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  • 201.
    Andem, Edet Daniel
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Naser, Mir Abu
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Exploitation of international opportunities: (A case study of Nordic cleantech firms in emerging markets)2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master’s research investigates how Nordic cleantech firms exploit opportunities in emerging markets. Emerging markets showcase significant opportunities for provision of sustainable cleantech solutions, which can be exploited by cleantech firms to enhance their commercial viability. Opportunity exploitation studies in emerging market contexts have been largely understudied in international entrepreneurship. This qualitative research utilized semi-structured interviews, a multi case study design involving three Nordic cleantech firms, and thematic data analysis to collect detailed information on Nordic cleantech opportunity exploitation activities and stages. Analyzing the findings using a conceptual framework based on the opportunity exploitation theory, we discover that Nordic cleantech firms exploit opportunities in emerging markets in three phases namely, exploitation pre-operationalization phase, exploitation operationalization phase and exploitation post-operationalization phase. Exploitation pre-operationalization stages involve making evaluation of the opportunity, assessing stakeholders, and developing a project management plan for the exploitation operationalization; the exploitation operationalization phase covers the market entry modes, and describes activities and strategies deployed by cleantech firms to commence commercial activities within the market; and the exploitation post-operationalization phase describe steps taken to increase the firms’ knowledge and leverage such experiential knowledge for further opportunity exploitation. The research findings showed a variance from the theoretical opportunity exploitation propositions for new technology intensive firms including cleantech firms. The insights generated from this research have implications for the decision making of managers of Nordic cleantech firms looking to exploit international opportunities within emerging markets and theoretical implications for making further opportunity exploration studies considering the emerging market context.

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  • 202.
    Andersdotter Mårtensson, Eva
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Hällfärdsson, Sophia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Skiljer antalet utfärdade fortlevnadsvarningar mellan Big 4 och icke Big 4?: En kvantitativ studie med utgångspunkt i Altmans Z-score2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The principle of going concern is an accounting principle that is adopted when companies prepare their annual reports, the principle is a basic assumption. When an auditor does not find enough evidence to ensure that a company will survive for the next twelve months a going concern opinion should be issued. Previous studies indicates that there are differences in the number of going concern opinion that is issued depending on if the audit is implemented by a Big 4 or a non-Big 4-agency. An agency within Big 4 is an agency that belongs to the four biggest auditing firms, a non-Big 4 agency belongs to all other agencies. This paper aimed to study whether there are differences in issued going concern opinions when the model for prediction of bankruptcy, named Altman's Z-score, indicates such. The study was conducted with a cross-sectional design as several cases, companies,has been studied. They were all handled from the same year, 2019. The population was determined to small companies in three industries, construction-, design- and interior industry. The three industries together constituted a suitable sample size. The sample was also limited to companies that has been active for at least three years and which had a Z-score that indicates future bankruptcy. With both descriptive statistics and chi2 we found a test result that indicated that it may be no difference in issued going concern opinions between Big 4 and non-Big 4-agencys. The paper also aimed to search for whether there is a connection between indications in the management report and a clean audit report. Acontent analysis was also done with associated coding of the management report to be able to do statistical tests. The test was performed both descriptively and through chi2-and correlation. We have trough the tests found a connection. The conclusion of this paper was that it does not play a crucial role which audit firm the auditor represents whether companies receive a going concern opinion or not. Furthermore, the conclusion includes that there is a correlation between a clean audit report and indications in the management report. 

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  • 203.
    Anderson, Maria
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Skudrickiene, Jurate
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Effekten av att balansera bildkvalitet och prestanda: för ökad upplevd säkerhet och en bättre användarupplevelse inom e-handel2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are several areas of research that concern image quality in relation to performance as well as the "feeling of perceived security" on a webpage.

    The main purpose of this study is to find out to what extent image quality and performance (web page load time) can affect the sense of how secure and reliable a webpage feels, as well as how the experience can be affected by the lack of a good balance between image quality and performance. We also want to find out if any of those factors may be of gender-related significance.

    We have conducted a survey where respondents were asked to visit 3 similar example websites but with different image resolutions.

    The results based on our survey suggest that a good balance between image quality and performance both increases trust and provides a better user experience, although it does seem in general like people put more emphasis on the images being of a satisfying quality than to the fact that the page's loading time is short. We have thus concluded that one then regards web pages as more reliable, which increases the tendency to trust the page and complete a purchase, as well as to return to the page in the future.

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  • 204.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Andersson, Lena
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Organisationsförändring med arbetstidsmodell: En studie i Trollhättans Stad2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens tjänstesamhälle är personalen den viktigaste resursen och även den största kostnadsposten. Ett sätt för företagen att få ner kostnaderna är att effektivisera sin verksamhet, minska övertidskostnader och minska antalet timvikarier är att satsa på införandet av produktivare arbetstidsmodeller. Produktivare arbetstidsmodeller kan leda till att det finns en tydligare gräns och balans mellan arbete och fritid. Kommunicera och ge aktuell information om planerade organisatoriska förändringar är viktigt och bidrar till att hjälpa de anställda att bättre förstå hur förändringen kommer att påverka dem. Syfte med uppsatsen är att ta del av en organisationsförändring och få förståelse för hur personalen upplever den och dess konsekvenser i Trollhättans Stad.

    Författarna har valt en kvalitativ metod i denna studie med tanke på syftet som innebär att ta del och få förståelse hur förändringen påverkar personalen i Trollhättans Stad. För att komplettera den kvalitativa metoden har även en kvantitativ metod används genom att ta del av en medarbetarenkät som Trollhättans Stad har genomfört. Författarna har intervjuat fem medarbetare i Trollhättans Stad och underlag för den teoretiska referensramen är inhämtat från litteratur om organisation, organisationsförändring, arbetstidsmodeller, arbetsmiljö, hälsa, stress och motivation. Referensramen innefattar också vetenskapliga artiklar som är hämtade från Högskolan Västs artikeldatabas. Den empiriska datainsamling har gjorts utifrån intervjuerna och medarbetarenkäten som har kopplats ihop med den teoretiska referensramen för att besvara syftet och frågeställningarna i analys och slutsats. Studiens slutsats visar på hur ledningen har använts sig av medarbetarna och hur de har varit delaktiga i förändringsprocessen. Personalen har själva varit med och beslutat om hur problemen skulle lösas

  • 205.
    Andersson, Amanda
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Nilsson, Maria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Mänsklig närvaro i annonser på Instagram: Att skapa positiva intryck i Instagramannonsering utifrån ett miljöpsykologiskt perspektiv2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore how ads on Instagram can create a positive attitude for the recipient. This was investigated through a quantitative survey where the respondents, girls belonging to generation Z, got to choose between ads, identify what caught their interest and describe their experience of the ads. The results show that ads with human presence are chosen more often than those without human presence, and there is a slight advantage for those ads with visible face compared to those without visible face. The results also show that when the ads have a visible face, the human is the recipient’s main focus, while ads with a human presence without a visible face are considered to emphasize the product more. The ads with human presence are generally considered to be more inspiring while the most common experience of the ads without human presence is that they are informative. This study complements previous literature by arguing that human presence in itself is a powerful stimulus to capture the attention of recipients on Instagram. We conclude that human presence is a contributing factor to creating a positive attitude for the recipient on Instagram and that it is further enhanced if the ad has a visible face.

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  • 206.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Malm, Sanna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kassaflödesanalysens användbarhet vid konkursprediktion2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 7 776 companies went bankrupt in Sweden in 2019, which was an increase compared to previous years. The increase in number of bankruptcies and the number of stakeholders affected by this indicated that there was a substantial need to contain and counteract bankruptcies. The topicality of the subject has led to several studies to find the best model for predicting and preventing bankruptcies. These studies have resulted in many designed models. What these models have in common is that they are complex, statistically complicated and require a certain knowledge amongst the users. A knowledge that not every accountant or common person may have. The purpose of this study was therefore to generate knowledge about which factors in the cash flow analysis could be used to indicate a future bankruptcy in a company, without implementing complicated statistical models. The purpose was also to investigate if the factors size, age and change in management could indicate a bankruptcy when the components of the cash flow analysis did not show any signs of a future bankruptcy. A description of previous research on bankruptcy prediction, the significance of the components in the cash flow analysis and other factors that may indicate a future bankruptcy is presented in the theory chapter. A designed analysis model that was based on previous research concludes the theory chapter. The study is based on a qualitative text analysis. 66 manufacturing companies financial statement has been reviewed in the study. The collection of data was based on the companies most recently registered financial statement. From this data has a cash flow analysis been designed through an indirect method. The study showed that there were three components in the cash flow analysis that appeared to be more common among manufacturing companies. These three components represented 68 percent of all the bankrupt companies. The cash flow analysis has been analyzed based on the study´s analysis model. The conclusion of this study was that the components of the cash flow analysis was not enough to predict a future bankruptcy, more variables were necessary to be able to predict. The components of the cash flow analysis, on the other hand, could give early warning signals regarding the companies financial situation.

  • 207.
    Andersson, Annie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lindgren, Sharon
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Leasing nu och i framtiden: Attityder till de nyaredovisningsreglerna för leasing2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Discussion on the accounting treatment of leases has been going on for many years. The current standard, IAS 17 has criticized because many companies are able to classify their leases as operational leasing agreements in order not to reflect assets and liabilities on the balance sheets. IASB and FASB working together to amend the standard for lease accounting and they involve various groups of stakeholders and individuals by submitting comment letters. The first proposal for the amendment of the standard was Exposure Draft 2010/9. The proposal received so many comments which resulted a revised proposal that came out in May 2013 and called Exposure Draft 2013/6.

