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  • 201.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Towards a Dynamic Theory for the Spatial Knowledge Economy2006In: Entrepreneurship and dynamics in the knowledge economy / [ed] Johansson, B., C. Karlsson & R.R. Stough, London & New York: Routledge, 2006, p. 12-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 202.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, BörjeJönköping Universty, Jönköping International Business School.Anderson, William, P.Universty of Windsor, UK.Kobayashi, KiyoshiKyoto Univetsity, Graduate School of Management.
    Management and Measurement of Infrastructure. Performance, Efficiency and In­nova­tion2007Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 203.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Hacker, Scott
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Emerging Market Economies in an Integrating Europe – An Introduction2004In: Emerging Market Economies and European Economic Integration / [ed] Hacker, R.S., B. Johansson & C. Karlsson, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2004, p. 1-27Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 204.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Stough, Roger
    George Mason University,USA.
    Conclusions2006In: The Emerging Digital Economy: Entrepreneurship, Clusters and Policy / [ed] B. Johansson, Karlsson, C. & Stough, R.R., Berlin: Springer, 2006, p. 331-339Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 205.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, BörjeJönköping International Business School.Stough, RogerGeorge Mason University,USA.
    Entrepreneurship and Dynamics in a Knowledge Economy2006Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 206.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Stough, Roger
    George Mason University,USA.
    Entrepreneurship, Clusters and Policy in the Emerging Digital Economy2006In: The Emerging Digital Econ­omy: Entrepre­neurship, Clusters and Policy / [ed] B. Johansson, Karlsson, C. & Stough, R.R., Berlin: Springer, 2006, p. 1-19Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 207.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, BörjeJönköping International Business School.Stough, RogerGeorge Mason University,USA.
    Industrial Clusters and Inter-Firm Networks2005Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 208.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Stough, Roger
    George Mason University,USA.
    Introduction2010In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development.: Local Processes and Global Patterns / [ed] Karlsson, C., B. Johansson & R.R. Stough, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010, p. 1-27Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 209.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Stough, Roger
    George Mason University,USA.
    Introduction, Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Functional Regions2009In: Entrepreneurship and Innovations in Func­tional Regions / [ed] Karlsson, C., B. Johansson & R.R. Stough, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2009, p. 1-20Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 210.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Stough, Roger
    George Mason University,USA.
    Introduction: The Rise of Regions: Innovation, Agglomeration and Regional Competi­tion2009In: Innovation, Ag­glomeration and Regional Competition / [ed] Karlsson, C., B. Johansson & R.R. Stough, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2009, p. 1-15Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 211.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, BörjeJönköping International Business School, Jönköping University.Stough, Roger R.George Mason University.
    Agglomeration, Clusters And Entrepreneurship: Studies in Regional Economic Development2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 212.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, BörjeJönköping Universty, Jönköping International Business School.Stough, Roger. RGeorge Mason University, Falifax, USA.
    Entrepreneurship and Innovations in Functional Regions2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 213.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, BörjeJönköping University,Jönköping International Business School.Stough, Roger R.Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Entrepreneurship, social capital and governance: Directions for the sustainable development and competitiveness of regions2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book highlights the role of entrepreneurship, social capital and governance for regional economic development. In recent decades, many researchers have claimed that entrepreneurship is the most critical factor in sustaining regional economic growth. However, most entrepreneurship research is undertaken without considering the fundamental importance of the regional context. Other research has emphasized the role of social capital but there are substantial problems in empirically relating measures of social capital to regional economic development. © Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson and Roger R. Stough 2012. All rights reserved.

