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  • 201.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Innovative Networks and Entrepreneurship: Special Issue: Innovative Networks and Entrepreneurship2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 202.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2009 The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Revised papers presented at the 12th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June 2009, Bari, Italy2009Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 203.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2012: Entrepreneurship and Innovation Networks: Revised papers presented at the 15th Uddevalla Symposium 14-16 June, 2012, Faro, Portugal2012Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research report consists of forty-four revised papers, first presented and discussed at the fifteenth Uddevalla Symposium held at University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal, June, 14-16, 2012[1] and hosted by Research Centre for Spatial and Organisational Dynamics (CIEO), University of Algarve. The overall theme was Entrepreneurship and Innovation Networks”.  The purpose of the symposium was to contribute to an increased understanding of the role of entrepreneurship and innovation networks for the transformation of regions. Hundred researchers from various fields, such as economic geography, entrepreneurship, international business, management, political science, regional economics, small business economics and urban and regional planning, from more than 20 countries took part. Except for the overall theme there were the following six sub-themes, chaired by invited scholars from the Uddevalla Symposium Network: Learning in Organizational Networks, Chair: Assoc. Prof. Lars Svensson, Research Director, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden. Learning Networks for Entrepreneurial and Regional Development, Chair: Prof. Stefan Lagrosen, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden. Demythologising the Entrepreneurial University, Chair: Prof. David Charles, European Policies Research Centre, University of Strathclyde, UK. Regional Innovation Systems and Innovation Networks, Chair: Prof. Christina Ponsiglione, University of Naples Federico II, Italy. Mobility and Innovation Flows, Chair: Prof. Teresa de Noronha, Research Centre for spatial and Organizational Dynamics (CIEO), University of Algarve, Portugal and Academics Entrepreneurship and Innovation – bridging perspectives and pushing the frontier, Chairs: Prof. Martin Andersson and Prof. Åsa Lindholm-Dahlstrand, Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Lund University, Sweden. Uddevalla Symposiumis a yearly international scientific symposium ran by University West (former University of Trollhättan-Uddevalla), Sweden and established in 1998 in Uddevalla, Sweden. The primary objective is to foster research collaboration and bring together leading-edge views between experts, researchers and insightful practitioners from various fields of regional science, international business, economics, entrepreneurship and small business economics as well as from regional economics, regional planning, economic geography/economic history/political science and sociology in order to increase our knowledge as regards research questions related to “Entrepreneurship  and Regional Development".

            Organizers of this 15th Uddevalla Symposium were the University West, Sweden and the CIEO, at University of Algarve, in co-operation with Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), and George Mason University, School of Public Policy, USA. The symposium was also financial supported by the Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovations Studies (CESIS), Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden and Jönköping International Business School; the Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Lund University, Sweden and the Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE), Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.

     

  • 204.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grunden, Kerstin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Networking and e-government for local development: experiences gained by entrepreneurs in small enterprises in Sweden2016In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 154-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to analyse experiences gained by entrepreneurs in small enterprises located in a region undergoing structural change, focusing on networking and e-government for local development. The study is a further development of a study that focused on how municipalities supported entrepreneurship and destination development. In-depth qualitative interviews were made with twelve entrepreneurs from ten small enterprises. Based on a theoretical discussion of networking, e-government and social media marketing, the results indicate that networks and strategic networking were important in order to develop their enterprises, which also contributed to local development. The importance of initial face-to-face contacts in order to build business relationships in networks was stressed. The use of local e-government was hitherto limited to e-services for public procurement, the use of social media marketing was limited due to lack of time, competence and motivation for most of the entrepreneurs.

  • 205.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A Study of Small Enterprises with Focus on Entrepreneurship and E-government in a Regional Development Context2014In: Uddevalla Symposium 2014. Geography of Growth. The Frequency, Nature and Consequences of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Regions of Varying Density: Revised papers / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2014, p. 165-183Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to describe and analyse a sample of small enterprises located in a region undergoing structural change with focus on entrepreneurship and e-government and is a further development of a previous study that focused on how municipalities supported entrepreneurship and destination development. In this study the focus is extended to include small enterprises contributing to development of tourist destinations within the same region. In-depth qualitative interviews were made with twelve managers from ten small enterprises.

       Based on a theoretical discussion of entrepreneurship, e-government and regional development, the results indicate that networks and strategic networking were important for these small enterprises both in terms of developing the enterprise but also to develop entrepreneurship for regional development. The findings further indicate that municipal information, communication and competence development in order to support entrepreneurship and the development of small enterprises could be improved. The importance of face-to-face contacts was stressed. The use of local e-government was hitherto limited to e-services for public procurement. The entrepreneurs who used the e-services had mainly positive experiences, although despite the complexity of the e-services. The respondents did not ask for more municipal e-services, but that could be a consequence of their limited experience of the potential of local e-government. The use of social media among the enterprises was limited due to lack of time, competence and motivation for most of the enterprises, although the potential of social media for marketing was seen as extensive. A few of the respondents were on the other hand very skilled in their use of digital media, as a consequence of their professional knowledge and business orientation.

  • 206.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    One foot in academia and one in work-life: the case of Swedish industrial PhD students2023In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 506-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore the benefits and barriers for learning in industrial PhD education through the perspectives of industrial PhD students. A work-integrated learning (WIL) approach is applied to highlight key issues that university and industry need to consider promoting mutual learning.

    Design/methodology/approach – The empirical context is a Swedish university profiling WIL offering PhD programs in three disciplines for industrial PhD students from both the private and public sectors. Data was gathered using qualitative methods; 19 semistructured interviews with industrial PhD students.

    Findings – Findings show that industrial PhD students are developing practical and transferable skills, hence, contributing to research of interest for academia and work–life. Identified benefits for learning include proximity and access to data, project and networks and contextual understanding and tacit knowledge. Barriers for learning are the perceived limited understanding of employers, the dilemma of balancing and switching between different roles, lack of belonging and identity, deficient collaboration agreements and ethical dilemmas.

    Research limitations/implications – Contributes insights into an industrial PhD education transforming along with societal needs promoting a future workforce of researchers with skills, new work practices and learning capabilities applicable in the work–life of contemporary society.

    Originality/value – This study contributes to the emerging field of studies of alternative doctoral educations by identifying benefits and barriers for learning and providing recommendations for how university and industry may promote learning in a resilient industrial PhD education collaboration.

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  • 207.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Policy entrepreneurs in networks: implementation of two Swedish municipal contact centres from an actor perspective2014In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 288-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to elaborate on the meanings of policy entrepreneursand through the conceptualisation analysing implementation of local municipalcontact centres – a Swedish local e-governmental initiative. The paper buildson qualitative case studies including interviews, observations and documentanalysis, all analysed through the perspective of policy entrepreneurs. Localpolicies are implemented in relation to local cultures, norms and economicstructures. The networked governance structure demands entrepreneurial actorsto combine resources and interests into a change. Here we identified boththeoretically and practical, two types of such entrepreneurial actors. The issueentrepreneur focuses on the issue as such and focuses on the solution to a singleproblem. The political entrepreneur, on the other hand, focuses on core valuesand long term structural changes. The emerging networked governancestructure asks for improved knowledge on policy entrepreneurship both foranalytical and practical improvements. The findings may provide usefulinformation for municipal e-government planning specifically when planningfor implementing contact centres. The study enriches the existing literature onpolicy entrepreneurs in networks expanding the roles to include also local e-government contexts.

