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  • 151.
    Hansson, Niklas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Nyberg, Eleonore
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Prestandajämförelse av ABBs EGM och Permanova Lasersystems externaxel för fogföljning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to compare solutions for seam tracking with a welding robot. At the moment the used solution is an external seventh axis made by Permanova which is going to be compared to software made by ABB called EGM. The primary comparisons shall be done regarding the dead time and the time constant of the two processes. A primary problem with this was the uncertainty that comes with ocular inspection of the graphs in order to extract relevant values. Another problem, that also made construing the curves harder, was that there were some disturbances that caused distorted curves. Experiments were done on a model of the actual process, meaning that no welding equipment was connected to the robot in this model process. Instead a laser sensor was mounted onto the robot that measured against a parallel metal block. The seventh axis was connected for all tests to make sure that the results were comparable when it comes to the weight that the robot arm is burdened with. Each experiment had different parameters, such as speed and distance from the robot's base. Several tests were made with the same parameters to make sure that good results were had.

    One method used for analysis of gathered data was comparing a similar first order system to the step response of different experiments. The values of this approximate step response were tweaked until both step responses were fairly similar, however, the human factor is very relevant in this analysis.

    The results showed a clear advantage towards Permanova's seventh axis in both decreased dead time and time constant. For example, the filtered mean value for the dead time with EGM was 266 ms and a standard deviation of 20,8 ms, while Permanova clocked in at 11,5 ms with a standard deviation of 2,0 ms. The filtered time constants followed the same trend and were at 68 ms, standard deviation of 13,5 ms, for EGM and 33 ms, standard deviation of 4,8 ms, for Permanova. It was quite surprising how big the difference was between EGM and Permanova's seventh axis, but the seventh axis was without a doubt the solution best suited to this kind of process. Due to the lacking performance from EGM it is determined to be unfit for laser welding applications at PTW.

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  • 152.
    Hardan, Salem
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    AL-Rumaiss, Hussain
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Simulering av produktionsflöde före produktionsökning i Volvo Penta, Varafabriken2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Volvo Penta, Varafabriken has planned to close by the end of 2019, another engine variant under the name Compact Engine will begin to be produced in the factory. According to the plan, the number of engines to be produced is estimated at seven hundred engines. This means that the plant will produce three to four engines daily of this variant. The new engine will use the same flow as three other engines already produced in the factory. The new Compact Engine variant has undergone a major change before production, which means that more than 80 percent of the included parts were changed for the purpose of achieving higher performance, reducing emissions and increasing reliability in maneuvering. The motors manufactured in the current production flow are used almost entirely in boats and the new variant has sailboats as a target group.

    The engineering department responsible for the planning and implementation of the production wanted the project work, which is reported in this paper, to analyze the flow and carry out a simulation project to map the maximum capacity of the system in the form of manufactured engines and to predefine batch sizes for the plant if the production pattern for upcoming engine variants into the flow can affect production capacity. The latter goal for batch sizes has been a secondary target that is desired if the time is enough and it did. The project team has never used the software, FACTS ANALYSER, which the factory uses as a simulation system.

    The project resulted in the production inflow two being able to increase the number of engines produced by as much as 35.29 percent. The simulation showed that the number of motors produced would increase from 34 to 44 engines per shift, which is an increase of 12 engines per shift. The simulation also showed that the bottleneck would occur at Station 835, but that the painting with its components, robots, and the furnace had the highest utilization rate of 90.3 percent.

    After analysis of the result, one could draw a conclusion that the painting can appear as a future bottleneck if Volvo Penta decides to reduce the processing time at Station 835 which is assumed to be the bottleneck by, for example, that more operators can be supplied to reduce the processing time. A simulation with changed batch sizes was run and showed no differences in the TH value.

  • 153.
    Harrysson, Emma
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Jonsson, Caroline
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förbättring av Wargön Innovations returhantering för textilier2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wargön Innovation is a company that works with sustainability projects, mainly within textiles. One of the projects is WargoTex Development that aims to develop the opportunities to make use of textiles. For Wargön Innovation, the project makes it possible to assist the stores of second-hand clothes by sorting donated clothes in categories of sale and recycling. The company aims to create an industrial process to sort textiles with the possibility to increase the volume of textiles per year. In this thesis the current situation of Wargön Innovations textile sorting chain will be mapped to develop suggestions for how to increase the efficiency and the volume of sorting textiles per year. The work began with interviews, observations, and calculations of the capacity and was used to chart the current situation. Based on the current situation, variation and activities that create value in the process could be identified. It has also made it possible to discover waste in the flow. Furthermore, a bottleneck that is limiting the outcome of textiles could be identified. An analysis of the capacity shows that the company does not utilize the available capacity. Based on the identified problems, the bottleneck, variations in performing of work, variations in time of working and process occupied, waiting, over-processing, unnecessary transporting, and motions are considered having the largest impact on the sorting chain and improvements are economical practicable. The suggested improvements can compile to two main improvements: Increase the capacity and reduce the waste in the process of detail sorting, to reduce the limitation that constitutes of the bottleneck and standardize the processes to reduce variations and waste. The recommendations to the company are, begin to standardize the working methods to reduce the variation, utilize the capacity and reduce waste in the bottleneck in order to eliminate waste in the rest of the processes. Furthermore, we recommend that the company examine the processes to further reduce variations in the chain, examine and control the variations in incoming textile, and analyze inventory holding for the change of the volume in textiles.

  • 154.
    Hassani, Sarina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kolic, Aida
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förbättring av svetsprocessen för Spectra Premiums TIG-robot2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Spectra Premium is located in Trollhättan and manufactures fuel tanks for hybrid cars. Welding between the fuel tank and the filler pipe is an important part of the production process and has been a focus area for improvement. The result of the welding from the TIG robot has been unreliable and has resulted in manual welding adjustments. Consequently, the robot har become the biggest bottleneck in the production. The purpose of this work is to investigate why problems arise with the TIG-robot, to acquire background knowledge and to analyse and understand the causes of the welding defects. The goal is to provide the company with a basis for likely factors that can later be utilised in selecting improvement proposals. Due to time constraints, this project was limited to only examining welding defects which throughout the project occurred frequently on the fuel tanks of the TIG robot.

    Background knowledge was acquired through literature study, web search, observations and interviews with company staff. Using shift reports, data was analysed to identify current welding defects and to find potential patterns. After identifying potential root causes for the occurrence of welding defects using a literature study and an Ishikawa diagram, the next step was to find improvement suggestions through brainstorming. Finally, the most probable factors affecting the welding result were presented, alongside with suggestions for improvement. All of which the company can use to improve its welding process.

    The final results showed that the welding result from the TIG robot can be affected by a variety of factors. In particular, the angle of the torch, the shielding gas flow, the chosen welding method, the selected welding technique, manual tool centre point (TCP) measurement and any deviations in fixtures.

  • 155.
    Hedlund, Otto
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Råhnängen, Nils
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beredningsarbete i området Ärentuna, Uppsala på linje 062021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about the approach how the prepatory work on Trolk El & Tele AB for both high and low voltage power grids. The conduct preparations refers to a local network in Ärentuna, Uppsala. The existing high and low voltage network that currently exists in the area today is old and largely overhead power lines, which will be demolished and replaced with mostly underground cable grid. The rebuilding is done to increase the reliability in the area, which means fewer disruptions and interruptions. The project has involved map studies to give the project members an overview of the area. After the map studies had been carried out, a field visit was carried out to give a clearer picture of the area and to be able to discover problems and obstacles that were difficult to see on maps. As the route for the cable routing could be chosen, obstacles and problems could be avoided to a large extent, however, controlled drilling is required at six locations to cross a railway and five roads. The project includes the demolition of 8304 meters of high voltage line and 3277 meters of low voltage line. Six network stations, of which four pole stations, will be demolished and replaced with six new substations in the sizes of 100, 200 and 315 kVA. 7139 meters of high voltage cable, 3533 meters of low voltage cable and 273 meters of low voltage overhead line are laid and six new cable distribution cabinets are set up. The project affects a total of 125 subscribers. According to a p2 calculation, the total cost of the reconstruction within the area amounts to 6,18 million SEK.

