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  • 201.
    Basiri, David
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Val av redovisningsregelverk och vilka faktorer som styr: En kvalitativ studie utifrån Auktoriserade Revisorernas perspektiv om småföretags val mellan K2 och K3 regelverken2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On February 13, 2004, The Accounting board (BFN) decided on an adapted direction on the work on norming. Some of the motives for this was that the supervisory background remained extensive due to previous ways of producing norms. Another reason for the choice was that since there was an occasion for companies to choose recommendations from different norm providers, it was given the opportunity to choose which result they would like to report, which meant that information presented by the unlisted companies could be difficult to interpret. This resulted in the development of BFN's category rules, which divide Sweden's companies into four categories based on the volume of the company, where each individual category has its own rules that contain inclusive general recommendation. The intention of this study is to show the accounting profession's experiences of which factors were decisive for smaller companies when choosing between these two K-regulations and to gain an understanding of how companies’ accounting choices go. The study also shows the respondents' views on BFN's category rules and its impact on the reporting in smaller companies, the respondents' views on principle-based regulations and rule-based regulations as well as their views on K2 and K3, respectively. An interpretivist approach takes remained with the intention of presenting the accounting career's own opinions and experiences. Furthermore, a qualitative method in the form of semi-structured interviews takes remained. The primary data of the study has been collected through the interviews, while the secondary data has been obtained through scientific articles, non-fiction literature and websites. The theory that has been linked to the problem area of the study, i.e. the way in which corporate accounting choices go, are Positive Accounting Theory, Institutional Theory and research on varieties between rule-based and principle-based theories. The study has shown that smaller companies often rely on the accounting profession's expertise and advice when it comes to accounting choices. In addition, it can be acknowledged that many companies center of attention on simplicity and that they themselves need to make such a small effort as possible. The business sector and special conditions at the companies are important for how they choose. For example, certain specific accounting rules are crucial, mainly for companies with slightly more complicated conditions, such as component decrease for real estate companies, the possibility in K3 to value financial assets at fair value and the activation ban for selfgenerated intangible assets that affect innovation companies. Generally, the accounting profession needs to be better at passing on the meaning of the different regulations to the companies, but also on informing that there actually is an opportunity to choose regulations.

  • 202.
    Bcharri, Monir
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Andersson, Oscar
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Budgetprocessens skillnader och påverkan på motivation: Upplevelser av budgetansvariga från två företag2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we examined whether the budget process differs between two companiesand whether it has a motivating effect on the budget managers. The survey was conducted through a qualitative approach in the form of semi-structured interviews. Four respondents participated from two different companies in Gothenburg. Previous research indicates differences in the results regarding how motivated the budget managers have been in the budget process. When analyzing the respondents answers the motivation seems to be high among the participants. Three out of four respondents indicate an increased motivation the more they were involved in the budget process. Those who felt an increased motivation stated that the common goal of meeting the budget targets contributed to more effective communication. Thus, an interesting factor was that a harsh nature of budgeting created an increased communication that clarified the budget targets which created a better forecast in the face of difficult budget decisions. It turned out that there are both similarities and differences in the budget process. The similarities that existed were that the steps of the budget process were done in a similar order. However,the differences arose mainly in how the companies handled the various steps of the budget process where communication proved to be the biggest difference.

  • 203.
    Bellstam, Jennifer
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Bergqvist, Therés
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Beröms inverkan på autonom motivation: Inom offentlig sektor2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most organizations use some form of reward system, ether financial or non-financial, as instruments for control. The point of reward systems is to motivate employees within organizations in various ways. In previous studies praise, a form of non-financial reward, has been shown to have a positive effect on motivation. However, what type of motivation praise affects has not been adequately researched. Within the public sector resources are scarce and earlier research shows that most of the employees in that sector are autonomously motivated. To be motivated in that way means to be driven by a selfinterest and many people working in the public sector do so because they feel that their work is meaningful. Research has shown that increased motivation has a positive effect on the performance and it is therefore important for managers within the public sector to be able to keep the staff motivated. The purpose of this study is to further develop knowledge about how praise, a form of cost efficient non-financial reward, can influence the autonomous motivation in employees within the public sector. A qualitative research method has been applied to achieve the purpose of this study. A total of eight interviews have been conducted with people working in the public sector and which all get praise in their workplace. With the help of the conducted interviews and earlier research concerning praise and motivation we have been able to find out how praise is given within the public sector and how it affects the employees three psychological needs; experienced competence, experienced belonging and experienced autonomy as well as their autonomous motivation. Praise is often given verbally within the public sector it is the praise for individual performances that has the most impact. Praise from managers is often considered as the least significant since they are not considered to be present enough to see what the employees accomplish. This study concludes that praise has an impact on autonomous motivation and may also affect the controlled motivation.

  • 204.
    Benayed, Elie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Jama, Issa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Bitcoin: An empirical study on the future developments2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bitcoin has over the years dominated the headlines for good and bad reasons. Examples of this range from the first introduction of a Bitcoin Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) to the recent attack on the Bitcoin exchange, MT Gox, where 850000 bitcoins were stolen worth hundreds of millions USD. The fundamental questions that this research answers are what Bitcoin exactly is and whom the actors are using this digital currency. Furthermore, an empirical research is conducted to highlight how actors expect Bitcoin to develop in the future.

    Bitcoin is depicted as a self-evolving system that has its own community. This research draws similarities with the traditional theory of ecosystem and the business ecosystem theory by Moore (1996). The Bitcoin ecosystem is presented as a model that consists out of internal and external factors.

    The methods that are used in this research are mostly of quantitative nature, though a qualitative way of analysing is also incorporated in this research. An electronic questionnaire was sent to users, investors and companies that use Bitcoin. These electronic questionnaires were sent to companies by email and to different Bitcoin forums to reach users and investors in Bitcoin. A total of 51 actors have completed the questionnaire.

    The empirical analysis focused on the present and the future of Bitcoin. The subjects that are covered consisted of legal, economic and technological factors that determine the Bitcoin system. The present situation shows that the main reason people use Bitcoin is that it offers the actors an alternative for fiat currencies and low transaction costs when making payments. The current drawbacks of the Bitcoin system are, regarded by scholars and actors, to be the high volatility in the value of Bitcoin and the security concerns that are caused by hackers of the system.

    Finally, the overall sentiment amongst users, investors and companies is that the future of Bitcoin is considered to be a bright one based on the legal, economic and technological factors

  • 205.
    Bengtsson, Hanna
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Blomén, Lovisa
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Hållbara fonder: En kvalitativ studie om storbankernas digitala kommunikation2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Man´s work towards a more sustainable world is a very current topic. Commercial banks have a unique role in influencing climate changes by directing capital to sustainable investments. The purpose of this study is to examine the marketing communication done by the three big banks in Sweden in regards to sustainable funds. This has been examined by studying the communication on the banks websites, how many sustainable funds that are supplied and the similarities and differences between the banks.

