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  • 201. Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    et al.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    The association between parental warmth and control in thirteen cultural groups2011In: Journal of family psychology, ISSN 0893-3200, E-ISSN 1939-1293, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 790-794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the current study was to investigate potential cross-cultural differences in the covariation between two of the major dimensions of parenting behavior: control and warmth. Participants included 1,421 (51% female) 7- to 10-year-old (M = 8.29, SD = .67 years) children and their mothers and fathers representing 13 cultural groups in nine countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and North and South America. Children and parents completed questionnaires and interviews regarding mother and father control and warmth. Greater warmth was associated with more control, but this association varied widely between cultural groups.

  • 202.
    Denny, Kathrina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Nilsson, Hanna
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Det är ingen lätt uppgift men viktig så det är därför vi gör den: En kvalitativ studie om räddningstjänstpersonals upplevelser av suicidlarm och deras organisatoriska förutsättningar att hantera denna uppgift2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Suicide is a major worldwide public health problem. In Sweden, it is estimated that in 2020 around 1441 people died as a result of suicide (NASP, 2021). The government established a national action plan in 2008 to reduce the number of people who succumb to suicide where the fire & rescue service is mentioned as a relevant professional group regarding suicide prevention work. The current study aimed to gain an increased knowledge of fire & rescue personnel experiences of suicide calls and their experiences in the encounter with suicidal individuals. The analysis of the data collected using a semistructured interview guide was carried out through a thematic analysis in which it resulted in four themes: mental strain, professional competence, social support and the strength of the fire & rescue service. The theory KASAM was used to try and understand the respondents' experiences. The respondents' experiences varied regarding the conditions when dealing with suicide calls in terms of training and practice. The majority of respondents had undergone training in suicide prevention yet the same amount wished for more. Additionally, the respondents stated there was some uncertainty when on a suicide call yet displayed being positive towards being called out on such calls. If there are plenty of work resources it can better help with dealing with difficult working conditions. The results show the complexity of the interplay between the demands of work requirements and resources within the fire & rescue service.

  • 203.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    et al.
    Rome University La Sapienza, Faculty of Psychology , Rome, Italy (ITA) .
    Rothenberg, W. Andrew
    Duke University, Duke Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA (USA)..
    Lunetti, Carolina
    Sapienza University of Rome,Department of Psychology, Italy (ITA).
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA (USA).
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Rome, Italy (ITA).
    Eisenberg, Nancy
    Arizona State University, Department of Psychology, USA (USA).
    Thartori, Eriona
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Rome, Italy (ITA).
    Basili, Emanuele
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Rome, Italy (ITA).
    Favini, Ainzara
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Rome, Italy (ITA).
    Yotanyamaneewong, Saengduean
    Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand (THA).
    Peña Alampay, Liane
    Ateneo de Manila University, Department of Psychology, 1000 Metro Manila National Capital Region, Philippines (PHL).
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Department of Special Education, Zarqa, Jordan (JOR); Counseling, Special Education, and Neuroscience Division, Emirates College for Advanced Education, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emeriates (ARE).
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Naples Federico II, Department of Humanistic Studies, Napoli, Italy (ITA)..
    Bornstein, Marc H.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA (USA); Institute for Fiscal Studies, London, UK (GBR).
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology, China (CHN).
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Amherst, MA, USA (USA).
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA (USA).
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Department of Educational Psychology, Maseno, Kenya (KEN).
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA (USA).
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA (USA); King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia (SAU).
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai, Thailand (THA).
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Department of Psychology, Bogota, Colombia (COL).
    Longitudinal associations between mothers' and fathers' anger/irritability expressiveness, harsh parenting, and adolescents' socioemotional functioning in nine countries.2020In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 458-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines parents' self-efficacy about anger regulation and irritability as predictors of harsh parenting and adolescent children's irritability (i.e., mediators), which in turn were examined as predictors of adolescents' externalizing and internalizing problems. Mothers, fathers, and adolescents (N = 1,298 families) from 12 cultural groups in 9 countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and United States) were interviewed when children were about 13 years old and again 1 and 2 years later. Models were examined separately for mothers and fathers. Overall, cross-cultural similarities emerged in the associations of both mothers' and fathers' irritability, as well as of mothers' self-efficacy about anger regulation, with subsequent maternal harsh parenting and adolescent irritability, and in the associations of the latter variables with adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. The findings suggest that processes linking mothers' and fathers' emotion socialization and emotionality in diverse cultures to adolescent problem behaviors are somewhat similar. 

  • 204.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    et al.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham.
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Skinner, AnnT.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai 50000, Thailan.
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria
    Rome University ‘La Sapienza, Department of Psychology,’ 00118 Rome, Italy.
    Zelli, Arnaldo
    University of Rome Foro Italico, Italy..
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Department of Psychology, 1000 Metro Manila National Capital Region, Philippine.
    Al-Hassan, Suha
    Hashemite University, Department of Special Education, 13133 Hashemite, Jordan.
    Bacchini, Dario
    Second University of Naples, Faculty of Psychology, 80121 Napoli NA, Italy.
    Bombi, Anna Silvia
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Faculty of Pschology, Italy..
    Bornstein, MarcH.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD 20810.
    Chang, Lei
    Department of Psychology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China.
    Deater-Deckard, Kirby
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Psychology, Blacksburg, VA 24060.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, 40105 Maseno, Kenya.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Faculty of Psychology, Rome, Italy.
    Hostile attributional bias and aggressive behavior in global context2015In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 112, no 30, p. 9310-9315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested a model that children’s tendency to attribute hostile intent to others in response to provocation is a key psychological process that statistically accounts for individual differences in reactive aggressive behavior and that this mechanism contributes to global group differences in children’s chronic aggressive behavior problems. Participants were 1,299 children (mean age at year 1 = 8.3 y; 51% girls) from 12 diverse ecological-context groups in nine countries worldwide, followed across 4 y. In year 3, each child was presented with each of 10 hypothetical vignettes depicting an ambiguous provocation toward the child and was asked to attribute the likely intent of the provocateur (coded as benign or hostile) and to predict his or her own behavioral response (coded as nonaggression or reactive aggression). Mothers and children independently rated the child’s chronic aggressive behavior problems in years 2, 3, and 4. In every ecological group, in those situations in which a child attributed hostile intent to a peer, that child was more likely to report that he or she would respond with reactive aggression than in situations when that same child attributed benign intent. Across children, hostile attributional bias scores predicted higher mother- and child-rated chronic aggressive behavior problems, even controlling for prior aggression. Ecological group differences in the tendency for children to attribute hostile intent statistically accounted for a significant portion of group differences in chronic aggressive behavior problems. The findings suggest a psychological mechanism for group differences in aggressive behavior and point to potential interventions to reduce aggressive behavior.

  • 205.
    Drewitz, Nicolaj
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Linnarsson, Amanda
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Personlighet och Förtroende: Finns det något samband?: En kvantitativ studie om förtroende för en regering2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett högt förtroende för politiska institutioner bland befolkningen är viktigt för både individers välbefinnande och för att samhället ska fungera väl. Förtroendet för politiska processer är nödvändigt för världsekonomin och för demokratin. Det finns mycket forskning om befolkningens tillit till politiska institutioner i relation till deras personlighetsdrag. Författarna känner dock inte till någon tidigare forskning på hur personlighetsdrag och förtroendet för någon regering i Sverige samvarierar. Studien ämnade därför att undersöka förtroendet för den sittande regeringen i Sverige 2018 i relation till personlighetsdragen i femfaktormodellen, med SOM-undersökningen från 2018 som datamaterial. Urvalet av undersökningsdeltagare gjordes slumpmässigt av registerdata från Skatteverkets folkbokföringsregister. 1540 respondenter inkluderades i den multipla linjära regressionsanalysen. 5000 bootstrapiterationer användes vid kontroll för bakgrundsvariablerna inkomst och utbildning. Resultatet visade ett svagt positivt samband mellan agreeableness och förtroendet för den dåvarande sittande regeringen i Sverige. Övriga dimensioner i femfaktormodellen blev inte signifikanta. Studien tyder på att personer som skattade högt på agreeableness i femfaktormodellens personlighetstest tenderade att ha högre förtroende för den regering som satt under insamlingsdataperioden.Behovet av en gemensam konceptualisering av både begrepp och mätmetoder inom forskningsområdet diskuteras.

  • 206.
    Drysdale, Maureen
    et al.
    Faculty of Health, University of Waterloo Director, Well-Link Research Lab, St. Jerome’s University, Waterloo (CAN).
    Johansson, Kristina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Callaghan, Sarah
    Faculty of Health, University of Waterloo Lab Manager, Well-Link Research Lab St. Jerome’s University, Waterloo (CAN).
    Folger, Miriam
    Baden-Heidenheim Cooperative State University(DHBW), Heidenheim an der Brenz (DEU).
    Mahr, Andreas
    Faculty of Technology, Baden-Heidenheim Cooperative State University (DHBW), Heidenheim an det Brenz (DEU).
    Belongingness, peer support, social connections, and well-being of WIL students in Canada, Germany, and Sweden2022In: International Conference on Work Integrated Learning: Abstract Book, Trollhättan: University West , 2022, p. 30-31Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    WIL in the context of higher education is a model of experiential education as per Kolb’s theory (Kolb, 1984; Kolb & Kolb, 2012) - which intentionally integrates students’ theoretical academic studies within a workplace or practical environment The purposeful integration of theory with practice supports learning, with the workplace serving as the mechanism for the enhanced learning, and while students are the primary focus of WIL, the essential philosophy is an educational partnership between universities, employers, and communities with the aim of providing students with an enriched learning experience (Blom, 2013; Johnston, 2017).