  • 156.
    Hendberg, Jessica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Lundgren, Emma
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Planerade arbetens påverkan på SAIDI: analys baserad på Vattenfall Eldistribution AB:s nät2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is made on behalf of Vattenfall Eldistribution AB and was conducted at their office in Trollhättan. The purpose of the project was initially to reveal that the way to the 2025‘s SAIDI-goal, probably will deviate from the original goal. This because of the many investments that are made in the power grid. These investments often lead to many switching schedules which often, for the customers, mean a planned interruption of the power supply. What is to be investigated is if there are any disturbances which are related to a planned interruption. Namely, if there was a secondary fault caused by the planned work, that caused a customer interruption that lasted longer than three minutes aside from the planned interruption time. According to Swedish Energy Markets Inspectorate, the concept of power quality divides into two different parameters; continuity of supply and voltage quality. This work will only focus on the continuity of supply, more particularly the interruptions which last more than three minutes. To enable comparison between electrical companies there are a few interruption indicators which for example are SAIDI and SAIFI. SAIDI is the quota of the total customer interruption time and the total customer quantity. The result that has been shown is not comparable to the historical SAIDI-results which Vattenfall Eldistribution AB presents, since different variations of SAIDI is being used. The result shows that a meaningful impact is to be received because of secondary faults occurring with some of the switching done in the grid, due to planned work. These faults could for example be rooted in a disconnector failing, flaws in the documentation that lead to manoeuvres of the wrong device, or simply because of the human factor.

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  • 157.
    Hermansson, Alexander
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beräkningsmodell i Vision Network Analysis för Preemraff Lysekils VGO-anläggning2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Preemraff Lysekil has requested an update for their model in Vision Network Analysis, which has been outdated due to an additional processing unit – the VGO plant. The model can be used to analyze, calculate and control the industrial network. Before expanding the existing electrical distribution system simulations can be done for the expected demand and addition in power.

    The functions requested by Preemraff Lysekil for the updated model are calculation of short-circuit currents, voltage drops, motor starts, control of selectivity and simulation of load flows as well as different operating situations. In coordination with Preem's mentor a selection has been made on parameters that shall be gathered to update the model. The collection of data was made by studying the consumer list made for the VGO-project. In addition to that field visits, reading of motor plates and calculation of values were made. The company's digital database also served as a source of information. The gathered data was compiled in an excel-list and used as a core to update the model.

    When the model was completed a verification was done in consultation with the mentor. Simulations and calculations were executed and the presented values from the model discussed and evaluated. With the help of previous experience and a mentor with expertise in the area the model was considered adequate. Examples of usage with the model was done and presented for voltage drops, motor starts, short-circuit currents, selectivity and load flows.

    As a last step of the assignment a validation of the model was made by manually calculating the short-circuit currents. For comparison of the currents calculated by hand to the model's they were set into tables. The manual calculations were made for a radial selection in the electrical grid. This was done for two different situations: mesh and radial operation of the grid. The manual calculation was done by using a simplified method which does not take the electrical resistivity into account, for example from cables.

    Comparison of the hand calculated short-circuit currents to the model's showed a small difference in the values. An assumption is being made that the usage of the simplified method is contributing to this. The model is considered adequate to its requested functions by Preem and the assignment's purpose and main goal is there for carried out.

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  • 158.
    Hermansson, Alexander
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Palmqvist, Christoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ett prioriteringssystem för frekvent snabbladdning av el- och laddhybridbussar2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government has set a goal to reach a fossil-free vehicle fleet by year 2030. The way against the target has already begun by replacing the fossil-driven vehicles against electric vehicles, including buses in public transport.

    In conjunction with the introduction of electric buses there are a number of different aspects to be considered, where one of them is the time for charging. With the Opportunity Charge fast-loading method you´ll be able to quickly and efficiently load buses at bus stops. A problem with Opportunity Charge is that queues can occur at charging stations. This problem can occur because the buses delays can´t be foreseen in the timetable, but also because only one bus can be served at a time per charging station. This can in turn lead to uncertainties about who will be charge first. There is therefore a need to create a prioritization system that tells in which order each buss should be charge.

    In order to create a priorization system that describes in which order the buses should be loaded, a survey of queue theory and priority systems for rail traffic, air traffic and healthcare was made. With this information the basis of the priority model was made. To the priority model identified and weighted the parameters that was considered to be important for the buses priorities. Two of the most important parameters to observe were battery status and time according to timetable. Based on these to parameters, it was then created a flowchart and also a priority list of remaining parameters. The flow chart together with the priority list then came to be the final priority model that was presented at the end of the report. In the priority model it shows in which order each bus will be charged.

    In the priority model there is a risk that important parameters are missing, which may be due to delimitations and information shortages. The reliability of the prioritization allocation can also be increased by letting traffic companies weighting the parameters against each other.

  • 159.
    Hilletofth, Per
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering. Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, University of Gävle, Gävle (SWE).
    Hilmola, Olli-Pekka
    Kouvola Unit, LUT University – Kouvola Unit, Kouvola, (FIN); Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, University of Gävle, Gävle (SWE).
    Competitive priorities and capabilities: high-cost country case survey2023In: Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing, ISSN 2398-5364, E-ISSN 2398-5372, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 641-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Globalization and the importance of emerging markets have increased the pressure of high-cost manufacturing locations to sustain operations. However, there are still some countries in which manufacturing is prospering despite high costs (like Germany, Sweden and Switzerland). This study examines seven competitive priorities through 24 different capabilities, using a case survey of four manufacturing companies located in Sweden. This study aims to develop a contemporary understanding from vital priorities and capabilities.

    Design/methodology/approach: A case survey was conducted in four different-sized manufacturing companies in Sweden during the autumn of 2018. In total, the survey attracted 89 responses. Respondents were mainly middle managers and other management team members. Findings: In general, companies assess the importance of manufacturing capabilities higher than performance and improvement. The authors’ analysis shows that quality priority through product and process capabilities is ranked highest in terms of importance, performance and improvement. In addition, delivery capability shows a similarity with quality. At the other end, being lowest ranked are typically different flexibility and advertising capabilities. This study demonstrates with correlation analysis that most often capabilities have a positive correlation in terms of their importance, performance and improvement needs. Some capabilities show potential correlations across importance, performance and improvement. Research limitations/implications: This research is limited to one high-cost environment and to four companies within that environment. Further research should examine the impact of the pandemic era on manufacturing priorities and capabilities.

    Originality/value: In general, case surveys have relatively rarely been used in management studies. This research offers an alternative and deeper perspective from high-cost country manufacturing, as the responses are from numerous persons in management positions.

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  • 160.
    Hinder, Joakim
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Verksamhetsutveckling inom service och eftermarknad: En affärskartläggning inom hälso- och sjukvårdssektorn2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Graniten is a company that develops smart machine solutions. One of the customer segments the business is working towards is the healthcare sector. In this report, work is limited to the hospital part of the segment. The machine solutions that Graniten sells must generate value for the customers and function as promised, which means that the company offers service to reduce the possibility of the machines ceasing to function. Graniten divides its service offerings into three parts: telephone support, maintenance, and emergency support.

    In recent years, a fourth technological revolution has taken place. The revolution is characterized by high levels of automation, digitalization, and integrations. The development has led to a higher degree of automatic processes in companies, and a higher need for service to maintain the machines. When developing machines, service offerings should be developed to meet the customers' future needs. Therefore, it is an advantage to map, analyze, and develop the service work of the company in line with technological development.

    By conducting interviews with the company's customers, the current service work was mapped, and a picture of customer satisfaction and wishes were created. The respondents express a high degree of satisfaction, where future wishes can be interpreted as proactive work by the Graniten to facilitate customers' everyday lives. To see which areas that are possible to develop within the business, a comparison was made between other companies in which the majority had some connection to mechanical engineering and thus service. The comparison gave way to development proposals in service offerings such as predictive monitoring, integrated systems, and technical tools to facilitate customer service experience.

    The comparisons and interviews were analyzed to design Graniten's conceivable future service offerings. The new conceivable offers presented are system integration, monitoring, and proactive work. The system integration is presented as a central offering, where Graniten can offer monitoring of customers' machines and systems. To quickly and efficiently rectify faults and perform maintenance proactively and automatically. The integration should be possible with Graniten's technical system and developed customer channels. By developing the service work, Graniten can offer more efficient service and facilitate the customers' everyday lives. The offers create a higher value for the customers when the machine's operating time can be more superficially secured.