    The aim of this study was to examine the attitudes of different groups (academics, preparers, users, the accounting profession, national regulators and other international organizations) in Europe to the new proposal of Exposure Draft 2013/6 -Leasing, regarding questions relating to lease accounting in lessee and classification. Do they think that the new proposal solve the problems concerning classification and financial statements of leasing, which is found in the current international accounting standard (IAS 17) or just create new problems. We have also investigated in which extend these groups participated with comments in the comment letters.

    The study is a qualitative survey where we analyzed and interpreted the comments and attitudes in the comment letters to the new proposal. In the theoretical frame addressed how research is conducted to develop new standards, how and to what extent the different groups involved in this by participating in the comment letters and the criticism leveled against the new proposal concerning classification and accounting. The results of the study are based on 151 comment letters sent to the IASB/FASB. The analysis has been made by using the analysis model in section 3.9 and the empirical results have been applied to the theoretical frame of reference.

    Analysis showed that there are no academics who participated in the comment letters. The group that has commented most on the comment letters have proved to be the pre-parers and this is in line with what previous research has shown. The majority of all groups do not agree with the new proposal. The attitude to the proposal is negative in terms of accounting in lessee and classification.

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  • 208.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Bashmaf, Simaz
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Sambandet mellan lönsamhet och ambitionsnivå på hållbarhetsrapportering2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, awareness of the connection between business practices and environmental issues has grown. To address this, companies have been incorporating social, environmental, and economic factors into their business models to ensure sustainability. This work is then reported openly and transparently through sustainability reports. However, difficulties arise in the creation of these reports due to the lack of a clear standard or template for their preparation, leading to interpretational variations in content, measurement methods, and presentation. This creates an interest in studying how companies' sustainability commitments and the level of ambition in sustainability reporting can impact their profitability. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the level of sustainability ambition and profitability among companies in the retail sector using a quantitative approach. The level of sustainability reporting ambition was measured by the presence of sustainability-related words, while profitability was assessed through the key performance indicators of Return on Equity (ROE) and Return on Assets (ROA). The analysis employed the SPSS software to identify potential relationships and provide evidence thereof. The results revealed no significant correlation between these two areas. Despite the companies' efforts to be sustainable and report their initiatives in sustainability reports, no clear correlation could be identified in this study. Several factors may contribute to this outcome, including the complexity of measuring and evaluating sustainability performance, individual differences among companies, and other variables that can influence profitability. These findings shed light on the challenges and complexities companies in the retail sector may encounter when integrating sustainability aspects into their operations while maintaining profitability.

  • 209.
    Andersson, Carolina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Urbath, Josephine
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Bon APPetite!: A case study about the willingness of potential guests to use an app for a specific hotel restaurant2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bon APPetite: A case study about the willingness of potential guests to use an app for a specific hotel restaurant is a bachelor thesis about the research subject marketing written by Carolina Andersson and Josephine Urbath (University West, spring 2016). Today we live in an era where technological activity is a part of people's everyday life. People are comfortable with using technological equipment on a daily basis where smartphone apps, is a dominant factor (Morosan & DeFranco, 2015). Further, providing information via apps has proven to increase experienced service quality as well as guest loyalty (Okumus & Bilgihan, 2014). There is already a variety of successful apps at the global market that works well for hotels (Chen, Hsu & Wu, 2012). However, there is a gap in the market where restaurants located inside hotels communicate with guests. Based on the problem discussion the research question "Are potential guests willing to use an app for a specific hotel restaurant, and if there is a need, what services are desired in such an app?" was formulated. This study's main purpose is to generate new knowledge if there is willingness for potential guests to use an app for a specific hotel restaurant. Advertising via mobile apps are not perceived to be distracting and annoying in the eyes of audiences. The added value that apps provide users with, rather attract new users to experience the easy handling and availability (Gupta, 2013). This research was accomplished as a case study. Qualitative approach was partly used, but a quantitative investigation method was mainly utilized. Empirical data was conducted as analytical statistics in this study and data was presented from a random sample of 148 respondents. The analysis chapter contains an analysis and discussion of the theoretical framework and empirical data. Parallels have been drawn and own opinions have been presented. Besides an app marketing point of view, this study also contains a section of study implications where cash flows and net present values are calculated as well as word of mouth and environmental sustainability are analyzed. These research findings show that there is willingness and that it can be beneficial to invest in an app for a specific hotel restaurant. Females and males have different preferences regarding app services, however top three lists of the most desired services are summarized in this thesis. This thesis ends with conclusions that answers to the research question and fulfils the purpose of this case study.

  • 210.
    Andersson, Caroline
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Hur undviker man konflikter med hjälp av sitt ledarskap?: en undersökning om hur butikschefer hanterar oro och konflikter vid organisationsförändringar2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ledarskap är ett komplext begrepp som innehåller många olika faktorer och har olika innebörder för många människor. Som ledare för en mindre butik är du ensam om att utöva ett ledarskap och är då också ensam om att hantera de eventuella konflikter och svårigheter som uppstår. Som ledare får du dagligen hantera förändringar av olika slag och en utmaning blir att undvika att det uppstår oro och konflikter personalen emellan. Syftet med denna undersökning är att få en inblick i hur butikschefer inom modebranschen tänker om hur de med sitt ledarskap kan undvika oro och konflikter vid organisationsförändringar. Delsyftet är att undersöka hur de allmänt kan påverka personalen på ett positivt sätt. Jag har valt att använda mig av en kvalitativ metod för att besvara mitt syfte och utfört fem ostrukturerade intervjuer. Jag har fokuserat på frågor som rör butikschefens roll vid en konflikt och hur hon anser med sitt ledarskap kunna undvika att det uppstår konflikter. Resultatet visar att ledarskap är ett mycket komplext ämne och att det inte finns något färdigt ledarkoncept att följa. Butikschefer använder sig av olika metoder för att hantera konflikter ute i verksamheterna och vissa element stämmer överens med det forskare rekommenderar. Dock visar det sig att butikschefer upplever konflikter endast som något negativt medan forskare visar att det även finns positiva sidor vid en konflikt. Min undersökning visar på olika begrepp som är relevanta och bör tas i beaktning vid hantering av konflikter.

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  • 211.
    Andersson, Christoffer
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Bengtsson, Jesper
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Riktlinjer för design av informationsbaserade applikationer inom sjukvården: En studie om hur designmönster skapar användarbarhet2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In relation with the development of mobile applications and the digitalization of healthcare, actors have emerged in the Swedish market, such as Vårdguiden 1177.se and Kry.se. The actors will, among other things, offer information about diseases to the public, this service is missing on their mobile applications. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare different methods for presenting text in mobile applications and how the information can be easily accessible to users. Through a literature review, it was possible to determine which design patterns and presentation methods are relevant to the study. The study uses semi structured interviews of a qualitative nature as a method for gathering empirical data with a focus on respondent’s experiences and opinions between the different design patterns for how text is visualized and different navigation patterns. The interview questions that the respondents answered were shaped by the purpose and issues of the study. The collected empirical data showed the respondent preferences regarding text presentation and navigation in mobile applications. Compared with previous research in the subject, similarities and differences like reading comprehension, readability and preferences of design patterns could be extracted.

  • 212.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, Carl
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Government Debt and Economic Growth: An empirical comparison between three levels of debt Sweden, the United States and Japan2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the long-run effect of government debt on economic growth. The analysis, covering the growth for Sweden, the United States and Japan, is based on a cointegrated material consisting of just over ten control variables. The material stretches over a span of five decades, beginning in the year of 1963. Independent variables in this study is solely of economic kind. The empirical results from the multiple regression analysis of each country respectively indicates that there is no linear relationship between government debt and economic growth. Furthermore, the analysis presents a strong effect of each country's primary balance deficit and surplus on economic growth. The material on which this study is based suffers from endogeneity where first and foremost a loop of causality is the root of the problem. The perception of the existence of a loop is enhanced in the case of Japan where a test for causality suggests a similar probability that the government debt is causing economic growth as the opposite. A corresponding test for Sweden and the U.S. indicates a causing effect of economic growth on government debt

  • 213.
    Andersson, Elin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Berg, Emilia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Language Wars in the Abortion Debate: A Comparative Analysis of Media Framings in the United States2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how the media in the United States frame the abortion issue in 2019 by studying specific language related to the two ideological positions of Pro-Choice and Pro-Life, and whether the framings reveal aspects of polarization. The theoretical approach consists of framing theory and assumptions based on feminism, both deriving from social constructivism. Drawing from these theoretical tools, the framework designed identified four themes, namely 'What is abortion?', 'What is the object of abortion?', 'Who is the right-bearer in the issue of abortion?', and 'Why is abortion morally right or wrong?'. This thesis constitutes a small-N comparative study where five ideological news sources, Huffington Post, Washington Post, USA Today, Washington Times, and New York Post, were sampled, examined and deductively coded with a content analysis, quantitatively when counting the assigned codes and qualitatively for a more in-depth analysis. The findings of this study show that the frame ProChoice is prioritized among the five news sources and the framings align with the liberalconservative scale in general. However, both ideological frames are consistently present and mixed between the news sources, although when used, the framing depends on the context of the language choices.