  • 214.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, BörjeJönköping Universty, Jönköping International Business School.Stough, Roger. RGeorge Mason University, Falifax, USA.
    Innovation, Agglomeration and Regional Competition2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 215.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping University, International Business School.
    Stough, Roger R.
    George Mason University, Songdo Campus, Korea.
    Introduction: Human Capital and Agglomeration2012In: The Regional Economics Of Knowledge And Talent: Local Advantage in a Global Context / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson and Roger R. Stough, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd , 2012, p. 1-24Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 216.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, BörjeJönköping Universty, Jönköping International Business School.Stough, Roger. RGeorge Mason University, Falifax, USA.
    The Emerging Digital Economy: Entrepreneurship, Clusters and Policy2006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 217.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, BörjeJönköping University, International Business School.Stough, Roger R.George Mason University, Songdo Campus, Korea.
    The Regional Economics Of Knowledge And Talent: Local Advantage in a Global Context2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 218.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, Sara
    Cecis, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    R&D Accessibility and Regional Export Diversity2007In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, ISSN 0570-1864, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 501-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the influences of accessibility to R&D on the export diversity in Swedish regions. A theoretical model with fixed R&D cost predicts that spatial knowledge spillovers generate external economies of scale in R&D activities. These external effects are presumed to increase regions’ innovative capacity. Moreover, the model implies that the effects of R&D on regional export performance are reflected by the size of the export base rather than by the export volumes. The empirical analysis focuses on three different indicators of export diversity: the number of exported goods, the number of exporting firms and the number of export destinations. The hypothesis that regional accessibility to R&D facilities in the private business sector, on the one hand, and university research departments on the other hand, increases the export diversity in regions is tested in a spatial cross-regressive model. Since knowledge cannot be regarded as a spatially trapped resource the empirical analysis includes two measures of R&D accessibility: intra-regional and inter-regional. The empirical results indicate that the three indicators of regional export diversity are positively affected by the intra-regional accessibility to company R&D in commodity groups that have a relatively high R&D-intensity in production. Inter-regional accessibility to company R&D has significant positive impacts on the number of export goods and the number of export destinations also in less R&D-intensive industries. In the case of university R&D, the empirical results are weaker, in particular in the case of intra-regional accessibility. Yet, the inter-regional accessibility to university R&D has a significant positive impact on the number of export goods and the number of export destinations in the majority of commodity groups.

  • 219.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Koster, Sierdjan
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    New Firm Formation and Economic Development in a Globalising Economy2010In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Develop­ment.: Local Processes and Global Patterns / [ed] lsson, C., B. Johansson & R.R. Stough, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010, p. 44-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 220.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Maier, Gunther
    Vienna University of Economics and Business.
    Trippl, Michaela
    Vienna University of Economics and Business.
    Siedschlag, Iulia
    The Economic and Social Research Institute.
    Owen, Robert
    University of Nantes.
    Murphy, Gavin
    The Economic and Social Research Institute.
    ICT and Regional Economic Dynamics: A Literature Review2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this report is to review the relevant theoretical and empirical literature to provide a conceptual and methodological background for the analysis of the consequences of ICT use and globalisation on the regional economies in the European Union. We highlight the key aspects of ICT as a general purpose technology, discuss the economic impacts of ICT diffusion from macro and micro perspectives, and examine the spatial consequences of ICT diffusion. We focus on regional innovation systems and globalisation in order to propose an organizing framework for the analysis of the impact of ICT diffusion on regional development.

  • 221.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Mellander, Charlotta
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Paulsson, Thomas
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Spatial ICT Clusters in Sweden – An Empirical Method to Identify Necessary Condi­tions for Existence2006In: En­trepre­neurship and Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy / [ed] Johansson, B., C. Karlsson & R.R. Stough, London & New York: Routledge, 2006, p. 257-280Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 222.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Nyström, Kristina
    RATIO, Stockholm.
    Exit and Entry over the Product Life Cycle: Evidence from the Swedish Manufactur­ing In­dustry2003In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 135-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the process of exit and entry of firms in the Swedish manufacturing industry is investigated within the framework of the product life cycle. The product life cycle theory explains how the high degree of uncertainty, as regards product designs and production methods, which is connected to the early stages of the product life cycle requires a high level of knowledge-intensity. Since uncertainty decrease over the product life cycle, less knowledge is needed in production during later stages of the product life cycle. This implies that knowledge-intensity differs for firms that exit and enter in different stages of the product life cycle. Four hypotheses regarding these relationships are stated and empirically tested in this paper, using data at the 5-digit SIC-level for the Swedish manufacturing industry during 1990–1996. The empirical results show that entrants in the early stages of the product life cycle are more knowledge-intensive than incumbent firms. It is also found that firms exiting in early stages of the product life cycle are more knowledge-intensive than firms exiting in later stages.