  • 208.
    Bernhard, Irène
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    The Role of Local Destination Management Organizations for Destination Development focusing on E-government and Networks. Case studies from Scandinavia2015In: Uddevalla Symposium 2015. Regional Development in an International Context. Regional, National, Cross Border and International Factors for Growth and Development: Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla Symposium, 11-13 June, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2015, p. 123-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on destination development from the perspective of the field of tourism, explored by a descriptive study comparing three local Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) focusing on e-government and networks. Local DMOs are often founded by local municipalities and enterprises in conjunction to promote the tourism industry. This study includes three cases in Scandinavia, having inland water areas in common, situated in regions that are undergoing structural change. The research method is based on case study methodology with use of qualitative in-depth interviews and document studies. This research provides insight into and deeper understanding of some important aspects regarding the use of e-government and networks that contribute to destination development in an Scandinavian context.

  • 209.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Karlsson, Charlie (Editor)
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University; Industrial Economics, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Diversity, Innovation and Clusters: Spatial Perspectives2020Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 210.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Editorial2016In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 149-153Article in journal (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Bernhard_Editorial IJESB Vol 29_2016
  • 211.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2008: spatial dispersed production and network governance : papers presented at the 11th Uddevalla Symposium, 15-17 May, 2008, Kyoto, Japan2008Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 212.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2016: Geography, Open Innovation,Diversity and Entrepreneurship. Revised papers presented at the 19th Uddevalla Symposium, 30 June- 2 July, 2016, London, UK2016Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 213.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2017: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies: Revised papers first presented at the 20th Uddevalla Symposium 15-17 June, 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden2017Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 214.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Uddevalla Symposium 2018: Diversity, Innovation, Entrepreneurship – Regional, Urban, National and International Perspectives: Revised papers presented at the 21st Uddevalla Symposium, 14–16 June, 2018, Luleå, Sweden2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 215.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping (SWE).
    Editorial2021In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 42, no 1-2, p. 1-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 216.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Introduction: diversity, innovation and clusters: spatial perspectives2020In: Diversity, innovation and clusters: spatial perspectives / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Urban Gråsjö and Charlie Karlsson, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2020, p. 1-10Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 217.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping.
    Introduction to Unlocking Regional Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Potential for Increasing Capacities2021In: Unlocking Regional Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Potential for Increasing Capacities / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Urban Gråsjö and Charlie Karsson, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2021, p. 1-13Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 218.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gråsjö, UrbanUniversity West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.Karlsson, CharlieJönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping.
    Unlocking Regional Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The potential for increasing capacities2021Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 219.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna KarinUniversity West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    A Nordic Perspective on Co‐Operation for Sustainable Destination and Regional Development2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research report contributes to a Nordic perspective on co-operation for sustainable destination- and regional development based on studies conducted within a Swedish-Danish Interreg project 2012-2014 (MARIFUS). An introduction chapter with major themes initiates this report followed by five chapters1 written by researchers from Aalborg University, Denmark (Incevida) and University West, Sweden (School of Business, Economics and IT). The purpose of this report is to give deeper nsights in Nordic destination and regional development by empirical case studies. These studies have been presented and discussed at seminars during international scientific conferences within regional science (the 16th Uddevalla Symposium 2013 in Kansas City, USA and the 17th Uddevalla Symposium 2014 in Uddevalla, Sweden) organized by University West. The contributions are nterdisciplinary in that sense that they are written by scholars from different scientific disciplines such as business administration, informatics, planning and culture studies. However, all scholars have a destination and/or regional perspective as a point of departure in the case studies conducted. The three-year project offered great opportunities to cross-border learning and applied research in close co-operation (Work integrated learning) with project partners and students.The studies are partly supported by the project MARIFUS “Maritime Inlands – past, present and future strengths” financed by the European Union Regional Development Fund (Interreg IV A). The editors express sincere gratitude to all authors and all partners of the MARIFUS project. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 220.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Industrial PhD Education: Exploring Doctoral Students Acting in the Intersection of Academia and Work-Life2022In: Proceedings of the Informing Science and Information Technology Education Conference,  InSite 2022,: Informing Science and Information Technology Education Conference, Online July 6-7, 2022 / [ed] Jones, Michael, Informing Science Institute , 2022, p. 1-16Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim/Purpose:

    The aim is to explore the benefits and challenges of industrial PhD education through the perspectives of industrial PhD students who are acting in the intersection of academia and work-life by applying a work-integrated learning (WIL) approach to highlight issues that academy and industry need to consider.

    Background:

    Industrial PhD education is a vital part of collaboration between academia and society although still an under-researched field. This paper reveals the perspectives of the industrial PhD students who are at the same time involved in both academia and industry, with the same academic demands as traditionally enrolled academic PhD students combined with demands and expectations from their industrial employers.

    Methodology:

    Qualitative methods were applied and 19 semi-structured interviews with industrial PhD students were conducted. The empirical context is a Swedish university profiling work-integrated learning offering PhD programs for industrial PhD students from both the private and public sectors.

    Contribution:

    This explorative study contributes to advance the current knowledge of third cycle education to deepen the insights into benefits and challenges in industrial PhD education through the perspectives of industrial PhD students acting in the intersection of academia and work-life. By applying a WIL approach on third-cycle education, issues that academy and industry need to consider for successful collaboration within doctoral education are identified.

    Findings:

    Findings indicate that industrial PhD students acting in the intersection of academia and work-life are developing practical and transferable skills requested by employers outside academia, hence increasing societal impact. Findings show that industrial PhD education generates several WIL benefits. Novel challenges identified include unclear financial agreements, conflicts of interest, administrative bureaucracy, work promotion opportunities, and lack of be-longing and identity, hence not exploiting the full potential of WIL. This has been further intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic with restricted travel and dependence solely on virtual connections.

    Recommendations for Practitioners:

    It is vital to recognize that challenges do exist and need to be considered to strengthen industrial PhD education as well as collaboration between academia and society. Increased communication and continuous interactions between academia and industry during the entire industrial PhD education are needed.

    Recommendations for Researchers: Future studies of WIL in industrial PhD education are encouraged.

    Impact of society

    This study contributes insights into PhD education transforming along with societal needs based on successful university-society collaboration.

    Future Research:

    Further research is encouraged to deepen and broaden the industry perspective of industrial PhD education.

  • 221.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Network collaboration for local and regional development the case of Swedish women entrepreneurs2020In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 539-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore women entrepreneurs participation in networks with focus on local community collaboration. In recent years interest in the importance of women entrepreneurship worldwide has increased, especially from the viewpoint of local and regional development. Previous studies show that local competitors coordinated in networks can gain cross sector knowledge sharing and boost the attractiveness of a region. Using case study methodology with 14 qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews in two phases with business counselors and women entrepreneurs, participatory observations and document studies, this study explores women entrepreneurs in smaller cities and their collaboration in networks with particular reference to a Swedish context. Results state that women entrepreneurs are active and participate in various local community networks and that networks are viewed as valuable assets for business development. Women entrepreneurs strategically choose to join strong networks that have an impact on local community development. Challenges faced by women entrepreneurs are mainly related to the role as entrepreneur and running a business in a smaller city. However, some specific gendered challenges are lack of trust or respect from other business and public actors, especially in contact with authorities. The women entrepreneurs have mixed experiences of local community support hence the main sources for renewal processes and knowledge sharing are co-owners, staff, digital tools, networks partners, families and friends.

  • 222.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Understanding Women Entrepreneurs' Encounters with an Increasingly Digitalized Workplace2019In: Uddevalla Symposium 2019: Unlocking the Potential of Regions Through Entrepreneurship and Innovation Revised papers presented at / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2019, p. 73-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to explore how women entrepreneurs encounter and learn to use ICT at work in response to calls for further research regarding ICT and small businesses, especially women entrepreneurs' adaptation to an increasingly digitalized workplace. Qualitative methods were applied including a total of 13 interviews in two phases with 11 women entrepreneurs, and observations of the irdigital presence. Findings indicate the benefits of digitalization of small businesses, although the women entrepreneurs also emphasize digital disadvantages such as negative online comments and reviews and digital stress. Informal learning and self development were practiced. In order to remain competitive, the women entrepreneurs were aware that they constantly have to learn new things to capture the potential and keep up the pace in digitalizing their workplaces. The importance of recruiting young digitally skilled employees was strongly highlighted.