    The report authors argue that in the continued development of Graniten's service work, it may be interesting to analyze revenue streams further. During the work, questions about payment methods were not relevant to the majority of respondents. One reason that emerged during one of the interviews was that customers were operating under specific VAT laws. When developing revenue streams, companies that are not covered by Sweden's laws may be exciting to compare and analyze.

  • 161.
    Hjelte, Gustav
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Toure Bagayegou, Inza
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Projektering av solcellsanläggning för en bostadsrättsförening2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide a housing cooperative in Trollhättan with information and suggestions for a solar cell installation in conjunction with a renovation of the roof of the building in 2022. This includes expected installation costs and future revenues. The technology that enables the usage of solar cells and the laws and requirements which apply to it has been examined and been accounted for. For example, it explores the requirements which are set to take part in the tax reduction of 60 öre/kWh during the sale of produced excess electricity.

    The conditions that the cooperative has for a photovoltaic system are reviewed and the conditions can be considered good; there is roof surface in favorable latitude conditions with a slope suitable for solar cells and no objects exists that can cause shading

    The basis for two different proposals for an installation has been produced with the budget of the cooperative in consideration. The choice of material and proposals for courses of action for the installation of a photovoltaic system is dealt with. One of the suggestions is a smaller facility containing 27 photovoltaic modules and an inverter with an output of 8 kW, while the other suggestion demands a greater investment containing 93 photovoltaic modules and an inverter with an output of 27 kW. The investment cost for the smaller facility is estimated to 134 tkr, while the investment cost for the bigger facility is estimated to 403 tkr. Calculations on estimated profits for the two proposals is accounted for, which shows that the initial investment is expected to be refunded after 20 respectively 18 years.

    While making the calculations for expected energy production, energy-usage, and the cost for electricity, estimated values are applied with the reason being the incalculability of mentioned factors. The expected profit over the course of 25 years that has been calculated for using the mentioned factors is presented thoroughly for both proposals.

  • 162.
    Hodzic, Damir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kim, Hojoong
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förebyggande underhåll med industri 4.02022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The combustion of fossil fuels is the biggest cause of the greenhouse effect on earth. The Paris Agreement has accelerated a change in the automotive industri to achieve goals set to reduce emissions from passenger car transport and improve local air quality in cities. Sales of electric cars have increased over the past decade and are expected to increase even more in the future. The combination of increased sales of electric cars and increased demand for batteries means that battery recycling can play a key role in the future.

    Lithium-ion batteries are the most common type of battery in electric cars due to their energy density, weight, size, and price. Primary production of LIBs entails negative social, economic, and environmental effects in the extraction of the raw materials.

    To reduce these negative side effects, the recycling of electric car batteries needs to be developed.To streamline a process, the implementation of a functioning maintenance system is advantageous. Maintenance is divided into preventive maintenance and remedial maintenance. In this report, the focus will be on preventive maintenance. The purpose of preventive maintenance is to reduce the number of unplanned downtime that affects efficiency, product quality and profitability.

    With technology and methods from industry 4.0, the fourth industrial revolution, preventive maintenance can be improved. Through the implementation of a continuous monitoring of room and machine status, problems can be discovered to increase the condition-based maintenance and reduce the period-based maintenance.

    To create a deeper understanding of the battery recycling process, preventive maintenance,and industry 4.0, literature studies have been performed. To compare theoretical knowledge generated from the literature studies with how preventive maintenance and Industri 4.0 are implemented and used in practice, a case study was conducted at Essity AB in Lilla Edet.

    A concept for preventive maintenance has been developed by creating a maintenance schedule, maintenance instructions, block diagrams and a signal flow schedule for the crushing room in a battery recycling plant. The maintenance schedule consists of a schedule and a maintenance instruction. A CAD model has been created to explain the door lock system, a security feature, which was developed using a concept generation method.

    The results are based on the literature studies, the case study, information from the supervisor, a process FMEA, maintenance manuals from machines and block diagrams.

  • 163.
    Hodzic, Irma
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Karlsson, Elin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kartläggning och effektivisering av Oriolas inleveransflöde i centrallagret i Mölnlycke2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Oriola KD Corporation is a Finnish-owned group positioned in the pharmaceutical and distribution industries. The group consists of Oriola AB and has subsidiaries such as Kronan's drug store and Medstop. Oriola AB is active in Finland, Sweden, Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania. In Sweden, the company is established in Stockholm, Mölnlycke and Enköping, where the central logistics business for wholesale trade is located in Mölnlycke and Enköping The purpose of the study is to map and analyse the supply flow at the central warehouse in Mölnlycke, to identify waste and non-value-creating activities. Lastly, proposals for improvement will be presented. Earlier mapping of the supply flow has been done, but since then, some changes been done and an updated analysis and mapping of the flow is required. The students have chosen, in consultation with the supervisor of Oriola AB, to define the mapping and analyze to "Product Type 1" and "Outsourcer 1".  From literature studies for instance in logistics and lean production, interviews with staff at Oriola AB, mapping of the delivery flow, measurement performed and benchmarking done on Volvo Cars in Skövde, good knowledge of the delivery flow was obtained. The focus was on identifying each waste and non-value creation time during the various process steps in the flow. This was evaluated and a potential future position was created through a future detailed process map. The future process map shows the wastages and non-value creation time which is eliminated by implementing the improvement proposals. An important conclusion is that commitment is required from both parts and it is also important to motivate the outsourcer that the changes are necessary. Lastly, this can help Oriola AB to increase the value creation time and short lead times to improve flow efficiency.

  • 164.
    Holm, Mathias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Vestfeldt, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Införande av AGV:er i GKN's produktion: en förstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor's thesis work has been made at GKN Aerospace Engine Systems in Trollhättan. GKN strives to introduce methods and technologies to improve the manufacturing process of their high volume part 30k IMC. GKN has now become interested in introducing autonomous transport vehicles in their production. The technology within Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) has now come so far that GKN believes that it is now possible to introduce in their production. GKN currently lacks information if AGV: s can be introduced in their production based on an economic, technical and personal safety aspect. Today GKN only have manual forklifts and pallet trucks for transporting details in its production. The manual forklifts take up space, pose a safety risk and contribute to costs for the company. If decision basis for implementation is implemented, GKN uses the pay-nackmethod and present value calculations to assess whether an implementation is favorable.Transportation of details that are not handled by personal in the workshop is currentlycarried out by hired personal from an external company. For this transport a counterweighttruck is used. The goal is to generate information about what the introduction of AGVs into GKN's production entails. When collection information on aspects a company should take into consideration when introducing AGVs offered on the market, AGV suppliers have been interviewed. In order to choose the most suitable AGV for handling transport has the following methods, concept screening, decision matrix method, the pay-back method, present value and a life cycle cost been used. In the result are concept choices and economic calculations presented. A discussion is held at the end of the work on results, choice of pilot area and effects on the introduction of AGV's. The conclusion is that an AGV is not suitable for transport within the 30k IMC process, because the frequency of pallets does not meet the requirement that makes the use of AGV's efficient.

  • 165.
    Holmberg, Gustav
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Karlsson, Henrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beredning av distributionsnätet Sätet, Herrenäs i området Torrskog2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis concerns a preparation work for Rejlers Sverige AB, commissioned by Vattenfall Eldistribution AB. The assignment includes a complete preparation work for a part of a distribution grid, from start to finish. The resulting work of the assignment will be realized and therefore Rejlers has helped throughout the entire project with close guidance and direction.

    The purpose of this work is to weatherproof and secure part of an existing distribution grid in Torrskog, located in Bengtsfors municipality. The part of the grid this project concerns is Sätet, Herrenäs, and is in urgent need of reconstruction. The main reason for reconstruction is that existing distribution grid consists of overhead cable and is 30 years old. The reason why this part is a priority is not only because the age, but also because the existing grid lacks any sort of selectivity.

    The weatherproofing is done by isolating the part of the existing high voltage overhead line TT7715_157. Overhead line will be deconstructed and changed to ground cable. The new high voltage cable will connect to a new network station that all the subscribers will connect to as well, from which 2 goes by the cable cabinet. The project affects 4 subscribers and 12 landowners.