    To collect the data, a document study has been done. The data is collected from three of Sweden's major banks. The study has shown that it is difficult to define what a sustainable fund is. The study has also shown that none of the banks has information regarding sustainable funds on the homepage of the website. On the sustainability side of the website, however, all three banks use recognizable images to create a need for the recipient, but the presentation of sustainable funds differs between banks. 

  • 206.
    Bengtsson, Ida
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Feldt, Denise
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kompetensförsörjning som en del av HR-funktionen: HR-funktionens förändringar och dess betydelse för strategisk kompetensförsörjning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to get a good economic growth in the community, as well as a fully functioning labor market, competence is an important prerequisite. Competence is not only about the amount of years a person has studied at the university, instead its more about lifelong learning that takes place outside traditional education systems. During the passage of time, human resources and skills gained in importance while today's employees have much higher education. Despite this, there seems to be a shortage in some organizations when it comes to skills development.

    The purpose of this study is to examine what the work of strategic competence can look like. In the work we have chosen to interview three organization employees with HR responsibility to see what tools they use to plan and work with skills development. We've chosen to adopt a qualitative approach in the form of interviews to get a picture of how the tasks are done.

    The result of this work has been based on empirical data, wich later is linked to the theory section parts. Based on this we have drawn connections and interpretations which are later summarized in the analysis and conclusion. The result we reached was that the concept of competence was interpreted differently between the various organizations we worked with. Organizations' common view was that competence has a significant role to achieve success.

  • 207.
    Bengtsson, Ida
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Jörgensen, Mimmi
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kundrelationer: Vikten av goda kundrelationer inom detaljhandeln2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How should the retail stores work with their customer relationships to successfully retain their customers in a time of increased competition in the form of accessible e-commerce?

    This work aims to provide a deeper knowledge of how a company should work on creating good customer relationships. The work also provides an updated view on how an established retail company such as Hennes & Mauritz works with customer service and how well it meets the service requirements of todays customers.

    The work includes a literature survey, which refers to the customer and their service expectations. To get a better view on how actual customers and shop assistants look at customer relationships, the work also include an empirical study that is prepared in the form of a questionnaire survey, two shorter interviews with employees at Hennes & Mauritz and an organizational survey. These two parts will in the end be the answer to our question

  • 208.
    Bengtsson, Madeleine
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Persson, Stina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hög arbetsbelastning och stress: En kvalitativ fallstudie inom läraryrket2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi lever idag i ett kravsamhälle där vi har höga förväntningar på oss, både inom arbetslivet och privatlivet. Det kan vara svårt och mycket påfrestande för oss att leva upp till alla dessa krav och förväntningar, det märks inte minst då den psykiska ohälsan kraftigt ökat i Sverige under de senaste åren. Psykisk ohälsa har blivit vår stora folksjukdom och står idag för över 40 procent av sjukfallen i Sverige. Det är ett hett ämne som ständigt diskuteras inom nyheter och media. Dålig arbetsmiljö en är bidragande faktor till psykisk ohälsa och vi vet att hög arbetsbelastning och stress är ett vanligt problem inom många branscher idag, som påverkar människor negativt. Debatten har nu resulterat i en ny föreskrift, som trädde i kraft den 31 mars 2016, i syfte att förbättra de organisatoriska och sociala förhållandena på arbetsplatsen.

    Vi har gjort en fallstudie på en högskola i Västsverige för att undersöka hur lärare upplever och hanterar hög arbetsbelastning och stress. Vi har gjort intervjuer med sex lärare som även fört dagbok under två veckor, som en del i undersökningen.

    Lärarna uppger att deras arbetssituation är mycket påfrestande i vissa perioder. Främst handlar det om tentaperioder samt vid överlappningen mellan kursslut och kursstart. Stressen och den höga arbetsbelastningen påverkar lärarna på olika sätt. Vissa menar att de på grund av arbetet har ett minskat socialt liv och några nämner att de ibland har en störd nattsömn. Att arbetet ibland går ut över deras privatliv är samtliga lärare överens om, då de ofta arbetar både under kvällar och helger. Arbetssituationen hanteras genom att lära sig strukturera arbetet och hitta rutiner som fungerar för sig själv.

  • 209.
    Bengtsson, Micaela
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hur kan ett HRM-system påverka det strategiska HR-arbetet inom organisationer?2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    HR (Human Resource) has a significant role for organisations, as they have the main responsibility for their personnel. Organisations use HR functions in various extent, while some organisations only have one pronounced HR manager, others have an HR department where personnel issues are distributed between managers and line managers. It is the personnel within the organisation that are the human resources and are the ones who develop the organisation. It is a key factor to have personnel that feel satisfied in their work assignments, as it can make them perform better. Organisations can use an HRM system (Human Resource Management) to collect data in one place, for example data about the employees. It can be difficult for organisations to work with strategic HR work, this is because they have a lot of administrative personnel management as well as organisations rarely choose to invest in HR. The purpose of this study was to examine how an HRM system can affect the strategic HR work within organisations. To examine this, I have used semi-structured interviews at an organisation in Västra Götaland. At this organisation, six people were interviewed where three of them have managerial roles and the other three are employees. The conclusion shows that an HRM system that is administered, updated and maintained continuously will provide added value to the organisation. Therefore, the system needs to be maintained in order for it to be a successful investment for the organisation, otherwise it will be more work to maintain the HRM systems than it would be useful. The study has shown that an investment in an HRM system contributes to more strategic HR work. That is because the system takes care of the administrative work, which then allows HR to work more with strategic work. 

  • 210.
    Bengtsson, Siri
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Coronakrisens påverkan på internkommunikationen: En kvalitativ studie på en statlig myndighet2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is being carried out as a B-thesis in business administration at University West spring 2020. I, as an author, have been studying the personnel economics program for two years and will therefore study the impact of the corona crisis on internal communication at a government agency. This is being done with a qualitative method with structured interviews and from an abductive approach with a total of five respondents.In recent times, Swedish society has undergone major and unusual changes as a result of the Covid-19 virus, which has created concern and uncertainty within organizations. Leadership and how the leader communicates is often described as of great importance, especially during uncertain times and thus it is currently being tested. Previous research has shown that leadership and communication are extremely important for how well an organization recovers after a crisis and how internal communication is complex in the way that what the management wants to communicate to the employees is not always interpreted by the employees as intended. The purpose of this study is therefore to study any differences in the internal communication at a government agency in order to investigate how the crisis affects the internal communication and any difficulties that arise.To find out, interviews were conducted with three department heads and two employees of a government agency. When selecting respondents, there were no major requirements regarding education, age, gender, etc. but what was sought were people who could give a good picture of the business and that themselves had an experience they could convey. The material collected from the interviews is compared with the theoretical frame of reference that has been developed that deals with topics such as leadership, communication, crisis and digital tools. Through analysis, a conclusion was reached which was that the biggest difference before and during the corona crisis is the increased use of digital tools and the reduction of physical contact. This has created an increased workload at the same time as messages about how the work is to be conducted have been communicated differently from different quarters and that as an employee it has thus not been possible to know what information to relate to. Despite this, it turns out how the, sometimes, lack of communication still worked because of the leaders' strong and open relationship with the colleagues.