  • 223.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    University-Industry Collaboration in Higher Education: Exploring the Informing Flows Framework in Industrial PhD Education2020In: Informing Science: The International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline, ISSN 1547-9684, E-ISSN 1521-4672, Vol. 3, p. 147-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim/PurposeThe aim is to explore the informing flows framework as interactions within aPhD education practicing a work-integrated learning approach in order to revealboth the perspectives of industrial PhD students and of industry.

    Background An under-researched field of university-industry collaboration is explored revealing both the perspectives of industrial PhD students and of industry.

    Methodology Qualitative methods were applied including interviews and document studies. Intotal ten semi-structured interviews in two steps were conducted. The empiricalcontext is a Swedish PhD program in informatics with a specialization in workintegrated learning.

    Contribution By broadening the concept of work-integrated learning, this paper contributesempirical results on benefits and challenges in university-industry collaborationfocusing on industrial PhD students and industry by applying the informingflows framework.

    Findings Findings expose novel insights for industry as well as academia. The industrialPhD students are key stakeholders and embody the informing flows betweenpractice and university and between practice and research. They are spanningboundaries between university and industry generating continuous opportunities for validation and testing of empirical results and models in industry. Thismay enable increased research quality and short-lag dissemination of researchresults as well as strengthened organizational legitimacy.

  • 224.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Women Entrepreneurs in Local Community Networks: Participation, Challenges and Place Development2017In: Uddevalla Symposium 2017: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies: Revised papers first presented at the 20th Uddevalla Symposium 15-17 June, 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2017, p. 129-147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore women entrepreneurs' participation in local community networks with focus on place development. In recent years interest in the importance of female entrepreneurship worldwide has increased, especially from the viewpoint of local and regional development. Previous studies show that local competitors coordinated in networks can boost the attractiveness of a place and achieve network synergies. This study is a continuation of an earlier study of Swedish municipal business counsellors' support to female entrepreneurs in tourism where findings show that there was a lack of support for women as entrepreneurs. Using a qualitative method approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews and document studies, this study explores women entrepreneurs' participation and collaboration in local community networks, challenges and local support with particular reference to a Swedish context. The study is based on interviews with 11 women entrepreneurs who were selected from three municipalities in Sweden. All respondents are active in the tourism sector and participate in local community networks. Results indicate that cross-sector networks, preferably strong networks that may have an impact on local community development, are important, especially from the perspective of a small entrepreneur. Smaller informal groups of other local entrepreneurs are also vital for inspiration and renewal processes. Furthermore, findings indicate that participating in collaboration in networks (face-to-face and digital), smaller groups or co-ownership is seen as means to develop the business as well as contributing to boost the attractiveness of a place. Challenges faced by women entrepreneurs are mainly related to the role as entrepreneur and running a business in a smaller city. However, some specific gendered challenges are lack of trust or respect from other actors, especially in contact with authorities and the dual roles in combining entrepreneurship and family. Respondents have mixed experiences of local community support. However, several women entrepreneurs stress the importance of local support, stating the importance of family and friends.

  • 225.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Inclusive place innovation as a means for local community regeneration2020In: Diversity, innovation and clusters: spatial perspectives / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Urban Gråsjö and Charlie Karlsson, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2020, p. 57-80Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter contributes knowledge on the challenges of collaboration within local community regeneration in order to identify innovative approaches at work in smaller cities through case studies in Sweden and Norway. Place innovation perspectives are applied to address issues of diversity and inclusiveness in the renewal of a small city centre or district based on cultural heritage. In-depth qualitative interviews in 2016–2018, participatory observations and document studies were conducted. The results reveal stakeholders' views on challenges related to collaborative approaches for place innovation. The complex nature of the two cases is characterized by diverse perspectives, conflicts and attitudes; limited inclusion of stakeholders; lack of digital communication and information as well as face-to-face information, and indistinct place identity. Findings indicate that place innovation requires an integrated approach based on including diverse stakeholder perspectives through common communication spaces, cultivating place identity and applying a step-by-step regeneration.

  • 226.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Stakeholder Collaboration for Place Innovation: Challenges and Visions in Local Regeneration2018In: Uddevalla Symposium 2018: Diversity, Innovation, Entrepreneurship – Regional, Urban, National and International Perspectives: Revised papers presented at the 21st Uddevalla Symposium, 14–16 June, 2018, Luleå, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2018, p. 127-145Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes its point of departure from urban place innovation studies with focus on stakeholders' interests and involvement in developing local communities in smaller cities. The aim of the present paper is to identify place innovation challenges among local community stakeholders and to discuss approaches to involve stakeholders in local regeneration through case studies in Norway and Sweden.

    In-depth qualitative interviews have been conducted during the years 2016-2018. In total 40 different stakeholders representing local entrepreneurs, non-profit organizations, municipalities, elected officials and residents with particular interests in regeneration of the local communities have been interviewed. Additional participatory observations and document studies were conducted. The results reveal stakeholders' views on challenges and opportunities related to collaborative approaches for place innovation. The complex nature of the two cases is characterized by cultural heritage, authenticity, indistinct place identity, insufficient communication and inclusion together with a mix of nostalgia and resignation. Findings indicate that place innovation requires an integrated approach based on stakeholder collaboration and engagement in order to develop the potential of city centers.

  • 227.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration. Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Women Entrepreneurs' Participation in Local Tourism Networks in Sweden: a Pilot Study2016In: Uddevalla Symposium 2016: Geography, Open Innovation,Diversity and Entrepreneurship. Revised papers presented at the 19th Uddevalla Symposium, 30 June- 2 July, 2016, London, UK / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2016, p. 257-267Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In tourism contexts entrepreneurship contributes to the ongoing transformation and development of places and regions. In recent decades interest in the importance of women entrepreneurship in the perspective of local and regional development has increased worldwide. The tourism industry is characterized by a high degree of women entrepreneurs in small enterprises, innovation capacity and also a high growth of benefits from networking. The aim of this study is to explore women entrepreneurs' participation in local tourism networks in Sweden. Using a qualitative method approach, this pilot study on women entrepreneurs' participation in local tourism networks explores local support and collaboration in networks with particular reference to a Swedish context. Findings indicate that there is no special focus on or support for women entrepreneurs in any of the three cases. Furthermore there is limited knowledge ofthe local distribution of male and female entrepreneurs. There are contextual characteristics of the Swedish tourism sector that may affect women entrepreneursand their participation in tourism networks.

  • 228.
    Bernhardsson, Malin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Rask, Rebecca
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Småföretags användning av externa redovisningstjänster: En kvalitativ studie med inriktning mot mark- och byggbranschen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Small firms use of external accounting services - A study with a focus on land and construction industry.

    November 1, 2010 the abolished of audit requirement for small businesses within a certain thresh-old happened. The auditor's role in the company is reviewing its management and maintaining a generally accepted accounting principles, and also to every year go through the accounts with an audit report. Both positive and negative factors have been developed at the Swedish tax agency, The Serious Fraud Office and the major accounting firms. The problems surrounding the abolition of the accounts was a lesser quality, said the Swedish tax agency. Furthermore, the removal of the audit requirement leads to more cheating and negligence in accountancy. Many aspects are there with the basis for the choice of using external accounting services or not.

    The study aims to gain insight into why small businesses use external accounting services, by en-suring various aspects that influenced the choice.

    The study is based on a qualitative study with focus on five small businesses, where interviews were conducted among business leaders. Furthermore, we have been in contact with two banks to see whether the aspect of credit kindness affected small businesses. The interviews were the basis for the empirical material that also made the study possible. During the study, the focus was on getting a deep understanding, rather than a broad study with several interview subjects and indus-tries.