    Students who participate in a work-integrated learning (WIL) program during their higher education studies are often better prepared for work after graduation compared to students who do not receive discipline specific practical experience (Mandal & Edwards, 2021; Smith et al., 2019; Weldon & Ngo, 2019). But does this better preparedness come with a price? Do these students - who often spend months away from their campus community – have adequate access to important support networks and/or do they struggle with their well-being? Research has shown that overall well-being, social and peer support, social connections, and establishing a strong sense of belonging are believed to be important in a successful school-to-work transition and achieving a strong career identity (Conely et al., 2014; Huegaerts et al., 2020; Ruschoff et al., 2018). Students who participate in WIL – however have less access to their peers and the university community due to being away for work terms (McBeath et al., 2018). It is unknown whether this influences their overall well-being and subsequent transition to full-time work after graduation. As such, they deserve attention in the research on participation in WIL programs and the subsequent transition to the labour market.

    Goal and Research Questions

    This study furthers our understanding of how support systems and sense of belonging impact student mental health and well-being during work-terms. The results can inform the design of a support intervention aimed at improving and maintaining health and well-being outcomes for WIL students. Results also contribute to the literature regarding WIL, sense of belonging, peer support, social connections, well-being, and preparedness for school-to-work transitions.

    The study involved developing and administering a quantitative measure to examine aspects of, and the importance of, peer support and sense of belonging on improved mental health and well-being for WIL students. We also examined the role that social media and social connections played in this relationship. More specifically, we addressed the following research questions:

    1. What perceptions do WIL students have about sense of belonging and peer support?

    2. What demographic factors impact sense of belonging and peer support?

    3. How does WIL influence peer support and sense of belonging?

    4. How are peer support and sense of belonging related to mental health, and other psychological and health related outcomes in our WIL students?5. What role does social media and in particular virtual social connections play in sense of belonging, peer support, and well-being?6. What is the relationship between sense of belonging, peer support, social connections, mental health, and preparedness for school-to-work transitions? 

    Methods

    Data was collected from three institutions of higher education, namely University of Waterloo in Ca nada, University West in Sweden, and Baden-Heidenheim Cooperative State University (DHBW) in Germany. Ethical clearance was secured at all three institutions prior to data collection. Participants (WIL students) completed an online survey addressing sense of belonging, social and peer support, school-to-work self-efficacy, social media use, and well-being during their WIL placements. In addition to demographic variables (sex, age, year of study, and number of WIL placements) and constructed items measuring school-to-work efficacy and social media use for support and belonging, the survey also contained the following published scales:

    • Sense of Belonging Instrument (SOBI: Hagerty & Patusky, 1995)
    •  Psychological Sense of School Membership (PSSM: Goodenow, 1993)
    •  Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL -shortened version: Cohen et al., 1985)
    • Self-Description Questionnaire III (SDQ-III: Marsh & O’Neill, 1984)
    • Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS: Diener et al., 1985)
    •  Well-Being Manifestation Measure Scale (WBMMS: Massé et al., 1998) 

    Consent to participate was indicated by the participant’s voluntary completion of the online survey. The survey took approximately 15 to 20 minutes to complete. After correcting for missing data, the final data set had a sample size of 480 (University of Waterloo, n=190; University West, n=112, DHBW, n=178).

    Data Analysis

    Descriptive analyses provided frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations for the demographic variables. A series of t-tests were run to determine significant differences on the dependent variables as a function of country and demographics. A series of ANOVAs followed by Tukeys’ HSD post hoc analysis, were run to determine significant main effects. Levene’s test was performed for the demographic independent variables and the assumption of homogeneity of variance was satisfied. Finally, correlational analysis was run to examine significant relationships between the dependent variables – Sense of Belonging, Peer Support, school-to-work efficacy, Mental Health, and Well-Being. Incomplete scales (i.e., missing data) were eliminated from the analysis.

    Results

    Results indicated that WIL students from the three institutions reported only moderate levels of sense of belonging, however they perceived high levels of support from their peers. Higher levels of sense of belonging to the university community and access to high quality peer support was strongly related to better overall mental health and well-being. Interestingly, while WIL students perceived social media and virtual social connections during work terms as playing an important role in supporting their sense of belonging to peers and the university community, they preferred face to face social interactions for promoting their well-being. Additional results and implications will be provided in the presentation.

  • 207. Drysdale, Maureen
    et al.
    Ward, Lisa J.
    Johansson, Kristina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Zaitseva, Elena
    Sheri, Dressler
    Comparing the Attributes of Students in Cooperative Education or Work-Integrated Learning Programs in Four Countries2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New technologies, the internalization of markets, and higher numbers of university graduates have led to greater competition for employment and greater needs for higher-order employment skills, practical experience, and a strong sense of competence. An increasing number of students are turning to work-integrated programs of learning (WIL) –where they can gain the necessary skills to enhance their future employment and career prospects.

    The aim of this international project was to examine the relationship between work-integrated learning and the psychological variables believed to play a role for success in the transition to the labour market.

    Students from four countries (Canada, Sweden, England, and the USA) completed the same online questionnaire measuring self-concept, self-efficacy, hope (goal-setting, goal achievement), procrastination, motivation, study skills, and work ethic. Results indicated there were many attitudes and behaviours shared by WIL and non-WIL students in the four countries – however there were also significant differences that shed light on WIL outcomes and/or the type of students who select WIL, regardless of where they reside. WIL students appear to have a stronger math self-concept and problem-solving self-concept. Non WIL students appear to have more confidence to attain academic and career goals, but it decreases by the end of their studies. On the other hand, confidence increases substantially for WIL students. Gender effects and achievement differences between the two groups will also be discussed. In summary, Students in WIL programs –regardless of where they reside -appear more similar than different.

  • 208.
    Duell, Natasha
    et al.
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, United States.
    Icenogle, Grace
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, United States.
    Silva, Karol
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, United States.
    Chein, Jason
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, United States.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Banich, Marie T.
    University of Colorado at Boulder, Department of Psychology & Neuroscience, United States.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    University of Cyprus, Department of Psychology, Cyprus.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Faculty of Psychology, Rome, Italy.
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Consultorio Psicológico Popular, Medellín, Colombia .
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan.
    Takash, Hanan M. S.
    Hashemite University, Queen Rania Faculty for Childhood, Jordan.
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Naples “Federico II”, Department of Psychology, Italy.
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology, China.
    Chaudhary, Nandita
    University of Delhi, Department of Human Development and Childhood Studies, Lady Irwin College, India.
    A cross-sectional examination of response inhibition and working memory on the Stroop task2018In: Cognitive development, ISSN 0885-2014, E-ISSN 1879-226X, Vol. 47, p. 19-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors examined the association between working memory and response inhibition on the Stroop task using a cross-sectional, international sample of 5099 individuals (49.3% male) ages 10–30 (M = 17.04 years; SD = 5.9). Response inhibition was measured using a Stroop task that included "equal" and "unequal" blocks, during which the relative frequency of neutral and incongruent trials was manipulated. Competing stimuli in incongruent trials evinced inhibitory functioning, and having a lower proportion of incongruent trials (as in unequal blocks) placed higher demands on working memory. Results for accuracy indicated that age and working memory were independently associated with response inhibition. Age differences in response inhibition followed a curvilinear trajectory, with performance improving into early adulthood. Response inhibition was greatest among individuals with high working memory. For response time, age uniquely predicted response inhibition in unequal blocks. In equal blocks, age differences in response inhibition varied as a function of working memory, with age differences being least pronounced among individuals with high working memory. The implications of considering the association between response inhibition and working memory in the context of development are discussed.

  • 209.
    Duell, Natasha
    et al.
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, PA, United States .
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, PA, United States .
    Chein, Jason
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, PA, United States .
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Queen Rania Faculty for Childhood, HJordan .
    Bacchini, Dario
    Second University of Naples, Department of Psychology, Italy .
    Lei, Chang
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology, Macau .
    Chaudhary, Nandita
    University of Dheli, Department of Human Development and Childhood Studies, Lady Irwin College, India .
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Dodge, Kenneth .A
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, NC, United States .
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    University of Cyprus, Department of Psychology,Cyprus .
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, NC, United States .
    Malone, Patrick S.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, NC, United States .
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Department of Educational Psychology, Kenya .
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma, Department of Psychology, Italy .
    Skinner, AnnT.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, NC, United States .
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Tapanya, Somabt
    Chiang Mai University, Department of Psychiatry, Thailand .
    Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Consultorio Psicológico Popular, France .
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Department of Psychology, Philippines .
    Interaction of reward seeking and self-regulation in the prediction of risk taking: A cross-national test of the dual systems model2016In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 52, no 10, p. 1593-1605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present analysis, we test the dual systems model of adolescent risk taking in a cross-national sample of over 5,200 individuals aged 10 through 30 (M = 17.05 years, SD = 5.91) from 11 countries. We examine whether reward seeking and self-regulation make independent, additive, or interactive contributions to risk taking, and ask whether these relations differ as a function of age and culture. To compare across cultures, we conduct 2 sets of analyses: 1 comparing individuals from Asian and Western countries, and 1 comparing individuals from low- and high-GDP countries. Results indicate that reward seeking and self-regulation have largely independent associations with risk taking and that the influences of each variable on risk taking are not unique to adolescence, but that their link to risk taking varies across cultures. © 2016 American Psychological Association.