  • 214.
    Andersson, Elin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Henningstam, Fanny
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Den digitala kompetensen inom äldreomsorgen: En kvalitativ studie ur vårdpersonalen perspektiv2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The digitalisation of health care contributes to increased efficiency and thus has the potential to meet society's growing care needs and demand. The digitalisation brings with it opportunities, but also challenges for healthcare staff, given that digitalisation means that they need digital skills. The competence of the staff is one of the most important aspects for a successful digitalisation in healthcare. When digitalisation was implemented in healthcare, the aspect of digital competence did not receive sufficient attention. Healthcare staff can develop a frustration with adopting new technology if they do not have the digital skills needed to manage the technology. Hence the research question: How do care staff in the elderly care experience the use of digital tools at work, and how do they themselves see challenges and needs in terms of digital competence in the workplace? The purpose is to gain an understanding of the care staff's digital competence in elderly care, by examining their experiences and attitudes to using digital tools, as well as what training they have received to carry out digital tasks. A qualitative study was conducted with semi-structured interviews to collect data. The interviews were conducted at two nursing homes and at one home care service. Ten people working in elderly care have participated in the study. When analyzing data a thematic analysis was performed. The main result that emerged in the study was that the current training for the digital tools is not sufficient. Based on their own experiences, the care staff believe that a more thorough and continuous education should be introduced. This is to give healthcare professionals the opportunity and resources to be able to develop digital competence. In summary, this study shows a need for updated knowledge and understanding of the purpose of digitalisation, which can contribute to increased confidence in IT and the digital competence of healthcare staff. In summary, the study creates an understanding of the healthcare staff's experience of digital tools, as well as the knowledge and training that the staff perceive as necessary to strengthen their digital competence. Furthermore, the care staff also feel that the digital tasks are mismanaged, and in order to minimize the shortcomings regarding digital competence and the use of digital tools, the care staff believe that a more thorough and continuous training is necessary.

  • 215.
    Andersson, Elin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Patriksson, Linnéa
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Northvolts etablering leder till påskyndade detaljplaneprocesser: Hur har processen sett ut och vilka konsekvenser/risker medföljer?2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden a more efficient detailed development planning process is requested and a debate on slow processes is in progress. The purpose with the detailed planning process is to try a specific location and the suitability of the land for a specific object. Therefore, it is important that the process is democratic and that many parts are investigated so that the municipality can weigh interests and balance against each other and finally judge whether future land use is suitable.

    In the study, two detailed development planning processes in the municipalities of Skellefteå and Gothenburg were investigated. The common factor in the detailed development planning will enable the establishment of the Northvolt industrial operations. The processing time for Skellefteå is on average 24 months and 27 months in Gothenburg.

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the municipalities' approach of bringing forward detailed development plans. Skellefteå's detailed development planning work has taken six months and Gothenburg's detailed development plan is expected to become legally binding in the tenth month of the work. To find out what caused the rapid detailed development planning process, how the municipalities worked and what these working methods lead to consequences and risks. Two officials from each municipality have been interviewed. Detailed development plan documents have also been examined to answer the study's issues.

    The survey shows similarities and differences in the municipalities' working methods and presents positive consequences and risks with the accelerated detailed development planning processes. A similarity and prerequisite for the municipalities rapid detailed developmentplan processes was that the detailed development plan was in accordance with themunicipalities' comprehensive plan. Results from the study show that an accelerated detaileddevelopment planning process requires good communication between administrations and acomposite team. The most important factor has been shown to be that there was a common goal and the politicians prioritized the plan and appointed a team.

    The municipalities investigate work has been separated, which has contributed to varying degrees of details that is described in the respective environmental impact statement. This difference is also clarified in the municipalities' consultation and review documents. Thesuitability of the working method depends on how the work is accelerated. It is important not to forget the purpose of detailed development planning without making careful considerations and not to make hasty decisions.

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  • 216.
    Andersson, Emelie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Salih, Shpresa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Skolors marknadsföring: En fallstudie om huruvida två gymnasieskolors marknadsföring når fram till potentiella elever2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    School Marketing - A case study about two secondary schools if their marketing reaches potential students is written by Emelie Andersson and Shpresa Salihi, during the spring semester of 2016. In the early 1900s the marketing concept began to be used and grow larger. Today, organizations environments changes at a rapid pace and the technology is continuously improved and competition increases, which leads to that it is now even more important that organizations develop strategies and plans for their marketing for them to remain competitive and achieve their goals. Today this is also relevant for schools as a result of the school choice reform and digitalization. The school reform has created both new opportunities but also new problems and challenges that schools and students have not faced before. As the marketing of schools is relatively new, it is a problem that schools do not have enough knowledge of what marketing channels and tools are most appropriate for schools to market themselves through. Given that there are many different ways and channels to market themselves and that schools resources are often limited, it is both interesting and important to find out what channels and tools are most appropriate for schools to market themselves through. Thus, in this paper it is examined "What marketing strategy does the schools use, to reach potential students?", "How and through which channels does the schools advertise themselves to reach potential students?", "What marketing messages does the schools want to convey to the potential students? ", and "Does the school's message reach the students? ". The purpose of this study was to contribute to increased knowledge about how schools market themselves and if their marketing reaches students. In this paper, the research is conducted with two different studies in the two schools examined, both qualitative semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. Thus it has mainly been used a qualitative research method in this paper. The theory in this paper has been based on four different themes, which were: schools' perceived needs of marketing, what influences their choice of strategy and what strategy schools should choose, how schools market themselves and how schools should market themselves. In the empirical chapter the responses from the interviews conducted with those responsible for the school's marketing and the results of the questionnaires completed by the students, are presented based on the four themes that emerged from the theory and analytical/interpretation model. The conclusions that have been drawn and the result shows that school X1 and school X2 have similar strategies for their marketing. Further it can be seen that both school X1 and school X2 markets themselves in many different ways and through many different channels. The result also shows that the two schools mainly reaches students by marketing themselves through a combination of channels, such as visits to secondary schools, open-house, social media and word of mouth. Finally, the results show that both schools through their marketing mainly reaches students with their intended message.

  • 217.
    Andersson, Emelie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Salihi, Shpresa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Framgångsrika entreprenörer: Vilka faktorer är avgörande för en entreprenörs framgång?2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Ett populärt och vanligt förekommande ord inom management och ekonomi är ordet "entreprenör". Dessutom har Svenskt näringsliv byggts upp och präglats av framgångsrika entreprenörer. Att entreprenörskap blir allt viktigare kan ses idag genom att entreprenörskap har blivit ett skolämne. Under de senaste åren har entreprenörer fått en ökad betydelse inom den globala ekonomin. Deras förmåga att se möjligheter, ta risker och förvandla sina idéer till framgångsrika satsningar är avgörande för att skapa nya arbeten och för den globala ekonomins återhämtning.

    Syfte: Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka om det finns några gemensamma faktorer som leder till att entreprenörer når framgång. Vi ska även studera om entreprenörerna upplever att deras bakgrund, uppväxt, utbildning och erfarenheter har påverkat deras entreprenörskap, och i sådana fall hur.

    Frågeställning: Vilka faktorer är det som avgör om en entreprenör når framgång eller inte?

    Metod: I detta arbete har vi använt oss av en kvalitativ forskningsmetod. För att kunna besvara vår undersökningsfråga har vi genomfört två intervjuer genom personligt möte, två via mejl och för de två sista entreprenörerna har vi inhämtat material via podcast, radioprogram, blogg och självbiografi. I vår studie har tre kvinnliga och tre manliga entreprenörer medverkat.

    Resultat: Vårt arbete visar att det inte bara är en faktor som avgör om en person blir en framgångsrik entreprenör, utan det finns flera faktorer som påverkar och är avgörande. Entreprenörer påverkas både av deras personliga egenskaper, men även yttre påverkan som bakgrund, erfarenheter och miljö har stor betydelse. En annan faktor är att få möjlighet att arbeta med det personen brinner för och att inte vara rädd för att misslyckas, utan se det som en lärdom. För att lyckas krävs faktorer som att inneha starka drivkrafter och en vilja att nå sina mål. Det kan också vara till fördel att få goda råd och stöd och möjlighet att finna inspiration. Sist men inte minst ska det till lite tur och rätt timing.

  • 218.
    Andersson, Emil
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Velevski, Walter
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Insynshandelns påverkan på aktiekursen: Existerar möjligheter att erhålla överavkastning vid insynsköp?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose is to investigate whether investors can obtain excessreturns by following CEO's who purchase shares in their own company.

    Theoretical perspectives: The study includes theories; the effective market hypothesis, information asymmetry and the signaling hypothesis.

    Methodology: The study is based on a quantitative method that, through a deductive approach, will test market efficiency when a CEO purchase shares in their own company. The gathered data will pass through models and tests to see whether there exists excess return opportunities

    Conclusions: In order to give a result to the main question of the thesis, the study needs to go through two hypothesis. Firstly, hypothesis one; is the share price effected when a CEO purchase shares in his own company. The study establish there is a significant difference to the test value "zero". We reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative, which means when a CEO buys shares, the share price is effected positively.

    When the study establishes there is a positive effect on share price when CEO’s buys shares, we move on to the second hypothesis; can a private investor follow CEO’s purchases and also gain returns? The study determines here is no significant difference in returns opportunities, ie. if one intends to follow a CEO's buying. Therefore we accept the null hypothesis. It was found by studying whether there exists a significant difference between the share price of the first trading day and onwards. The study demonstrates higher return opportunities in the short term in smaller companies compared to big companies. The study also examines the index movement during the same period, and the study establishes there are more return opportunities when following a CEO’s purchases rather than buying index during the same period.