    It could clearly be understood that the managers of small businesses will never opt out of the ex-ternal accounts they currently use, although the possibility exists. The benefits could clearly over-come the disadvantages, then both time and lack of knowledge existed among business leaders. It was considered more important than the cost to get help with the audit. It was also noted that an unconscious choices was made by them, because the small businesses did not have a thought about not use external accounting services. The choice of taking advantage of the services could not be based on one aspect, it was instead many aspects that formed the basis for the crucial elections. A majority of aspects went hand in hand, because they could not be discerned to be a decisive factor

  • 229.
    Berntsson, Jenny
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Hagelberg, Catrin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Effekter som uppkommer vid belöning med finansiella och icke-finansiella medel: En kvalitativ fallstudie av en bank2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this case study we have examined what effects financial and non-financial rewards have on the employees in a bank. Financial rewards can be either a movie ticket or a monetary bonus. These rewards can thus be both in monetary founds and various benefits. Non-financial rewards consists rewards as a "pat on the back", kind words from the manager and symbolic rewards. The basis of a reward system is that it is accessible for all employees in the company, whereas good communication between the manager, the management and the employees is needed. Furthermore, it is important that both the allocation of duties and the payment of the rewards is fair. Theories that has been discussed is the Pyramid of Needs, the Two Factor Theory and the Expectancy Theory. The first two theories describe the different needs that the employees may have. The Pyramid of needs is based on five basic needs of the employees. The Two Factor Theory discusses the internal and external factors that may occur in the workplace for the employees' satisfaction and motivation. The Expectancy Theory discusses the expectation that may arise among employees in the connection with a reward. It is not always easy for the management to access the knowledge that the employee possess. Without rewards as motivation the employees tend to only do as much as need within their work description. In this bank it was important that the management motivated their employees, which could be done with either financial or non-financial rewards. A financial reward that the employees can take part of is the profit-sharing on employment level. Non-financial rewards in the bank could be a "pat on the back" or a kind word from the manager. A reward may encourage and enable the employees to focus on the goals that the company wants to reach. The purpose of this case study was to examine the effects resulting from rewarding with financial or non-financial recourses. The empirical material was gathered at a bank in western Sweden. This, together with the theoretical framework, resulted in in-depth analyses which subsequently lead to some conclusions. The conclusions we drew where that group rewards was the best way to reward in the bank, smaller competitions that were rewarded individually could be used to motivate employees' with the purpose to encourage for their accomplishments. Finally, it was concluded that the effects that arises with reward system are fairness, communication, motivation, needs and expectations. These effects consist with both positive and negative aspects that the management has to be aware of in order to adjust the reward system to fit their company and their employees

  • 230.
    Berntsson, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Dijnér, Julia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Att kuva fiendens armé utan att slåss är höjden av framgång: En kvalitativ studie om socialt ansvar som strategi på en konkurrensutsatt marknad2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Coporate Social Responsibility innebär att företag ska ta hänsyn till sitt sociala ansvar på ett ekonomiskt, miljömässigt och socialt plan som medborgare i samhället. Hurvida Coporate Social Responsibility, kan ses som en strategisk fördel för organisationer har länge diskuteras i diverse forum. Både kritiska och nyanserade tankar avlöser varandra i diskussionen kring om en väl etablerad CSR-strategi kan skapa konkurrensfördelar och gynna verksamheten. Tidigare forskning visar att det är svårt att definiera CSR-strategins effekter i relation till lönsamhet och konkurrens och det blir upp till organisationer att själva göra en tolkning i vilket avseende de vill att strategin ska vila på. I denna rapport har vi undersökt och försökt få en djupare förståelse i om det finns något samband mellan konkurrens, lönsamhet och CSR eller om gapet där mellan är för stort. Vi har fokuserat på att undersöka hur Svenska Spel och ATG ser på sitt sociala ansvarstagande i relation till att skapa konkurrensfördelar. Då det är en marknad som är under utveckling där flera utländska aktörer ökar konkurrensen. Vi har blivit införstådda i hur dessa bolag tolkar sitt CSR-arbete och vad teoretiker anser om socialt ansvarstagande gentemot konkurrens i att skapa lönsamhet. Genom en kvalitativ studie har vi kommit fram till att CSR både hämmar och främjar bolag i konkurrens. CSR är inte alltid fördelaktigt för företag då det kan hämma företag att svara till marknadens alla krav. I detta fall försvagas alltså konkurrenskraftigheten. Där emot kan CSR verka som något positivt i det att arbetet på lång sikt kan ge fördelar så som legitimitet och som förebyggare av framtida skador, och på så sätt vara till fördel i en konkurrens.

  • 231.
    Berntsson, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Dijnér, Julia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Brand extension in uncharted territory: a qualitative study on holistic brand management as a strategy to extend the retail brand2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's market is not in the same shape as it used to be and from selling products only, companies today should rather sell consumer experiences (Keller and Kotler, 2015). Carbone (1998) says that the experience of the brand is far more important than the product springing from the brand. A brand extension can grow from different parts within the organization, such as products, services or the organization as a whole, and depending on those components it will affect a brand prospects. Retailers who do not wish to produce their own product lines are in a very different position compared to manufactures in the theory of brand extensions. Retailers has to create their own value apart from the provided manufacturer brands, which makes retailers more multi-sensory in practise and must create unique strategies that represent the whole brand. Researches that discuss the question if marketing has to reform, refer especially to implementing holistic brand management in their marketing strategies. The holistic brand strategies suggest that the brand is being more than just a product, as it is connected to everything an organization does to increase their future prospects, through what the brand represents and offers (Keller and Kotler, 2015).

    This study has investigated if brand extensions can be executed within retail, out of a holistic point of view. Therefore, this thesis has examined the influence of following components: brand extensions, holistic brand management, holistic marketing, brand equity, brand experience and brand identity. This has been done through a qualitative collection of data from previous research and empirical material from our semi-structured interviews with brand experts Mats Rönne and Claes Hydén who works with consulting organizations and people in matters of branding. Furthermore, the theoretical and empirical findings have been compared and analysed to increase our understanding about the context of this thesis. Even if theories have been scarce on the subject of innovative methods for brand extensions, we have with the help of gathered theoretical and empirical findings come to the conclusion that brand extensions can be made out of a holistic point of view. The way of making this possible and successful is to reconsider the retailer brand as being something more than solely a provider of products. A retailer has to make brand extensions from seeing themselves as either a holder of a certain competence, being in a specific category, or give a certain attitude or experience, in addition to who the customers are and how the market looks. Crucial for the extension to work is that the fit between the core brand and the brand extension is maintained high, or the the customer perception of the brand may be damaged.

  • 232.
    Berthelsen, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Petersson, Andreas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Distansarbetets påverkan på motivation och prestation över tid: En fallstudie i administrativ verksamhet2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Som en följd av covid-19 pandemin har ett stort antal organisationer som tidigare inte tillämpat distansarbete tvingats att övergå till detta. Det uppstår då frågor kring vilken inverkan detta har på medarbetarnas arbetsmotivation och arbetsprestation. 

    Uppsatsens syfte är att genom en fallstudie studera hur en övergång till distansarbete kan påverka arbetsmotivation och arbetsprestation. Samt att se om dessa faktorer förändras över tid. 

    För att besvara forskningsfrågan och uppnå uppsatsens syfte har det genomförts kvalitativa intervjuer med medarbetare i en organisation som i samband med covid-19 pandemin övergått till distansarbete. Detta i syfte att studera deras upplevelse av hur övergången påverkat arbetsprestation och arbetsmotivation. Detta kopplas sedan till och analyseras utifrån teori baserad på tidigare forskning kring de berörda ämnena. 