  • 210.
    Duell, Natasha
    et al.
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, United States.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA ; King Abdulaziz University.
    Icenogle, Grace
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, United States.
    Chein, Jason
    Temple University, Department of Psychology, United States.
    Chaudhary, Nandita
    Lady Irwin College, Department of Human Development and Childhood Studies, LUniversity of Delhi, India.
    Di Giunta, Laura
    Rome University La Sapienza, Faculty of Psychology , Rome, Italy .
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    University of Cyprus, Department of Psychology, Cyprus.
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Department of Educational Psychology, Maseno, Kenya.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Rome, Italy.
    Skinner, Ann T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Department of Psychology, Bogota,Colombia.
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University, Department of Special Education, Zarqa, Jordan; Counseling, Special Education, and Neuroscience Division, Emirates College for Advanced Education, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
    Takash, Hanan M. S.
    Hashemite Univ, Queen Rania Fac Childhood, Zarqa, Jordan.
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Naples Federico II, Department of Humanistic Studies, Napoli, Italy..
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology, China.
    Correction: Age Patterns in Risk Taking Across the World (vol 47, pg 1052, 2018)2019In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 835-836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the original publication, the legends for Figs 4 and 5 were incorrect, such that each regression line was mislabeled with the incorrect country. Below are the correctly labeled countries. The authors apologize for any confusion or misinformation this error may have caused.

  • 211.
    Duell, Natasha
    et al.
    Temple University, Department of Psychology,Philadelphia, USA.
    Steinberg, Laurence
    Temple University,Department of Psychology, Philadelphia, PA, USA and King Abdulaziz University.
    Icenogle, Grace
    Temple University, Department of Psychology,Philadelphia, USA.
    Chein, Jason
    Temple University, Department of Psychology,Philadelphia, USA.
    Chaudhary, Nandita
    University of Delhi, Department of Human Development and Childhood Studies, Lady Irwin College, New Delhi, India..
    Di Giunta, Laura
    La Sapienza University of Rome, Interuniversity Centre for Research in the Genesis and Development of Prosocial and Antisocial Motivations, Rome, Italy.
    Dodge, Kenneth A.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA..
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    University of Cyprus, Department of Psychology, Kallipoleos, Cyprus..
    Lansford, Jennifer E.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA..
    Oburu, Paul
    Maseno University, Department of Educational Psychology, Maseno, Kenya.
    Pastorelli, Concetta
    Università di Roma, La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Roma, RM, Italy.
    Skinner, Anne T.
    Duke University, Center for Child and Family Policy, Durham, NC, USA.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Tapanya, Sombat
    Chiang Mai University, Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai, Thailand..
    Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria
    Universidad San Buenaventura, Consultorio Psicológico Popular, Medellín, Colombia .
    Alampay, Liane Peña
    Ateneo de Manila University, Department of Psychology, Metro Manila, Philippines.
    Al-Hassan, Suha M.
    Hashemite University and Emirates College for Advanced Education, Al Zafranah, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
    Takash, Hanan M. S.
    Hashemite University, Queen Rania Faculty for Childhood, Zarqa, Jordan..
    Bacchini, Dario
    University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Department of Psychology, Caserta, CE, Italy .
    Chang, Lei
    University of Macau, Department of Psychology,Zhuhai Shi, China..
    Age patterns in risk taking across the world2018In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 1052-1072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemiological data indicate that risk behaviors are among the leading causes of adolescent morbidity and mortality worldwide. Consistent with this, laboratory-based studies of age differences in risk behavior allude to a peak in adolescence, suggesting that adolescents demonstrate a heightened propensity, or inherent inclination, to take risks. Unlike epidemiological reports, studies of risk taking propensity have been limited to Western samples, leaving questions about the extent to which heightened risk taking propensity is an inherent or culturally constructed aspect of adolescence. In the present study, age patterns in risk-taking propensity (using two laboratory tasks: the Stoplight and the BART) and real-world risk taking (using self-reports of health and antisocial risk taking) were examined in a sample of 5,227 individuals (50.7% female) ages 10-30 (M = 17.05 years, SD = 5.91) from 11 Western and non-Western countries (China, Colombia, Cyprus, India, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the US). Two hypotheses were tested: (1) risk taking follows an inverted-U pattern across age groups, peaking earlier on measures of risk taking propensity than on measures of real-world risk taking, and (2) age patterns in risk taking propensity are more consistent across countries than age patterns in real-world risk taking. Overall, risk taking followed the hypothesized inverted-U pattern across age groups, with health risk taking evincing the latest peak. Age patterns in risk taking propensity were more consistent across countries than age patterns in real-world risk taking. Results suggest that although the association between age and risk taking is sensitive to measurement and culture, around the world, risk taking is generally highest among late adolescents

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  • 212.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholm universitet.
    Haas, Linda
    Indiana University.
    Hwang, Philip
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Göteborgs Universitet.
    Sweden Country Note2015Report (Other academic)
  • 213.
    Dzieminski, Anca
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Mirzayeva, Ruxsara
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Sambandstudie mellan koncentration, sömn, stress ochkost hos ungdomar: En kvantitativ studie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between concentration, sleep, stress and diet and to examine which of the variables has the most effect on concentration for adolescents. The survey also focused on the differences between the sexes. The study used a quantitative method, using questionnaires that were distributed to young people entering the third year of the science program in Västra Götaland. The sample was 65 students, including 32 girls and 27 boys. Students were between 18 and 19 years old. The results of the study showed that there is a very strong positive correlation between concentration and stress as well as between concentration and sleep. The relationship between concentration and diet, stress and sleep, stress and diet, sleep and diet had a positive strong correlation. The study showed that stress had the most impact on the ability to concentrate. The results also showed that girls experience more stress, insomnia, less intake of food and less concentration than boys. Several scientific studies and literature have also shown that there is a very strong relationship between sleep, concentration, diet and stress

  • 214.
    Dåderman, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Lindgren, May
    Lund University.
    Lidberg, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The prevalence of dyslexia and AD/HD in a sample of forensic psychiatric rapists2004In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 371-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of dyslexia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) (DSM-IV) is markedly increased among those who are sentenced for criminal offences. The aim of the study was to identify developmental disabilities, dyslexia and AD/HD among severely disturbed men in forensic psychiatric care, and to study the co-occurrence of such disabilities, with the objective to discuss the importance of the diagnoses in forensic psychiatry. The participants were 10 males who had committed rape on adult women, and included two murder-rapists, one of which had murdered more than one victim (i.e. a serial murderer). All had been assigned to special long term forensic psychiatric care, based predominantly on a psychodynamic ground. In order to be identified as having dyslexia, a participant’s performance on at least three out of four tests of academic skills had to be markedly below the expected level (more than two stanine steps), given the participant’s non-verbal intellectual capacity and considering the length of his education. AD/HD was investigated by studying the participants’ forensic psychiatric files and by a clinical interview. Seven of the 10 participants met the DSM-IV criteria for dyslexia, and six of them met the DSM-IV criteria for AD/HD. Four participants had AD/HD and dyslexia, three had AD/HD but no dyslexia, and two had dyslexia but no AD/HD. Only one participant had neither dyslexia nor AD/HD. The participants with dyslexia performed well in tests assessing non-verbal reasoning, visuo-spatial capacity and visual memory. Although the generalization of the results from 10 rapists is severely limited, the results indicate the importance of assessing dyslexia as well as AD/HD in people who are admitted for forensic psychiatric assessment. The lack of correct diagnoses may negatively influence the choice of appropriate forensic psychiatric care. Early assessment of those disorders might have a positive influence on the psychological development and socialization process in people with dyslexia and/or AD/HD.

  • 215.
    Dåderman, Anna M.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics, Poland.
    The work-family interface: Job demands, work engagement and turnover intentions of Polish nurses2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A conflict between one's professional life and one's family life may lead to lower well-being both at work and home. Most nurses are women who have traditionally reconciled their professional life with family life. One aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the work-family conflict (WFC),the family-work conflict (FWC), and the perception of job demands (quantitative workload and interpersonal conflicts at work). We intended also to examine the components of work engagement (vigour, dedication, and absorption) and turnover intentions. Another aim was to determine whether the variables that we examined are important for turnover intentions. This study comprised Polish registered nurses. The following instruments were used:Work-Family Conflict and Family-Work Conflict Scales (Netemeyer, Boles, &McMurrian, 1996), the Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale and Quantitative Workload Index (Spector & Jex, 1998), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale(Schaufeli, Bakker, & Salanova, 2006), and measures of turnover intentions (intention to leave the present workplace and intention to leave the nursing profession). The score on the scale to measure WFC was positively related to perceived workload and to both turnover intentions, while negatively related to vigour. The WFC was experienced significantly more intensively than FWC. The perception of differences in mean scale scores of job demands had a moderate effect on the FWC and WFC, while differences in mean scale scores of vigour had a strong effect on the WFC. WFC, quantitative workload and a low level of dedication were significant predictors of the intention to leave the present workplace, while the level of job demands was a significant predictor of theintention to leave the nursing profession. The results are interpreted and discussed using Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources theory.

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  • 216.
    Dåderman, Anna M.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Colli, Daniel
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    The significance of the sense of coherence for various coping resources in stress situations used by police officers in on-the-beat service2014In: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, ISSN 1232-1087, E-ISSN 1896-494X, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 3-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundPolice officers meet many stressors as part of their occupation. The psychological resource "sense of coherence" (SOC) protects against ill-health, but its impact on coping resources for stress situations has not been studied in the population of police officers. Different approaches to investigate the significance of SOC for different outcomes have been identified in literature, leading to some difficulties in the interpretation and generalization of results. The aim was therefore to explore SOC and the coping resources, and to examine the significance of SOC for various coping resources for stress using different models in a sample of Swedish police officers providing on-the-beat service.

    Materials and MethodsOne hundred and one police officers (age: mean = 33 years, SD = 8; 29 females) were included, and the Orientation to Life Questionnaire (SOC-29) and the Coping Resources Inventory (CRI) were used. The dependent variable in each regression analysis was one of the coping resources: cognitive, social, emotional, spiritual/philosophical, physical, and a global resource. Global SOC-29 and/or its components (comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness) were investigated as independent variables.

    ResultsAll CRI and SOC-29 scores except for that of spiritual/philosophical resources were higher than those of reference groups. Manageability was the most important component of SOC for various coping resources in stress situations used by police officers.