  • 223.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Nyström, Kristina
    Jönköping University, Dept of Economics.
    Knowledge Accessibility and New Firm Formation2011In: New Directions of Regional Economic Development: The Role of Entrepreneurship Theory and Methods, Practice and Policy / [ed] Desai, S., Nijkamp, P. & Stough, R.R., Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, p. 174-197Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 224.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Olsson, Michael
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    The Identification of Functional Regions: Theory, Methods, and Applications2006In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, ISSN 0570-1864, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A functional region is characterised by a high frequency of intra-regional interaction. The text analyses how functional regions can be identified by using labour market data. Three approaches are applied in this task, named the local labour market, commuting zone, and accessibility approach, respectively. The text includes an application using the Fyrstad region. The situation is also studied at two points in time. The outcomes using the different approaches are compared, and the results combined have a richer flavour.

  • 225.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Paulsson, Thomas
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Friis, C
    Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth. A Critical Review of Empirical and Theoreti­cal Research2006In: The Emerg­ing Digital Economy: Entrepreneurship, Clusters and Policy / [ed] Johansson, B., C. Karlsson, & R.R. Stough, Berlin: Springer, 2006, p. 83-111Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 226.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Picard, RobertJönköping International Business School.
    Media Clusters: Spatial Agglomeration and Content Capabilities2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 227.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Picard, Robert
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Media Clusters: What Makes Them Unique?2011In: Me­dia Clusters: Spatial Agglomeration and Content Capabilities / [ed] Karlsson, Charlie & Picard, Robert G., Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, p. 3-29Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 228.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Picard, Roger G.
    Jönköping International Business School.
    The Challenges of Media Clusters2011In: Media Clus­ters: Spatial Agglomeration and Content Capabilities / [ed] Karlsson, Charlie & Picard,Robert G., Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, p. 379-395Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 229.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Stough, Roger. RGeorge Mason University, Falifax, USA.Johansson, BörjeJönköping Universty, Jönköping International Business School.
    Entrepreneurship And Regional Development: Local Processes and Global Patterns2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 230.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Warda, Peter
    Jönköping International Business School (JIBS).
    Entrepreneurship and innovation networks2014In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 393-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we give a general introduction to the notion of entrepreneurship and how it has many complex meanings. Entrepreneurs in new firms but also in incumbent firms have a key role in local, regional and national economic development by taking risks to get things done by developing new combinations of ideas and/or doing things differently. In view of this, two of the main questions that are dealt with are: (1) which features make structural differences in institutions and innovation networks remain invariant between decades, and (2) how knowledge about such features can be employed in policy at the national and the regional level. The research questions highlighted in this special issue relate to many pertinent national and regional policy issues. The most apparent concerns conditions conducive for entrepreneurship in the form of new firms and firm growth. In this paper, we also introduce the different contributors to this special issue.

  • 231.
    Karlsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Sera, Sabina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Urbanisering i Europa: Vilka faktorer är påverkande för urbanisering, och hur påverkas urbaniseringen i Europas länder av utvalda faktorer? 2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization is defined as the proportion of urban population and it is when people in a country move from the countryside to urban areas. The purpose of this report is to examine the factors that urbanization could be affected by. Urbanization is ongoing around the world and the urban population is increasing more and more, which means that rural areas are slowly but surely becoming depopulated. By reviewing previous literature several factors has proved important for the impact of urbanization. Six factors has been selected to examine if they have any impact on urbanization in Europe. The selected factors are GDP per capita, population, export per capita, number of employees, share of labor force and share of the highly educated. The report consists mainly of an analysis of European countries' urbanization during the years 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010. Four cross-sectional analyzes has been carried out, where each year were studied separately. The results of the study of urbanization in Europe shows a positive correlation between GDP per capita and the share of urban population. The result is consistent with the reviewed literature and previous similar studies conducted.