  • 219.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Börjesson, Cecilia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hur fastighetsmäklare väljer att marknadsföra sig och sina objekt: Det är viktigt att lämna ut rätt information till rätt person, på rätt sätt och i rätt kanal2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Efter att Internet fick sin slagkraft i början av 1990-talet har utvecklingen inom företagsverksamhet gått explosionsartat fort fram. Sättet hur vi kommunicerar med varandra övergick ifrån att människor tog sig en kaffe på sta’n till att de istället satte sig på ett Internet-café och chattade med varandra i olika forum. Människor gick från ett aktivt social liv ute till ett aktivt liv inne.

    Vi vill i denna uppsats ta upp, att valet av information som fastighetsförmedlingar väljer att ge ut till sin målgrupp har stor betydelse för dagens kunder. Mycket av dagens information sprids på Internet och därmed har företagen fått utöka sina informationskanaler.

    Vi lägger fokus på marknadsföringen, den information och kanaler som fastighetsbyråerna använder sig av. Vi använde oss utav kurslitteratur inom företagsekonomi och fastighetsförmedling. Samt mäklarbyråernas egna hemsidor och vetenskapliga artiklar vi hittat i skolans databaser. Genom intervjuer med mäklare och en enkätundersökning som var riktad mot allmänheten, kom vi till slutsatsen att det inte var så stor skillnad som vi förväntat oss. Det visade sig under resans gång att kanalen word-of-mouth (WOM) är av stor betydelse i fastighetsmäklarbranschen

  • 220.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Flysjö, Malin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Förändringsarbete och motstånd: Inom energibranschen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most organizations go through some kind of changing process during its lifetime. Unfortunately many of these changes fail due to different reasons. Larger changing processes cost companies lots of effort and there are many things to take into account during the process. In many cases a massive resistance among the employees is also present. This paper has focused on different reasons for resistance during a changing process and found out that communication is a main success factor, but also that the management team has an important role to fulfil in order to structure and organize the changing process. This study has proceeded as a case study where we have investigated employees, managers and consultants' experiences of changing processes and the resistance created by change management. In our study, we have worked along a qualitative method with an interpretive approach to create an understanding for the subject

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  • 221.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Jakobsson, Deborah
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kostnaden av stress och utbrändhet: En studie om kostnaden av utbrändhet och stress hos behöriga lärare2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stress and burnout is a growing problem in many workplaces. Sick leave is increasing and more people are experiencing negative health consequences because of stress. In schools, more teachers feel that they do not have the time to perform their work and at the same time their workload continues to increase. In order to get a broader picture of the consequences of an unhealthy work environment, increased stress and workload, we have studied the costs of increased sick leave, staff turnover and sick presenteeism among teachers. We have done this through in-depth interviews with four different teachers who have been on sick-leave due to burnout. We also conducted a web survey where we received responses from 74 different teachers. A clear effect is that burnout and increased stress in teachers leads to more teachers feeling the same negative consequences. A teacher that is beginning to show signs of burnout and is therefore more likely to be sick and unable to perform at the same level anymore also leads to more indirect costs of increasing the workload for the other teachers. Investing in a better work environment and improved staff health can have a major effect on stopping bolting costs for sick leave, sick presenteeism and higher staff turnover. Our conclusion is that burnout contributes to increased costs in the areas of higher staff turnover, higher sick leave and sick presenteeism.

  • 222.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Larsson, Anna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Framtida organisationsförändringar: Hur skulle detta kunna påverka verksamheten och dess personal2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte:

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka hur mottaglig organisationens personal är för den kommande förändringen att minska två tjänster till en samt vad det kan få för konsekvenser ekonomiskt och strukturellt. Uppsatsens resultat ska ligga till grund för kommande beslut fattade utav företagets VD när det gäller den framtida personalomsättningen.

    Metod:

    Författarna till denna uppsats har valt att genomföra denna studie med hjälp av en kvalitativ metod, dess tolkning kommer att genomföras utefter de svar som empirin ger. Empiridelen består utav enkätfrågor som tar upp hurvida personalen kommer att påverkas samt om denna typ av organisation är förändringsbenägna då det har en äldre struktur och företagets anställda och styrelse är av den äldre generationen samt att företaget är Buhusläns äldsta och största Oljebolag. Det innebär att vi kommer att se sambandet mellan författranas teoretiska referensram och dess empiridel. Det inkluderas en del sekundärdata som berör en doktorsavhandling kring ämnet förändring samt vetenskaplig artikel.

    Tolkning kommer att ske utifrån de svar empirin ger och därför är vårt arbete en fallstudie med en deduktiv, kvalitativ inriktning. Vilket innebär att författarna vilar på en tolkningsbas av det empiriska materialet kontra samband och skillnader med detsamma och vår teoretiska referensram.

    Teori:

    Uppsatsens teoretiska del består utav flertal poster som går in i förändring. För att skapa en helhetsbild och kunna se flera sidor utav hur förändring påverkar samt vad som påverkar den. I det stora hela utgår författarnas teoridel ifrån flertal viktiga ämnen som går in i förändring såsom arbetsmotivation, tyst kunskap och downsizing, grundläggande förändringsprocesser, rekrytering och ledarskap medmera.

    Empiri:

    Denna del i uppsatsen ger oss personalens syn på hur de ser på förändring och hur de tror att en förändring hade påverkat organisationen som de arbetar i. Dessa svar finns i samlad form under avsnittet enkätfrågor.

    Slusats och analys:

    Här sammanställs författarnas teoretiska referensram i studien samt dess empiri för att kunna besvara forskningsfrågorna och syftet. Slusatsen berättar att om de i organisationen Kungshamnsfiskarna AB skall lyckas genomföra en förändring så skall den ske kontinuerligt och långsamt, samt att alla inblandade både personal och styrelse skall ha tillgång till all information innan förändringen genomförs. Viktigt är det även att genomföra en gedigen rekryteringsprocess samt att ha en lång inskolningsperiod för att på bästa sätt bevara den tysta kunskapen

  • 223.
    Andersson, Emmelie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ekström, Jennie
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Outsourca ekonomifunktionen eller inte?: En studie av mikroföretag belägna inom Vara kommun2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are different ways for a small business owner to manage its economy function. Firstly, a decision must be taken regarding if the function should be found internally in the business or be transferred to an external company. To outsource the finance function may pose both opportunities and obstacles for the company and the purpose of our study is to identify and analyze them. We conducted a qualitative study with in-depth interviews. The interviews took place with the respective owner of eight different micro-enterprises in the restaurant and bakery industry. The theoretical framework contains of three different perspectives that all describe different benefits that outsourcing can lead to. These perspectives are the cost-based, the knowledge-based and the relation-based perspective. In addition to the benefits we have also dealt with criticism of these perspectives, thus any consequences that may occur. Also, we have given a sight of how a well-managed decision-making process might look like from a theoretical perspective. Our empirical information consists of a compilation of our eight interviews. All respondents had largely similar views regarding outsourcing. The biggest factor that led to differences of opinion was regarding whether their respective interest lay in the actual production or if they had the "running a business" as their interest. The thing all respondents had common views on, and which is also highlighted in the theoretical framework, is the importance of control when you run your own business. This control can suffer if the finance function is outsourced because the owners of micro-enterprises then don't have the same regular watch over the fate of the company. In order to escape the problem of lack of control, a personal and close relationship with the operator of outsourcing can be the solution. This person has knowledge of how the owner thinks and believes which makes the chance that the company is run in accordance with his or her individual preferences more likely. Another important question about outsourcing is the meaning of costs, which in many ways are related to the importance of a good decision-making process. In the short term, outsourcing seem expensive, the cost savings that emerge in theory can be seen first in a long term perspective. Therefore, it is important to make an informed decision with both long-term and short-term perspectives.

  • 224.
    Andersson, Felicia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Latif, Enis
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    The Impact of Monetary Policy on Housing Prices: The Case of Sweden & Switzerland2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, we analyze the impact of monetary policy on both the Swedish and Swiss real estate market for the period 1987 to the first quarter of 2021. We use Katrakilidis and  Trachanas (2012) work, where we got inspiration from to use the Autoregressive distributed lag model (ADL) to examine the link between monetary policy and Swedish as well as Swiss housing prices. Our final results denote that there is a presence of explanatory power from the interest rate, the tool of monetary policy to the housing price index in both countries. In both Sweden's and Switzerland's case, we can see that there is a positive outcome in the HPI in0,014 respectively 0,773 per 1 % increase in the real interest rate, meaning that there exists an impact of monetary policy in both of these countries in the short run.

  • 225.
    Andersson, Filip
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Stjernqvist, David
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Integritetsparadoxen vid personanpassad annonsering: Informatik- och ekonomistudenters upplevelser2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how informatics- and economics students experience that their personal integrity is affected by personalized ads on Facebook. This study will present how data collection takes place, what rules exist when collecting data and how personalized ads can be possible to design. Furthermore, this study uses the SOR-modelas an analytical framework for the purpose of distinguishing different factors that affect the respondents' personal integrity. Semi-structured interviews have been conducted with fictitious advertisements as complement towards four informatics students and four economics students at University West. The interviews were recorded and transcribed with selective transcription to identify key quotes. These quotes have then been grouped according to data collection, personalized ads, privacy paradox and click intent. The results of this study show that the design of the ad has a major impact on how the privacy paradox is perceived. How this study's respondents perceive the privacy paradox of personalized ads is based on how confident the respondent feels towards the data collection that takes place.

