account. For future research, this thesis can be replicate because it contains all the information used for its fulfillment. As this domain is constantly changing, it can be interesting to update the information.

  • 242.
    Dhokia, Saagar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Dhokia, Hiral
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Barriers to do business in India: A qualitative study of Swedish SMEs2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s world, globalization is increasing where countries economy and companies are becoming more dependent on each other. When firms seek to invest and do business internationally, there will be hinders that prevents them to invest and do business with other countries. This thesis deals with the barriers of doing business for Swedish companies in the Indian market. India is a large and rising economy while Sweden is a small and export-oriented economy. The establishment of Swedish companies in the Indian market would benefit both the countries in several ways.

    The purpose of this study was to create a better understanding of the barriers of doing business for Swedish companies in the Indian market. This thesis was carried out with a qualitative research strategy with an abductive approach. The empirical findings were collected via primary data through interviews with four companies Håkansson Sågbad AB, Absolicon AB, Indpro AB and an anonymous company.

    The theories to do business in international market (Leonidou’s external barriers and previous research) and Hofstede’s five Cultural dimensions were studied. Based on the theories it was expected that governmental, political, keen competition abroad, slow collection of payments from abroad and cultural differences (power distance, individualism vs. collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity, uncertainty avoidance, and time orientation) are the barriers of doing business in foreign markets.

    Empirical findings were drafted based on the data collected. The analysis showed that the major barrier of doing business in India was the high level of bureaucracy, poor infrastructure and political instability. Based on the theories and the empirical findings, conclusions were drawn that the major barriers of doing business in the Indian market was the high level of bureaucracy, political instability, poor infrastructure, foreign currency exchange rate, slow collection of payments and the cultural differences

  • 243.
    Didigova, Radifa
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Safiullah, Hasibullah
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Konflikthantering inom vården: Kommunikation och ledarskap2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the occurrence of conflicts and their consequences, as well as the management of conflicts within organizations. At the same time, examine the role of communication and leadership in conflict management. Conflicts are not an unusual phenomenon but are something that everyone has at some point come into contact with, either directly or indirectly through various observations. Conflicts in the workplace can lead to poorer health and lead to reduced job satisfaction. The occurrence of conflicts has different causes and at the same time there are different ways to handle conflicts and this is something that is highlighted in this study.In this study, we use a qualitative approach with in-depth interviews. We believe that this method is relevant to our study, because through this method we can create a detailed and deep understanding of our researched topic. Furthermore, under the theoretical frame of reference, we present previous research in the form of scientific articles. The themes that have been discussed under the theoretical frame of reference are the occurrence of conflicts, consequences of conflicts, conflict management, leadership, communicative leadership, communication, internal communication and effective communication. After the theoretical frame of reference, we begin a summary of the theoretical frame of reference. The empirical section includes 10 respondents who hold the leadership role and the employee role who has had experiences of conflicts. After studying previous research and collecting empirical data, we conduct an analysis and highlight our own interpretations. This is done in order to be able to draw a short conclusion and answer the study's research questions and purpose.Our conclusion is then that lack of communication is the biggest factor in why conflicts arise in a workplace, but it is also the key to managing these conflicts. The most common consequences of conflicts are poor working environment, stress, anxiety and financial problems. Conflict management requires clear communication, compromise and being able to respect each other's opinions. By communicating and discussing the possible problems that occur among the different individuals, conflicts can be resolved effectively. An active and participatory leader has an important role in how conflicts are handled. Where a leader can reason from different perspectives and find solutions that benefit all individuals. At the same time, the leader's availability plays a crucial role in conflict management.