  • 232.
    Karlsson, Jesper
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Björnbäck, Henrik
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Amorteringskravet: En effektiv åtgärd på skuldkvoten och på prisutvecklingen av bostadsrätter i Göteborg?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effect of the amortization requirement on housing prices and it’s change after the introduction. The timeframe for the study is from 2005 to 2018. We are also interested in debt in households which has a crucial part in the housing market. The essay is based on apartments and therefore is limited to the area in Gothenburg. The discussion regarding the amortization requirement have been an interesting subject for quite some time. Many options have been discussed back and forth about what specific measures that needed to be taken to prevent an overheating of the Swedish housing market. Yet, one of the measures was the amortization requirement that was introduced in 2016. The legislation forced the consumer to amortize a specific percentage per year of the mortgage. The requirement was introduced to adjust the debt of households, yet to prevent a housing market which was potentially on its way to being overheated. Due to the intense price increase on households that we have had in Sweden the last couple of years, it is now interesting to examine the virtual effect of the requirement on the housing market. This essay examines the virtual effect by managing an OLS-model and using a multiple regression with crucial and relevant data as a basis. This takes forms with substantial explanatory variables with a following of the amortization requirement as a dummy variable. The conclusion of the study states that the housing prices will have a pattern of price increase both due to the amortization requirement and debt in households. This is the consequence of the introduction of the requirement as wells as the impact of other substantial factors. The essential factors that was mentioned before that affects the house prices was more clear to sum up than the debt in households. It’s hard to draw a specific conclusion on what the specific factor is that influence the real cause. The only common factor was the interest rate and the time or trend.

  • 233.
    Karlsson, Julia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Martinsson, Frida
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Prisutveckling på småhusmarknaden: Vilka faktorer påverkar prisutvecklingen på den svenska småhusmarknaden, och i vilken omfattning?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    House prices on the Swedish real estate market have increased greatly for the past thirty years, and the most recent developments is the largest. This topic is debated and affects a large part of the Swedish population and the economy in general. There are many theories about what is affecting and have caused this price trend. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the long and short run determinants of the Swedish real housing for the period 1986 to 2016, and the extent to which they affect. To clarify this, cointegration as a simple structural model to determine the relationship in the long term has been used. In the short run an ECM (Error Correction Model) has been used. Each variable is tested for unit root by Dickey - Fuller test and the variables are then tested for cointegration by Engel-Granger test. The study examines the variable real estate price index as the dependent variable, and the variables mortgage interest rates, disposable income, unemployment and dwellings completed as explanatory variables. We have used the time series for the period 1986 to 2016, and used quarterly data. The results of the regressions show that all the variables are significant and thus has a connection with the house prices. Disposable income and dwellings completed have a positive impact and if those increase, then the housing prices increase as well. Unemployment and interest rates, however, have a negative impact and if those increase, house prices will decrease in the long term. In short term the result shows that Sweden is in a housing bubble and actions are required to correct the prices to equilibrium level. The study's findings are in line with previous studies.