    Discussion if the planers suggestion on reconstruction was in need for adjustment have been significant part in this project. Clarity in this matter where obtained under the second field visit, where dialogue with one of the landowners and understanding of the area and obstacles became clear. The information required a necessary adjustment of the original proposal. Among other things have the original placement of ground station and high voltage underground cable been replaced.

    The project will include reconstruction of 1.5 km high voltage overhead cable, 345 m low voltage overhead cable and 1 pole station. This will be replaced with 1.9 km high voltage cable, 0.41 km low voltage cable and 1 ground station type ELIT 2. A total cost for the project has been compiled, and the total amount is calculated to 1.1 million SEK.

  • 166.
    Hultfeldt, Matilda
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Omvärldsanalys med inriktning på hållbara plastmaterial2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a bachelor’s degree project with the aim to examine the current situation in the plastic industry through a sustainability-oriented market analysis. The market analysis is done on behalf of Emballator Mellerud Plast, a company that produces plastic bottles and jerricanswith blow moulding technique. Therefore, the orientation of the analysis has been materialswhich potentially can be used in blow moulding manufacturing. Plastic is a disputed material even though it has been improving the safety of food storage and increased the durability. The development of bioplastic materials has increased during the past decade due to gainedawareness of sustainability among consumers and producers. 

    The competitive intelligence is mainly done according to Wahlströms 7-step model and began with acquiring information regarding the environmental effects of plastics. Researchquestions were formulated and developed into a chart of relevant keywords for collecting data. The searches were made as an iteration process where the list of keywords was gradually expanded. Initially data was gathered from scientific reports within the field of the study. Observations of trends in the plastic industry was collected from trade journals andorganizations, as well as social media platforms. The result of the searches provided an overview of the trends in the plastic industry and a few different bioplastics of interest were identified. The bioplastics were compared using the decision-matrix method.

    Mainly three bioplastics were considered relevant, PLA (polylactide), PHA (polyhydroxyalkanoates) and PEF (polyethylene furanoate), and comparison using the decision-matrix showed that PLA ranks above the other materials. Emballator Mellerud Plast uses a biobased polyethylene in their production which have shown to be the most beneficial bioplastic currently available for blow moulding when compared to PLA, PHA and PEF. Though, there are materials produced from other renewable sources showing great potential to become blow moulding materials. When these materials may be used in a broader range of products is most likely depending on consumer demands. Analyzing the industry with a focus on sustainable materials should be carried out as an ongoing part of the business in order to be able to make strategic decisions following the industry changes. The results of this study are useful both for Emballator Mellerud Plast and other companies in the industry but can also serve as consumer information. 

  • 167.
    Hultgren, Jessica
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Undersökning av procentuell belastningsnivå på servisledningar anslutna till kundkategorierna flerbostadshus, skolor och förskolor2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis has been carried out on behalf of Göteborg Energi Nät AB. The work has a descriptive first part about how new customers are connected to the existing electric grid and the main part of the essay is a survey about power consumption for the customer categories apartment buildings, schools and pre-schools. When customers want to connect a property to the electricity grid, they often request an electric output that the network company perceive to be higher than necessary/what is required. If this is the case, the supply service line connection should have lower load and not be optimally dimensioned from a network company’s perspective. There is no data available that shows what level of load the supply service line connection have, which makes it difficult to start a dialogue with the customer or the electrician regarding requested power. The network companies do not want to take the responsibility to dimension the customer’s facility. The responsibility for this lies with an electrician. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate whether the power demand requested by the customer in advance is higher or lower than the actual maximum consumption. The report examines the level of load that the supply service line connection have and based on that information it gives an estimation of whether the supply service line connection are over or under dimensioned. By obtaining measured values from selected connection points and comparing the actual power consumption with the requested power, calculations can show the load rate of the supply service line connection. In this report, connection points were investigated on 87 apartment buildings, 7 schools, 18 pre-schools and 3 units with school and pre-school under the same connection point. The result of the study shows that the load rates for most electric supply service line connections. For apartment buildings the load rates were 25-34 percent and for schools and pre-schools 20-29 percent. This strengthens the hypothesis that the supply service line connections are over dimensioned. One step in the effort to reduce over dimensioning of the supply service line connections is to try to have a dialogue with the customers or electricians. It is then important to explain that the load can be aggregated and that all loads will not consume maximum power at the same time.

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  • 168.
    Håkansson, Petter
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Wadstedt, Lisa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Calculation model for actuators2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the development of a calculation model for estimating costs of actuators in the company SKF Motions Technologies. The aim with the calculation model is to show costs that are not apparent today, e.g. Costs that occur when establishing a new supplier or creating new manuals.  SKF has a standard assortment, including and many variants of these due to special orders. The calculation model being used today does not include the total costs, which results in uncertainties in whether the price is correct or not.   The method used in this thesis includes a theoretical study, to attain understanding of cost calculation and different methods to use.  The theoretical study also included studying other projects with comparable developments. The thesis continued with a research that started with a qualitative approach where semistructured interviews were performed to map the current situation. The information from these interviews were compiled in flow charts to achieve understanding of the processes involved, and to see what generates costs in those processes. Furthermore, it continued with a quantitative research when analyzing orders, customer requirements and costs. Meetings with the company´s finance system expert aimed at understanding the current model, and the factors included. The current model has also been the basis for verifying the new calculation model. After the data collection and the current state analysis, it was clear that the company's costs are scattered and that there is more cost than manufacturing and material, which can be attributed to activities. Such costs are difficult to show in a traditional calculation, and can easily be unnoticed. The thesis resulted in a new calculation model. The model was created to handle more variables than its predecessor, to achieve an insight in how different variables affect the pricing

  • 169.
    Ibrahim, Khaled
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Rahani, Ramin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utveckling av belysningspanelskoncept med AC-LED kompabilitet2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor's thesis has, on behalf of a company in Gothenburg, been carried out with the aim of developing two LED panel lights with AC LED compatibility. In today's market, LED units with 60 x 60 cm sizing lack integrated AC LED drivers that are flicker-free. To integrate an AC LED ballast, design requirements in terms of encapsulation of components that are under voltage and thermal management of LEDs and AC LED drivers are set.

    For developing LED panel light concepts, this project follows a distinctive product development process. In early phases, various methods were used to gather requirements, criteria and needs from stakeholders. Subsequently, target specifications were set, using QFD and benchmarking. Based on prerequisites from earlier stages, a concept generation process was initiated. With the use of external and internal search methods, concepts were generated. Afterwards, decision matrices were used to evaluate and select the final concepts. After finalizing the concept selection process, the target specifications were revisited and as a result could the final specifications be set. Finally, the concepts were evaluated using FEM analyzes, FMEA and thermal imaging analysis.

    The final concepts consist of two LED panel light concepts, "concept V" and "concept VI". The concepts are made up of an aluminium housing and a frame of polycarbonate. The panels differ in design and assembly. However, the assembling principle is similar. Both concepts use a snap-fit to attach housing to the frame.

    The product development process has been carried out in a correct and trustworthy way. The methods proved to lead in reliable results. Meanwhile, there have been occasions when the validity of the methods and the reliability of the results have been doubted.

    The criterion for keeping the transistor junction temperature below 70 ° C was validated by measuring the temperature of concept V to circa 51 ° C, and about 66 ° C for concept VI. By following directives and technical standards legislated by EU, safety and manufacturing requirements covering LED panel light stood ensured.

  • 170.
    Imsirovic, Lamiya
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Le Tran, Phuong Vy
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Analys av lagersystemeffektivisering2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most manufacturing companies require inventories/warehouses to store purchased and manufactured components. To achieve increased profitability and efficiency, a well-structured inventory management system is required. However, many companies still use methods which can prevent efficiency, such as manual input of inventory data. Manual input can cause typing errors and thus reduce the reliability of the data.

    The researched company manufactures customized solutions for glue application. The company stocks around 5000 articles and all inventory management is performed manually. During the order picking a paper picking list is used. The data about the picked items on the picking list are manually entered into the business process management system. Incorrect pick items are not always returned nor registered back into the system, which may cause negative inventory differences.

    The purpose of the case study is to analyze possible improvements in inventory management at the researched company. The question statements are:

    • How is the inventory currently managed at the researched company?

    • What other inventory management methods may be appropriate for the company and in what way can these methods improve the inventory management?

    • Which changes in inventory management and which resources are required for the company to achieve these improvements?