  • 211.
    Bengtsson Sohlman, William
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Ullaeus, Simon
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Amorteringskravets påverkan på bostadsmarknaden i Lidingö kommun: Vad hade amorteringskravet för påverkan på bostadsrättspriser i Lidingö kommun?2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will examine how house prices have been affected by the amortizing requirement. The paper will be limited to co-operative apartments in Lidingö municipality during the time period between 2013 and 2020. Studies done previously have mixed opinions about whether the amortizing requirements has affected the house prices or not.The studies tell us that the amortizing requirement has a negative effect on house prices but they do not agree on how much the requirement actually does affect the house prices. Some studies say that amortizing requirement have close to no effect on house prices and some studies say it has affected house prices. In this paper we have performed an ordinary least square regression where we have used SEK/sqm as our dependent variable. The reason for that is to be able to see if the price of co-operative apartments has been affected. We use SEK/sqm because the apartments have got different sizes. In this study the conclusion is that we cannot determine whether the amortizing requirement has had any impact on the house prices.Keywords: Amortizing requirement, Lidingö, Apartm

  • 212.
    Bennis, Isabel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Mattila-Markus, Kajsa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning: Hur utformningen av rapporterna skiljer sig åt mellan branscher i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem - Negative environmental impacts are increasing due to various global development trends and sustainability reporting is growing among companies. To get a comparability between companies' sustainability work GRI can be used which publishes guidelines for what and how companies should report. Previous research shows that there are differences between sectors in what they choose to report.Purpose - The study aims to examine how sustainability reporting differs between industries in Sweden and what these differences are caused by.

    Delimitation - The study has been limited to analysing major Swedish listed companies' sustainability reports, published in 2014, which applies the Global Reporting Initiative guidelines. Only companies' work on environmental and social responsibility have been studied. Method - In the study a quantitative survey approach has been used to make it easier to measure and compile the collected empirical data. Information has been gathered from companies' annual and sustainability reports, as well as their web pages. Data has through content analysis been reworked to facilitate the information management.

    Results and conclusions - The study shows that there are differences between the analysed industries since some of them reported a greater extent than others. The material industry is the sector that accounts for most information while the health industry reports the least. Greenhouse effect, energy usage and information about employees are those indicators that are reported most frequently among all companies. Proposal for further research - In continued research, a similar survey can be done but where interviews are conducted to gain a deeper understanding of the corporates sustainability work. A comparison between the public and private sectors as well as examining sustainability reporting over time are also suggestions for further research.

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  • 213.
    Benoualia, Oumaima
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Londhe, Ravi Eknath
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    An Analysis of the Unbiased Forward Rate Hypothesis2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation aims to verify and explain the forward exchange rate unbiasedness hypothesis (UH). Since in most cases the unbiasedness hypothesis fails to hold. This hypothesis argues that the forward rate fully reflects the information regarding exchange rate expectations, so the forward spread predicts the direction change in future spot rates. We will be examining and analyzing developed economies – Europe & US Dollar (EURO & USD) and the emerging economies India & Morocco (INR and MAD) and Swedish krona SEK being the base currency for the forward exchange rate unbiasedness hypothesis for the long run and short run.

    In our research, we specifically focalize on the detainees of the unbiasedness hypothesis and why it fails to hold, this will be done using econometrics models like Unit Root (ADF), Cointegration, and Error Correction Model (ECM), to test the stationary or nonstationary between the spot rate and forward exchange rate. Unit root and cointegration is a statistical technique that will help us to test the correlation between the spot rate and forward exchange rate, and further according to previous research, ECM seems to be the best model to test UH because it takes short-run and long-run periods.

    It's our pleasure to thank all the University West Economic dept, for their kind instructions. 

  • 214.
    Benzein, Magnus
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Hansson, Carina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Välmående, mental hälsa och den psykosociala arbetsmiljön i kommunal äldreomsorg efter covid-192023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The pandemic of covid-19 has affected the psychosocial work environment and well-being for workers and staff of elderly care homes across the country of Sweden. There are a various number of factors that can be related to the increased number of workers experiencing mental health problems due to changes in the psychosocial work environment such as workload, jobstrain, stress, worry or fear of being infected by the virus either spreading it to patients or family members. The purpose of this thesis is to achieve an increased understanding about eldercare in the form of home care staff and their experiences of the present psychosocial work environment compared with the peak of covid-19. The study uses assumptions in the form of hypotheses and explores connections between mental well-being and psychosocial work environment by the theory of self-determination. A quantitative research approach was used, and the study was carried out in the form of a digital survey by email to a population of workers. The data provided by the home care staff was compared to a previous survey at the University Hospital of Sahlgrenska, and the result does not support the hypothesis that the psychosocial work environment has improved as the pandemic restrictions lessen. On the contrary, the comparison between the two surveys shows that the experienced psychosocial work environment has further decreased in score, even if a straight comparison is questionable. Further research is necessary to achieve more knowledge in the subject.

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  • 215.
    Berg, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Persson, Stina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Relationen mellan företagsledare och revisor inom ägarledda bolag: Förtroende eller kontroll?: En kvalitativ studie om relationens påverkan på revisorns oberoende och revisionskvalitén2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of auditor independence is based on providing reliable information to stakeholders. If the auditor is partial in the audit, the financial report is at greater risk to provide deceptive information to stakeholder and their decisions will be based on inaccurate information. Based on previous research, three critical situations, where the auditor independence could be threatened, were identified. These situations are when the auditor offers consulting services, when there is a long-term customer relationship and when the customer is either financially or personally important to the auditor. Previous research differs from what consequences this implies, for example how audit quality is affected. Furthermore, accurate statement regarding the company's going concern can be equated with good audit quality. These statements do not in itself constitute a threat to independence, but an effect that the auditor in his audit is not independent may be that he does not make correct statements about the company's going concern. Based upon this, the intention of the study was to provide increased knowledge of how the relationship between auditors and business executives can affect the independence of the auditor and the perceived audit quality. Furthermore, also how the auditor's statements of going concern was affected by independence. Previous research formed the semi-structured interviews conducted with auditors and business executives. The study included responses from seven respondents, three of whom are auditors and four whom are business executives. The study revealed that the auditor's independence, in appearance, was affected in some of the critical situations, but is not questioned in owner managed businesses, based upon that they do not have any external stakeholders of essential importance. The auditor's independence, in fact, is not threatened in any of the critical situations as there is no conflict of interest between shareholders and business executives. Furthermore, the study also distinguished that both consulting services and long-term customer relationships improved the perceived audit quality. This because that business executives gained a greater trust in the auditor of the company and that this reduces the information asymmetry between the company and the auditor. On this basis, this also leads to that the statements of going concerns did not became affected since the auditor's independence was maintained in all situations.