    Uppsatsens slutsats är att i det tidsperspektiv som studerats och med avseende på den studerade organisationen så har övergången till distansarbete varit övervägande positiv. Det finns en bild av att medarbetarnas motivation och prestation har ökat när verksamheten övergick till distansarbete. Detta tillskrivs till stor del de goda förutsägningar för distansarbete som funnits på plats och skapats i organisationen. Medarbetare som funnit motivation i övergången, arbetsuppgifter som lämpar sig för distansarbete, strukturerad och välfungerande kommunikation, goda tekniska förutsättningar och goda förutsättningar i hemmiljön. Dock identifieras hinder i form av svårigheter vid mer kreativa arbetsuppgifter som kräver samverkan. 

    Den studerade organisationen rekommenderas att även efter pandemin fortsätta erbjuda sina anställda möjligheten att arbeta på distans. Dock att de flesta arbetsveckor innehåller arbetsdagar på ett fysiskt kontor. Detta i syfte att kunna utföra arbetsuppgifter som kräver samverkan men även för att ge medarbetarna en möjlighet att bibehålla relationen till organisationen och de andra medarbetarna. 

  • 233.
    Berthelsen, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Petersson, Andreas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Man vet aldrig hur länge dom stannar: En kvalitativ studie om personalomsättning i offentlig sektor2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Personalomsättning har i tidigare forskning identifierats som en viktig faktor för organisationers framgång och möjlighet till måluppfyllnad. En oönskat hög omsättning har visat sig ha avsevärda negativa effekter på såväl organisatorisk som individuell nivå. Studien önskar bidra med insikter kring faktorerna som avgör om en anställd väljer att sluta eller stanna i en organisation. Särskilt med fokus på anställda med en anställningstid upp till fem år och genom att inkludera anställda som valt att sluta i det empiriska underlaget.

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka de bakomliggande faktorerna till varför personalen väljer att lämna en organisation och vilka incitament som avgör eller kommer att avgöra att de stannar kvar. Specifikt vilka faktorer som påverkar anställda anställningstid på 0-5 år att ta beslut att lämna eller stanna i organisationen.

    Studiens teoretiska ramverk utgår ifrån tidigare forskning om personalomsättning och de faktorer som visat sig avgörande. Bland de faktorer som identifierats har fördjupningar gjorts kring arbetstillfredsställelse och motivation som visat sig vara direkt avgörande. Dessa fördjupas genom teorier kring motivation, Hertzbergs tvåfaktorteori och Maslows behovshierarki, med samtida adaptioner för yrkeslivet. Arbetsbelastning som också har en särskild vikt fördjupas genom jobbkrav – resursmodellen JDR.Studien är en kvalitativ studie som är utförd genom semi-strukturerade intervjuer med åtta respondenter där fyra är nuvarande anställda i den studerade organisationen och fyra har valt att lämna organisationen inom det definierade tidsspannet. Det komparativa greppet och empiriinsamlingen bland medarbetare som rent faktiskt lämnat organisationen anses ge en extra dimension till studien. Intervjuerna är transkriberande och analyserade genom en tematisk analys. Respondenterna ger i stora delar samstämmiga uppgifter och beskriver hur personalomsättningen är problematisk genom att skapa oro på arbetsplatsen. Det finns dock skillnader i beskrivningarna av orsakerna och olika respondenter lägger olika stor vikt vid faktorer som orsakar omsättningen eller intentionen att stanna. Lön, utvecklingsmöjligheter, arbetsbelastningen samt relationen till kollegorna får en särställning.Studiens slutsats ligger i stort i linje med tidigare forskning kring personalomsättning och dess orsaker. Det går inte entydigt att fastslå att anställda som väljer att lämna inom fem år från anställning lämnar av särskilda anledningar. Sammantaget är det en mångfacetterad och komplex process som leder fram till beslutet. Där de som väljer att lämna tydligare problematiserar eller ger faktorerna en större vikt än de som väljer att stanna. Den individuella variationen i hur arbetsplatsen uppfattas och förmågan att se motiverande faktorer i vardagen ska inte heller förringas.

  • 234.
    Bertilsson, Camilla
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Simonsson, Emma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hålla social distans när det krävs att vara närvarande: En fallstudie om organisationsförändringar inom detaljhandeln när världen drabbas av en pandemi.2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to create a deeper understanding of how organisational change, which was founded in a crisis (pandemic Covid-19), affects leadership as well as employees in the retail industry. A case study with a mixed method with a deductive approach has been performed to create a deeper understanding of the perception of organisational change based on crisis. The research is based on a mixed method to get both depth and width of the respondents' answers. Five qualitative interviews were conducted, and a questionnaire was sent to a sample of the organisation's members. Theories related to retail in crisis have been lacking, even less research on retail in pandemics. The theoretical frame of reference has focused on the organisation, leadership, the employee in organisational change, communication and lessons learned and innovation, all related to crisis. Theories have been collected and analysed from 22 peer-reviewed articles. A major organisation in the retail industry has been explored how they have worked with organisational change during the Covid-19 pandemic. Results from the semi-structured interviews conducted with leaders and the questionnaire sent out to the organisation's employees and leaders are presented. The questionnaire sent to the organisation's members was answered by a total of 50 respondents, of which 36 Employees, seven Leaders with personnel responsibilities, five Leaders without personnel responsibilities and two Other. The survey data were analysed with univariate and bivariate statistics and examined both individually and through index. has been identified that communication, routines, crisis preparedness and follow-up are important parts that largely affect how crises like the pandemic are handled within an organisation. Employees have been affected during the pandemic through changed working methods, increased workload and some have been given completely new work areas. This has affected the employees' view and attitude towards the organisation. Leadership has been affected during the pandemic in that leadership has focused on employee well-being to a greater extent than increasing physical sales. A present and empathetic leadership is required with more adaptation to the needs of the employees. When the pandemic is over, employees are a crucial factor in rebuilding the organisation. By taking advantage of the lessons created during the pandemic, increased social sustainability is created.

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  • 235.
    Bertilsson, Helena
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Karlsson, Emma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Hållbarhetsrapportens framtagandeprocess: En fallstudie av processen och dess interaktion med styrningen2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are regulatory requirements for certain companies to produce an annual sustainability report. The purpose of the sustainability report is to present the company’s contribution regarding sustainable development. The regulatory demands regarding sustainability reporting are about to change, which makes the topic highly relevant. The process to shape and produce the sustainability report isn’t well known and there isn’t much information about it. However, when there are new requirements regarding sustainability, the companies' management needs to be developed and adapted. In previous research, sustainability reporting has been treated as an isolated process, where surrounding aspects such as management aren’t involved. The study therefore aims to increase knowledge and create a greater understanding about the development process of a sustainability report and regarding how sustainability reporting and management influence each other. Previous studies and theory indicated that materiality and materiality assessments are of significance when it comes to sustainability reporting and that management can be seen as a package consisting of five different types of controls. A qualitative case study was conducted and focused around a company which has expressed a high ambition regarding sustainability reporting. The case study involved data collection through five semi-structured interviews and a review of the company's sustainability report and website. The data collection resulted in a description regarding how the making of the sustainability report is distributed over the year and which elements are included, as well as an example of who is involved. The description leads into the final product of the process, which is the company's completed sustainability report. An insight into the company's own words regarding sustainability is given, along with the respondents' experiences of (among other things) the company's sustainability strategy, goals and commitment. The analysis was structured based on different parts of management. In the analysis, it was seen that sustainability reporting and management influence each other. The study showed that sustainability reporting is a complex process where materiality assessment and data collection are the most crucial elements. These elements affect the design and the process of the sustainability report together with regulations and management. 