    ConclusionA deeper study of manageability will give useful information, because this component of SOC is particularly significant in the variation in resources used by police officers to cope with stress. Salutogenesis, the origin of well-being, should be more in focus of future research on workplaces with a high level of occupational stress.

  • 217.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Karolinska Institutet.
    Det har blivit populärt att vara psykiskt sjuk i Kalifornien: konsekvenser av den nya lagen Three-strikes and you're out law2000In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 97, no 51-52, p. 6038-6039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of the new Three-strikes and you're out law, the law which first came into effect on 1994, was to protect innocent members of the community. A person convicted of his or her third conviction after two prior serious convictions under Three-strikes will typically receive a sentence of no less than 25 years to life in state prison. This law is well-known in California among criminals, especially repeat offenders and many of them left the state. The rate of homicides in the state has decreased by 50%. Many repeat offenders remained in California and continued to commit new crimes. Before Three-strikes was enacted, it was very uncommon for forensic psychiatrists to see criminals malingering symptoms of mental illness in any but the most serious of cases of murder or rape. Since the implementation of the new law, it has been found malingering to be much more common. Hundreds of patients at state mental hospitals fake insanity to avoid prison, costing taxpayers far more than the cost of incarceration in a prison. The most common types of malingers are discussed.

  • 218.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Developing courses in quantitative methods for undergraduate psychology students: teaching facilitated by experimental exercises with work-related elements2016In: ViLär 2016, konferens 8-9 december 2016, Vänersborg / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2016, p. 3-4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    University teachers need to develop and implement effective teaching methods when educating students who come to the university through “broadened recruitment”, that is, students with parents without higher education, and also older students who want to supplement their previous university education. These groups have, at least theoretically, more practical experiences and possible poorer study outcomes.

     

    University West tops the list of Swedish universities in the percentage of students with parents without higher education. In addition, during recent years, unemployment in the region around University West increased (by about 75%). This fact leads to a higher percentage of older students with work-related experience. These rapid changes have put us who teach methods and statistics before the question of how to teach more effectively, so that a high “throughput” can be maintained in combination with a constantly decreasing number of teaching hours. Broadening participation and high throughput: how can we make it happen?

     

    This study was an attempt to implement “learning by doing”, an activity-based teaching method where theory, practice, reflection and action are combined. In their learning of experimental methods and statistics, students at University West were expected to integrate their past and present working skills in an experiment that simulated two work-related situations (applying for employment as a manager, and applying for leave of absence from prison). In a three-group experiment, an attempt was made to manipulate the applicant’s degree of empathy, which was then measured with the IRI scale. Collected data were used in statistics education, and results were discussed with students. In subsequent knowledge tests, the proportion of the grade “fail” was low. Course evaluations reflected a high degree of student satisfaction.

     

    Therefore, the use of “learning by doing” in the teaching of statistics, which is normally considered to be difficult to understand and apply, is recommended in order to increase motivation to learn statistics.

  • 219.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Differences between severely conduct-disordered juvenile males and normal juvenile males: the study of personality traits1999In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 827-845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personality traits among a group of 47 severely conduct-disordered (C-D) juvenile males from four Swedish national correctional institutions for serious offences were studied. The Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-I), including an impulsivity scale from the Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy (IVE) inventory, and the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scales (SSS) form V, were administered to the C-D juveniles. The scores from the KSP for this group were compared to scores from a presentative group of 82 normal juvenile male subjects from the Swedish longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation (IDA). Pearson product-moment correlations were calculated between the KSP scales and scales from the EPQ-I, and between the SSS and scales from the EPQ-I and KSP inventories. The C-D juveniles displayed notably higher scores than the mean normal scores on psychopathy-related personality scales. The present results are consistent with earlier findings concerning personality dimensions in adult criminal psychopaths: high scores on impulsivity and sensation seeking, and low scores on conformity reflected in low socialization and high psychoticism.

  • 220.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Fallet Thomas Quick: ”Bortträngda” minnen och hans diagnoser2016In: Diagnoser / [ed] Kurt Almqvist, Stockholm: Axel och Margaret Ax:son Johnsons Stiftelse , 2016, 1. ed., p. 55-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 221.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Hur kan ett arbetsintegrerat lärande (AIL) synliggöras inom ämnet psykologi?2016In: ViLär 2016, konferens 8-9 december 2016, Vänersborg / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan, 2016, p. 1-2Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte med denna presentation är att tydliggöra hur vi inom ämnet psykologi synliggör AIL, genom att beskriva resultaten från genomförda studier inom ett samverkansprojekt med aktörer från arbetslivet och akademin. Resultat från detta projekt ledde till ett nyligen avslutat verifieringsprojekt, finansierat av Innovations Kontor Väst, Chalmers. Båda projekten kommer att presenteras. Exempel ges på hur dessa psykologiska forskningsprojekt kunnat bidra till implementeringen av AIL i psykologiundervisning.

    Syfte med projektet ”Studier om en ny svensk ledarskapsmodell som bygger på teorin om ledarintelligens” var att utveckla en praktiskt tillämpbar ledarskapsmodell som bygger på Ronthys teori (2006, 2013) om ledarskapets intelligens. Detta gjordes genom att validera teorin bland chefer och ledare i ett samarbete mellan forskare inom akademin och externa aktörer (organisationer och företag). Teorin är sprungen ur Ronthys erfarenheter av att undervisa och att handleda omkring 4 000 chefer i utvecklingssamtal.

    Ett flertal examensarbeten har skrivits inom projektet, och några har resulterat i konferenspresentationer och i vetenskapliga publikationer. Genom sitt deltagande i projektet får våra studenter kontakter med ansvariga i kommuner, företag och organisationer, och ökar därigenom sina möjligheter att bli anställda. De får även bättre förståelse av arbetslivets villkor och kan på ett djupare sätt diskutera sina resultat, och får därmed bättre studieresultat. Genom examensarbeten bedrivs en reflexionsdrivande undervisning, där studenter lär sig vad det kan innebära att vara chef eller ledare i ett arbetsliv som är i förändring. Allt detta kräver eftertanke: ”Vem är jag?”, ”Vad vill jag jobba med?”. Studenterna får även en närmare relation till yrken och verksamheter utanför akademin, samt utvecklar sin yrkeskompetens genom att reflektera kring användningen av testmetodik.

    Slutsatsen är att AIL kan synliggöras i såväl psykologisk forskning som undervisning på samma sätt som AIL synliggörs i andra ämnen, exempelvis pedagogik eller informatik.

  • 222. Dåderman, Anna Maria
    Personality traits and psychopathy (PCL-R) in male juvenile delinquents2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Abstract

     

    State-administered correctional institutions in Sweden take care of approximately 600 juvenile delinquents every year. The treatment for these institutionalized young people is based mainly on environmental programs and milieu therapy.

    Fifty-six conduct-disordered juvenile delinquents (mean age 17 years) from four institutions were studied with respect to their personality traits, and the prevalence of psychopathy (measured by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist – Revised, PCL-R). One objective was to study the reliability and validity of commonly used personality inventories. In particular, the validity of psychopathy-related personality traits, included in Schalling’s psychopathy model (1978), was examined by studying the relationships between personality traits and psychopathy (PCL-R), the occurrence of previous treatment occasions, and relapse into crime. Four groups, the delinquent participants, a group of high sensation-seekers (air force pilot recruits), normal male adolescent participants, and another group of normal young males, completed a number of personality inventories, which enabled us to obtain measures of personality traits. The personality inventories used were the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scales. In addition, the delinquent participants were rated on psychopathy according to the modified version of the PCL-R, designed to be used with young people (Fort, Hart, & Hare, 1990). Both variable-oriented (factor analysis, MANOVA) and person-oriented statistical methods (cluster analysis) were applied.

    As expected, most personality traits in the delinquent participants deviated from published norms and from our control groups. The delinquent participants showed a high level of pathology or vulnerability for developing mental disorders (such as substance abuse). About 60% of the delinquent participants had scores above 30 on the PCL-R, and were thus classified as psychopaths according to the manual. Further, 73% had scores between 27 and 40, indicating a high level of psychopathy. Delinquent participants showed a different pattern of sensation-seeking behavior than air force pilot recruits and normal adolescent participants, and differed also in other personality traits. They had a low level of socialization, indicating a lack of ability to take the role of the generalized other, and a tendency to impulsiveness, somatic anxiety and extraversion-sociability. The construct validity (convergent and divergent) of the KSP scales was found to be adequate. Some of the personality traits in delinquent participants, however, showed a different correlation pattern than that found in noncriminal people. Some of the basic scales from the KSP had high reliability, but many were not reliable when used on delinquent participants. Four factors were extracted using the maximum likelihood method. No significant correlations were found between the personality scale scores and the PCL-R scores. Finally, cluster analysis of the reliable and valid psychopathy-related personality scales from the KSP (Impulsiveness, Monotony avoidance, Socialization, Verbal aggression, and Somatic anxiety) identified seven different clusters of delinquent participants.

    The uncertain validity of some personality traits (e.g., psychoticism or detachment), the poor reliability of many of the KSP scales (e.g., Guilt, Suspicion, and Inhibition of aggression) when used on this population, together with some minor limitations of the studies (e.g., sample size) are discussed.

    In conclusion, the high prevalence of psychopathy in the present sample of male delinquent participants may have important clinical treatment implications, particularly since some researchers have suggested that milieu therapy increases relapse rates into crime in adult psychopaths. Hopefully, appropriate assessment of personality traits and psychopathy (in addition to obvious routine assessments of mental disorders, such as substance abuse or disabilities such as dyslexia), supervision, and the implementation of effective correctional programs, may prevent young people with deviant personalities from aggravating their deviant style of living.