  • 216.
    Berg, David
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Sediqi, Elhamuddin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Beröm som motivation inom vården: en kvalitativ studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The public sector in Sweden comprises businesses within the municipality, state and county councils. Of all employed people in the country, one third works in the public sector. Major challenges are reported in healthcare where poor working conditions, low salaries and a lack of motivation are common issues. This study has the purpose of creating a better understanding and knowledge of how praise affects the motivation of the employees in the healthcare. We also investigated the form of praise that motivates the employees and consequently contributes to higher motivation. Previous research on motivation has to a greater extent focused on the private sector, hence there is a need for more empirical studies of praise in the public sector. The study is based on an empirical study on motivation and a qualitative research approach where we have chosen to do six semi-structured qualitative interviews with employees in healthcare. These interviews were later transcribed, and the data was used for the empirical work. Much of the empirical data showed that praise affects motivation differently depending on the recipient's characteristics, which were also in line with the theoretical basis of the study. The study also shows that most employees have a greater desire to receive praise individually rather than other alternatives, even though some felt that receiving praise in front of others was also important. These differences can be explained with Maslow's hierarchy of needs - depending on how the employee’s needs have been met. Those who have their basic needs met (step 1) and feel safe (step 2) and feel social belonging (step 3) need for self-esteem (step 4) are more receptive to praise. The study shows that praise as motivation in healthcare is used to a lesser extent than desired. It is also desirable for employees to receive praise and there are virtually only positive effects except if the praise is given to an individual in front of a collective group. Then it can contribute to negative effects in the form of jealousy or negative feelings

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  • 217.
    Berg, Victor
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Rydén, Linda
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Ursäkta, kan du upprepa frågan?: En kvalitativ studie om videointervjuers hållbarhet2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's society, there are demands that companies should not only act according to the outcome that produces the most profit or results, they must also act sustainably. Sustainability is about resources being used in a sensible way without risking the needs of future generations. Specifically, sustainability is usually described from three perspectives, ecologically, economically and socially. As a result of the extensive digitalization of society, companies have gained new opportunities in their efforts to act sustainably. One of these areas is how companies recruit and the use of video interviews. In comparison to traditional Face to face (FTF) interviews, video interviews are said to contain several positive sustainability aspects, including that it is better for the environment. However, research has shown that there are not only positive sustainability aspects with video interviews. Job seekers find it more difficult to show personality and potential. One of the explanations for this is said to be video interviews' limitation of the nonverbal signals that provide the ability to show body language, facial expressions, eye contact and gestures. Furthermore, research highlights that video interviews mean that the recruiter gets a "rattler" picture of job seekers than if the interview had been conducted FTF, which can increase the risk of wrong recruitment. In light of video interviewers' presented doubts about the sustainability of video interviews, the purpose of the following essay was to create a greater understanding of the sustainability of video interviews by examining the perspectives of both recruits and job seekers. The study's theoretical frame of reference is based on articles that highlight sustainability in relation to video interviews. Among other things, previous research discusses the limitations of video interviews in the form of nonverbal cues with body language, eye contact and gestures. In order to achieve the purpose of the study, a qualitative method was used where we interviewed six job seekers and four recruiters. The empirical evidence shows that it is above all the social sustainability of video interviews that there are divided opinions about. Some argue that the limitations of nonverbal cues are a problem, while others don't see the problem with it. Overall, the study has highlighted that in comparison with FTF interviews, there are significant positive sustainability aspects with video interviews from an ecological and economic perspective from the perspective of both recruiters and job seekers. However, it is difficult to draw a solid conclusion about the social sustainability of video interviews, within both recruiters and job seekers, opinions differ and there are both positive and negative aspects.

  • 218.
    Bergendahl, Pernilla
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Oskarsson, Madelene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Kartläggning av interna transporter på Volvo Penta i Vara2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Volvo Penta is manufacturing boat engines and is located in the city of Vara, 100 kilometers northeast of Gothenburg. The company is a part of Volvo Group and has approximately 200 employees in Vara.

    This thesis is based on mapping of internal traffic with trucks due to the factory has been rebuilt and the business has grown. The aim of the thesis is to give an understanding of how the current transport flows functions today and to present suggestions on how the flows can be streamlined. The target of the thesis is to identify and to map out the internal transport flows from incoming goods to different stock locations and also the transport flow between stock locations within the factory. The mapping also includes empty transports, transport of empty containers and waste transports.

    The data for the mapping was collected by the help of three truck drivers. The drivers filled out a survey of their transport routs during five working days. The survey presented information about what sort of transport that has been performed and between which stock locations they drove. Compiled information shows examples of the proportions between empty transports, transport of empty containers and waste transports. The compiled information of the three drivers also shows the distance of each transport per day. In order to gain a greater understanding of the analyzed transport flow, interviews have been done with the drivers. Also a benchmarking was made at Nevs in Trollhättan to give an idea of how to improve material flows.

    The result of the mapping shows that stock location and material are widely spread throughout different locations within the factory. Further the results also shows that the empty transports are common and often being performed over a long distance. Results also shows that some materials are stock positioned far away from their using points. Considering waste transport the results shows that long transports are needed.

    In the future it is suggested that Volvo Penta in Vara changes the stock locations within the factory in order to reduce the number of material and empty transports. Further a new layout with a centralized stock location is suggested in order to shorten the transports and reduce the workload for the truck drivers. Other suggestions are to locate stock positions closer to their using source and to site waste stations closer to pick up points.

  • 219.
    Bergendahl, Robin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Vad driver de svenska småhuspriserna?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate which factors affect the Swedish real estate prices of small house dwellings, and if so, how and to what extent. With the use of earlier studies, that coherently claims mortgage rate and household disposable income to be the most valuable factors to explain the Swedish real estate prices, this study will consider additional determinant factors with the respect to a stock-flow model. 1993-2013 time series data will be tested for unit roots and cointegration before its run in a regression as an "Error Correction Model", which considers both long- and short run equilibrium. The result confirms the short run rate and disposable income as two determinant key factors when it comes to explaining the long run Swedish housing prices, together with other factors such as GDP, household debt and unemployment rate. In the short run, the historical development of housing prices act as a key determinant, but disposable income, short term rate, GDP and household debt are also important explanatory factors. The study shows that the increased income, and the ability to increase household spending, will be reflected in the housing prices. A low loan rate will concurrently make it possible for more households than ever to loan at a market with an already very restricted housing supply

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  • 220.
    Bergenholtz, Rebecca
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Belöningens betydelse för försäljning och service: en kvalitativ studie av balansen mellan bankens försäljning och god kundservice2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how well organizational rewarding system can get the staff to increase their sales of products and services, while customers are offered service-excellence for their own good.