    In order to answer the questions, the case study methodology was chosen. Interviews, observations, archive analysis and literature studies were used for data collection. To structure the gathered information, an Ishikawa diagram was performed. Based on that, an FMEA was constructed.

    Collected data indicate that inventory management is conducted in an unstructured manner, which can cause inventory management errors such as wrong picking. In addition, the company has inconsistent marking on the storage boxes, no prioritization system for the articles and a poor order overview.

    To achieve improvements in the inventory management system, a combination of several methods is proposed. The improvement proposals are an implementation of 5S, the execution of an ABC classification based on weight and withdrawal frequency, an implementation of order points and an identification system based on barcode technology.

    Potential improvements that the proposals can contribute to include better routines and increased reliability of the inventory balance in the business process management system. They can also contribute to a reduced risk of inventory handling errors. To achieve these improvements, a restructuring of the warehouse and standardization of the work are required. The required resources are mainly time and labor, but also technology such as tablets and barcode readers.

  • 171.
    Ismailov, Ilias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kartläggning av olika tariffer hos nätbolag2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Household electricity consumption increases in Sweden. As a result, grid companies must reinforce their grid or alternatively try to reduce the load on the grid. Increasing the cost of the grid connection is one way that grid companies can compensate for their investments for building the network.

    A survey of grid prices in Sweden has shown that there is a great variation in grid prices and that there are differences of several thousand SEK between the most expensive and cheapest grid companies. Percentage corresponds to the difference between the most expensive and cheapest electricity grid price of up to about 400 %.

    Offering a time tariff gives grid companies a better opportunity to offer to their customers to influence their electricity bill. The customers can choose whether they want to pay for electricity during peak hours when the price of electricity is at its highest or use electricity during low consumption hours, when the price for electricity is the cheapest. A survey of time tariffs showed that all grid companies in Sweden used the same months for high and low prices. However, peak hours during the day have varied depending on the grid companies.

    A survey of grid company tariffs has shown that there are several companies in Sweden that use unique tariff designs, for example Luleå Energi and PiteEnergi only charge for the fixed price and have 0 SEK in the variable price.

    The proposal for household customers to reduce their grid costs was based on electricity consumption profiles for each customer category. The load profile has also been developed to be able to perform cost calculations. The results showed that electricity grid customers living in an apartment had few loads that could be moved from high-price to low-price. For grid costumers in a villa without electric heating the proposal was made to move electric car charging to low-price. The results were presented with the help of an electricity consumption profile. For grid costumers in a villa with electric heating a proposal was made for an accumulator tank that could save about SEK 3 each time villa costumers used 400 liters of hot water.

  • 172.
    Isse, Yasin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Amid, Mustafa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Hållfasthetsanalys och nya konstruktionslösningar för en bergskil för båtförtöjningar2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a bachelor thesis carried out by two students at University West. The study was carried out in collaboration with Creative Stuff AB, which is a company located in Uppsala. Creative stuff AB manufactures a unique type of anchor, which is used to anchor boats to cliffs at thesea. The anchor that is manufactured by Creative stuff AB is named Klippfast.

    The goal of this study was to analyze and evaluate the anchor Klippfast regarding stress and strength. Another goal was to suggest a better design from a stress and strength perspective. Since the company does not have any drawings, the project group first made a CAD model of the product. This modelling of Klippfast was done by measuring and drawing curves that were difficult to measure, thus enabling us to sketch the product in the software Siemens NX. Solid mechanics calculations were also performed using finite element modelling (FEM). 

    The FEM simulations of Klippfast were made in the software COMSOL, resulting in evaluations of how the product deforms under an applied force.

    The last phase of the study was to come up with new concepts of how the product could be better designed regarding stress and strength. This work was done by brainstorming sessions and sketching of concepts. The project group decided to pick three of those concepts that thereafter were judged to be the most optimal. These concepts were then modelled in Siemens NX.

    The study performed was successful regarding analyzing Klippfast considering stress and strength. The results indicated that the model is well designed for boats up to five ton. The group also succeeded with the task to come up with new concepts with better strength than existing product.

  • 173.
    Ivarsson,, Christoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konstruktion av avfyrningsmekanism: från koncept till prototyp2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is performed at Consat Engineering AB in Partille, Sweden. The thesis is about developing a concept and a physical prototype of a firing mechanism to a miniature pool table. The firing mechanism will make shots with a built-in cue. The cue should be able to get positioned in the x-, y- and z-axis and be able to have an adjustable angle horizontally and vertically. The force generated should be adjustable and fired manually. The shot should also be able to be repeated.

    The product development process started with a problem breakdown structure, then solutions were identified. Afterwards solutions were eliminated, and the remaining solutions were combined to concepts. The concepts were then put through a couple of different concept elimination matrixes that ended in one final concept.

    A prototype of the concept was the constructed, that included driving servo motors through an Arduino. The prototype and concept were then presented to the company

    The result in the thesis describes the final concept and the developed prototype.

    Further development of the prototype will be performed by Consat Engineering AB.

  • 174.
    Jacobsson, Filip
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Standardiserad manuell hantering av fel- och omärkta lådor på Varner DC2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Varner distribution center in Vänersborg, Sweden, is a part of Varner Retail, which contains brands as Dressman, Cubus, Bik Bok and Volt. The distribution center in Vänersborg was opened in 2016 and will distribute goods to all of the shops included in the group spread across northern parts Europe. The purpose of the newly built distribution center is to make distribution of goods more efficient and lower costs connected to warehouse management and distribution. When the distribution center was built, processes standards was being developed. The tool used to create and manage the standards are called Standard Operating Procedures (SOP). The SOP is presented in a document including determined risks of the process, and a work instruction. Continuous development of the SOP is important to ensure that the documents are up to date and relevant for the process. This project was initiated in response to the demand of a standardized work instruction in managing one of the common failure with handling incoming boxes containing goods. If boxes do not have a bar code or has an incorrect barcode, they have to be managed separately. The automated system will not be able to determine what kind of goods the box contains otherwise. Before this report and its result was presented to Varner Distribution Center no standardized work instruction was available in the existing SOP. This report describes the work progression in developing a work instruction which will be in addition to existing SOP's. It contains description of the methodology used, existing theory, prior scientific work in the subject developing and working with a standardized working instruction. Ending the report will be recommendations for continuous improvement through implementing more standards and educating operating personnel.

  • 175.
    Jakob, Jakob
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Nazir, Rimah
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kostnadskalkyl och livscykelanalys för fyra renoveringsalternativ på offentliga badbassänger2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today there is a great need to renovate bathhouses in Sweden. Most of the bathhouses in Sweden were built during the 1960s and 1970s. Those bathhouses have a lifespan that is about 50 years since the buildings age much faster than other buildings. This is due to negative pressure, high humidity, high temperatures and continuous use of strong chemicals. Areas of use for bathhouses have changed over the years, today it is used as an adventure pool for families and training facility. The short lifespan and the expanding area of use give rise to innovative renovations methods. Therefore, is it important to choose a method that is cost-effective and sustainable for the environment. Based on the extended area of use and regarding the environmental perspective, a renovation alternative that meets the requirements should be chosen. 

    The report will present four different renovation options, which are; PVC liner, new tile screen, pool with stainless steel walls and vinyl ester lamination. The report will describe these renovation options as well as explain their advantages, disadvantages, costs, and their ecological footprint. By studying these and presenting them costumers can more easily decide which renovation alternative is most sustainable based on their needs and requirements.

    The results section shows that new tile screen is the most cost-effective method, while PVC liner gave us the least ecological footprint. Based on the results, a renovation alternative can be chosen.

  • 176.
    Jakobsson, Annie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Driftövervaka lågspänningsnät, finns det en framtid i Vattenfalls nuvarande system?2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, Vattenfall Electricity Distribution (VEAB) has electric and switching responsibility for the medium and high voltage grid and the operation monitoring takes place from their operation center. For the low voltage grid it differs because VEAB has the electric power responsibility while the switching responsibility lies with Vattenfall Service.

    Constantly increased demands for safety and reliability on the electricity grid make it likely that the switching responsibility for the low voltage grid will eventually be assumed by VEAB. There are requirements from the Energy Market Inspectorate for electricity grid owners to report any electricity outages for customers. By taking over the switching responsibility would probably mean that better interruption statistics can be produced.