  • 236.
    Bertilsson, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Björkman, Caroline
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lean under arbete: En kvalitativ studie över verksamhetsutveckling i en offentlig verksamhet sett ur ett medarbetarperspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lean has its origin from the Toyota Production System (TPS) which is Toyota’s unique concept for a production with minimalized use of resources. During the first time Lean became popular there was a focus to make industrial processes more effective. When the Lean concept became popular the second time the focus was on softer values, such as focus on the co-worker’s role, instead of just seeing Lean as a tool to make processes more effective. Factors like learning and participation for co-workers is then important ingredients for the work with continuous improvements in an organization. This made the Lean-concept more interesting also for the public sector. Studies about Lean from a co-worker perspective is then of interest. The purpose with this study was to explore how learning and participation appear for co-workers in a public organization, where Lean is the model for their improvement work. The study has been done with a qualitative approach in order to be able to examine the learning and participation amongst co-workers, in connection with their Lean-work. By doing structured interviews with co-workers at VGR IT, empirical data has been collected about their work with Lean. We have then compared and analyzed that data. In the theoretical framework research within the areas learning and participation in connection to Lean is presented. The conclusion is that system thinking is a central part both for learning and participation in a Lean organization. The co-worker’s knowledge cannot easily be shared with other co-workers and the organization overall. During the work with continuous improvements, the co-workers can have a feeling of participation because they contribute to the organization as a whole. Lean-meetings is a crucial factor in the work with learning and participation in connection with their work with continuous improvements.

  • 237.
    Bettinelli, Cristina
    et al.
    University of Bergamo, Italy.
    Dossena, Giovanna
    University of Bergamo, Italy.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Entrepreneurial propensity: An Empirical Investigation2010In: En­tre­preneurship Today / [ed] Dossena, G, Milano: McGraw-Hill, 2010, p. 49-71Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 238.
    Billings, Colin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Zadro, Ana
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Perception of renewable energy and the electric vehicle: A qualitative study on the Swedish and American consumer2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the world is being developed every day at a fast pace, today's society is being faced with many environmental issues. One way of decreasing the negative impact on the environment is through innovations in transportation. Therefore, this study looks into consumer perceptions of electric vehicles. In order to see differences between American and Swedish perceptions of electric vehicle this research also puts emphasis on the renewable energy as an important aspect that might motivate consumer purchase of electric vehicle. Purpose of this study is to generate new findings on the Swedish and American consumers of electric vehicles. More specifically, this study hopes to be able to contribute in a way that might help to explain understanding consumer's perceptions concerning renewable energy in today's world and how they affect the buying process of electric vehicle.This work is qualitative in nature, and data is obtained from structured interviews. Five Swedish and five American citizens were included in this study.

    Results generated from interview respondents are presented constructively in the evidence chapter followed by more detailed presentation in analysis discussion.The results indicate that the examined Swedish respondents have more positive attitudes and perceptions of renewable energy, while American respondents chosen in this study do not show such positive traits when it comes to renewable energy. Positive Swedish perceptions of renewable energy are in line with their positive perceptions of electric vehicle, while opposite goes for American respondents. This master thesis concludes with practical recommendations for future studies that can be done, as well as with our general findings.

  • 239.
    Bjerendal, Caroline
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Olofsson, Maja
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kändismarknadsföring: En studie om kända personers inverkan på konsumenter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies have nowadays difficulties to appear on a market where competition is high, therefore they are constantly seeking new ways to reach out to consumers. Some companies choose to use a celebrity to catch the attention of the consumers. There are various risks and pitfalls for the company to consider in the selection of celebrity, which was something that the study examined. This study also investigated the characteristics of a celebrity that influences consumers and how well the respondents in the study are able to associate a celebrity with a brand.

    The results of this quantitative study showed that it is important for companies to choose the right kind of celebrity to market their product to catch the attention of the consumer. The respondents who participated in the study showed that the characteristics of a celebrity that affect consumers the most, was that the celebrity is respected in society, and that he or she possesses expertise. As a closure of the survey there were shown pictures of different Swedish celebrities where the respondent would choose among answer options which brand he or she represented. This was to examine the memory capacity of consumers. Many of the respondents were able to answer the right celebrity to the right brand.

  • 240.
    Bjertner, Emelie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Erlandsson, Helene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hälsa på arbetsplatsen: en fallstudie om ledarskapets betydelse för hälsofaktorer bland de anställda2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    a The new regulations of Arbetsmiljöverket (AFS 2015:4) inform about the significance of well-being among the employed ones, as this is considered to be matter worth high-lighting and bringing up for discussion. Several scientists are choosing to center the important relationship between leadership and the workers health since the leadership and its execution is meant to be crucial whether the employees health in their jobs will be progressive or destructive. It is a process that should be viewed over and improved in order  not to let it crease in its efficiency. To rephrase that it is utterly essential that the health is brought up as both a physical and a mental phenomenon because, if not so, the assumptions result of the employees capacity might not be as prosperous.

    Workplace health promotion is successively becoming more usual as multiple organisations have realized the value of strong and healthy staff members, who are content and approving of their duties. As an employed, the person is not to be seen as a labouring machine he or she is an individual who feel, think and has his och hers certain requests and demands which all must be seen to. Being seen and feeling needed is important as the worker otherwise might feel that the organisation lacks the essence of justice, he or she is supposed to feel the possibility of climbing and prosper in the noticeable hiearchy of the organisation. Leadership and health stand as two central themes in this study, as the theory, empirics and analyses all three are focusing on other aspects, such as health, leadership, workplace health promotion and different leadership styles.

    The survey questions within this study are: what are significance does the managers leadership and decisions affect the employees health condition, and secondly how can the leader best promote well-being among the workes?

    The case study is based on seven interviews with both the employees and the leader. Observations of the store has been done, whereupon these all have had a great impact on the study and its results. The shop that has been the basis for the study is a relatively small clothing store that targets female customers, who are found of shopping clothes of a good quality and for an expensive price.

    By making a comparison between the theories and the empirics, an analysis, just much as a conclusion have been able to be formulated. For example, some of our many discoveries have shown the significance of a good leadership in order to archieve a safe and comfortable working ambience, but also unfortunately that the shops authorities at the moment are considered to be flawed. Furthermore the results are too clearly displaying what kinds of characteristics which, according to the interviewed ones, are making a good leader. A leader is better being a person who gives stability within the organisations, a person who is to be counted with, who creates a safe and sound working environment and who sees the importance of the workers health as a crucial priority. The study mentions a number of leadership styles, while the study was designed, it became clear that flexibility was important and to adapt leadership style to the situation in the workplace.

  • 241.
    Bjertnér, Emelie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Erlandsson, Helene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Egenföretagare belägna i mindre kommuner: deras användning av sociala medier som marknadsföring2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande arbete behandlar ämnet marknadsföring via sociala medier med inriktning på företagare belägna i mindre kommuner. Syftet med studien var att få en bättre inblick i hur företagare i mindre kommuner använder sig av sociala medier som marknadsföringsstrategi hur denna marknadsföring påverkar företagen samt vilken sociala media som lämpar sig bäst för dessa.

    I bakgrunden redovisas en introduktion till ämnet, där du som läsare ska få förståelse om vad som kommer behandlas i uppsatsen och därmed lättare kunna ta del av både teori och empiri. Problemdiskussionen är den del där vi författare redovisar många av våra egna tankar och förutfattade meningar till ämnet. Hur vi gått tillväga för att genomföra studien presenteras i metodavsnittet. Vetenskapligt synsätt & undersökningsansats, design, datainsamling och tillförlitlighet & överförbarhet är alla delar vi diskuterar i detta avsnitt.