  • 226.
    Andersson, Fred
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Högt eller lågt? En studie i organisationsstruktur på en svensk friskola2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan industrialiseringen tog fart under 1800-talet har flera olika teorier inom organisations-struktur utvecklats för att effektivisera arbete. Länge var de hierarkiska strukturerna förhärskande men i takt med att arbetare kunde ställa större krav på sina arbetsgivare gick utvecklingen mer och mer åt det demokratiska hållet. Demokratiseringen, eller tillplattningen som den också kallas, har ofta hyllats även om dess förtjänster kan ifrågasättas, särskilt då det relativt hierarkiska konceptet Lean Production gjorde sitt intåg i de västliga industrierna något decennium efter den mer demokratiska sociotekniken. Vidare ifrågasätter flera forskare att tillplattning av organisationer i praktiken leder till demokrati.

    Denna studie har undersökt hur en friskola i Sverige är organiserad utifrån ett platt kontra hierarkiskt perspektiv med hjälp av ett antal kända teorier om organisationsstruktur. En slutsats blev att organisationen mest kunde liknas vid de två relativt platta organisations-strukturerna socioteknik och organisk struktur. Studien fann även att den platta organisationsstrukturen inte var helt problemfri då den svaga formella strukturen verkade ha gett upphov till en stark informell struktur inom medarbetarnas arbetslag. På samma gång framträdde en delvis dold hierarkisk styrning av skolans normer från företagsledningen. Denna hade flera aspekter som medarbetare uppskattade, dock ledde den i vissa fall till förtryck av åsikter.

  • 227.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Animation och visuell perception: En möjlig syntes mellan animerade bilder och statiska produkter2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    This thesis examines the possibility of initially capturing the recipient's attention with an animated character. Selected animated movements of the character are used to move the recipient's concentration and attention further to desired points and artifacts off-screen.The purpose is to get a clearer indication of which of the selected movements are more likely to be effective for this purpose. The methods are selected for qualitative research and consist of a design process to produce visual material adapted for a visual experiment in a defined environment with associated qualitative interviews of randomly selected informants. The results were based on analyzes of primary data from the visual experiment with visual perception as a theoretical explanatory model. This data is considered to support a hypothetical possibility to use an animated character to design a synthesis between the monitor's internal visual content and nearby external artifacts.

    The end results shows that a static movement strategy is needed for an animated character to effectively move the recipient's attention between the internal and external content within the desired context. This is considered to include a chronologically structured interaction between dynamic body movements followed by temporarily static gestures that informatively indicate a clear direction.

  • 228.
    Andersson Hallsten, Edwin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Andersson, Niklas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Digitaliseringens påverkan på butiksanställda: En kvalitativ studie ur butikspersonalens perspektiv2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is a highly ranked country when it comes to digitalization, this means that many parts of society are, and continue to be digitalized and the trade sector is not an exception. In pace with digitalization, store staff's work and tasks change, which is why the purpose of this study is to investigate what pros and cons digitalization has brought with it from the employee's perspective. The research question that was used in this survey was: How do store employees feel that digitalization affects their work environment? To answer the question, seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with respondents from two of the leading grocery stores in Sweden. The material collected from the interviews was transcribed and a thematic analysis was then performed, which became the basis for the result and discussion part of this paper. The results showed that digitalization entails changed tasks as they can be eliminated, changed, or added due to digitalization. In many cases, these changes were seen as a good support for the staff, however, it was mentioned that digitalization rarely eliminates tasks but rather changes them, as the time saved from how the task was previously performed is instead used to maintain the system that changed the task. The constant digitalization has driven the stores to become extremely dependent on the technology to run their business, several respondents pointed out the fact that if the wrong system is down, there is no backup plan to continue running the store without this system.

  • 229.
    Andersson, Hanna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Det frivilliga tillämpandet av IFRS hos K3-företag: En kvantitativ undersökning av större onoterade K3-företag i Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union decided that from January 1 2005, all listed companies within the union should prepare their consolidate financial statements in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The underlying reason behind the decision was a belief that a common accounting standard would support the flow of capital and improve the comparability of accounting. In Sweden, only listed companies are forced to apply IFRS. However, unlisted companies have the possibility to use IFRS voluntary if they want to. The previous research on IFRS is mainly focused on IFRS in listed companies and therefore I chose to investigate the voluntary adoption of IFRS in unlisted K3- companies. Based on the previous research that deals with reasons and motives why companies choose to adopt IFRS, my literature study helped identify various factors that may affect whether a company chooses to adopt IFRS or not. These factors included corporate size, Debt ratio, foreign ownership, foreign sales, cost of capital and ownership structure. Based on these factors, various hypotheses were formulated. To answer the study’s purpose, I used a quantitative method. The collected data consist of information and financial performance indicators from financial statements belonging to 180 different companies. To test the hypotheses, the computer program Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) have been used. In SPSS, Crosstabs, Chi-square tests, Pearson’s r and comparisons between Mean and Median have been made. The results of the tests showed that there was a connection between choice of accounting principle and company size, between accounting principle and indebtedness, between accounting principle and foreign ownership, between accounting principle and foreign sales, as well as between choice of accounting principle and cost of capital. The conclusion was that IFRS-companies have a larger corporate size, they are more indebted, have a lower equity ratio and that there are more common with foreign ownership for IFRS-companies than for K3-companies. IFRS-companies also accounts for a large share of foreign sales and have higher cost of capital compared to K3-companies.

  • 230.
    Andersson, Hanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Andrésson, Anna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Deltagande i budgetprocessen: En fallstudie om vilka faktorer som bidrar till motivation och minskar slack2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Budget is about producing a forecast for future financial performance, both in terms of earnings, liquidity and balance sheet. It can have different purposes within a company and can be used to motivate the subordinate managers by allowing them to participate in the process when creating goals that lead to a reward. Participation in the budget process is defined as a process in which the subordinate managers are involved and have the authority to influence the budget. Previous research shows both the pros and cons of allowing the subordinate managers to attend. Positive effects are that subordinate managers get motivated by participating in the process and the negative effects are that the subordinate managers can negotiate slack in the budget to more easily reach the goals. The previous research also describes various factors that can influence the subordinate managers to be motivated or tend to create and prevent slack from occurring. The purpose of this survey was to study how participation in the budget process affects the subordinate managers' motivation and likelihood of budget slack. Furthermore, the purpose is to investigate which factors may affect the subordinate managers being motivated in their work and the risk of negotiating slack. To answer the research question, a qualitative research method was used by doing twelve interviews at the specific company. The case company in which the study is conducted works actively to allow the subordinate managers to participate in the budget process which is an important factor in the success of the process. The result of the study shows that it is important for companies to let the subordinate managers participate in the budget process as it is one of the biggest reasons that motivates them. It also shows that the participation leads to the highest management getting relevant information to the budget as it is the subordinate managers who have the greatest knowledge of their department. Through the study, four factors can be identified that lead to the motivation of the subordinate managers, such as communication, strategic planning, community and cooperation, as well as personalities. The communication is the most important factor that both indirectly and directly affects the other factors. Slack is not considered to exist in this company and through the study it is not possible to see that participation would lead to the creation of slack. The study shows that it is possible to read two factors that prevent slack not to occur in this company, and it is information asymmetries as well as community and cooperation.

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  • 231.
    Andersson, Hanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Andrésson, Anna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Rättvisande bild: revisorers tolkning av begreppet2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The term of true and fair view entered the Swedish legislation after Sweden joined the EU in 1994 and is originally a term that comes from the Anglo-Saxon tradition. As Sweden originate from the continental tradition, it has meant a difficulty how the term can be applied to the Swedish financial statements. The reason for this is the strong connection between taxation and accounting in Sweden, which does not exist in countries with the Anglo-Saxon tradition. Walton (1993) describes this in a great way. When a television program interviewed three informed persons who were asked what true and fair view means they all had difficulty giving an answer. As there are also generally accepted accounting principles in the Swedish legislation which in many aspects are similar to true and fair view there has also been opposition to keeping both terms in the legislation.

    The purpose of this report is that by interviewing auditors find out how their interpretation around the concept looks. We also want to distinguish the reasons for problems that been experienced in the use of true and fair view of the Swedish financial statements. To achieve the purpose of this study were conducted qualitative interviews with four accountants working in Sweden at some of the Big Four accounting firms.

    In the theoretical part describes the history of accounting short to give you as a reader a background to how the term of true and fair view occurred and why it had a great impact on the Swedish financial statements. It is also described about IFRS that, together with the EU, led to the term contained in the Swedish report, "true and fair view" as the Swedish translated to rättvisande bild, the Swedish sense of the term and generally accepted accounting principles. This material has served as a base for collecting empirical data and interpretation of the collected material.

    The results of the study shows that there is a similar picture about what the purpose of the term of true and fair view is within Swedish legislation but the way they believe the true image appear may be different. Some of those interviewed also believe that the term is so incorporated in the Swedish financial statements that companies do not think about it deliberately, but that they by following the laws and standards available going to a true and fair view. The study also indicates that there is room for both terms in the

    Swedish legislation and that the two terms interact to be able to present the true and fair view of the company.