    This work describes how operation monitoring of the low-voltage grid is carried out today and has investigated whether one of VEAB's current system support can be used for operational monitoring of the low-voltage grid. Operational monitoring includes, among other things, that the entire grid should be available with a single-line diagram and map, the possibility of changing the object's (e.g. open / close disconnector) switching modes and the possibility of exchange of evidence (e.g. work certificate).

    Two different systems have been studied in more detail, VEAB´s proprietary low voltage monitoring system LVM and VEAB's SCADA system (hereinafter referred to as SCADA, for safety reasons no name of the system can be given). The results of the study show that it is probably possible to use both these systems. However, some measures are needed in both cases to achieve the desired functionality.

    When it comes to SCADA, proper integration between SCADA and NIS NetBas is required. This is to reasonably get the network into the SCADA system.

    If LVM is to be used, a new layer needs to be implemented, one that can show the one-line diagram. LVM needs to be developed so that the exchange of evidence (linkage confirmations and so on) becomes possible. By a simple action in LVM, the ability to change the object's switching positions is activated. However, LVM has a lower safety classification than SCADA. Whether this affects a possible implementation is unclear but this needs to be further investigated.

  • 177.
    Jannborg, Fredrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Pettersson, Mike
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beredning av nytt distributionsnät i området Långekärrs skola2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns a preparatory work for a distribution power grid 0,4 kV/12 kV in the area Långekärrs school on the island of Tjörn. The preparation is made by TROLKs El & Tele AB at the request from the network owner Ellevio AB and consists of a reconstruction. The project affects 34 subscribers and includes demolition of 3,1 km overhead power lines, construction of 6,4 km underground cable grid and replacement of 4 substations and 8 cable cabinets. This because Ellevio shall maintain their delivery reliability of 99,98 %. In this preparation, there is one field visit to get a better understanding about the project and the conditions. During the field visit photos are taken which are helpful for the placement of the substations, cable grids and cables. Permissions from the County Administrative Board, the municipality and the Swedish Transport Administration are sought, but are done by TROLKs project leader since this preparatory work is done parallel with TROLK. However, the procedure is described in the rapport. In the preparation two options are considered for cabling on a mountain that is a conservation area between Toröd–Vik. One option is to do as it was before and put up new composite poles and overhead cable. But the preparers instead are choosing a second option which means that the cable will be placed in a protection pipe and then attach it to the mountain. Advantages and disadvantages about which side of the road 727 the cable shall be placed at is being considered. Which side of the road is decided by where it will be the least amount of work and intrusion on the subscribers properties. The cost of the project is calculated with the help of Ellevios internal pricelist that is buildt upon the cost index of EBR. The total cost is estimated to 1,4 million SEK.

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  • 178.
    Jansson, Cecilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Moberg Larsson, Matilda
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förbättring av utbildningsmaterial för provberedning på ett materiallaboratorium: Fallstudie på GKN Aerospace Sweden AB2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following report presents a bachelor thesis project that has been performed at GKN Aerospace Sweden AB’s materials laboratory by two students at University West in Trollhättan. The training of new staff is currently considered problematic as it’s both resource-intensive and inefficient, which was the basis for the aim of the study; standardize working methods and develop current training materials for sample preparation at the materials laboratory. To fulfil the aim, three questions needed to be answered concerning; the current situation at the materials laboratory, the structure of training materials in internal and external activities and the suggestions for improvements that can be given based on the data collection. The research strategy case study was used where the data collection methods; interview, survey, observation, literature study, archive analysis and benchmarking were used to answer the aims questions. Interviews and surveys were held with both experienced and inexperienced staff at the materials laboratory as well as intern and extern businesses. This is to determine how the materials laboratory and other businesses work with the training of sample preparation, specifically cutting, mounting, grinding, and polishing. The result was that all businesses involved, teach similarly; by allowing the new employee to observe their supervisor work and then work under the supervisor’s supervision. After collecting the data, the given information was analyzed based on the theory brought in from the literature study. 

    Based on the analysis, four suggestions of improvement were developed to minimize the risk of problematic events recurring, two of these suggestions were implemented while the other two were submitted as recommendations for continued work at the materials laboratory. The implementation entails that the study's aim is achieved, and an introduction of the other suggestions can enable the way of teaching to become more effective and safer. If the study were to be carried out again, it would be possible to investigate more businesses and theoretical sources could have been investigated to expand the study’s reliability and validity. If a similar study were to be carried out, the same research strategy and methods could be used for a satisfactory result, but certain adjustments should be made as, for example, questions and theories have been developed specifically for the materials laboratory at GKN Aerospace Sweden AB.

  • 179.
    Jansson, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Byte till LED-armaturer i gatubelysningen i Kärna, Kungälvs kommun2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kungälv Energi AB köpte belysningsnätet från Kungälvs kommun år 2017, nätet består av drygt 7200 ljuspunkter över hela kommunen. Detta arbete berör förbrukningen för tre belysningscentraler och 142 av de 7200 ljuspunkterna i Kungälvs kommun, i området Kärna tio kilometer väst om centrala Kungälv. I Kärna är belysningen gammal och kostsam, förbrukningen är hög på grund av att det nuvarande belysningsnätet består av ljuskällor i högtrycksnatrium och metallhalogen. Kungälv Energi ersätter redan idag trasiga armaturer med LED.

    Rapporten analyserar förbrukningen i det befintliga nätet med avseende att beräkna hur stora energibesparingar som är möjligt att åstadkomma i ett armaturbyte till LED, med utgångspunkt att behålla samma belysningskvalité i anläggningen som tidigare. En närmare halvering av förbrukning kan ske vid utbyte till LED-armaturer i Kärna, 49 procent minskad förbrukning.

    Vidare tar författaren upp möjligheterna att sänka säkringsstorlekarna för ytterligare minskad fast avgift för elnätsabonnemangen i belysningscentralerna, med hjälp av att beräkna utlösningsvillkor för belysningsgrupperna. Dessvärre är nuvarande dokumentation över Kärnas belysning otillräcklig, för att på ett noggrant sätt kunna beräkna det verkliga utlösningsvillkoret i belysningsnätet. Detta gör det därmed omöjligt att kunna veta säkert om det är möjligt att sänka abonnemangen, varvid möjligheten försvinner att kunna sänka de fasta avgifterna i belysningsnätet.

    Utifrån montering och inköpspris är ett inköp av LED-armatur inte en vinstgivande investering om man enbart ser till kontrasterna mellan energibesparingen och kostnader för inköp och montering. Energibesparingen är satt utifrån en 25 års period som är livslängden för LED-armaturerna. Skillnaden i livslängd på nuvarande belysningsnät och LED-armaturerna skiljer sig med en faktor tio och underhållet av nätet kommer bli nästintill inaktuellt vid ett utbyte av armaturer i belysningsnätet. Slutsatsen blir att en investering i LED kommer att löna sig på sikt, då drift och underhåll av belysningsnätet kommer att minska.

  • 180.
    Johansson, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utformning och omläggning av last till ett mobilt ställverk2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the electric power industry, complex requirements are often set to minimize disturbances during construction or service work. A similar requirement is set by ST1 when they during a production stop intend to replace a switchgear in a station that feeds large parts of the plant. The requirement is that the switchgear should be replaced, but the plant must remain in operation. The purpose of the thesis work has then been to design a functional mobile switchgear for the voltage level of 10 kV. This mobile switchgear will then be placed outside the station that shall be renovated. Subsequently, several changes of cabling will take place and the feed from the switchgear that is to be replaced is moved to the temporary switchgear which distributes to the remaining part of the plant during the construction period.

    Borås Hospital has a 10 kV switchgear that is not in operation. This switchgear has been bought and can be used as a cost-effective solution if it is built up in a container and constitutes a mobile switchgear.

    Visits have been carried out at ST1's facility in Gothenburg and at Borås hospital for information gathering and identification of requirements and opportunities for the project. By processing the information retrieved during the two visits, an investigation could start. The investigation formed the basis for the design of the switchgear with protection functions, relay protection settings, dimensioning of cabling and redistribution of load to the mobile switchgear.

    Appropriate calculations have been made to ensure that the equipment that will be used in the project is sufficient from a thermal- and mechanical point of view. The calculations include short-circuit calculations, earth-closing calculations and loading.