     

    Key words: Personality traits, psychopathy (PCL-R), juvenile delinquents, reliability, validity, assessment.

  • 223.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Management and Economics, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland.
    Evolutionary benefits of personality traits when facing workplace bullying2021In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 177, article id 110849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Facing workplace bullying negatively affects physical and mental health, and consequently quality of life and well-being. Personality traits that can help an individual survive and reproduce entail more benefits than costs. Building on  two evolutionary theories, Life History Theory and Costly Signaling Theory, this study aims to provide novel insights into how and why personality traits are associated with facing workplace bullying and health-related quality of life. A heterogeneous group of 324 employees in Sweden provided data on workplace bullying, perceived health-related quality of life, and personality traits, controlling for sex and age. We found that openness (HEXACO model) and Machiavellianism (Dark Triad model) served as moderators. Employees with high values of  these traits experienced significantly less affected health-related quality of  life  when facing workplace bullying. Our results indicate evolutionary origins of the personality traits openness and Machia-vellianism. A new finding is that possessing, exhibiting, and maintaining traits reflecting a more creative and competitive interpersonal style increases an employee’s ability to survive aversive environments.  

  • 224.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics, Poland.
    Exploring the factor structure and the validityof the abbreviated Basic and Earning Self-Esteem Scales2013In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 242-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The original longer versions (Forsman & Johnson, 1996) and abbreviated versions of the Basic and Earning Self-Esteem Scales have been used in clinical and non-clinical settings, but little is known about the factor structure and the validity of these scales in their abbreviated forms. The original longer versions of the scales comprise several dimensions, but both abbreviated versions of the scales have been interpreted as if they were 1D. The abbreviated versions of the Basic and Earning Self-Esteem Scales have been translated into Polish from Swedish and administered to 175 students (103 female; mean age = 22.7 years, SD = 3.3 years) studying management at the Gdansk University of Technology. The aim of the present study was to investigate the factor structure and the validity of the abbreviated versions of the scales. We were also interested in the differences between women and men. Exploratory factor analyses identified one dimension of the Basic Self-Esteem Scale, compatible with Rosenberg’s et al. (1995) and Rogers’ (1951) concepts. We identified two components (High Ambition and Others’ Appraisal) of the Earning Self-Esteem Scale, similar to the original longer version. Convergent and discriminant validity proved to be theoretically solid. The abbreviated versions of the Basic and Earning Self-Esteem Scales are appended. Further research on these scales involving other groups is needed, as is further development of these self-esteem scales for adults. Evidence of the derived factors’ internal consistency and of the convergent and discriminant validity suggests that the factor structure and the reliability of the abbreviated versions of psychological tools need to be investigated.

  • 225.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics, Poland.
    Job Demands, Engagement, and Turnover Intentions in Polish Nurses: The Role of Work-Family Interface2018In: Psychosocial job dimensions and distress/well-being: issues and challenges in occupational health psychology / [ed] Renato Pisanti, James Campbell Quick, Montgomery Anthony, Frontiers Media S.A., 2018, 1, p. 91-104Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Poland has lower ratios of employed registered nurses per 1,000 inhabitants than the EU average. Polish nurses work under miserable conditions without assisting personnel, and they reconcile their professional demands with responsibilities for their families; 96% of them are women.

    Rationale/Aims:

    This study uses Hobfoll's conservation of resources (CORs) theory to explain the role of various resources in the improvement of work conditions in the nursing profession. Work-family conflict (WFC) and family work conflict (FWC) threaten to deplete nurses' resources. This paper set out to (1) examine the extent to which perceived job demands (workload and interpersonal conflicts at work) and engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption) are associated with turnover intentions (the intention to leave the present workplace and the intention to leave the nursing profession); (2) attempt to determine whether levels of WFC and FWC moderate these associations.

    Design/Method:

    This study comprised 188 female registered nurses. The inclusion criterion was to live with a partner and/or have children.

    Results:

    WFC was moderately related to FWC. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only high job demands and low vigor were significantly associated with turnover intentions. WFC was experienced more intensively than FWC. Job demands, vigor, dedication, and turnover intentions had a strong effect on WFC, while absorption had a strong effect on FWC. However, levels of WFC and FWC did not significantly moderate these associations.

    Originality/Conclusion:

    The study produces new knowledge by examining a constellation of job demands, work engagement and WFC, which reflect the management of personal resources. Results from such a constellation in nurses from countries with a post-transformational economic system have not previously been discussed in the light of COR theory. Most importantly, we conclude that WFC does not intensify turnover intentions.

  • 226.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics, Poland.
    Job Demands, Engagement, and Turnover Intentions in Polish Nurses: The Role of Work-Family Interface2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Poland has lower ratios of employed registered nurses per 1,000 inhabitants than the EU average. Polish nurses work under miserable conditions without assisting personnel, and they reconcile their professional demands with responsibilities for their families; 96% of them are women.

    Rationale/Aims: This study uses Hobfoll’s conservation of resources (CORs) theory to explain the role of various resources in the improvement of work conditions in the nursing profession. Work-family conflict (WFC) and family work conflict (FWC) threaten to deplete nurses’ resources. This paper set out to (1) examine the extent to which perceived job demands (workload and interpersonal conflicts at work) and engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption) are associated with turnover intentions (the intention to leave the present workplace and the intention to leave the nursing profession); (2) attempt to determine whether levels of WFC and FWC moderate these associations.

    Design/Method: This study comprised 188 female registered nurses. The inclusion criterion was to live with a partner and/or have children.

    Results: WFC was moderately related to FWC. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only high job demands and low vigor were significantly associated with turnover intentions. WFC was experienced more intensively than FWC. Job demands, vigor, dedication, and turnover intentions had a strong effect on WFC, while absorption had a strong effect on FWC. However, levels of WFC and FWC did not significantly moderate these associations.

    Originality/Conclusion: The study produces new knowledge by examining a constellation of job demands, work engagement and WFC, which reflect the management of personal resources. Results from such a constellation in nurses from countries with a post-transformational economic system have not previously been discussed in the light of COR theory. Most importantly, we conclude that WFC does not intensify turnover intentions.

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  • 227.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics, Poland.
    Performance profiles (”happy performer”, ”enjoys life”, ”forced performer” or ”goes without”) in two cultures2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    •Aim. The aim was to validate four empirically derived, and in research suggested “performance” profiles, and to discuss the results from these profiles in two culturally different populations in light of the psychometric qualities of the used instruments.

    •Theoretical framework and background. According to Johnson and Forsman (1995), a combination of low and high values ​​of the Basic and Earning Self-Esteem (SE) scales may result in, what is by the scale constructors’ called performance profiles. Studies show that people with these profiles are different in, among others, Type A behavior, fear of failure, performance requirements, neuroticism and extraversion. These characteristics have been identified to be important for the working life, and, thus, the profiles are worth to be studied in depth.

    •Summary of the results. Validation of the performance profiles was made in 120 participants, educated in Sweden (almost all were born in Sweden) ranging in age from 21 to 54 years, by studying the relationships between a score from a self-assessment question "I am like this when I perform" (Dåderman, in preparation), and the results indicated a good concurrent validity for the profiles. Comparative study among 84 students from the University West in Sweden and 176 students from Gdansk University of Technology in Poland (Dåderman & Basinska, in preparation) showed that the distribution of the profiles was the same across categories indicated by non-significant values of the Mann Whitney U test.

    •Practical and theoretical implications. In our multicultural society, where in some sectors a large percentage of people not born in the country of question  work, it might be interesting to study performance profiles, provided that the SE scales are reliable and valid across different populations. Generalizations of results of this kind must be, however, very cautiously made.

  • 228.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics, Poland.
    Reply to Maarit Johnson’s Letter to the Editor2014In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 66, no 3, p. 2p. 233-235Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 229.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics, Poland.
    Work-family interference: Occupational demands, work engagement and turnover intentions in nurses2015In: PSYSOC-2015 Abstracts Book, 2015, p. 26-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of how to manage incompatible professional and non-professional demands has attracted attention from both scholars and practitioners in recent decades. One aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the work-family conflict (WFC), the family-work conflict (FWC), and the perception of job demands (quantitative workload and interpersonal conflicts at work). We intended also to examine the components of work engagement (vigour, dedication, and absorption) and turnover intentions. Another aim was to determine whether the variables that we examined are important for turnover intentions. This study comprised 98 nurses (mean age 41, SD = 6 years). The following instruments were used: Work-Family Conflict and Family-Work Conflict Scales, the Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale and Quantitative Workload Index, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and measures of turnover intentions. The score on the scale to measure WFC was positively related to perceived workload and to both turnover intentions, while negatively related to vigour. The FWC was positively related to absorption. The WFC was experienced significantly more intensively than FWC. The perception of differences in mean scale scores of job demands had a moderate effect on the FWC and WFC, while differences in mean scale scores of vigour had a strong effect on the WFC. WFC, quantitative workload and a low level of dedication were significant predictors of the intention to leave the present workplace, while the level of job demands was a significant predictor of the intention to leave the nursing profession. The results are interpreted and discussed using Hobfoll’s Conservation of Resources theory. Health organizations should develop guidance and counselling to promote good and efficient work with decent working conditions and a happy family life for nurses.