  • 232.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Borås, PreHospen - Centre for Prehospital Researc Borås, Sweden; University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, Borås, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, PreHospen - Centre for Prehospital Researc Borås, Sweden; University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, Borås, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anna
    Ambulance Department, South Älvsborg's Hospital, Borås, Sweden.
    Bremer, Anders
    University of Borås, PreHospen - Centre for Prehospital Researc Borås, Sweden; Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Växjö, Sweden.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Bång, Angela
    University of Borås, PreHospen - Centre for Prehospital Researc Borås, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, PreHospen - Centre for Prehospital Researc Borås, Sweden; University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, Borås, Sweden.
    Ljungström, Lars
    Skaraborg Hospital, Infection Disease Department, Skövde, Sweden.
    The early chain of care in bacteraemia patients: Early suspicion, treatment and survival in prehospital emergency care.2018In: American Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 0735-6757, E-ISSN 1532-8171, Vol. 36, no 12, p. 2211-2218, article id S0735-6757(18)30279-1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Bacteraemia is a first stage for patients risking conditions such as septic shock. The primary aim of this study is to describe factors in the early chain of care in bacteraemia, factors associated with increased chance of survival during the subsequent 28days after admission to hospital. Furthermore, the long-term outcome was assessed.

    METHODS: This study has a quantitative design based on data from Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and hospital records.

    RESULTS: In all, 961 patients were included in the study. Of these patients, 13.5% died during the first 28days. The EMS was more frequently used by non-survivors. Among patients who used the EMS, the suspicion of sepsis already on scene was more frequent in survivors. Similarly, EMS personnel noted the ESS code "fever, infection" more frequently for survivors upon arriving on scene. The delay time from call to the EMS and admission to hospital until start of antibiotics was similar in survivors and non-survivors. The five-year mortality rate was 50.8%. Five-year mortality was 62.6% among those who used the EMS and 29.5% among those who did not (p<0.0001).

    CONCLUSION: This study shows that among patients with bacteraemia who used the EMS, an early suspicion of sepsis or fever/infection was associated with improved early survival whereas the delay time from call to the EMS and admission to hospital until start of treatment with antibiotics was not. 50.8% of all patients were dead after five years.

  • 233.
    Andersson, Jakop
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, Jonathan
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Hedge funds: A bang for the buck?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hedge funds are an investment alternative that has become more available to retail investors, it is a segment in the financial sector that now manage over 2000 billion USD. A key factor to it is increased popularity is due to the substantial decrease in minimum investment, making it a more considerable alternative for the average investor. With the latest year’s volatile markets, one could understand that the fundamental structure of a hedge fund seems lucrative, being able to hedge their portfolios in declining markets. These advantages do not come without a price and hedge fund are known to take the highest management fees in the business, allowing for successful hedge fund managers to obtain some of the highest salaries on this plant. Are these salaries justified due to abnormal returns?

    To answer this questions as comprehensive as possible, we first conducted a test for the random walk hypothesis, exploring if it is possible to predict market movements. Finding this possible, we proceeded to test for how well European and North American hedge fund managers have performed overall.

    Testing for excessive return over relevant benchmark indices by performing tests for the capital asset pricing model, Jensen’s alfa and the Fama and French three factor model to validate the results even further. With all tests concluding that hedge fund managers succeed to outperforming their benchmark indices. We later conducted tests for both the Sharpe and Treynor ratio to interpret how much of a risk-adjusted abnormal return the hedge fund managers achieved.

  • 234.
    Andersson, Jenny
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Stolt, Sofia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Immigration & fastighetspriser2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the immigration to Sweden affects the Swedish real estate prices, and if so, how and to what extent. The study relates to property prices of houses in Sweden during the years 1993 – 2012. A subsidiary purpose is to investigate which group of immigrants that has the most effect on real estate prices, the returning Swedish-born or the foreign-born. The study is based on several multiple regressions including variables retrieved from the DiPasquale and Wheaton-model. The variable to be explained in the analyses is the property price and the explaining variables are interest rate, disposable income, debt, unemployment, new construction, rent, gross domestic product and immigration.

    Similarly to previous research from Switzerland, Spain, Canada, USA and New Zealand, the study concludes that there is a positive relationship between immigration and property prices. The Swedish results, however, demonstrates a stronger connection than the other countries in the short run. Regarding the subsidiary purpose regarding the influence of different groups of immigrants, the study shows that it, in the short run, is the returning Swedes that to a greater extent affect property prices

  • 235.
    Andersson, Jenny
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Svensson, Malin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Motivationsfaktorer i arbetet: Likheter och skillnader mellan anställda inom kommunala och privata organisationer2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    High staff turnover leads to high costs for organizations. Therefore, it is of great importance for the organizations to understand what motivates employees in their work that makes them choose to stay in the workplace for a longer period of time. The purpose of this study was to find out if there were similarities and differences in what motivates employees in their work within municipal and private organizations. This was done by examining and comparing employees' experiences of various motivational factors. In this study, where the purpose was to study reality, we used an inductive approach with a qualitative method for data collection. We chose to conduct four semi-structured interviews to collect our data material, two of the interviews were conducted with respondents within municipal organizations and two with respondents within private organizations. The theory started with a discussion about the concept of motivation based on scientific articles and previous course literature. The theory we then applied was drawn from previous scientific studies on motivation, including comparative studies on motivation among employees in municipal and private organizations. The data collected was generally reported in the empirical data, partly in the form of quotations, based on various subject areas that we had previously established in our interview guide. When we analyzed the empiricism based on the theoretical frame of reference, we could see that what we found in our study was both in line with, but also contrary to, what previous research studies on motivation in work have shown. In our study we could see both similarities and differences in what motivated respondents in their work, both between, but also within the two types of organizations. The most important conclusions we reached were that there were mainly similarities in what motivates employees within private and municipal organizations, respectively. These were mainly non-material factors, for instance a good working climate and good colleagues, which motivated the respondents and had a significant role for their willingness to stay in their respective workplace, regardless of the type of organization in which they were employed.

  • 236.
    Andersson, Jessica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Tjärndal, Lina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Motivationsaspekter inom olika branscher: Hur stor påverkan har egentligen motivationen på prestationen inom en organisation?2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats inom Metod & Uppsats i företagsekonomi studerar vi hur motivationen kan ha en påverkan på prestationen, inom olika branscher. Det finns flera motivationsfaktorer som kan utövas och en av dem är Herzbergs motivationsteori som vi tar upp i bakgrunden och teoriavsnittet. Studiens syfte är att undersöka den påverkan som motivationen har inom en organisation och arbetet där i. För att kunna besvara vårt syfte kommer vi hämta information från både vetenskapliga artiklar, intervjuer samt övrig litteratur som är relevant för denna studie.

    Vidare beskrivs olika motivationsfaktorer som kan utövas inom organisationer. Mål och motivationsfaktorer har en koppling till varandra då man behöver mål för att kunna få viss typ av motivation. Motivation och värden tas även upp för att kunna skapa en förståelse för hur det kan se ut inom organisationer och hur vissa använder dessa aspekter i hopp om att kunna öka motivationen. Huvudfokus för denna uppsats är alltså motivation.

    Avgränsningar inom denna rapport sker via utvalda branscher vi valt ut där både ledare och anställda arbetar. Detta för att kunna smalna av rapportens område och endast fokusera på en viss kategori av organisationer. Utifrån detta vill vi besvara vårt syfte.

    Metodvalet för denna uppsats föll på en kvalitativ metod. Vi anser att denna metod är lämplig för denna typ av studie då vi genomför intervjuer samt samlar in data från vetenskapliga artiklar och övriga källor. Dessutom använder vi oss utav en intervjuguide.

    I empirin presenteras de svar vi fått från de respondenter vi intervjuat för denna studie. Vi har intervjuat både ledare och anställda för att kunna få en spridning inom organisation och motivation. Detta tror vi även ökar tillförlitligheten för denna studie.

    Analysavsnittet innehåller sammanställning av den information vi samlat in till teoriavsnittet för att sedan kunna koppla samman detta med intervjusvaren vi fått fram via intervjuer med samtliga respondenter. Detta för att kunna jämföra hur det faktiskt ser ut inom organisationer inom motivation och hur respondenterna faktiskt upplever motivationen som utövas.

    Slutsatsen innehåller den slutsats vi kommit fram till. Vi anser att vi kan besvara vårt syfte med denna studie. Vi kan dra slutsatser kring hur motivation utövas inom de olika organisationer som vi har studerat.

  • 237.
    Andersson, Jimmy
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Nordberg, Daniel
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    There´s no sound in space: En studie om ljuddesign för fiktiva objekt inom Science Fiction2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work examines how a sound can affect the experience of an object with the focus set on sound design for an object which lacks a real world reference. The study's purpose was to research the experience of an object in relation to the sounds level of realism. We collected data through web based surveys to see how an object could be perceived differently by just altering the level of realism in the sound. The survey then gets backed up by an analysis of two movies where the related phenomenon where present. Our results leads to a discussion where possible correlations between sound and it’s level of realism are revealed which then could become a foundation for future studies.   

  • 238.
    Andersson, John
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet, Scandinavian Surgical Outcomes Research Group, Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Sahlgrenska Academy.
    Abis, G
    Alingsås Hospital, Department of Surgery.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Angenete, Eva
    Göteborgs Universitet, Scandinavian Surgical Outcomes Research Group, Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Sahlgrenska Academy.
    Angerås, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet, Scandinavian Surgical Outcomes Research Group, Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Sahlgrenska Academy.
    Cuesta, M A
    VU University Medical Centre, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam.
    Jess, P
    Roskilde Hospital, Department of Surgery, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Rosenberg, Jakob
    Copenhagen University, Department of Surgery, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bonjer, H J
    VU University Medical Centre, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam.
    Haglind, Eva
    Göteborgs Universitet, Scandinavian Surgical Outcomes Research Group, Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Sahlgrenska Academy.
    Patient-reported genitourinary dysfunction after laparoscopic and open rectal cancer surgery in a randomized trial (COLOR II).2014In: British Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0007-1323, E-ISSN 1365-2168, Vol. 101, no 10, p. 1272-1279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: This article reports on patient-reported sexual dysfunction and micturition symptoms following a randomized trial of laparoscopic and open surgery for rectal cancer.