  • 244.
    Disbrandt, Rebecca
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hering, Rebecca
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Att bygga ett premiummärke: En kvalitativ studie om Volvo Car Corporations arbete med uppbyggnaden av ett premiummärke2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är idag viktigt att företag arbetar med sina varumärken speciellt om de vill betraktas som premium. Att skapa ett starkt varumärke är både effektivt och lönsamt. Detta är viktigt när företag är placerade på marknader där de anses vara konkurrensutsatta. Studiens valda företag är Volvo Car Corporation. VCC arbetar idag med att betraktas som ett premiummärke. Definitionen av premium indikerar på att något utöver det vanliga erbjuds för både tjänster och produkter. Det finns flera studier som presenterar tidigare forskning vad gällande varumärkesuppbyggnad och strategier för att skapa ett starkt varumärke. Forskningen kring endast premiummärke kan dock upplevas som oerhört bristfällig. För att bygga ett premiummärke behöver en organisation förstå innebörden av varumärkesuppbyggnad. Syftet med denna studie blev således att undersöka hur VCC arbetar med sitt nutida premiummärke. Detta gjordes med hjälp av en kvalitativ ansats som innebär intervju som metod. I den teoretiska referensramen presenteras tidigare forskning som omfattar varumärkesbyggande och premiummärke. Studiens valda respondent har en hög marknadsföringsposition på företaget och bidrog med mycket relevanta svar till studiens empiriska datainsamling. Arbetet med att nå ett resultat för undersökningen har grundats på fyra teman, varumärkesidentitet, värdeskapande, design samt kvalité som ingår i studiens analysmodell. Dessa fyra teman är återkommande genom studien och sammanlänkad i empiri och analys. Analysavsnittet grundar sig på tolkningar av tidigare forskning ställt mot de empiriska resultaten. Detta avsnitt presenterar det viktigaste aspekterna som ett premiummärke bör arbeta med. Därefter introduceras studiens slutsats som sammanfattar hur VCC arbetar för att de skall betraktas som ett premiummärke, där är en av de viktigaste aspekterna är att ständigt ta hänsyn till varumärkets grundpelare.

  • 245.
    Disbrant, Rebecca
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Dalhed, Sofia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Generation Y's påverkan på ledarskapet: En studie om att tillgodose en ny generations föränderliga syn på arbetslivet2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att skapa förståelse för metoder till att möta ett generationsskifte på arbetsmarknaden. Studien ska undersöka hur dagens chefer möter generation Ys behov på arbetsplatsen samt att studien även bygger på hur den yngre generationen kan påverka strukturen på framtida ledarroller inom organisationer. För att besvara detta syfte har en kvalitativ undersökning gjorts i form av intervjuer med tre chefer samt fyra respondenter som tillhör generation Y. Dessa intervjuer har sedan legat till grund för den analys som gjorts för denna studie. Resultatet visar på att cheferna konstaterade att ingen av våra chefsrespondenter ansåg att de aktivt arbetade med att anpassa metoder eller sitt ledarskap mot generation Y. Men att de omedvetet tillgodoser behov som den yngre generationen har via distansarbete och sociala nätverk. Det framkom även att både cheferna samt generation Y ansåg att det viktigaste är att individanpassa ledarskapet och att det är svårt att endast se till generationer när det kommer till ledarskap.

  • 246.
    Diverchy, Hortense
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Bogrand, Thomas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Repairing a brand image2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis is about gaining an understanding of the communication strategies used by companies following a brand crisis. Here, we focused on how to adapt strategies and communication process while considering the scale of the damage. Thus, we answered the following question: how do companies repair their brand image damage with respect to the damage scale? We developed the theoretical framework with several points, including explanations about brand image, and crisis response strategies used by enterprises. Then, we talked about the communication channels used to convey and spread messages. Finally, we expanded those with a communication process that embodies those several aspects of communication. A model was then designed to understand the brand image damage repairing process. To reached meaningful results, we conduct our investigation thanks to a qualitative approach. Two brands that successfully restored their brand image were studied: Volkswagen and ICA. They were chosen because of the impact of their damage scale: the ICA scandal tarnished the group at a national level, whereas Volkswagen reputation has been impacted on all over the world. We proceeded with within and cross cases case analysis, and used primary (one interview) and secondary data. The study tends to shows that no matter the scale of the crisis, companies can use commons crisis response strategies. Despite this, they can use common channels such as press releases and public relations to communicating with their audiences. At a small scale, companies do not need to do it in the long run, at the opposite of large scale crises. Lastly, large scale damage implies the necessity of widening ranges of media in order to reach more kinds of audiences.