  • 234.
    Karlsson, Linn
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Fredriksson, Linda
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Humankapitalets inverkan på ekonomisk tillväxt: En kvantitativ analys som undersöker sambandet mellan humankapital och den ekonomiska tillväxten inom den Europeiska Unionen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission has five main targets for year 2020 to promote a smart and sustainable growth. Two of these targets are focused on further investments in the so called human capital. Human capital stands for a person’s education, knowledge and health. The aim of this study is to highlight which components of the human capital that affects the economic growth. This quantitative analysis in conducted through a multiple linear regression based on cross-sectional data over the member countries in the European Union. The relationship is analyzed for two different points in time, which represents today and 20 years ago. The result shows a positive significant relationship between investing in fixed capital and the economic growth for both points in time. Furthermore, the results show a positive significant relationship between population growth and the dependent variable 20 years ago. Finally, the results also show a negative relationship between health and economic growth today. The regression results together with previous research cannot establish an exact relationship between investing in human capital and the economic growth. Therefore, it is difficult to determine each variable’s actual impact and if the impact is bigger today than 20 years ago. However, the study can state that the variables representing human capital jointly have a great explanatory power in the economic growth

  • 235.
    Karlstam, Emilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Millberg, Malin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Prispåverkan på småhus: en analys av prispåverkande faktorer i Sveriges kommuner under 20142016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a thesis where the main objective is to investigate and analyze selected variables that we believe affect house prices in Sweden's municipalities in 2014. A regression analysis has been made to ensure that the factors actually affect the house prices, and the extent for the affect. The investigation is done with cross-sectional data and we restricted the thesis to only get data from 2014 and only the data on permanent houses. We have taken out a dependent variable; house prices and four independent variables; disposable income, employment rate, population growth, population density, and a dummy variable; geographical impact. The conclusion shows that the variables that statistically can be assured to have an impact on house prices is disposable income, employment rate, population density and proximity to a big city.

  • 236.
    Kaurissaari, Meeri
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The performance of Finnish funds: A comparison between Finnish funds and a European index2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the performance of Finnish funds between January 2013 and April 2018. The purpose was to study if Finnish funds over- or underperform the market and if there are differences between returns on different fund categories. In line with previous studies, asset-pricing models were applied, which were chosen to be capital asset pricing model, Fama and French’s three-factor model and later developed fivefactor model. The models were used to find Jensen’s alpha to evaluate the performances. This was done by regressing the average returns of funds and market index on the variables in the models. Moreover, Sharpe ratio and average return were evaluated to find under- or overperformance. The data was observed on monthly basis and was collected from DataStream and Kenneth French’s data library. Empirical work revealed significant alphas on equity funds and Finland-funds. Comparing all aspects, equity and Finland-funds generated highest returns and reward-to-risk ratios. Hence, the study found that the two groups overperformed the market while the other fund categories showed no under- or overperformance of the market.

  • 237.
    Kronberg, Emelie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Öberg, Jennifer
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Finns det ett samband mellan den svenska hushållens skuldkvot och de svenska bostadspriserna?: Har det eventuella sambandet förändrats av finanskrisen 20082019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we will investigate if there is a strong or any link between the Swedish households' debts and the house prices. Further we'll also investigate if the Financial crisis in 2008 had an impact on this possible correlation. We use Meng et all. (2011) model that shows the correlation between factors that can affect household loans and household debt. We also use time series regression to investigate the relative importance of each factor on the debt ratio during the time between 1988 – 2018.

    The result of the paper showed us that the housing prices which was one of our independent variables hade a strong correlation to the household debts. We can refer this result to previous papers that has investigate similar topics and variables as we have and say that we ended up with similar result as them. The Financial crisis affected the debt ratio to the extent that households borrowed higher to afford housing prices during the time on short term after the crisis.

  • 238.
    Kumar Shil, Kazal
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Dividend Policy and Impact on Stock Return: A study of financial stock market in Bangladesh2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the dividend policy and the impact on the stock return. For this research purpose, a sample of 26 companies’ data has been used which are listed in the Dhaka Stock Exchange(DSE) main market of Bangladesh. For examining the regression result 10 years data were used for the period of 2005 to 2015. The relationship between dividend policy, dividend yield, Risk free interest rate and Expected return and market value were measured by CAPM, by using the regression analysis tools. All the variables were being collected from the Thomson Reuters data stream. The empirical estimation based on the CAPM Model shows there is not a significant effect on the average dividend yield on the average stock return. The result mostly indicates the dividend irrelevance theory where the investors do not need to concern about the company dividend police, hence they have an option to sell their stocks if they want. The research result shows that the dividend yield hasn’t an effect the stock return in Bangladesh stock market because of practicing speculative activities within the market, where investors mostly focus on share price changes rather than dividend yield.