    The study is related to reality through a qualitative research, in the shape of semi-structured in-depth interviews, were the employees' views of the reward system at Swedbank's telephone bank are examined. Respondents consisted of six advisors and one business manager.

    Using a theoretical framework based on motivation theories of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs, Herzberg's Two factor theory and Vroom's Expectations theory, the data obtained during in-depth interviews were processed and analyzed. Further, the 4P-model was used to analyze how well the organization exhibit customer service-excellence.

    The result shows that it is mainly distributed internal, verbal reward to the workers, but that the sales statistics are the basis for a possible raise. All of the respondents stated that there are unclear directives from senior management regarding the goals; should the staff either increase the sales or reduce the queues. Employees consider that unclear directives create demotivation at work, when the focus on target setting constant varies. Furthermore, all respondents stated that colleagues encourage each other to sell better when they regularly receive reports regarding sales and efficiency.

    In the interviews, it also became clear that the organization does not apply any reward for customer service-excellence, but reports from unsatisfied customers are followed up and investigated in some cases. However, business managers sometimes participate at client meetings through call screening, in order to develop staff in improved customer service.

    The conclusion of the study is that the organization mainly applies reward of internal nature, where regular reports, considering sales and efficiency create competition among the staff. Their comparison with one another evokes motivation. Different directive considering goal achievement is a factor of demotivation among the respondents. There is no reward for service-excellence. There have been indications that customers are not satisfied with the bank's service, which is suggested to be based on that there is an imbalance between hard (structure and strategy) and soft factors (shared values and personal skills)

  • 221.
    Berger Jernberg, Matilda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hjelm, Kajsa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Fördelar och nackdelar med budget: Hur arbetar svenska börsnoterade bolag med budget2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One purpose of budgeting is to allocate financial responsibility within organizations and can be a valuable management tool (Kullvén, 2009). A discussion of long duration, however, is that traditional budgeting should be complemented by other management tools. There is also an advocate for organizations to abandon traditional budgeting and instead work in accordance with the Beyond Budgeting (Neely, Bourne & Adams, 2003).

    The purpose of this study is to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of classical Budgeting and Beyond Budgeting. The study was conducted in five listed organizations where interviews were conducted with key personnel.

    The study's research questions are:

    How do listed companies work with budget, regarding planning, management and evaluation? How does listed companies relate to criticism against the traditional budget?

    Four of the five organizations that participated in the study use budgets. They consider that the criticism of the budget is not relevant to their business. All four companies use budgets or forecasts as they prefer to call it, as a tool for planning, management and monitoring. In other words, all four companies follow the classic basic idea of budgeting. None of these four companies have been thinking about abandoning budgeting, but instead works to develop and streamline its budgeting work and adapting budgeting to its own operations and to the world around us changes.

    The fifth organization which is working with Beyond Budgeting, believes that the people working close to the customers know the market best and should make the decisions. The organization believes that budgeting is not in accordance with their values. This is because they want to have a flat organization with a minimum of control. Furthermore, the organization working with Beyond Budgeting means that each employee is aware of the need of economizing and does not want to get as much of the "budget pie" as possible.

  • 222.
    Berggren, Julia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Carlsson, Jennifer
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Attraktivt arbete och främjande ledarskap enligt 90-talisterna: Med fokus på arbetets innehåll, tillfredsställelse och förhållanden samt motivationsfaktorer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of an organizations most important assets is the employees and today, changing workplace is common, especially for younger generations. Therefore, organizations face a challenge in creating attractive work and retaining the employees.

    The purpose of this study was to identify what 90-talists considered attractive work to be in terms of work content, job satisfaction, working conditions and motivation factors, but also how leadership can create an attractive work.

    The study examines general traits of 90-talists, what they consider attractive work to be and which motivational factors they consider important. Furthermore, the role of leadership in the context of an attractive work is examined. A Facebook-survey has been conducted to reach out to 90-talists, where thirty questions were answered. In total, 133 respondents answered the survey, where 100 of the answers came from respondents born in the 90s. Their answers have resulted in statistics that have been presented in the study.

    From the responses in the questionnaires, it was possible to conclude that the 90-talists saw themselves as cooperative and ambitious. They value freedom of action, where they can influence and control their own work and that there are opportunities for development. Having the opportunity to come up with own ideas and make own decisions was also something that the 90-talists considered important. They also felt that social contact, both with employees and leaders, was important. Committed and responsive were the leadership qualities that were valued highly by the 90-talists. The 90talists considered it important that the leader shows appreciation through feedback and dialogue and also promotes cooperation.

    From the empirical material, the analysis was one of the most important dimensions in the work content of freedom of action, in terms of job satisfaction, the perceived internal and external recognition of the 90s was in the employment relationship, the social contact at the workplace that weighed heavily.

    The study shows that in order to attract or retain the 90-talist in workplaces, an attractive work content, job satisfaction and working conditions need to be created in order to create an attractive work. An attractive work based on the 90-talists perspective is mainly based on the fact that development opportunities exist, that there is possibility of freedom of action and also social cohesion. A leadership that promotes these factors can thus also promote attractive work for the 90-talists.

    Proposals for future research are to implement qualitative studies in order to reach underlying thoughts and explanations that could have deepened the study´s results.

  • 223.
    Berglund, Magnus
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Faktorer som påverkar tillit i ledarskap och organisationer: En kvalitativ studie ur ett medarbetarperspektiv2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon “leadership” has interested researchers from a variety of disciplines for a long time. The main focus has been on finding a normative and universal formula based on rational approaches. Despite a large number of scientific studies, mainly based on quantitative data, questions about the impact of interpersonal relations remain. In the search for the good and constructive leadership, research has recently become increasingly interested in the phenomenon “trust”. This study aims to create a deeper understanding of factors that contribute to trust in a leadership context. In particular issues concerning which factors that affect trust in organizations and in leadership. Behavioral perspectives are mainly used as the explanatory model. As a basis for further assumptions empirical data from interviews are interpreted. The study demonstrates several connections between theories and empirical data. But there are also several discrepancies. The results indicate that a number of factors promote trust between manager and employees, e.g. dialogue and feedback appear to be important. Conversely, “laissez-faire” or “non-leadership” impact employees and organizational effect in a destructive way. The importance of the organization signaling a tolerant culture is also emphasized, that it is permissible to make mistakes. It’s also vital that managers have the ability to protect the employee from negative feedback. Furthermore, it is also stated that the most common normative and rational theories often differ from the more turbulent reality of the respondents. The results also show that there is a need from managers to add structure and rules within the organizations. The context presented in the study is assumed to affect managers' ability to practice the well-researched quantitative theories. The study also shows that consequence assessments of expected response affects initiatives. This is in line with theory, but the perspective is usually focused on the relationship between manager and employee. Instead, the study indicates that it is primarily impact assessments between colleagues that govern employees' behavior. In summary, the study shows that trust is an important factor in constructive leadership, although not the only prevailing one. Rather than being a single agent, trust is a part of a synthesis. Based on the results of the study, it is recommended that further data is collected regarding managers' reality, in order to better understand how the well researched quantitative theories can be used in practice. Furthermore, more studies of how colleagues impact trust and behavior are advocated, in order to verify the interpretations. 