    METHODS: Patients in the COLOR II randomized trial, comparing laparoscopic and open surgery for rectal cancer, completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-CR38 questionnaire before surgery, and after 4 weeks, 6, 12 and 24 months. Adjusted mean differences on a 100-point scale were calculated using changes from baseline value at the various time points in the domains of sexual functioning, sexual enjoyment, male and female sexual problems, and micturition symptoms.

    RESULTS: Of 617 randomized patients, 385 completed this phase of the trial. Their mean age was 67·1 years. Surgery caused an anticipated reduction in genitourinary function after 4 weeks, with no significant differences between laparoscopic and open approaches. An improvement in sexual dysfunction was seen in the first year, but some male sexual problems persisted. Before operation 64·5 per cent of men in the laparoscopic group and 55·6 per cent in the open group reported some degree of erectile dysfunction. This increased to 81·1 and 80·5 per cent respectively 4 weeks after surgery, and 76·3 versus 75·5 per cent at 12 months, with no significant differences between groups. Micturition symptoms were less affected than sexual function and gradually improved to preoperative levels by 6 months. Adjusting for confounders, including radiotherapy, did not change these results.

    CONCLUSION: Sexual dysfunction is common in patients with rectal cancer, and treatment (including surgery) increases the proportion of patients affected. A laparoscopic approach does not change this.

  • 239.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Svahn, Linus
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Den inkrementella budgeteringens dominans: En studie om budgetproblematik i Sveriges kommunala sektor2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Incremental budgeting have had a strong dominance in the public sector for decades and have been criticized for not being up to date or effective in current times. Earlier research suggest that the method leads to high cost growth and difficulties to work in a world of constant change. Meanwhile deficits, debt and costs are growing in Swedish municipalities, where a boom have transitioned into a recession. On this basis, the purpose of this study has been to measure the prevalence of incrementalism in Swedish municipalities and its consequences as an instrument of control and planning. To achieve this, a quantitative content analysis was conducted of Swedish municipal budgets in combination with reviewing official financial data. The study suggest that incremental budgeting still dominates in Swedish municipalities. The study also suggests that municipalities with a higher degree of alternative budgeting methods generally performs better financially than municipalities with a higher degree of incremental budgeting.

  • 240.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    van Dorsselaer, Frank
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Procyclical effects of fair value accounting: A study of Nordic investment property companies2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fair value accounting for investment property has been mandatory in the EU since the adoption of IFRS 13 and has been both heavily criticized and praised. Previous research suggests that there are some inherent issues with fair value accounting for investment property, such as lacking reliability and persistence of reported unrealized earnings. There is also evidence of unrealized earnings influencing dividends and share price development related to fair value accounting in a procyclical manner. The purpose of this study is to enhance knowledge about whether fair value accounting in listed Nordic investment property companies causes procyclical effects on dividend payout and stock market behaviour. To fulfil this purpose, a quantitative analysis of financial reports and share prices of listed Nordic investment property companies was conducted. This study confirms that fair value accounting has a strong influence on dividends and share price development.

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  • 241.
    Andersson, Jonatan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Szanto, Therese
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    You pay I play: Microdonationer kring Twitch.tv med fokus på tittarna2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since Twitch started its livestreaming site in 2011 live streaming have grown incredibly fast. In 2014 Twitch had 100 million unique viewers monthly. The streams on Twitch range from esports players to people streaming for fun. Today there are streamers that are not working but instead create a living based on streaming and micro donations from its viewers. We are curious and want to explore how a streamer can live just by playing computer games. They accumulate an audience who will return as soon streamer begins streaming. In addition to advertising on their page to get streamers into micro donations through their viewers. These micro donations account for a large portion of their income.

    We focus on those watching rather than those who stream. How is it that someone would be willing to donate money to a streamer? We then decided to do a survey on motivation and microdonations Twitch viewers will answer. The questions is focused on what kind of genre, user prefer to watch and and what motivates them to donate.

    In our study, it was only 36.5% who spent less than 4 hours per week on Twitch, the rest of the responses were from people who spent over 4 hours. According to the responses of our survey people were not affected by others when it came to the choice of stream to watch. Many people choose the stream due to the streamer being entertaining or playing the same game as the streamer. Even if the people who answered our survey spent alot of time on Twitch only a part of them choose to donate 43% of them have neither donated or subscribed to a stream before. Only 5.5% donates much (over $ 10) and often. According to the answers only 56.1% have donated or subscribed to a stream before. We must take into account that 75.6% are young people under 24 years old and may not have an income, hence it is difficult to donate despite the fact that they want. Although many are donating very small sums, there are people who donate incredibly large sums which a streamer can almost fall into a state of shock.

    There was a number of different factors that motivated people to donate their money to streamers. The three most prominent factors were “Entertaining streamer” a streamer who engages the audience and makes them laugh, “I play the same game” the viewers recognize the game and play it during their own time and “I want to learn something” the viewers want to improve their own skills and learn something new. More than half the people who responded would be willing to spend atleast 10$ a month on Twitch related material. Most of the people who answered were men and around 1525 years. Benefits i.e getting something in return for a donation had a much lower impact towards motivating people than expected.

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    fulltext
  • 242.
    Andersson, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Wagerland, Rebecca
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Gestaltningsprogram kopplat till detaljplan: Gestaltningens påverkan på hållbarhetsdimensionerna2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the planning process, municipalities work with spatial design. In order to specify and justify the design of the built environment, the municipality can choose to create an spatial design program in connection with a detailed development plan. Spatial design programs have no legal effect, but should be used as a guiding document when, for example, building permit approval are carried out. This can be done by the municipality itself or in collaboration with a developer. Through spatial design, municipalities can achieve the national goals for sustainable community building and the proposition Politik för gestaltad livsmiljö.

    It can be difficult for municipalities to comply to a detailed development plan that is legally binding and using a spatial design program without legal effect can create uncertainty about how the documents can be used together. This study is based on investigating whether a spatial design program should be made more legally binding or not and what impact a more legally binding spatial design program would have on social, economic and ecological sustainability. In order to examine how municipalities work with design in practice and how they view the possible legal effects of the spatial design program, the municipality of Lilla Edet was used in the study.

    The results of the study present how the municipality relates to governing documents, laws and guidelines. It appears that it is not legally correct to link design programs with a detailed plan. Today, design needs to be described directly in the planning regulations to become legally binding. Furthermore, it is presented that spatial design has a great impact on the sustainability dimensions in the long and short term. Making spatial design programs legally binding could help to ensure good spatial design, which means a good balance between social, ecological and economic sustainability.

  • 243.
    Andersson, Lisette
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Bengtsson, Christian
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Behovet av ett mobilt informations- och dokumentationsverktyg i hemtjänsten: Personalens perspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although the work in home care businesses most often are mobile, the documentation and information management often occurs in information systems through desktop computers. The need for mobile solutions have become more relevant as they may contribute to increased safety, improved quality and time savings. However, research shows that business knowledge is often overlooked in the development of health systems, which contributes to IT support that are not adapted to the business needs. This study aims to increase understanding on how home care staff believes that mobile IT support the care work and organization routines.

    The study was conducted in a home care business through qualitative interviews of six respondents and a thematic analysis model has been used, containing three theoretical areas: Efficiency, Ease of use and Usability, Satisfaction and Motivation. The results show that a mobile IT support would represent a clear advantage in the business and that the existing information system could either be supplemented or replaced. However, the staff still have fears and negative attitudes towards the obstacles and risks of what new technologies can bring to the table.

  • 244.
    Andersson, Louise
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Božić, Sandra
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Western Cinematic Representations of Sub-Saharan Post-Colonial Africa: An in-depth qualitative content analysis of Blood Diamond, Hotel Rwanda and The Last King of Scotland2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to analyze the representation of how the colonial past, in itself and in its consequences, is portrayed in Blood Diamond, Hotel Rwanda and The Last King of Scotland. All three movies are produced in Hollywood and they will be analyzed in an in-depth Small-N study. Our analytical framework is drawn from theories on how film creates meaning, postcolonial theory that includes concepts from Fanon, Said and Young, colonial patterns regarding Sub-Saharan Africa and finally Eurocentrism. Our three movies which serve as data, are analyzed with a qualitative content analysis through themes extracted from our theories in order for us to see how the colonial past is represented. Our findings show that in all three movies it was a representation of a colonial past portrayed in different ways regarding which theme that was being analyzed. The analysis further shows that the representation of the colonial past was seen as an underlying meaning, in the portrayal in the direct dialogues, or it was represented differently depending on whose perspective that was being told in all three movies. The intention of this thesis is to contribute to the field of Western representation of “the other” in movies and the representation of its colonial heritage.

  • 245.
    Andersson, Marcus
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Kartläggning och automatisering av den interna varuförsörjningskedjan: en fallstudie på Lindex AB2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den snabbt ökande digitaliseringen som sker i dagens samhälle påverkar såväl människor som teknik. Utvecklingen av digitala kanaler låter oss idag kommunicera och handla på helt nya sätt samtidigt som robotar är på väg att bli en del i vardagen. Inom e-handel har utveckling av automatiserade system och robotliknande teknik kommit långt och kan bidra till effektivare processer i företag. Lindex AB är ett av Sveriges största modeföretag och konkurrera ständigt med andra företag på marknaden för att uppfylla kunders behov och krav på service. Något som blivit allt viktigare på detaljhandelsmarknaden är försäljning genom digitala kanaler och e-handel där ordrarna ökar samtidigt som det ställs högre krav på kortare ledtider.