  • 239.
    Larsson, Andrea
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Dahlborg, Emma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Är Sveriges hyressättningssystem lösningen på bostadsbristen?: En studie fokuserat på nyproducerade hyresrätter och dess hyressättningssystem.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate what factors affect rent of newly build tenancy's on the housing market, and if so, what to extent.

    Based on previous research and a review of the Swedish housing market, variables have been identified, such as, Utility-value rents, Production cost, Income, and Fee of tenant owned apartments. These factors have a clear impact on rents of newly build tenancy's. Area-based data has been obtained for year 2004 and 2015 in order to find relationships and compare results between the two periods through cross-sectional regressions. Intended to analyze the decisions from the government to stimulate the production market.

    The result shows that the variables have an influencing effect over the rent and shows the changes in combination over the governments introduction of presumption agreements.

    It can be concluded that the raised rents are explained by the introduction of presumption agreements which leads to that companies can freely agree on higher rent and that changes in tenancy market will give a contributing effect co-operative apartments market. This affect the lowest- and middle-income earners worst as their ability to pay is limited and the lack of tenancy's still remain to a certain extent.

  • 240.
    Larsson, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Zuna, Amila
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Immigrationens påverkan på Sveriges BNP per capita2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study is to investigate how immigration effects the Swedish GDP per capita in both short and long term, and if so, how and to what extent. The study exams the time series from 1990-2014 to cover the major waves of immigration due to the war of Yugoslavia and Iran/Iraq. This also covers the financial crises in the 20th-century and the immigration from the middle-east, that has been and still is a topic of debate. Similar studies have been done for Germany, The Netherlands and Canada. The researchers all agreed about one main factor that is the key to successfully growth in the economy, which is the integration of immigrants. The study is based on short and long term regressions from a slightly modified model created by Muysken and Ziesemer (2011). As Muysken and Ziesemers results for The Netherlands, the conclusion of this paper for Sweden is that immigrants affect the GDP per capita positively in the short and long term. The variable to be explained is the GDP per capita and the explaining variables are total gainful employment-level of immigrants, total gainfully employed and education of immigrants, which are the main factors the study is based on.

  • 241.
    Larsson, Sofia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Wiklund, Lovisa
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Hur skuldkvoten påverkas av förändringar i reporäntan och bostadspriserna2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes and investigates how the debt ratio has been affected by various macroeconomic factors, with the main focus being on housing prices and official bank rate. Since housing prices have risen extremely much in recent years and interest rates have been at an historically low level, we consider this subject to be interesting and exciting.

    We have chosen to investigate this by doing both a literature study and an econometric time series analysis from 1997 to 2017 in Sweden. We have also investigated whether factors such as financial savings and inflation also had a connection to the growing debt ratio.

    Based on our studies, we have found that housing prices have had the largest impact on the debt ratio. The increased debt ratio has been affected by the sharply risen housing prices in the recent years.

  • 242.
    Lilja, Sofia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Svensson, Julia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Den svenska elmarknaden: Vilka faktorer påverkar Nord Pools spotpris?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how several factors influence the spot price on the Nordic electricity exchange market Nord Pool for the period 2005-2015. We have used a multiple regression and estimates parameters with OLS. In the regression we have the spot price on Nord Pool as dependent variable and price in fossil fuels, nuclear power, hydropower, temperature and price in emissions right as independent variables. All data are calculated on monthly basis and are collected from the databases SMHI, Statistiska Centralbyrån, Svensk Energi and Nord Pool. The results from this study shows that the price changes on Nord Pool can be explained by 33 % on the basis of the factors analysed during our time period. The results showed that nuclear power and hydropower, which are the largest electricity production in Sweden, either had only a small effect on the spot price or was not significant. While natural gas, which has a small part of Sweden's produced electricity had a bigger influence on the spotprice. We can conclude that Sweden is part of a larger market and the fact that marginal pricing is applied on Nord Pool, that there are several external factors that affect the Swedish electricity prices in addition to the factors we examined. This is because other countries' electricity prices and production, within and outside the Nord Pool has an impact on Sweden's electricity.