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  • 224.
    Bergström Kvidén, Felicia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Martinsdottir, Isabella
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Belöningssystem baserat på kundnöjdhet: En fallstudie på en organisation inom bank- och försäkringsbranschen2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Customer satisfaction is a non-financial performance measurement that can be connected to an incentive system to motivate and direct employees, as well as drive and increase efforts to create a higher customer satisfaction. More research is needed on what speaks for and against this connection to motivate employees. The purpose of this study is to create knowledge about employees being motivated by connecting customer satisfaction to an incentive system. Therefore, a qualitative case study was conducted in which ten interviews with employees from an organization within the banking and insurance industry. From previous research eight factors has been identified that are needed to create a motivational incentive system. These are; reliability, distinctness, justice, opportunity to influence, knowledge, more frequent measuring points, significant reward and motivational level. The study shows that customer satisfaction led to an increased motivation to get more satisfied customers. In addition, the structure of the incentive system, through the collective reward, led to everyone feeling valuable which can help to create motivation. However, customer assessments were not always perceived as fair and did not reflect employees' performance and justice seems to be an important factor in creating a motivational incentive system. The conclusions reached are that measuring customer satisfaction has a motivating effect on employees to create more satisfied customers. If an incentive system is not based on the criteria above which are required to have a motivating effect, the incentive system will have minor importance. If an incentive system does not have a motivating effect on employees, it will neither drive the undesirable effects at the employees such as manipulation or act myopically which otherwise are possible. Although the customer satisfaction measurement is not reliable and the customer satisfaction assessments is sometimes perceived as subjective and unfair, the incentive system can be perceived as fair and thus motivating.

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  • 225.
    Berisha, Agnesa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Sundblad, Viktoria
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Arbetsmotivation i öppna kontorslandskap: En kvalitativ fallstudie om sambandet mellan den fysiska utformningen av en kontorsavdelning och medarbetarnas individuella motivationsnivå på ett försäkringsbolag2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats är en kvalitativ fallstudie om sambandet mellan fysisk arbetsmiljö och medarbetares individuella motivationsnivå till det dagliga arbetet. Studien är riktad till en specifik avdelning på ett försäkringsbolag i centrala Göteborg. Avdelningen är ett öppet kontorslandskap där medarbetarnas främsta arbetsuppgift att ta emot skadeärenden från kunder via telefon.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att studera och nå ökad kunskap kring vad som motiverar medarbetarna på den valda organisationens avdelning utifrån fysiska arbetsmiljöaspekter.

    De ämnesområden studien behandlar inom den fysiska arbetsmiljön är planlösning, inredning och ergonomi. Studien kommer även belysa ämnesområden så som motivation och psykosocial arbetsmiljö.

    De slutsatser vi kan dra efter genomförd studie är att medarbetarna på avdelningen sällan medvetet lägger märke till vad i den fysiska arbetsmiljön som fungerar motivationshöjande för dem. Det som istället är märkbart angående fysisk arbetsmiljö är medarbetarnas medvetenhet kring de faktorer som stör deras motivation till arbetet på olika sätt.

  • 226.
    Berisha, Leonora
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Flisiak, Simona Laura
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Pandemins påverkan på priserna för bostadsrätter i Sverige: Ur ett makroekonomiskt perspektiv2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Corona-pandemin slog till hårt på olika vis, den svenska ekonomin så väl som världsekonomin skakades om av pandemin, men även arbetslöshet, bostadsmarknaden och bostadsrättspriser har drabbats. För att hålla en stabil ekonomi i landet infördes det åtgärder av Riksbanken samt Finansinspektionen. De åtgärder som infördes var bland annat att hålla en låg reporänta och avskaffa amorteringskravet och detta resulterade till att priserna på bostadsrätter i Sverige ökade. Att corona skulle bli en kris hade varken experter eller forskare inte förväntat sig men i samband har Sverige upplevt liknande kriser innan som Finanskrisen. Syftet med studien är att undersöka om pandemin har haft en påverkan på priserna för bostadsrätter i Sverige. I studien har variabler som bostadsrättspris, arbetslöshet, BNP-förändring, inflation samt dummyvariabler för reporänta och amorteringskravet användas. Tidsperioden för studien är från januari 2018 till december 2021, eftersom det skall granskas om pandemin har haft en påverkan på bostadsrättspriserna eller inte. Vidare kommer det att finnas en regression i resultatet, för januari 2018 till december 2021, för att se hur bostadsrättspriserna såg ut innan corona-pandemin samt hur bostadsrättspriserna ser ut i samband med att corona-pandemin var som mest aktiv. För att undersöka datan användes inflation, arbetslöshet samt BNP-förändring som ekonometrisk modell. Medans teorin om rationella förväntningar används som ekonomisk teori. Det som redovisas är att Covid-19 har haft en påverkan på bostadsrättspriserna i samband med att de påverkande faktorerna för bostadspriserna påverkas också av corona-pandemin. 

  • 227.
    Berlin, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Work and Social Pedagogy.
    Artefakters organiserande funktion2016In: Team i vård, behandling och omsorg: Erfarenheter och reflektioner / [ed] Johan Berlin, Håkan Sandberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, 2:a, p. 227-248Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 228.
    Berlin, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Beställarstyrning av hälso- och sjukvård: - Om människor, marginaler och miljoner2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 229.
    Berlin, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Bokrecension | Hartman, Laura (red.) (2011). Konkurrensens konsekvenser: vad händer med svensk välfärd?. 1. uppl. Stockholm: SNS förlag2012In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, E-ISSN 2003-5624, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 136-140Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 230.
    Berlin, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Bokrecension | Jonsson, R. (2013). Organisatoriska bakslag - mer än tio år av förändringar i två svenska kommuner2013In: Nordiske organisasjonsstudier, ISSN 1501-8237, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 78-83Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 231.
    Berlin, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Book Review | Alvesson, Mats., Sveningsson, Stefan (2008). Changing organizational culture: cultural change work in progress. London: Routledge2011In: Management Learning, ISSN 1350-5076, E-ISSN 1461-7307, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 224-226Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 232.
    Berlin, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Common incentives for teamwork: the unspoken contract´s significance2014In: Team Performance Management, ISSN 1352-7592, E-ISSN 1758-6860, Vol. 20, no 1/2, p. 65-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this article was to identify and study common incentives for teamwork.