  • 230.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Forensic Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet.
    Hallberg, Angela
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Skog, Sandra
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    A Leadership Meta-Resource Factor Explicates Task Performance, Work Engagement, and Perceived Stress2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Past research links emotional leadership resources (e.g., emotional intelligence) positively with important working life outcomes, such as health, job satisfaction, job performance, organizational commitment, and leadership effectiveness. However, no study has yet described emotional leadership resources based on traits linked with work motivation and stress resilience. The aim was to describe emotional leadership resources based on traits in a novel fashion (meta-traits, based on structural trait analysis). Our hypothesis was that an emotional leadership meta-resource factor would converge with motivation and stress resilience. Participants (N = 344) were leaders aged between 23 and 65 years (M = 49, SD = 8.6; 58% women) who completed an online questionnaire including measures of common traits (e.g., trait emotional intelligence, Big Six), and coping resources. We estimated work motivation by self-rated work engagement, and stress resilience by the level of perceived stress. We used an exploratory factor analysis approach to describe and structure our data, and structural equation modelling (SEM) to test whether an emotional leadership meta-resource factor would converge with work motivation and stress resilience. Our findings revealed that the investigated traits and resources could be described along four broad emotional leadership resource factors, namely (1) Externalizing, (2) Moral goodness, (3) “Destrudo”, and (4) Rational mastery. As expected, the emotional leadership meta-resource factor showed a strong convergence (~.80) with both work motivation and stress resilience. “Externalizing” and “Rational mastery” were the most important emotional resource factors. The findings are discussed using Hobfoll’s motivational Conservation of Resources (COR) theory. It is concluded that common traits, including personality traits, and coping resources comprise an emotional leadership meta-resource factor, which to a high degree converges with work motivation and stress resilience. The results imply that organizations may strengthen work motivation and reduce stress by recruiting leaders possessing valuable emotional leadership resources.

  • 231.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Karolinska Institutet.
    Hallberg, Angela
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Skog, Sandra
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Emotional Leadership in Relation to Task Performance, Work Engagement, and Perceived Stress2019In: Working for the greater good: Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society / [ed] Prof. Franco Fraccaroli, Turin, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To describe and explore emotional leadership meta-resources based on traits (self-esteem, emotional intelligence, leadership intelligence, empathy, Big Six, narcissism) and coping resources (e.g. cognitive), using Hobfoll’s motivational Conservation of Resources (COR). Our hypothesis was that leadership resources would be positively related to work engagement and negatively to perceived stress.

    Methodology: Participants (N = 344) were leaders aged between 23 and 65 years (M = 49, SD = 8.6; 58% women) who completed an online questionnaire including measures of common traits and coping resources. Work engagement was measured by Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9; Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004), and stress by Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10; Cohen & Williamson, 1988). We used an exploratory factor analysis approach to describe and structure our data, and structural equation modelling (SEM) to test whether an emotional leadership meta-resource factor would be positively related to work engagement and negatively to perceived stress.

    Results: The investigated traits and resources could be described along four broad emotional leadership resource factors: (1) Externalizing; (2) Moral goodness; (3) Destrudo; (4) Rational mastery. As expected, the emotional leadership meta-resource factor showed a strong convergence (~.80) with both work engagement (positively) and perceived stress (negatively). 

    Research/Practical Implications: The results imply that organizations may strengthen work engagement and reduce stress by recruiting leaders possessing valuable emotional leadership resources.

    Originality/Value: Our study is the first to describe emotional leadership resources based on traits linked with work engagement and perceived stress in a novel fashion (meta-traits, based on structural trait analysis).

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  • 232.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Hellström, Åke
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Interrater Reliability of Psychopathy Checklist-Revised: Results on Multiple Analysis Levels for a Sample of Patients Undergoing Forensic Psychiatric Evaluation2018In: Criminal justice and behavior, ISSN 0093-8548, E-ISSN 1552-3594, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 234-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scores from the Psychopathy Checklist–Revised (PCL-R) are used to support decisions regarding personal liberty. In our study, performed in an applied forensic psychiatric setting, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for absolute agreement, single rater (ICCA1) were .89 for the total score, .82 for Factor 1, .88 for Factor 2, and .78 to .86 for the four facets. These results stand in contrast to lower reliabilities found in a majority of field studies. Disagreement among raters made a low contribution (0%-5%) to variability of scores on the total score, factor, and facet level. For individual items, ICCA1 varied from .38 to .94, with >.80 for seven of the 20 items. Items 17 (“Many short-term marital relationships”) and 19 (“Revocation of conditional release”) showed very low reliabilities (.38 and .43, respectively). The importance of knowledge about factors that can affect scoring of forensic instruments (e.g., education, training, experience, motivation, raters’ personality, and quality of file data) is emphasized.

  • 233.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Hellström, Åke
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Psychopathy Assessment with PCL-R has High Interrater Reliability if Conducted Without Bias2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scores of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) are used to support decisions regarding personal liberty. There is increasing concern about its interrater reliability in applied contexts, where low reliabilites have been obtained. We report a study in which 12 forensic psychiatric staff raters assessed 43 male offenders for psychopathy using the PCL-R. These ratings were compared with those obtained at a second occasion from separate interviews utilizing similar file data by an independent researcher, experienced as an expert for the defense. Intraclass correlation coefficients were high; .89 for the PCL-R total scale, .82 for Factor 1, and .38 – .94 for individual items. These results stand in contrast to the considerably lower reliabilities found in recent field studies, mainly conducted within adversary judicial systems. In such contexts, ratings may be biased. Interrater reliability of PCL-R is likely be increased if raters utilize similar data. 

  • 234.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Hjalmarsson, Annica
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Relationship between emotional intelligence, personality and work performance: A cross-sectional study2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The background of this study is the observation that people with high emotional intelligence (EI) perform well at work. The aim of this study was to further validate the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form (TEIQue-SF) by (1) investigating its relationships with the Mini International Personality Item Pool-6 Inventory (Mini-IPIP6), the Short Dark Triad Assessment (SD3), and the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ), (2) identifying which personality traits best explain variations in trait EI, and (3) investigating whether trait EI can predict variations in each dimension (Task Performance, Contextual Performance, and Counterproductive Work Behavior, CWB) of self-perceived work performance. A cross-sectional study was done with 228 Swedish participants (M = 34 years, SD = 12.6, range 16-71 years, 66% women) with an average work experience of 14 years (SD = 11.5). One expected result was that all dimensions of trait EI correlated negatively with Neuroticism and Machiavellianism, and positively with Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience, and Narcissism. Self-control and Sociability had, however, almost zero correlation with Machiavellianism. A positive correlation was found between all dimensions of EI and Task Performance and Contextual Performance. Standard regression analyses showed that 26% to 46% of the variation in the different dimensions of EI was explained by the “Big Six” personality traits. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that trait EI accounted for a significant proportion of the variation in Contextual Performance that was not explained by any of the “Big Six” personality traits, and that trait EI did not explain any variation in CWB above Neuroticism and Honesty-Humility. In addition, trait EI explained an additional 6% of the variation in Task Performance when controlling for gender, age, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness. It is concluded that the Swedish version of the TEIQue-SF has shown reasonable theoretically and empirically grounded relationships with relevant variables for the workplace.

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  • 235.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Ingelgård, Anders
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Mölnlycke Health Care .
    Koopmans, Linda
    Sustainable Productivity & Employability, Leiden, The Netherlands (NLD).
    Cross-cultural adaptation, from Dutch to Swedish language, of the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire2020In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 97-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is a need for a short, self-rated, validated and reliable instrument for individual work performance suitable for generic use in the Swedish work and organizational context. The Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ), comprising originally 47 items, was initially developed in the Netherlands, based on a four-dimensional conceptual framework, in which individual work performance consisted of task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. During the development process, IWPQ was shortened to 18 items with three scales formally labeled as Task performance, Contextual performance, and Counterproductive work behavior (CWB), capturing three work performance types. The current version of the IWPQ, consisting of 18 items and three scales, was then translated as well as cross-culturally adapted to American-English and Indonesian contexts.

    OBJECTIVES: To translate and adapt the current IWPQ version, consisting of 18 items, from the Dutch to the Swedish context, to assess its content validity through cognitive interviews, to apply it to a pilot group to present descriptive statistics, to calculate the questionnaire’s internal consistency, as well as to clarify whether the translated items capture three or four performance types.

    METHODS: The Dutch version of the IWPQ, consisting of 18 items, was translated into Swedish. A six-stage translation and adaptation process was used: forward translation, synthesis, back translation, harmonization, cognitive interviews, revision, and sampling and analyses of pilot data for 206 managers (149 women) from five Swedish municipalities.

    RESULTS: IWPQ instructions, wording of a few items and one response form were slightly modified. The pilot testing showed Cronbach’s alphas similar to the Dutch version of the IWPQ, ranging between 0.73 and 0.82, good mean-inter-item correlations (all above 0.36). In deciding how many factors to retain, we employed both parallel analysis (PA), and Velicer’s minimum average partial (MAP) test. The number of factors to retain was, as indicated by PA, four, and by MAP, three or four. Exploratory factor analysis (principal axis factoring) revealed clearly separate factors, corresponding to four, rather than three, performance types. A new factor, roughly representing adaptive performance, comprised in the original, longer version of the IWPQ, emerged.

    CONCLUSIONS: The Swedish version of the IWPQ was successfully translated and adapted in a pilot group of managers. Before it is used, it should be validated in a larger group of managers and in more heterogeneous groups of both white- and blue-collar workers.

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  • 236.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund (SWE).
    An item response theory analysis of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short-Form (TEIQue-SF) in the workplace2022In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 8, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trait emotional intelligence (EI) predicts important outcomes in the workplace. This study is the first one that reports item and scale functioning in the workplace using item response theory (IRT) analysis of the global 30-item Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short-Form (TEIQue-SF). Past IRT research, performed mostly on undergraduate English-speaking students, showed that several items in TEIQue-SF were poorly informative. Data collected in Sweden from 972 employed persons were analyzed. IRT with a graded response model was utilized to analyze items of the global TEIQue-SF scale. As was found in past research, the lowest response category in all items had extreme difficulty threshold parameter values, and only low and moderate levels of latent trait EI were adequately captured, but most items had good values of the discrimination parameters, indicating adequate item informativeness. Four items, which in past research have also shown weak psychometric properties, were poorly informative. To effectively measure trait EI in today’s organizations, there is an advantage in using the most informative items to best represent this construct. 