    Den valda teorin är till största del vetenskapliga artiklar som behandlar ämnet marknadsföring och sociala medier på ett eller annat sätt. Flera av forskarna har tagit upp relevanta modeller och verktyg för att beskriva och förklara sina resultat, dessa har vi försökt att på bästa sätt redovisa i teoriavsnittet. Empirin är det kapitel som innehåller vårt inhämtade material. Materialet har inhämtats genom fem kvalitativa intervjuer och har sedan transkriberats och bearbetats till en text. Här redovisas företagarnas syn på sociala medier och användningen av dessa som marknadsföring. Genom att återge citat ska du som läsare få en klar bild om vad företagarna själva sagt i intervjuerna. Utifrån teorin och empirin kommer vi sedan att analysera ämnet och de undersökningsfrågor vi valt att ställa. I analysen diskuterar vi ämnet och våra forskningsfrågor utifrån teorin och de svar vi inhämtat från intervjuerna.

    I slutsatsen presenteras våra slutsatser och en diskussion kring vår forskningsfråga förs. Några av de slutsatser som tagits är b.la. att Facebook och Instagram är de två kanaler som företagarna anser vara de mest fördelaktiga att använda i sin marknadsföring. Dock mynnar detta ut i att Word of Mouth är det som ligger till grund för att sociala media ska få önskvärd effekt. Om inte inlägget får spridning så är det bara ett inlägg.

    Med denna studie hoppas vi kunna bistå med information som kan vara till fördel för de företag vi intervjuat samt andra företag belägna i mindre kommuner som kan ha nytta av denna information när de ska utforma sin marknadsföring.

  • 242.
    Björk, Kajsa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Fyhr, Karin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    CSR som strategi: Från ord till handling  - En fallstudie inom en svensk statlig organisation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) is a controversial term linked to responsibility. Companies may choose to voluntarily adopt CSR for different reasons such as regulation, legitimacy or pressure from various stakeholders while state companies have demands from state authorities. One way to communicate their responsibility is through a sustainability report. But how can CSR be combined with goals and strategies in practice and what impact has CSR management in a government organization? Our purpose has been to provide knowledge of how CSR affects strategy formulation and performance management in a government organization. From an external perspective on the societal level to an internal perspective on organizational and individual level, we have sought to identify how the control is done in practice within a business unit. We have made a qualitative case study and collecting empirical data from focus group interviews, semi-structured interviews, business documents and social media. From the empirical data we have analyzed the organization's CSR work in terms of strategy, objectives, governance and sustainability, and the institutional impact on this practice. Our results showed that CSR is exposed to institutional pressures from different stakeholders. Furthermore, the results showed that the organization in our study succeeded in uniting CSR theory with practice. The informants at management stressed the environmental dimension of CSR, while informants at the unit level emphasized the social aspect as central.

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  • 243.
    Björk, Victor
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Wiberg, Lisa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Motstånd vid förändring: En kvalitativ studie där konsulter intervjuats beträffande upplevda motståndskrafter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Change is a process that organizations frequently encounter and is necessary when the need to stay up-to-date with the changing dynamic business environment. With a growing globalization, advanced communications capabilities and a constant changing industry the organizations of today need to be flexible if they are to survive. The term resistance to change has many different interpretations by authors. Resistance can be seen as an individual problem or that the resistance is embedded in the organization's culture and structure. This study examines the resistance forces that can occur in individuals when an organization has a process of change and how an external consultant can manage the process of change and the resistance to it.

    The aim of this study is to get a deeper knowledge and insight to the resistant forces that change management can be struggling with in organizations. Furthermore the essay seeks how to deal with these challenges and thus try to increase the understanding and knowledge in the handling of problems with processes of change.

    We have made a qualitative, hermeneutic study and used the interview as a methodology for the collection of empirical data. We’ve interviewed five consultants that are located in different parts of Sweden. The essay is searching for soft data in the form of consultants experiences in change processes. When collecting theory on the investigated subject, key areas have been examined and chosen to focus on, which is organizations processes of change, what kinds of resistant factors consultants experience in change projects and how they handle them. This will then be interpreted in the upcoming empirical section and put against the theory which then will be analyzed accordingly.

    The study has shown that the foundation of fear to change lay in the individual’s feelings toward the unknown. The fears arising from the individuals is thought to be the most difficult to manage by consultants. In order to address these fears in an effective manner the need for good communication is essential and that the leaders in a change process have a good sense of empathy and the desire to understand how people feel and react to the change.

  • 244.
    Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Granath, Elisabeth
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    6-timmars arbetsdag: är det möjligt?2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste åren har sjukskrivningstalen stigit, och i och med det har debatten kring ar-betstiden tagit fart igen. Diskussionen kring 6-timmars arbetsdag har funnits ända sedan 70-talet då den senaste arbetstidsreformen gick igenom, men under årens lopp har dis-kussionen aktualiserats av olika skäl. För 40 år sedan var anledningen jämställdhet mellan könen, medan det under 90-talet var ur arbetslöshetsynpunkt. Syftet med vår rapport har varit att fokusera på arbetsgivarens motiv och vilka effekter en arbetstidsförkortning kan få för organisationen. Vi har tittat på vilka effekter ledningen förväntade sig och vad re-sultatet blev efter införandet. Effekter som har nämnts i tidigare forskning som vi har tagit del av är ökad produktivitet och effektivitet, minskad personalomsättning samt ökat all-mänt välmående hos personalen. Vi har genomfört en kvalitativ fallstudie som bestod av en djupintervju av Vd:n för ett företag som införde 6-timmars arbetsdag för delar av sin personal 2002. De effekter som företaget förväntade sig införlivades, dessutom tillkom många oväntade och positiva effekter som t ex ökat välmående bland personalen och en vinstökning redan första året. När vi har jämfört den teoretiska referensramen med den insamlade empirin har vi kommit fram till att många av de effekter som beskrevs i teorin har också visat sig stämma i den fallstudie som gjorts. Empirin har visat fler effekter som vi inte har funnit något vetenskapligt stöd för, som minskad sjukfrånvaro och en attrakti-vare arbetsplats. Dock är det svårt att dra slutsatser ifrån den analys vi gjort då de studier som redan finns i ämnet är få till antalet och mellan 10-15 år gammal vilket kan innebära att en del av det kan upplevas som irrelevant idag.

  • 245.
    Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Granath, Elisabeth
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Personalnyckeltal: Ett användbart styrinstrument?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most discussed topics in today's society is the health among employees. Having staff absent due to illness, both short term and long term, is in many ways expensive for organisations. Reporting KPI's that measures different aspects of the human capital of the organisations, e.g. staff ratios like sick leave and employment rate, is something that all organisations in Sweden have to do. This paper is meant to investigate how staff ratios are used in public organisations in Sweden and how they are communicated from top manage-ment to operative level. The studies also cover the question whether there is some staff rati-os that is more used by top management than others, concerning staff and what effects this kind of control instrument have. A qualitative study was made, by interviewing HR-managers and HR-staff from six municipals in Sweden to collect empirical data. The con-clusion in this paper were that HR-managers experience that staff ratios are used in the or-ganisations management, but not as much as they would have liked. This might be due to the fact that when the staff ratios were developed, the organisations goals and strategies were not considered. Another reason could be that the HR-managers are not aware of their potential power. Although, some staff ratios regarding sick leave and employment rate were of more interest by the top management than other staff ratios, and there were no visible effects connected to the use of those control instruments. It could be associated with the theory of legitimacy, where municipals want to show that their actions are based on the current debate climate in the Swedish society, concerning high ratios of sick leave in the country as a whole. The respondents in the study all agreed that it was hard to get the re-sults of the staff ratios all the way out in the organisations. This is mainly due to the chal-lenge of communicating the meaning of the staff ratios and what consequences the results might have on the organisation.