  • 247.
    Dolietis, Josefin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Johansson, Sandra
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    En studie om hur budgetslack kan uppstå: Hur kan budgetslack uppstå under stram styrning och vid delaktighet i budgetprocessen?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During a budget process, it may occur something called slack. This is when it intentionally creates an excess of resources in the budget, creating a budget that is lower than expected (De Baerdermaeker and Bruggeman, 2015). This is when creating a budget who intentionally has an excess of resources and the budget is lower than expected. This study examine how the creation of budget slack can be made.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine how budget slack can be created in organizations that allow managers to participate in the budget process. And also to investigate how budget slack can occur under different approaches.

    Method: Previous research has not presented how budget slack is created. They have described more about potential factors which impact slack. Therefore, we designed a method that enabled us to analyze how slack actually can occur in an organization. We used semistructured interviews in two different organizations which had similar governance, but different budget processes. We interviewed various managers of both organizations involved in the budget process.

    Conclusions: Our study shows that budget slack is able to be created when managers get involved in the budget process. The more links in the hierarchy the budget passes, the more people are involved. This allows more people to create budget slack to reach their budget goals. On the other hand, if it is a smaller organization with less links in the hierarchy, there are fewer people who are able to create budget slack. Regarding budget slack and control, our study shows the more control the organization has, the more difficult it is for managers to create budget slack. This is because they are controlled more carefully than those managers in organizations with less degree of tight control. If they have less control, they can instead overestimate their costs without being deeply checked.

  • 248.
    Douay, Juliette
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Jeanson, Victoire
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Personalized e-mailing: The perception of Asian and European students2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our Bachelor thesis title is "The personalized e-mailing: The perception of Asian and European students" and it is written by two exchange students Juliette Douay and Victoire Jeanson both from France. This thesis is written is the frame of our field of study which is Business Administration, at University West in the spring 2017. Through the evolution of the technology, companies employee more and more the personalization as a marketing tool in their e-mail. Therefore, e-mails are personalized and it should normally encourage customers to buy. The problem is that we found some studies about the privacy risk of the personalization. Personalization might be good but what implies personalization as for example the fact that companies get personal information about their consumers can make the last ones afraid and slow down their purchase. Thus, with our thesis we wanted to learn about the perception of consumers. That is why the research question of our bachelor thesis is "How do Asian and European students use e-mailing and which aspects of e-mail impact the students? What are the students perceptions about personalized e-mailing's effect, risk and privacy?"

    The purpose of our work is practical and academical. Practical because we answered our research question and our analysis can be useful for international companies and academical because we fill in a lack of knowledge by creating some. In order to answer our research question, we used the qualitative method and interviewed 16 students. About the theory, it is composed by scientific articles about studies on the subject. The empirical data part consists of exposing our findings that's it to say the interviews responses about their way of using e-mailing and their perception about personalized e-mailing. Thereafter comes the analysis part on which we tried to connect both our findings and the theory part.

    Finally, we ended our thesis by a conclusion saying that Asian as European students use their e-mail in their professional and personal life, but Asians do not use their e-mail every day. Then, we noticed that even if students are interested in the e-mail, there is a lack of trust on different reasons for Asians and Europeans. More or less personalization is well perceived even if we found some differences between Asians and Europeans: our Asian respondents feel more worried and more distant with companies that use personalization than our Europeans respondents. In both continents, we noticed that our respondents care about the fact companies have too much information about them, the privacy risk.