    Design/methodology/approach - The study was designed as a case study. The case consists of teamwork at a univer-sity hospital. At the hospital, ten psychiatric teams were studied for a period of four years (2008-2011). Each team was followed for 12–18 months. Data were collected through interviews (n = 48) and observations (n = 52) of the teamwork at treatment conferences.

    Findings - The common incentives identified consist of shared responsibility, appreciation and long-sightedness. The incidence of a silent contract is highlighted as an explanation for the team's cohesion.

    Research limitations/implications - The study is conducted in a public organisation within one field. The results should therefore be interpreted with some caution.

    Practical implications - The study is useful for practitioners to understand the importance of common incentives as a collective driving force. By developing well-adapted common incentives, the practical work can be developed, refined and improved.

    Originality/value - The significance of common incentives and the unspoken contract in the team is identified.

  • 233.
    Berlin, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Doctors’ functional leadership inpsychiatric healthcare teams: a reversible leadership logic2015In: Team Performance Management, ISSN 1352-7592, E-ISSN 1758-6860, Vol. 21, no 3/4, p. 159-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to study how psychiatric doctors practise leadership in multidisciplinary healthcare teams. The paper seeks to answer the question: How do psychiatric doctors lead multidisciplinary teams during treatment conferences?

    Design/methodology/approach: Six psychiatric teams were studied at a university hospital. Each team was observed over a period of 18 months, and data were collected during four years (2008-2011). Data were collected through interviews with doctors (n19) and observations (n30) of doctors’ work in multidisciplinary psychiatric teams.

    Findings: Doctors in a multidisciplinary team use either self-imposed or involuntary leadership style. Oscillating between these two extremes was a strategy for handling the internal tensions of the team.

    Research limitations/implications: The study was a case study, performed during treatment conferences at psychiatric wards in a university hospital. This limitation means that there is cause for some caution in generalising the results.

    Practical implications: The results are useful for understanding leadership in multidisciplinary medical teams. By understanding the reversible logic of leadership, cooperation and knowledge sharing can be gained, which means that a situation of mere peaceful coexistence can be avoided. Understanding the importance of the informal contract makes it possible to switch leadership among team members. A reversible leadership with an informal contract makes the team less vulnerable. The team’s professionals can thus easily handle dif cult situations and internal tensions, facilitating leadership and management of multidisciplinary teams.

    Originality/value: Doctors in multidisciplinary psychiatric teams use reversible leadership

    logic.

  • 234.
    Berlin, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Ekonomicheferna nöjda med delegationsordningen2010In: Nästan som det brukar vara: kommunal utveckling under ansträngda förhållanden / [ed] Brorström, Björn och Nilsson, Viveka, Göteborg: Kommunforskning i Västsverige (KFi), , 2010, p. 47-52Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 235.
    Berlin, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Flexibilitet eller kontroll?: Om regler, rutiner och ansvar2011In: Mot svårare tider: om vikten av politiskt ledarskap och ekonomistyrning / [ed] Nilsson, Viveka, Göteborg: Kommunforskning i Västsverige (KFi) , 2011, 1:1, p. 40-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammantaget ger ekonomicheferna uttryck för att de har ett tämligen gottinflytande över frågor som handlar om regelverk, normer, organisationsstrukturoch graden av delegation. Med tanke på att den totala svarsfrekvensenuppgår till 77 procent kan vi uttala oss tämligen väl om de undersökta tjänstemännensuppfattningar. Detta reser en rad intressanta frågor. Vilken gradav frihet och delegering är lämplig i en kommun? Hur ska man balanserakontroll, insyn och transparens mot ökade administrativa kostnader? Hurska man väga demokrati mot effektivitet? Frågan om graden av delegering handlar om en löpande avvägning mellanflexibilitet och kontroll. Frågan är vad som ska prioriteras mest i vilket lägeoch vilka delar som ska prioriteras på bekostnad av annat? Var betoningeni dessa frågor ska ligga är föremål för en ständig pendelrörelse över tid. Ibland betonas flexibilitet och i andra lägen kontroll. Detta hänger nära ihopmed kommunens regler, rutiner och ansvarstagande.

  • 236.
    Berlin, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    How doctors practice teamleadership2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The overall purpose of the article was to study how doctors practise leadership in multidisciplinary teams. The article seeks to answer the question: Which approach do doctors use to lead multidisciplinary psychiatric teams?

    Methodology: Six psychiatric teams were studied at a university hospital. Each team was followed for eighteen months. Data were collected during a period of four years (2008–2011). Data were collected through interviews with doctors (n = 19) and observations (n = 30) of doctors’ work in a multidisciplinary psychiatric team.

    Findings: Doctors in a multidisciplinary team use either self-imposed or involuntary leadership. Oscillating between these two extremes is called reversible leadership.

    Research limitations: The study was performed at a psychiatric ward during treatment conferences in a university hospital. This limitation means that there is cause for some caution in interpreting the results.

    Practical implications: The results are useful for understanding leadership in multidisciplinary teams within the health and medical care system. The reversible leadership means that doctors can more easily oscillate from difficult situations and deal with internal tensions, facilitating leadership and management of the multidisciplinary team in the intended direction.

    Originality / value: Doctors in multidisciplinary psychiatric teams use reversible leadership.

  • 237.
    Berlin, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Ledarskap och beslutsfattande i psykiatriska team: om sammanhållning, sortering och kontroll2015 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about leadership and decision-making in psychiatric teams. To manage healthcare, cross-organisational work has been used as a working method in teamwork.

    The overall aim of the study was to study how leadership and decision-making are applied in psychiatric teams. The issues addressed are: to describe and to understand how leadership in psychiatric teams is applied, to describe and to understand how decision-making in psychiatric teams is applied, explain why there are potential differences between talk and practice, and to explain why teamwork is applied in psychiatry.

    The study's theoretical framework is based on the challenges that arise when teamwork is organised in a multi-professional context. In the study, decision theory, leadership theory and new institutional theory are used to help to link together and provide explanations for behaviour patterns of professions.

    The study's data were collected between 2008–2011 through interviews, observations and document studies. Total study consists of 101 interviews with 111 informants. Observations have been done of 10 teams on 132 occasions for a total of 230 hours. Observations have focused on the teamwork carried out in the treatment conferences.

    The study shows that: 1) there is an informal contract in teams that governs who does what in different situations, 2) doctors applied a reversible leadership where they alternated between the involuntary and the self-imposed, 3) teams used decision norms that are governed by situation-specific micro-codes, 4) there is an episodic culture which decreased the incentive to provide preventive and long-term treatment, 5) teamwork was used to provide the opportunity for solidarity, classification and control, and 6) there was no striving for perfection in decision-making; instead, the teams were satisfied with an acceptable level that everyone could agree on.