  • 246.
    Blennermark Zendegani, Helene
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Mellanchefen som förändringsagent?: Mellanchefers upplevelse av den egna rollens betydelse i enorganisationsförändring2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is based on the fact that both private and public organizations are facing constant organizational changes, which is due to, for example, globalization, changing consumption patterns and political decisions. At the same time, the research shows that the majority of change initiatives do not achieve the desired result or even fail. The purpose of this study is to contribute with increased understanding of the middle manager's possible role as a change agent in the event of an organizational change. The research design consists of a case study ata municipal housing company with a focus on a newly appointed middle management role, the property manager, who manages two parallel organizational changes. The role of the middle manager is also a result of the internal organizational change. Based on semistructured interviews with nine middle managers, the answers are coded into five theme areas: Interpretation of the change work, Participation and influence, Middle managers' responsibilities in the change work, Support from the management and Middle managers and resistance. These five themes form the basis for the study's analysis and conclusions. The study comes to the following conclusions: to recognize middle managers as a strategic asset within organizational change, to ensure that middle managers have the right conditions and access to decision-making processes, that middle managers have the right training to be able to work strategically with change measures and to give middle managers time to both driving change and operational work. 

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  • 247.
    Blom, Ebba
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Söderberg, Victoria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Beröm som styrmedel: En kvalitativ studie om chefers erfarenheter av att ge beröm2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In organizations, the company's management is designing a strategy to enable the organization to reach set goals. In order to get their employees to work in accordance with these goals, reward systems can be used. This is to promote employee motivation and to know what is expected of them. According to previous studies, praise is a proven effective way of creating desired behaviours and that praise can lead to increased motivation. Motivation is described as being positively related to work performance, yet, praise as a management control is an unexplored area.

    This study is aimed at examining whether manager's experience that praise as an instrument of control is sufficiently informative and motivating for employees in an organization.

    Reward systems are effective ways of motivating employees to work in accordance to organizational goals. Praise is used to reward employees, and it is important that it is used fairly, consistently and in close proximity to performance, as it can lead to a higher quality. Praise is also described as informing the employee about what is consistent with the organization's expectations and goals.

    Semi-structured interviews have been conducted with managers who hold a staff responsibility to gain their view of praise as a guiding instrument.

    The result showed that the respondents were not aware that praise could be used as a management control, but it was something everyone used to use in their leadership. They describe that praise both motivates, informs and creates more satisfied employees. Praise is described to be necessary to achieve the organization's goals, where more desired effects appear than unwanted. Praise can be given anywhere and anytime, as long as it is genuine, honest and encouraging.

  • 248.
    Blom, Johanna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Vägen till kvalitetsmål med ISO 9001:2015: ur ett ledarskapsperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The historical background of how quality assurance came to businesses around the world was because customers and other actors wanted to be informed and informed about the product / service that the business provided undergone one or more quality assurance. This means that businesses that supply a product or service meet the requirements that the supplier had promised at the time of purchase (Pujo & Pillet, 2002). In other words, implementing quality assurance means securing all planned and systematic activities that meet the set goals and quality requirements of the organization to the organization itself and to third parties. However, businesses in today's trade can use many different quality assurance programs, however, ISO is one of the most common (Chung, 1999). Either you have a certification that proves that the business meets all the requirements for calling itself certified. Or, a business aims to implement a quality management system but is not certified.

    The thesis will describe how previous research has used quality assurance and the establishment of quality in organizations from a leadership perspective in order to achieve quality objectives with ISO 9001: 2015. The method for this thesis consists of a case study of a company which will be called Staples throughout the thesis. Staples is located in western Sweden and runs an architectural firm with reference projects in streets, squares, residential areas, colleges, offices, parks and smaller buildings in southern and central Sweden. Interviews have been conducted with Staple's management team consisting of three people and Staple's quality manual has been taken as a result of the case study.

    Staple's economics sales have increased by eighty four percent since the implementation of ISO in year 2015. ISO 9001: 2015 has proven to be able to quality assure Staple's operations internally and with product to the end customer, and this has resulted in increased earnings in both net sales and earnings. It also has a great impact on how the leadership can manage a quality management system. Bøgh Andersen et al (2018) point out that all employees in a business must agree and understand what needs to be done to achieve quality goals by having a clear leadership.

  • 249.
    Blom, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Jonsson, Heléna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Rekryteringsprocessen: en tidskrävande process eller ett resultatrikt verktyg?2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: En rekrytering som är genomförd där utfallet är mindre lyckat, är både dyr och tidkrävande, företag i allmänhet skulle behöva få en förbättrad förförståelse. En passande arbetsplats och en god arbetsmiljö är förmodligen något som de flesta människor vill ha oavsett befattning. Konsekvenserna utav en bra rekrytering med rätt person på rätt arbetsplats, skulle gynna alla i företaget. Om företag skulle ha större kunskap och förståelse om varför de skall arbeta med processen vid rekrytering och till vilken förtjänst, kan det utgöra en bra nyckel till framgång. Vi vill med vår undersökning bidra till att företag får en medvetenhet och aktivt börjar arbeta med rekryteringsprocessen i nyrekrytering, intern och extern. Vi vill även visa hur företag kan uppnå en positiv och resultatrik rekrytering i ett personalekonomiskt perspektiv och berika olika verktyg företag kan ha under rekrytering.

    Forskningsfråga: Kan företag frångå kostnader med hjälp utav rekryteringsprocessen under rekrytering?

    Syfte: Vårt syfte med undersökningen är att ta reda på om rekryteringsprocessens alla delmoment används vid rekrytering av personal. Fyller rekryteringsprocessen någon resultatrik funktion eller är det en process som endast kräver administrativ tid? Vi vill med vår undersökning bidra till att företag får en medvetenhet och aktivt börjar arbeta med rekryteringsprocessen i nyrekrytering, intern och extern.

    Metod: Studiens forskningsfrågor är besvarade genom användning av ett kvalitativt tillvägagångssätt i metoden. För att besvara studiens forskningsfrågor har en kvalitativ metod används. Insamlad data är utfört med en semistrukturerad djupintervju i ett rekryteringsföretag som är nischad på detaljhandeln.

    Resultat och slutsats: Med hjälp av analysen av resultatet i studien är vårt slutresultat att företag kan frångå kostnader om ett företags rekryteringsprocess är väl genomförd och applicerbar på det specifika företaget. Det utlästa resultatet innebär att rekrytering sker i gynnsammaste mån om det följs efter företagets egna mål, visioner och riktlinjer. Processen skall ske på samma vis vid varje rekrytering och alltid vara väl genomförd.

  • 250.
    Blom, Louise
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Nilsson, Ebba
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Hur kan ledarskapet stötta medarbetarna i den digitala transformationen och i det hybrida arbetslivet?2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on the changing environment that we live in today. The rapid changes that are taking place place higher demands on the organization and leadership. The digital transformation has affected working life and continues to affect organizations. The global Covid-19 pandemic came and changed working life and put new pressure on digital opportunities and more flexible working conditions. After the Covid-19 pandemic, a new working life has emerged where office work and home work alternate in a form known as the hybrid working life. This study has focused on leadership, digital transformations and the hybrid working life. The purpose of the study is to develop knowledge about how leadership can support employees in the digital transformation related to the hybrid working life. As well as what challenges they encounter as leaders in the hybrid working life. The theoretical section is based on the scientific articles from the selected keyconcepts. The study is a qualitative study where eight leaders were interviewed from different industries, of different ages and of different genders. The analysis is done through a thematic analysis method to find themes that have common factors or outliers. 

    The conclusions indicate that two leadership styles appear to the fore. The transformative and the situational. It also indicates that all the leaders have undergone some type of digital transformation. How much it affected them and what it looked like differs from leader to leader. The Covid-19 pandemic placed demands on the leaders to be adaptable in order to survive the new changes that accompanied the pandemic. A major change implemented for the leaders was the hybrid working life. The hybrid working life came with both a lot of challenges and opportunities. The issue of security became central to this new way of working for many leaders and companies.

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