  • 249.
    Drakenberg, Signe
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Legitimitetsskapande i samband med inträde på en reglerad huvudmarknad2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations had to act in a responsible way and take into account the expectations of society in terms of responsibility and disclosure to avoid discord with the society (Claasen, 2009). This was the legitimacy of the organization and could be according to Claasen (2009), Diez-Martin, Prado-Roman and Blanco-González (2013) and Johnson and Hulub (2003) divided into three classes: Pragmatic, moral and cognitive legitimacy. These classes referred to different interests within the company’s surroundings who all desided about the survival of the company. The study was based on a company, Odd Molly International Ltd, that were about to leave a growth market, First North, and entering a regulated main market, NASDAQ OMX Stockholm. When a firm is going public the problem was that the company does not have the same strong market position as it’s financially strong competitors who already where listed and therefore the company had to build and gain the stake holder’s and society’s trust for the list change to be successful (Filatotchev & Piesse, 2009). The study was qualitative in which the goal was to understand what information that created legitimacy a firm published two years before entering a regulated main market, the actual year of entering the main market and two years after. It was found the the disclosure of legitimacy- creating events of all three classes (pragmatic, moral and cognitive) increased inclusively up to the year of entering the regulated main market. Concrete information was stressed within these years concerning ambitions of growth, the benefits of entering the regulated main market, current (strong) market position, future revenues, favorable actions and an increased dividend. Furthermore, the company's environmental awareness emerged as well as it feared for their fellow man, which was boosted by new memberships in environmental and human rights organizations and active measures which would contribute to better surroundings. Explanations were made for large as well as small events and actions and some internal reinforcements were made. The disclosure drastically declined in the years after the firm entered the main market and it should be added that the company performed considerably worse. Focus was made on independence, the long experience in the industry, further growth ambitions with minimizing commodity risk and favorable organizational change and procedures. No further action was done to maintain its image to the community with environmental and human rights issues and the company disclosed mandatory information or only about vital events which would be unethical for the company if it was withheld

  • 250.
    Dubuisson, Emilie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lanciaux, Héloïse
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Consumers and fast fashion brands sustainability: How consumers perceive the fast fashion brands' efforts of sustainability2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about the consumers and the fast fashion brands sustainability, the aim is to better understand how consumers perceive the fast fashion brands' efforts of sustainability. As part of their Bachelor Business Administration at the University West of Trollhättan, Emilie Dubuisson and Héloïse Lanciaux developed this thesis during the spring term 2020 for the degree project. This thesis aims to better understand the perception of the different consumers on the unsustainable practices of the fast fashion brands and their efforts of sustainability. Fast fashion business model is based on an instant feedback of consumers' wishes to adapt the offer. Thus, the fast fashion brands can be interested in our results in order to better understand the demand of the consumers and to adapt their offer. The opinion of the consumers constantly evolves and it can be interesting for the brands to have recent information in order to better understand the new fashion consumers' consumption habits and still attract them. In the theoretical frame of references part, we highlight the fast fashion brands' unsustainable practices used to produce their clothes quickly and at low prices. This part helps to better understand what the consumers could reproach to the fast fashion brands. Moreover, we enumerate the fast fashion brands' sustainability efforts in order to better understand what they do to improve themselves. Then, we did some researches on the consumers' perception of sustainability to understand what they expect to fast fashion brands in term of sustainability. In order to support the theory and to bring new knowledges on this subject we conducted a quantitative study based on a questionnaire. In the empirical data we present the results of our research in which 88 consumers shared their opinion. In this part, we arrived at the conclusion that our two hypotheses are true: The different types of consumers are concerned about the fast fashion brands' unsustainable practices and it influence their decision purchases and the different types of fashion consumers do not perceive the fast fashion brands' efforts of sustainability as real efforts are both true. Finally, we crossed the different data from literatures and the existing knowledges with the data resulted from our questionnaire in order to construct the analysis part. We arrived at the conclusion that the consumers do not perceive the sustainability of the fast fashion brands. The consumers think that the brands make efforts on their marketing but they do not decrease their environmental impact or resolve their ethical and economic issues.

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