  • 243.
    Lind, Robin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Johansson, Dennis
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Testing Okun's law for the Swedish economy2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay aims to examine the relationship between unemployment and GDP from a perspective of Okun's law in the Swedish economy, between the time periods 1994 - 2014 with quarterly data, and also analyze what impact a labor market reform has on the relationship between unemployment and GDP. For analysis of the short-term relationship, Okun’s (1962) gap version along with the Hodrick-Prescott filter (HP) for trend estimation is used. And to investigate stationarity of the data we use an Augmented Dicky-Fuller test. The long-term relationship is analyzed by utilizing an Autoregressive Distributed Lag model to see if potential GDP is dependent on the natural rate of unemployment at a significant level. Our study shows that there is a negative relationship between unemployment and GDP in the short run, and also that a labor market reform that affects the flexibility of the market has a negative impact on the relationship. For the long run we can conclude that there is no relationship between the variables as potential GDP is not affected by the natural rate of unemployment.

  • 244.
    Lindell, Anna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Lenders behavior in the online lending platform Kiva: A study to see how gender affects the time and possibility to get a funded loan request2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with current study were to analyze if female borrowers within the online lending platform Kiva got their loan requests funded faster than men, mixed groups and nonspecified genders, and if women were less likely than men and mixed groups to get their loan request expired. The data was downloaded from Kivas website where snapshots with data were available. By taking 1% randomly my sample contained 15,782 funded loans with individuals and groups and 773 expired loans. Among the funded loans there were some loan requests that hadn´t specified their gender. The study was made by making hierarchic regression analysis and consist of six different regressions. In the first three regressions the dependent variable ln_TimeUntilFunded was used while in the last three regressions the variable Expired was used as dependent variable. The independent variable was in all six regressions gender (Femaledummy). It has been controlled for loan amount, picture, monthly repayment, sectors and countries. The result of the multiple regressions show that women get on average their loan requests funded faster than men, mixed groups and non-specified gender, when everything else is hold constant. And that women are on average less likely than men and mixed groups to get an expired loan request, when everything else is hold constant. A conclusion can thereby be done that women seems to be favored among Kiva lenders when choosing who to fund.

  • 245.
    Littke, Hélène
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, avd. Urbana och regionala studier.
    Rauhut, Daniel
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Foss, Olaf
    Norsk Institutt för By og Regionalforskning.
    Services of general interest and regional development in the European Union2013In: Romanian Journal of Regional Science, ISSN 1843-8520, E-ISSN 1843-8520, Vol. 7, no June 15, p. 88-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at comparing the scientific literature and key EU policy documents on the impact of services of general interest on regional development. The study proposes to answer two questions: (1) how do the scientific literature and EU policy documents differ in terms of which services of general interest are seen to have an impact on regional development and (2) why do they identify different services of general interest as important for regional development? The method used is qualitative discourse analysis.

    The results indicate that services of general interest have a rather different assumed impact on regional development in the scientific literature and in the key EU policy documents. Eight out of the fourteen services of general interest analysed in this study are either not mentioned at all or are only indirectly touched upon in the studied EU policy documents. The EU policy documents consider the drivers for regional development to be transport, ICT and telecommunications, electricity, education and health.