    In addition to protective functions in a relay protection, safety for the design of the mobile switchgear has been investigated. This is done by using appropriate rules and requirements set by national and international standards. 

    The final result includes a physical placement of the switchgear inside the container with holes for cables, proposals for relay protection settings and a proposal for the redistribution of the load into the mobile switchgear. In addition, the thesis proposes appropriate safety measures issued by laws and regulations and technical descriptions.

  • 181.
    Johansson, Dahniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Automated inspection of defects onmetal surfaces2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aerospace industry is today manufacturing a large variety of parts. Some which are classifiedas critical, these parts are today manually inspected and validated according to proceduresand standards. The Aero space industry is interested in a product that can aid in the process of inspection and validation to reduce the manual work.

    The identification of the needs is done by a study visit at GKN Aerospace Sweden, in Trollhättan, and through questions and discussions with the staff from GKN. The main need is identified as an automated visual inspection of defects on metal surfaces. The automated inspection is divided into sub-functions, which in turn allows identification of potential robot tool modules.

    Modular design is a method which enables variations and updates of a product's features without being locked into a singular solution. Modular design also allows sustainability due to the ease of upgrading and recycling a product.

    The robot tool modules are developed into several concepts. The concepts are 3D modelled in CAD software and in parallel with the concept development, a simulation of an inspection procedure, including the 3D models, is developed in ABBs simulation environment RobotStudio. The development of the solution for the automated inspection is an iterative process. When the simulated solution is satisfying functionality and customer needs, construction drawings are created for the modules of the robot tool.

    The simulation and the manufactured tools are implemented in a real robot cell and as a result, the objective the project is met, an automated inspection of defects on metal surfaces.

  • 182.
    Johansson, Dahniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Modulbaserad arkitektur av lyftutrustning med tillbehör2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The battery pack that supplies the cars’ electric motor with energy is, on a regular basis, assembled and disassembled to the cars chassis. A product that can aid this procedure is required. The current practice does not satisfy all the customer needs that exist when the battery pack is handled. The identification of such needs and requirements are done by study visits at NEVS (National Electric Vehicle Sweden), study visits and benchmarking at competitors’, market research and questionnaires targeted to NEVS’ staff. During the initial identification of customer needs, more potential customers are discovered, both in the production department and in the aftermarket. As a result, customer needs increase and, in some cases, they are conflicting. Modularization is a method that enables update and variation to a product’s features without being locked into a singular product solution. The main identified customer need is positioning of a battery pack. The positioning is divided into sub-functions, which enables identification of potential modules. From these modules several concept ideas are generated. Parallel with the concept generation, European standards for machines are used to mitigate risks that invariably arise during product operation. Employing matrices, the concept suggestions for the various modules are screened according to a wide array of criteria. The conditions for combining module concepts with each other are analyzed. To minimize the risk of patent infringement, an investigation is performed with the help of the Swedish patent database. Based on the selected concepts, CAD (Computer Aided Design) models are created using Siemens NX 9. Models with critical functions are structurally analyzed by FEA (Finite Element Analysis) in ANSYS Workbench 17.2. The design work is an iterative process and when the models finally are optimized, prototype drawings are created. The drawings are sent to mechanical workshops for cost estimates. As a result, the objective of the project is met; a prototype to facilitate management of a 500 kg battery pack has been realized.

  • 183.
    Johansson, Emil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Alexander
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Produktutveckling av Klimatkammare2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Spectra Premiums test lab in Trollhättan wants to broaden their possibilities for conducting dynamic ventilation tests on fuel tanks. This includes that a test will be done in a climate chamber. In this project the authors will develop a proposal for a climate chamber design for Spectra Premium, which can be mounted on a HEXaDRIVE. The climate chambers main function will give the possibility of adjusting the pressure from 1 bar down to 600 milli bar (absolute) and the temperature from 20 to 55 degrees Celsius.

    To propose a possible climate chamber the authors will first conduct a theory study regarding the chamber's different parts. During the development different solutions were studied and from these new concepts were created. A screening of the concepts was carried out to be able to choose the one with most potential. During the design phase it was discovered that the strength of the design did not withstand the load caused by the ambient atmospheric pressure and therefore the construction was strengthened with beams. Then it was calculated what the heating elements total effect should be for the chamber.

    The proposal for the designed climate chamber passed all requirements set in the target specifications.

  • 184.
    Johansson, Joar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Lidell, Anton
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av manuell mätprocedur för flygmotordetalj 30k IMC2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The bachelor's thesis work has been situated at one of the workshops at GKN Aerospace Engine Systems site in Trollhättan which produces a specific product, jet engine component 30k IMC. The product is produced in large volumes and the company faces increased volumes in the forthcoming years. The increased volumes mean that the company must re-evaluate their use of resources to secure the capacity to produce according to the demand. They have realized that an existing coordinate measuring machine will bottleneck the production flow and therefor some of its operations have to be relieved.

    The purpose of the thesis work was to free up time in the coordinate measuring machine by removing one of the current operations to enable an increased production rate. A manual measuring procedure was required to remove or eliminate the operation. Therefor an examination had to be done of how the character numbers measured in the measuring machine operation to decide how they could be measured with manual measuring tools. The goal was to achieve the most efficient manual measuring procedure as possible by reducing the number of measuring tools and designing measuring tools that are easy to use and work with.

    The development of the measuring procedure required an analysis of the design drawings to form an understanding of how the character numbers could be verified. Multiple tests of the developed solutions were also required. All proposed solutions of measuring methods were shown and discussed with the concerning detail technician to achieve a good measuring operation. The result is a complete manual measuring procedure for all character numbers currently measured in the coordinate measuring machine. Some of the manual measuring tools are pending manufacturing while others are still only sketches. The proposed solution has been delivered to the concerning technicians and the next step is for a tool designer to model the measuring tools and then order their manufacturing. When the suggestions for the manual measuring procedure was completed, a study regarding the possibilities of three-dimensional optical scanning in the future was performed. When all measuring tools are manufactured a production-qualification is required to then be able to implement the complete solution in the production. Lastly the validity of the chosen methods, choices during the work and estimated economical and productivity effects of the work are discussed.

  • 185.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kvarnström, Josef
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konceptutveckling av en komfortabel skyddssko2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Attention has been payed to the fact that incorrectly dimensioned safety shoes might result in injuries caused to the back area, feet and hips. From the recognized problem a goal where established to develop a concept of a new safety shoe with purpose to reduce these injuries. The shoes are intended to be used indoors in settings such as factories. Safety shoes are divided into different standards depending on their functions and this work discusses only the S1P standard. S1P means that the product is equipped with a toecap, closed heel region, antistatic qualities, shock-absorption and penetration resistant together with oil- and petrol resistant sole. The design is intended to be a low shoe model and the development process will end with a final concept that will not be field tested or manufactured. The basis for this work is the product development process presented by Ulrich and Eppinger in their work, Produktutveckling: konstruktion och design. The process consists of following steps: planning, identification of costumer needs, establishing of product specifications, generating of concepts and a selection of one final concept. Recommended by the authors, Ulrich and Eppinger, the method has been modified in order to suit the needs of this work. In the last step, selection of a final concept, two extra steps where added: designand material selection. The method that was chosen to collect the customer needs was a qualitative interview study. The first step was followed by the establishment of a demandslist including their relative importance. With the demands as basis a first product specification was formed including attributes for the futured product. The attributes where assigned values based on a benchmarking process. Followed by the specification was a process where ideas for the final construction where generated and chosen. That step resulted in a variety of concepts which were screened to the final concepts functions. The design was chosen through a voting of among sketches and was followed by the selection of material that were made in the software CES EduPack. The development process resulted in a safety shoe with low weight, satisfying comfort due to its shock-absorbing soles and good ventilation. The BOA®-technique is used as tightening function for simplicity and flexibility. The toecap is perforated in order to reduce weight while increasing ventilation. To ensure that the purpose of this work is being achieved, the product has to reach the market but the goal which was set is achieved due to the concept that was developed. If continued work is of interest the authors recommend fabrication of a prototype in order to enable further analysis of the materials behavior, the constructions strength and the quality of the functions.