  • 238.
    Berlin, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Läkare som teamledare: En studie av reversibelt ledarskap2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    SammanfattningSyfte: Syftet med artikeln är att beskriva och problematisera läkares ledarskap i team. Arti-keln syftar till att besvara frågan; Hur utövar läkare ledarskap i team?Design/metod: Studien är designad i form av en fallstudie. Sex psykiatriska team har stude-rats vid ett universitetssjukhus. Varje team har följts under 18 månader. Datainsamlingen har gjorts under totalt fyra år (2008-2011). Data har samlats in genom intervjuer med läkare (n=19) och observationer (n=60) av läkares arbete i team.Resultat: Läkares ledarskap i team utövas i en dualistisk pendlingsprocess mellan självpåta-get och ofrivilligt, vilket benämns reversibelt ledarskap.Begränsningar: Studien är gjord på psykiatriska avdelningar i en organisation. Det finns därför anledning till viss försiktighet vid tolkningen av resultaten.Praktiska implikationer: Resultaten är användbara för att förstå teamledarskapets dualism. Reversibelt ledarskap kan leda till ökad osäkerhet och försvaga teamets proaktiva förmåga.Originalitet: Läkarens ledarskap i team lyfts fram som reversibelt, antingen självpåtaget och frivilligt, eller påtvingat och ofrivilligt.Nyckelord:

  • 239.
    Berlin, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Läran om management – föreställningar i ett organisationssamhälle, K. Holmblad-Brunsson. Studentlitteratur, Lund (2013), 230 pp.2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 257-258Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 240.
    Berlin, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Mellan offentligt och privat: om styrning, praktik och intressen i hälso- och sjukvården2010In: Nordiske organisasjonsstudier, ISSN 1501-8237, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 90-95Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 241.
    Berlin, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Recension av: En illusion av frihet? Företag och organisationer i regelsamhället.2006In: Nordiske organisasjonsstudier, ISSN 1501-8237, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 113-117Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 242.
    Berlin, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Teamarbete: de gemensamma incitamentens betydelse2013In: Att utveckla vården: Erfarenheter av kvalitet, verksamhetsutveckling och förbättringsarbete / [ed] Eriksson, Nomie, Holgers, Kajsa-Mia, Müllern,Tomas, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 1, p. 223-245Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 243.
    Berlin, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Teamarbete: ett livsviktigt samspel2013In: Sjuksköterskans kärnkompetenser / [ed] Leksell, Janeth, Lepp, Margret, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, 1, p. 159-177Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 244.
    Berlin, Johan
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Åhlström, Pär (red.) (2010). Verksamhetsutveckling i världsklass. 1. uppl. Lund: Studentlitteratur2012In: Nordiske organisasjonsstudier, ISSN 1501-8237, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 91-96Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 245.
    Berlin, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Carlström, Eric
    Sahlgrenska Akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Collaboration Exercises: the lack of collaborative benefits2014In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, ISSN 2095-0055, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 192-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to study what professional emergency personnel learn during collaboration exercises and the benefits of what they have learned. Observations (n=19) and semistructured interviews (n=32) were carried out in conjunction with major exercises held in Sweden (2007–2012). The results show that exercises tend to be based on its own logic, which differs from actual events. Exercise participants believe that they mainly learn single-track, parallel and path-dependent behavior. The exercises do not facilitate the use of cross-boundary activities. This means that learning as well as benefits of the exercises for actual events is limited. The exercises would be more appropriate if those participating had the opportunity to identify weaknesses, try alternative ways as well as had the opportunity to have comprehensive organizational analyses at the conclusion of the exercises. Based on the results of the study, alternative models for the exercises are suggested that contain elements, which develop collaboration and contribute to learning.

  • 246.
    Berlin, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Carlström, Eric
    Sahlgrenska Akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Cultural camouflage: a critical study of how artefacts are camouflaged and mental health policy subverted2015In: International Journal of Health Planning and Management, ISSN 0749-6753, E-ISSN 1099-1751, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 111-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study identifies hidden artefacts in a public organisation. In contrast to earlier studies, itfocuses on artefacts as concealing rather than conveying meaning. Negligent behaviour causedby an unpopular culture was recognised in five psychiatric wards at a Swedish universityhospital. Data comprising observations (87 h) and interviews (n = 60) were collected over aperiod of 48months (2008–2011). Four different items used in everyday work representing adeeper meaning of the organisation were identified during the observations. The items selectedwere work attire, nametags, keys and restraint beds. These were considered particularly promisingwhen it came to the aim of the study, namely, to find out how artefacts are camouflaged. Theobservations and the interviews revealed that these were controversial and contested artefacts inthe organisation. The study uses the term ‘cultural camouflage’ for behaviour that ignores andconsciously conceals symbols that have negative values. This concept contrasts with previousresearch that shows how artefacts are emphasised and how they contribute to the character ofthe activity in a transparent way. Conservative and backward-looking behaviour among staffprovided one explanation as to why artefacts were concealed. Another was the need to establishharmonious internal interactions.

  • 247.
    Berlin, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Carlström, Eric
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Nursing.
    Dolda artefakters betydelse: -En kritisk studie av kulturella uttryck inom psykiatrin2010In: Nordiske organisasjonsstudier, ISSN 1501-8237, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 27-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 248.
    Berlin, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Carlström, Eric
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Nursing.
    From artefact to effect: the organising effects of artefacts on teams2010In: Journal of Health Organization & Management, ISSN 1477-7266, E-ISSN 1758-7247, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 412-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Earlier studies have identified artefacts, but have only to a lesser degree looked at theireffects. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how artefacts contribute to organisation. Design/methodology/approach – A trauma team at a university hospital has been observed andits members interviewed. Findings – The trauma team showed itself to be rich on artefacts since it had strong internal drivingforces, high legitimacy, and tried to live up to high expectations from the outside. Its members were motivated to be in the forefront of trauma care. Through renewal, the team succeeded in maintaining demarcation. It also succeeded in systemising internal work tasks and made for itself a position in relation to the outside. The team's capacity, however, came to be limited by internal conflicts and battles for prestige. Practical implications – The study shows that informal logic has a strong influence on teams.Teamwork contributed to the development of organisational structure and motivation for the personnel. Originality/value – Earlier studies advocate the important role of artefacts in order to communicate, collaborate, negotiate or coordinate activities. The conclusion is that artefacts also have an organising and developing effect on teams in a fragmented and differentiated healthcare.

  • 249.
    Berlin, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Carlström, Eric
    Sahlgrenska Akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Från mekanistisk till organisk samverkan mellan blåljusorganisationer2013In: Om samverkan: för utveckling av hälsa och välfärd / [ed] Axelsson, Runo, Bihari Axelsson, Susanna, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 1, p. 237-254Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 250.
    Berlin, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Carlström, EricSahlgrenska Akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Guest editors | Special Issue: Management control, organisation and leadership in the healthcare sector2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
2345678 201 - 250 of 1761
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