    Lindex har i denna studie en central del där syftet är att undersöka möjligheter och hinder för automatiserade lösningar i lager genom att studera orderhanteringen i Lindex e-handelsmiljö. Studien innefattar en teoridel som introducerar läsaren till automatisering av lagerprocesser där flera exempel på robotlösningar och avancerade lagersystem presenteras. Att ha robotar som transporterar varor till personalen istället för den traditionella versionen där personalen plockar varor från stationära plockplatser är idag en möjlighet. Detta kan innebära effektivare processer och slutligen kortare ledtider till kund.

    Intervjuer och observationer ligger till grund för studiens kvalitativa undersökningsansats som ger följd till ett resultat med mycket bilder. Totalt har sex observationer och tre intervjuer genomförts för att noggrant studera företagets processer. Deltagande observationerna har genomförts där författaren fått möjligheten att följa och studera nyckelprocesserna i Lindex varuflöde på en lagernivå.

    Slutsatsen visar på att det skulle vara svårt att automatisera processer på grund av flera hinder men tyder på att en av processerna som observerats har god möjlighet till automatisering på grund av dess starka koppling till lagersystem.

  • 246.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS).
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Spatial dependence and the representation of space in empirical models2009In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 159-180Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 247.
    Andersson, Mikael
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Andersson, Ulf
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Problem solving, reflection and lifelong learning in the junction between theory and practice2022In: International Conference on Work Integrated Learning: Abstract Book, Trollhättan: University West , 2022, p. 80-80Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2002 University West was commissioned by the government to develop forms for work integrated learning (WIL) as part of the work with pedagogical renewal of higher education. As a result of this assignment, WIL is now a deeply rooted philosophy and cornerstone of the university but also the main principle for pedagogical approach. We believe that knowledge, both theoretical and practical, is acquired everywhere and not only in institutions of higher learning. In other words, we are striving to connect university studies with everyday work life and the surrounding society. The purpose of this paper is to describe and evaluate a strategy for improving student awareness and skills for problem solving, reflection and lifelong learning in the junction between theory and practice. At the center of our focus are students from our bachelor's degree programme 3D-animation and visualization and a course on simulation and particle based effects. This is a challenging subject to teach since knowledge, tools and process is evolving rapidly and we rewrite the course curricula every year. The strategy consists of adding five themes focused on reflection and problem solving spread over the weeks of the course, in addition to the more direct subject-related areas. For each theme the students recieved reading material giving an overview of each theme, and then reflection based questions aimed at connecting the theme of each week to the subject of the course. The themes were Lifeling Learning, MoSCoW prioritisation, Schöns desriptions of design challenges and wicked problems and finally Fraylings ideas of Research through design and Schöns Conversation with the material. For the last week, the students wrote a summary of the entire course using the themes they had studied. At first there was some resistance among the students, and it was not easy for them to see the value of these assignments, instead their focus was on the more technical aspects of the course. However, as the course progressed a majority of the students started to see the point of these more reflective based assignments. One example where this became apparent was during the weekly presentations of the technical assignments. While some of the students still struggled with integrating the reflective assignments with the more technical parts of the course, others started to use the terminology and reasoning from the reflective assignments when talking about how they approached the problems they faced when solving the technical assignments. Having the students equipped with these new approaches also facilitated talking about problem solving and learning strategies, both during the course where this strategy was tested, as well as a subsequent course.The strategy was evaluated by analysing the written and oral presentations and reflections of the students, with special attention being paid to their problem solving and their strategies when approaching new technologies and tools. In addition to this, we also observed their reasoning about the theories that was embedded in the tools, i.e not just talk about how to do things in the software, but also the theories and principles underlying the software.Overall, the aim of the strategy was to train the students on problem solving and learning through experimentation, design and reflection. While one single course is a very short time to practice this, differences in reasoning andstrategies in the students from the beginning of the course to the end could be seen. This was both in their written reports as well as their oral presentations. Areas where improvements could be seen was more abstract reasoning, reflection on problem solving, priorities, and the ability to connect and compare different areas of the course. One theme that also was recurring in the texts was the balance between chaotic exploration and structured learning. These are skills that are valuable in a changing industry where they will need to learn new tools and develop new workflows constantly. Overall, a conclusion here is that learning to learn is far more important than learning a specific tool or skill.

  • 248.
    Andersson, Mikael
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Work integrated learning boosts students' experience of readiness for working life2020In: INTED2020 Proceedings: 14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference Valencia, Spain. 2-4 March, 2020 / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, Valencia, 2020, p. 4101-4105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-efficacy and Self-esteem of readiness are important factors for students to succeed in an internship. These factors affect how an individual handles new situations and possible threats. By testing their theoretical knowledge in a practical context, the internship can have a positive effect on the student's experience of being successful in working life.Work integrated learning is one approach that may support students progression towards increased readiness for working life. What characterizes work readiness and how can it be achieved?The study was conducted at the bachelor's degree programs ‘Digital Media’ and ‘3D-animation and visualisation’, at University West in Sweden. During the fifth semester students have the opportunity to carry out internships in a workplace. These internships are conducted as a course at the university which also gives higher education credits. The time spent on the course is split between the workplace (80%) and the university (20%). Every fortnight the students meet with faculty staff at a seminar to discuss a given topic. The purpose of the course is to give the student the opportunity to integrate theory from the university studies with practical experience in a workplace.The students spend the majority of the time in the workplace however every second week they meet in a seminar on campus, in which they discuss their experiences in the workplace. As a preparation for the seminar, the students are given different thematic questions to reflect on. Based on all students answers, in the seminar the students reflect on similarities and differences in each others’ texts. Additionally, a supplementary summarizing question is given to the students during the seminar.Prior to the start of the course, the students make their own estimation of how ready they feel they are for working life on a scale from 1-10. After the course, the estimation is revised along the same scale. In addition to this estimation, conversations are conducted between the students, regarding readiness for working life.The study is a mixed methods approach and consists of three sets of data: five group interviews á three hours with 7-15 participants in seminars, two online surveys and 50 written reports from all together 15 students.In the paper we report on how students gradually increase their feeling of being more sure of what type of work tasks they prefer to do in the future, which skills they already have or need to develop further, and what type of workplace they want to work at related to for instance: level of creative freedom, level of collegiality, type of governance etc. These insights, we argue, are vital characteristics of students’ experience of ‘readiness for working life’. We discuss how these characteristics are important aspects of self efficacy and how they are related to the design of the course and ultimately a work integrated learning approach to teaching and learning within higher education.

  • 249.
    Andersson, Mikael
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Tidlund, Stefan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    An updated model for activities that promote work integrated learning2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 250.
    Andersson, Mikael
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Tidlund, Stefan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Towards A Framework For Work Integrated Education2023In: INTED2023 Proceedings / [ed] Luis Gómez Chova, Chelo González Martínez &Joanna Lees, iated Digital Library , 2023, p. 2471-2480Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work Integrated Learning (WIL) is often considered and used as an umbrella concept for a broad range of activities. The fundamental idea is to integrate theoretical knowledge with work practice and connect education, work and research. At University West, WIL is presented and defined according to three dimensions: as a philosophy, as a pedagogical method and a topic for research. We believe that knowledge, both theoretical and practical, is acquired everywhere and not only in institutions of higher learning. This generous definition of WIL is on one hand permissive and flexible in application but on the other hand creating uncertainty and confusion. In this paper we report from the experiences of undergoing a thorough review process of a B. Sc. -program being evaluated for a WIL-certification. In order to strategically develop the quality of WIL a decision was made to certify all programs. The goal is to assure that all students are given opportunities to face, understand and reflect upon WIL. Our empirical data which is documented in a self-evaluation report of the media and design programs, firmly pointed to a need for a shared vocabulary as well as tools and methods adapted to support the process of WIL-certification.

    For some years the importance of student readiness or employability has been emphasised by society and the labour market. WIL is often considered a key strategy for developing employability capabilities in students by higher education. A typical didactical application is cooperative education, work-based learning or other forms of internship. This demand maintaining and developing partnerships with the surrounding society to provide internships for all students, especially since the concept of WIL is being spread and recognized.

    A possible solution suggested by our self-assessment report and in related work is to explore and develop new or existing activities within a course or curriculum, that promotes WIL to broaden the options. This development has also been advanced by remote learning initiatives, virtual learning technologies, calls for internationalization and a recent pandemic situation.

    At an early stage in our certification process, an inventory of activities considered promoting WIL was established by all teachers. The purpose of the inventory was primarily to identify courses that included WIL but also function as a trigger for conversations on WIL. We found an array of methods and approaches utilized by teachers in our programs. These activities could be defined as work integrated education (WIE) and hence an important part of our WIL-profile. These findings raised practical questions – How do we define and phrase a vocabulary for communicating WIL-activities and directions for further development? How can we operationalize and describe progress with respect to WIL/WIE? Is there a framework, model or typology that we could utilize?

    The proposed typology presented in this paper is based on a previous suggestion; “A typology of WIL”. Key takeaways are an updated typology for identifying, applying and utilizing pedagogical ideas that serve to promote WIL. The typology has been revised and rearranged to meet and cope with all new activities being developed in the WIL community around the world. An important addition is the work or results created by students as a response to an assignment.

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