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    Elsevier OA
  • 237.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Gärningsmannaprofilering: personlighetens betydelse för utförandet av brott2022Book (Other academic)
  • 238.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund (SWE).
    Hallberg, Angela
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Skog, Sandra
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Hellström, Åke
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (SWE).
    Leading with a cool head and a warm heart: trait-based leadership resources linked to task performance, perceived stress, and work engagement2023In: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733, Vol. 42, p. 299559-29580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaders of today need to achieve well in terms of task performance, perceiving low stress, and having high levels of work engagement. One may ask whether trait-based leadership resource factors can be identified and how such resource factors might relate to task performance, perceived stress, and work engagement. Our aim was to test the hypothesis, derived from Hobfoll’s motivational Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, that there are trait-based leadership resource factors, which are differentially correlated to the leaders’ task performance, perceived stress, and work engagement. Leaders (N = 344) aged from 23 to 65 years (M = 49, SD = 8.6; 58% women) completed an online questionnaire including measures of task performance, perceived stress, work engagement, personality traits, trait emotional intelligence, empathy, performance-related self-esteem, compassionate and rational leadership competence, and coping resources for stress. Using exploratory factor analysis, we identified four trait-based leadership resource factors. With Bonferroni adjustment, and controlling for sex, age, number of years in the current managerial position, self-deceptive enhancement, and impression management, only Rational Mastery was significantly positively correlated with task performance. Rational Mastery, Efficient Coping, and Modesty were negatively correlated with perceived stress, and all factors except Modesty, but including the fourth (Good-Heartedness) were positively correlated with work engagement. Organizations striving for sustainable work conditions should support trait-based leadership, which depends not only on a task-oriented resource such as rational mastery, but also on human-oriented resources such as efficient coping, modesty, and good-heartedness, all of them being differentially related to task performance, perceived stress, and work engagement.  

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  • 239.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Lidberg, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Självbedömningsskalor avslöjar psykopati [Self-rating scales reveal psychopathy]1998In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 95, no 5, p. 383-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychopathy is regarded as a dimensional concept - i.e., a person can be more or less psyhopathic. This approach enables psychopathy to be measured with reliable, validated personality scales, and to be related to impairment of serontonergic function in the brain. Several personality inventories are described in the article, especially the Karolinska Scales of Personality, the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scales, form V, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, including an impulsiveness scale from the IVE (Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy) inventory, and the old dimensional scale, the Marke-Nyman Personality Temperament scale based on the personality theory of Henrik Sjöbring. In this way both old and new, and both Swedish and foreign personality concepts are linked together. Personality scales are easy to use and enable better stability and validity of results to be attained.

  • 240.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Meurling, Ann Wirsen
    Lund University, Department of Psychology.
    Levander, Sten
    Malmö University, Department of Criminology.
    'Speedy action over goal orientation': Cognitive impulsivity in male forensic patients with dyslexia2012In: Dyslexia, ISSN 1076-9242, E-ISSN 1099-0909, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 226-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous neuropsychiatric studies suggest a relationship between reading disability and cognitive impulsivity. This relationship is not entirely explained by the high comorbidity between reading disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as children with a co-occurrence of these disorders tend to be more impulsive than those with ADHD only. Other research has demonstrated that poor verbal skill (irrespective of the presence of dyslexia) deficits in executive functions and impulsivity are important risk factors for criminal behaviour. The present study bridges these two research traditions by examining whether patients undergoing forensic psychiatric investigation who also have dyslexia, have a cognitive style characterized by impulsivity. Male forensic patients (mean age 27 years, range 16-35) with (n = 9) and without (n = 13) dyslexia were evaluated on the computerized EuroCog test battery. The findings suggest that patients with dyslexia tend to use a cognitive impulsive style and suggest a more direct link between dyslexia and cognitive impulsivity that is not mediated by the presence of ADHD. In order to identify treatment needs and tailor treatment accordingly, forensic patients should be assessed with respect to poor verbal skill, dyslexia and impulsivity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 241.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Nilvang, Karolina
    TV4 Sverige AB, Division of Marketing and Advertising, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Levander, Sten
    Malmö University, Faculty of Health and Society, Department och Criminology, Sweden.
    "I dislike my body, I am unhappy, but my parents are not disappointed in me": self-esteem in young women with dyslexia2014In: Applied Psychological Research Journal, ISSN 2057-570X, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 50-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Strong self-esteem is related to good psychological health. Dyslexia has a negative effect on self-esteem, but this effect depends on support levels at home and/or school. Women with dyslexia are an under investigated group, and it has been suggested that female dyslexics should be given special attention from teachers with a view to improving their self-esteem. This paper set out to compare levels of self-esteem in women with dyslexia and normative women, and to investigate relationships between dyslexic problems and self-esteem.

    Method: It was hypothesized that women with dyslexia would have a weaker self-esteem. We have assessed dyslexia, using a Swedish battery of standardised pedagogical, IQ, and neuropsychological tests, and the self-esteem of twelve young women (mean age 19 years; range 16-30), using a Swedish questionnaire that distinguishes between different dimensions of self-esteem (physical characteristics, talents and gifts, psychological health, relationships with parents and family, and relationships with others). Comparative (t-tests) and correlational (Pearson’s correlations and stepwise multiple regression analyses) statistical methods were performed.

    Results: The study subjects had a weaker self-esteem than that of a normative sample of females (N = 313) in all dimensions, except for the dimension of relationships with parents and family. Spelling ability was related to "Physical characteristics" (negative) and to "Relations with parents and family" (positive). Moreover, speed of reading was related to "Psychological health" (positive).

    Conclusions: The use of questionnaires that distinguish between different dimensions of self-esteem and a larger sample is recommended in future studies.

  • 242.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Ohlsson, Ann-Catrin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Student at Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organizational Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Ragnestål-Impola, Carina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Student at Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organizational Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Two in ten feel excluded from social work-related processes by workplace bullying2016In: Proceedings from the 9th GRASP conference, Linköping University, May 2014 / [ed] Robert Thornberg & Tomas Jungert, Linköping, 2016, p. 17-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate (1) the prevalence of workplace bullying experienced by men and women in Swedish workplaces with a high level of stress dominated by one sex, (2) the prevalence of unjust treatment in these workplaces, (3) the relationship between workplace bullying and organizational climate, (4) the variability in bullying in these workplaces, and (5) the variability in organizational climate. These issues were examined using a self-assessment questionnaire in two types of workplace in Sweden: one male-dominated (juvenile detention care) and the other female-dominated (elderly care). About 20% of the participants experienced workplace bullying. There was a positive correlation between bullying and negative communication (strong effect size). There were no differences regarding the type of workplace. The internal consistency of the instrument was high, and we recommend its use in studies of workplace bullying

  • 243.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies. University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Ragnestål Impola, Carina
    Basinska, Beata A.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics, Poland.
    Some Bright And Dark Sides Of Personality May Be Adaptive For Well-Being In Face Of Workplace Bullying2017In: Enabling Change Through Work and Organizational Psychology : Opportunities and Challenges for Research and Practice, Dublin, Irland, 2017, article id Th-OR-S36-2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Targets of workplace bullying tend to have poor health, and we set out to determine whether personality may predict their health quality. 

    Design/Methodology We collected data from 172 people (98 women); social workers, engineers and restaurant employees. To measure health, we used parts of EQ-5D (usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression), and EQ VAS, a visual analogue scale. Bright (Big-Six) and dark (Machiavellianism, subclinical psychopathy, and narcissism) personality traits were measured by MiniIPIP6 and Short-D3. NAQ-R was used to determine who feel bullied. The relationships of the traits and bullying with health (outcome) were analyzed using 3-step hierarchical linear regressions, controlling for gender, age and social desirability.

    Results In face of workplace bullying low extraversion, humility-sincerity and low narcissism significantly predicted poor health related to both discomfort and usual activities. Separate regression models regarding both bright and dark sides of personality predicting depression/anxiety became non-significant when NAQ-R was entered.

    Limitations Cross-sectional design and Swedish population.

    Research/Practical Implications These results imply that high extraversion and narcissism may protect aspects of health important for working life in face of workplace bullying, while low levels of these traits make a target’s health more sensitive. 

    Originality/Value The study is the first to analyze different dimensions of health quality with predictors of both bright and dark personality in face of workplace bullying, discussing the results in the light of Hobfoll’s COR theory and evolution theory. 

  • 244.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Ragnestål-Impola,, Carina
    Student MSc at Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Bully-typifying personality traits (the Dark Triad) of workplace bullies are not shared by their victims2015In: PSYSOC-2015 Abstracts Book, 2015, p. 10-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bullying in workplaces creates great suffering for the victims and causes major consequences for the workplace atmosphere and the organization. Personality in bullies and their victims is an under-investigated issue, and some researchers have suggested that not only those who bully, but also those feeling bullied may be likely to act aggressively by sharing several bully-typifying personality traits. This investigation set out to compare levels of dark personality traits (“Dark Triad”: Machiavellianism, subclinical psychopathy, and subclinical narcissism) in workplace bullies and their victims. This study comprised 172 employed people (99 women): social workers, engineers, restaurant employees, and security personnel. The study used two questionnaires, Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R) and Negative Acts Questionnaire-Perpetrators (NAQ-P) to measure who feel bullied and who can be classified as bullies. Dark Triad personality traits were measured using the Short Dark Triad (SD3) self-report measure. Bivariate correlational analyses determined that the NAQ-R was positively associated with the NAQ-P (.27). Participants who reported being the target of workplace bullying were no more likely to act aggressively themselves. The NAQ-P was positively associated with Machiavellianism (.60), subclinical psychopathy (.58) and subclinical narcissism (.54). Negligible associations (.00, .01, -.14) were found between the NAQ-R and these traits. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that Machiavellianism and subclinical psychopathy, but not subclinical narcissism, related significantly to the NAQ-P. Machiavellianism alone accounted for 36% of the variance in bullying behaviour.