  • 246.
    Liu, Yuna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The importance of trust distance on stock market correlation: Evidence from emerging economics2019In: Borsa Istanbul Review, ISSN 2214-8450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have shown that the level of trust between agents is a determinant of financial decisions. This paper studies this issue further by analyzing whether the trust distance between two countries can explain bilateral stock market correlations among emerging countries. One finding is that a smaller trust distance among nations is related to a higher stock market correlation. This effect seems to be more pronounced in active-trading countries than thin-trading countries. Finally, we confirm the effect of trust distance upon stock market correlations by excluding extreme observations. © 2019 The Author

  • 247.
    Loewe, Louise
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Ryttersson, Marcus
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Random walk hypotesen: En empirisk studie av OMXS302015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines if rate of return on the Swedish stock market follows a Random Walk, in accordance to a hypothesis that is about predictability of profits. The Random Walk hypothesis is closely related to the weak form of the efficient market hypothesis, which says that you can´t make a future forecast of how share prices will move, only with the help of historical data. The analysis is performed on the OMXS30, an index representing the 30 most traded shares on the OMX Stockholm. Furthermore, the analysis is performed on the stock price´s daily and weekly returns during the years 1990-2015. To test the hypothesis, we are going to do two statistical tests. The first test is the Durbin-Watson, which is a first-degree autocorrelation test. The second is an Augumented Dickey-Fuller which tests if there are unit roots in a time series. The final results of both tests show that the share prices seems to satisfies the weak form of market efficiency over the entire period because it has not been any autocorrelation in the timeseries. This allows the conclusion that prices on the OMXS30 have seem to be unpredictable in the tested periods and thus tend to confirm some of the criterias for the hypothesis of a Random Walk.

  • 248.
    Magnusson, Emma
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Axell, Caroline
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Prisutvecklingen på småhus i stor-Malmö: En kvantitativ granskning av faktorer som påverkar småhuspriser i stor-Malmö2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research study intends to examine the development of house prices during the years 1998 to 2018 in Malmö with surrounding area. The purpose of the study is to determine whether the variables income, population, mortgage interest rate and employment rate have an impact on house prices in the chosen area. The research question is answered by applying a quantitative study with a deductive approach. By applying an Autoregressive Distributed lag model, the authors interpret the result and then draw the conclusion that we have a low degree of explanation. Which shows that the study had to include more explanatory variables in order to achieve a higher degree of explanation. Furthermore, the result shows that income is the only statistically significant variable, which means that it probably affects the house price in Malmö with surrounding area

  • 249.
    Mark, Sarah
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Henriksson, Beatrice
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    De svenska hushållens sparande: Vilka faktorer påverkar det privata sparandet?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's private saving rate have increased in recent years, and according to previous studies on the subject, there are several factors that have shown an impact on increased savings. This paper investigates the development of saving rate in Sweden for the period 1995 to 2015. The variables selected are based on the researcher Sebastian Edward's model presented in 1995. The method used is cointegration and error correction techniques to analyz the long-run and the short-run determinants of saving rate. The result shows that the variables that directly or indirectly lead to a higher income for the individual will contribute to a higher saving rate, which also supports the life cycle hypothesis that is the theory upon which the study is based.

  • 250.
    Markusian, Siran
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Azizi, Zubair
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Påverkande faktorer på prisbildning: en studie av Göteborgs bostadsrättsmarknad2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden today it is increasingly being built condominiums and the high demand together with the low supply continues to push up housing prices. Each condominium is unique and differs from others with its specific properties. The prices of condominiums in the same area can differ considerably and therefore it is interesting to investigate the factors that have an effect and how they affect the sales prices on condominiums. The study aims to investigate how different apartment-related characteristics affect the final price of condominiums in Gothenburg using the hedonic model. The study is based on 108 observations from sales of condominiums in Gothenburg during 2014. The calculations of the prices and the independent variables were made with a multiple regression analysis where the independent variables have a function to explain the dependent variable, in this case the selling price. The study had an explanation rate of 21%, in other words, the independent variables had its impact on the dependent variable price by 21%. It was found that the factors that had the greatest impact on the price was the number of rooms, elevator and renovated kitchen.

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