  • 245.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Ragnestål-Impola, Carina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Workplace bullies, not their victims, score high on the Dark Triad and Extraversion, and low on Agreeableness and Honesty-Humility2019In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 5, no 10, article id e02609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most past research has focused mainly on the personality of the victims of bullying and not on the personality of workplace bullies. Some researchers have suggested that bullies and their victims may share bully-typifying personality traits. The aims of this study were to find out what characterizes the personalities of workplace bullies and their victims, and to investigate the relationship between the Dark Triad, HEXACO and workplace bullying. We tested three hypotheses. H1: Machiavellianism and Psychopathy, but not Narcissism, predict the use of bullying tactics (i.e., bullying perpetration). H2: (Low) Honesty-Humility, (low) Agreeableness and (high) Extraversion predict the use of bullying tactics. H3: Honesty-Humility moderates the association between Machiavellianism and the use of bullying tactics. Employees in southwestern Sweden (N = 172; 99 women) across various occupations and organizations were surveyed. Negative Acts Questionnaire-Perpetrators (NAQ-P) and Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R) were used to assess the use of bullying tactics and victimization. NAQ-P was correlated with NAQ-R (r = .27), indicating some overlap between the use of bullying tactics and victimization. NAQ-P was correlated with Machiavellianism (.60), Psychopathy (.58), Narcissism (.54), Agreeableness (-.34), Honesty-Humility (-.29) and Extraversion (.28). The results of linear regressions confirmed H1, but only partially confirmed H2: Machiavellianism, Psychopathy, (low) Agreeableness and (high) Extraversion explained 32%, 25%, 27% and 19%, respectively, of the variation in the NAQ-P. Replicating past research, NAQ-R was correlated with Neuroticism (.27), Extraversion (-.22), Openness (-.19) and Conscientiousness (-.16). Neuroticism explained 25% and (low) Extraversion 17% of the variation in the NAQ-R. Confirming H3, Honesty-Humility moderated the relationship between the NAQ-P and Machiavellianism. We conclude that bullies, but not their victims, are callous, manipulative, extravert and disagreeable, and that dishonest Machiavellians are the biggest bullies of all. In practice, the victims of workplace bullying need strong and supportive leadership to protect them from bullies with exploitative and manipulative personality profiles.

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  • 246.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Ragnestål-Impola, Carina
    Msc, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Workplace Bullies, Not Their Victims, Score High in Dark Triad, but Both Tend Toward Introvert Neuroticism2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation set out to compare levels of the Dark Triad traits and the Big-Six personality factors in workplace bullies and their victims in 171 people (98 women); social workers, engineers and restaurant employees in Sweden. Two questionnaires, NAQ-R and NAQ-P, were used to determine who feel bullied and who are bullies. The Dark Triad traits were measured using the Short-D3, while the Big-Six were measured by the MiniIPIP6. The relationships of the traits with bullying were analyzed using 2-step hierarchical linear regression. The first step included the Dark Triad––Machiavellianism, subclinical psychopathy, and narcissism. The model explained about half of the variation in bullying. In the next step, the Big-Six factors–honesty-humility, conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, neuroticism, openness–as well as social desirability were entered. This added 9% in explained variance. Machiavellianism and psychopathy were significant positive predictors of bullying in both steps. In step 2, narcissism, neuroticism and honesty-humility were significant positive predictors, while extraversion was a significantly negative predictor. Regression models with the same predictors, but with victimization as the dependent variable, explained only 4% of the variation in step 1, narcissism being the only significant (negative) predictor. In step 2, including the Big-Six factors in the model explained an extra 14%. Significant predictors of victimization were high neuroticism and low extraversion. These were the only traits shared by bullies and bullied. Personality traits may give an indication of who in an organization is most likely to become a target of bullying, as well as who is most likely to bully others.

     

  • 247.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Ronthy, Marika
    Ekegren, Maria
    Studieförbundet Vuxenskolan.
    Mårdberg, Bertil
    Lpdata AB.
    "You have to use your brain, heart and soul": A new model of Leadership Intelligence2012In: ViLär Konferens 2012 ABSTRACT / [ed] Lind, Ove, 2012, p. 18-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leadership intelligence is a new Swedish leadership model (Ronthy, 2006; in press). The aim of this presentation is to present and discuss some results from a project “Studies on a new Swedish leadership model.” The aim of this project was to empirically test and develop a practicable management model based on the theory of leadership intelligence. Leadership intelligence consists of a number of competencies, skills and attributes. Leadership intelligence is a combination of the leader’s logical and analytical skills, his/her ability to manage his own and others’ emotions, and finally his deeper desire and willingness to see the meaning of what he is doing. The latter intelligence belongs to the existential query field and answers the question WHY. Today, according to Ronthy, executives focus on WHAT, very little on HOW, and rarely on WHY. Leadership should include all these three dimensions. Over 400 leaders, aged 21 to 69 years, from different organizations and companies made self-reports by logging on to the Internet using a recently designed questionnaire for how managers perceive their leadership. Traditional statistical methods (factor analyses, SEM) as well as qualitative interviews with leaders, suggest a possible relationship between theory and empirical data. We have focused on developing of a relatively short, reliable and valid self-report measure of leadership intelligence that can be further developed and applied in different practical situations.

  • 248.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Ronthy, Marika
    Amfora Future Dialogue AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekegren, Maria
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies. Studieförbundet Vuxenskolan, Sweden.
    Mårdberg, Emanuel Bertil
    LPADATA AB, Göteborg, Sweden.
    "Managing with my Heart, Brain and Soul": The Development of the Leadership Intelligence Questionnaire2013In: Journal of Cooperative Education and Internships, ISSN 1933-2130, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 61-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new Swedish leadership theory of "leadership intelligence" (Ronthy, 2006; 2013) is characterized by a work integrated learning approach. This theory arose from analysis of the experiences of managers trained in performance appraisals, and describes the balance between being a leader and being a manager. A leader develops and uses, in an integrative good balance, leadership intelligence, which comprises emotional intelligence, rational intelligence and spiritual intelligence. The aim of this study was to further develop the Leadership Intelligence Questionnaire (LIQ) created by Ronthy (which has been developed to measure leadership intelligence), and to examine its reliability. Over 400 leaders, aged 21 to 69 years completed the 71-item LIQ. A shorter, 32-item version of the LIQ was developed by confirmatory factor analysis thorough excluding psychometrically "poor" items. The internal consistency measured by Cronbach’s alpha was high (> .80), and we conclude that leadership intelligence may be reliably measured with both versions of the questionnaire. Future studies should examine the internal and external validity of the LIQ before its introduction into education or into managerial practice.

  • 249.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University and Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wirsén Meurling, Ann
    Lunds universitet.
    Hallman, Jarmila
    Uppsala universitet .
    Different Personality Patterns in Non-Socialized (Juvenile Delinquents) and Socialized (Air Force Pilot Recruits) Sensation Seekers2001In: European Journal of Personality, ISSN 0890-2070, E-ISSN 1099-0984, Vol. 15, p. 239-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young delinquents are known to be sensation seekers. Not all sensation seekers become delinquents: many engage in socially accepted activities, such as mountaineering or parachute jumping. The present study compares 47 juvenile delinquents (mean age 17 years) with 18 Swedish air force pilot recruits (mean age 23 years) and 19 conscripts (mean age 18 years) as a control group. Sensation-seeking behaviour, impulsiveness, and psychiatric/psychological vulnerability were measured by the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scales (SSS), the Karolinska Scales of Personality, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Two separate multivariate analyses of variance were performed, followed up by stepdown analyses to identify those personality scale scores that contributed uniquely. In order to clarify the relationships, the pooled within-group correlations among scales were computed. Juvenile delinquents and pilot recruits were both high in sensation seeking, but on different subscales. Delinquents were high in impulsiveness, somatic anxiety, and extraversion–sociability, and low in socialization, suggesting psychiatric/psychological vulnerability. The findings may have implications for the treatment of juvenile delinquents. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  • 250.
    Dåderman, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Strindlund, Hans
    Wiklund, Nils
    Örebro University.
    Fredriksen, Svend-Otto
    Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Gothenburg.
    Lidberg, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The importance of a urine sample in persons intoxicated with flunitrazepam: legal issues in a forensic psychiatric case study of a serial murderer2003In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 137, no 1, p. 21-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sedative–hypnotic benzodiazepine flunitrazepam (FZ) is abused worldwide. The purpose of our study was to investigate violence and anterograde amnesia following intoxication with FZ, and how this was legally evaluated in forensic psychiatric investigations with the objective of drawing some conclusions about the importance of urine sample in a case of a suspected intoxication with FZ. The case was a 23-year-old male university student who, intoxicated with FZ (and possibly with other substances such as diazepam, amphetamines or cannabis), first stabbed an acquaintance and, 2 years later, two friends to death. The police investigation files, including video-typed interviews, the forensic psychiatric files, and also results from the forensic autopsy of the victims, were compared with the information obtained from the case. Only partial recovery from anterograde amnesia was shown during a period of several months. Some important new information is contained in this case report: a forensic analysis of blood sample instead of a urine sample, might lead to confusion during police investigation and forensic psychiatric assessment (FPA) of an FZ abuser, and in consequence wrong legal decisions. FZ, alone or combined with other substances, induces severe violence and is followed by anterograde amnesia. All cases of bizarre, unexpected aggression followed by anterograde amnesia should be assessed for abuse of FZ. A urine sample is needed in case of suspected FZ intoxication. The police need to be more aware of these issues, and they must recognise that they play a crucial role in an assessment procedure. Declaring FZ an illegal drug is strongly recommended.

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