  • 186.
    Johansson, Josefin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Pontén, Jacqueline
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Leanbaserat effektiviseringsarbete Quality Control lab2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A bachelor thesis was performed at Nouryon functional chemicals with the goal of streamlining and optimizing the work at Ethylene Oxide-laboratory since the lab has had high workload during a long period. The work has been performed on the two positions that exist at EO-lab.

    To define, measure and analyze the problems that Nouryon is facing today, the DMAIC method has been used. To define the problem, observations and interviews have been conducted for both positions. To be able to measure and map the workload, two workloadanalyzes have been produced. In the book The Toyota Way, Liker mentioned eight types of waste within an operation that have been used as a starting point in the present study in order to analyze the current situation and suggest improvements in the EO-lab. 

    The result of the present study has shown that the tasks that are expected to be performed each year require more time than the actual working hours obtained as a full-time employee. Currently, the staff manage to complete their daily analysis work that is required for the production. Tasks that the staff does not have enough time for includes pursuing the personal and professional goals, methodological development, certain routine work regarding installation and training of new instruments etc. In the present investigation it has been discovered that there are certain wastes that occurs during the everyday routine work. These wastes take place in the form of unnecessary movements of the staff, some unnecessary tasks that are performed by the laboratory staff and overproduction i.e. work not requested by the costumers. 

    Through the results obtained in the current study, the authors have developed potential improvement proposals with the aim of reducing the workload for the laboratory staff. These improvement proposals have been examined to see if they are possible to implement. By streamlining tasks, reducing the frequency of certain tasks, and transferring tasks to other staff, the weekly workload can be reduced. 

    Nouryon should continue to review improvement measures to further reduce the workload in EO-lab. The presented suggestions for improvement should be evaluated and further explored before implementation. 

  • 187.
    Johansson, Kristina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Sandström, Kristina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering and Natural Sciences. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    ISO- WACE – ett samtal om hur vi kan utveckla AIL internationellt tillsammans2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 188.
    Jönsson, Joel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Westerlund, Isak
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Besluts- och informationsunderlag för lagerhantering: "Plan For Every Part"2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The bachelor thesis was carried out at Parker Hannifin Manufacturing Sweden AB. Parker Hannifin manufactures hydraulic pumps and motors. The assignment was provided by the Supply chain department.

    Parker Hannifin currently has a system for purchased items which contains information about each item. Information obtained from the system is, among other things, batch sizes, delivery times, safety stock, inventory and variance in consumption. The system is called "Plan For Every Part", which is shortened to PFEP. PFEP is a supplementary document to the business system to be used as a decision-making and information base. The purpose of the thesis was to develop and produce an information and decision-making basis which the company should be able to implement. The goal was to design a PFEP for inhouse produced items that should be used for planning, as a decision-making and information base. The PFEP should contain basic information and relevant parameters for each item. If time allows, study material would be created for the relevant staff.

    The research design used was action research, which meant that the problem was solved while the topic was being studied. The course of action was plan, do, study and learn. The thesis includes the first three steps, the fourth step which means learn lessons from the result, will be done afterwards by the company. The methods used in information gathering were literature studies, benchmarking and observation of internal documents. The PFEP was divided into three categories, basic data, parameters and analysis function. The categorization was carried out to distinguish the purpose of the content, but also to get a clearer structure. The design of the PFEP for purchased items was used as inspiration to maintain a uniform appearance. This decision was made because Parker Hannifin works actively with Lean, where standardized working methods are an important part. The PFEP shows, using a comparison of the standard template, that the new calculations increase the stock levels.

    Data used in simulations was taken from three different sources: data obtained from the business system, data retrieved from an old PFEP and estimated values. This affects the reliability because real-value tests would produce a different result. Continued work that Parker Hannifin should carry on, for the PFEP to become a reliable tool, is to insert missing data into the business system. Finally, the goal is assessed to be achieved. However, study material was not created due to lack of time.

    The company is satisfied with the PFEP that has been developed and there will be continued work to make the tool complete.

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  • 189.
    Jönsson, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Zaric, Alexandar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Undersökning av användningsområden för drönare i elkrafttekniska sammanhang2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The presented report has been prepared on behalf of Vattenfall Services Nordic. At present time, large resources are being spent on inspections of among other things long power lines and electric power installations. In many cases expensive helicopters with expensive equipment are being used for inspection of power line and plant statuses. However there may be another solution, The drone.

    The report includes a survey into what technical solutions are available today within drone systems, how they are used in the power industry, which actors are currently developing the technology and how the future development looks.

    In order to be able to carry out inspections of electric power installations it is required that certain laws, regulations and instructions are followed. These are among other The National Electrical Safety Board's regulation ELSÄK-FS 2008:3, the Power Current Act SFS 2009:22 and the Electrical Safety Instructions ESA. In order to be able to fly with drones and carry out missions such as inspections, certain laws and regulations related to the flight and surveillance have to be complied with, including among others The Aviation Act SFS 2010:500 and The Camera Surveillance Act SFS 2018:1200

    The drone's potential for private but also industrial use is immense, especially so in the context of the electro industry, but it is not very practical to use for anything besides hobby flying without the connected equipment needed for inspection. In the report a survey of interesting platforms and equipment for the electric power industry is presented. The survey is largely based on information taken from the internet, but also from the interviews conducted with various manufacturers and operators of drone systems.

    The work culminates in a discussion on how the regulations affect the application of drones, how drones are used today, which opportunities there are for the future as well as what can be expected of the technological development in the near future. Finally recommendations are made on appropriate platforms and possible future use.

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  • 190.
    Jönsson,, Jonathan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Persson, Tobias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Research for a Replacement of the Lube Oil Centrifuge Separation System at Borealis AB2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor's thesis has been carried out at Borealis AB in Stenungsund, Sweden. The report presents a research for a replacement of two centrifuge separators. The separators is purifying the oil that lubricates machinery bearings and regulate the hydraulic control system on the steam powered turbines. These turbines drive the compressors C-1701 and C-1951. The separators installed at Borealis need to be changed because they are end-of-life. They require a lot of maintenance and spare parts are hard to find. An oil separator's task is to separate water from the oil and therefore maintain the quality of the oil. The water can enter the lubricating system from the steam turbines if a seal fails.

    The research started with collecting information about centrifuge separators to understand the principle of the separating method. Other methods for separation of oil and water were investigated to find the most effective, reliable, and most suitable product for the lubricating system. A requirement specification was made to make sure that the final recommended product fulfils all the necessary requirements. The place where the separators are going to be installed is an area where an explosive atmosphere can occur, and therefore there are higher demands on the products.

    A market survey was done, which included benchmarking and contacting suppliers for oil separators. The benchmark was done to see how similar industries with steam turbines solve the problem with water in the lube oil. The turbine manufacture, Thermodyn, was contacted to see what kind of oil separators they recommend for their turbines. Potential products were surveyed based on the benchmarking and the requirement specification. The product selection was made based on a concept screening method that is used in product development.

    The final recommendation was a vacuum dehydration separator from Pall called HXP022. The main benefit with a vacuum dehydrator is that it can remove the dissolved water from the oil, which increases the quality of the oil and therefore decreases the wear on the components. A centrifuge separator only removes the free water from the oil. An alternative recommendation was presented; a centrifuge separator from Alfa Laval, which uses the same method as the old separator at Borealis. The benefit with centrifuge separators is that they can separate water more rapidly than vacuum dehydrators. The final choice should be done by Borealis based on what is more important; separating the water from the oil quickly in case of a large water leakage or increasing the quality of the oil.

  • 191.
    Jönsson, Pontus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Olsson, Edwin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förlustberäkningar vid planerade avbrott på regionnätet2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today Vattenfall Eldistribution AB only consider power safety during planned outages and does not take into consideration increased power losses. The goal with this thesis is to create a method to estimate the cost of power losses during a planned outage. Before 2015 the Distribution System Operator were able to charge the customers for the cost of power losses. In 2016 Energimarknadsinspektionen introduced incentives for the power companies to minimize their losses. The incentives make it possible for the companies to increase their profits with 75 % of the lowered power losses. All the power losses are purchased from the marketplace NordPool spot. The price onNordPool varies over time and therefore also the cost of losses varies. Vattenfall purchases their losses with a combination of variable and fixed prices. Because of this, losses will be calculated with Vattenfall’s pre-calculated average price for losses 2021 at 291 SEK/MWh. Furthermore, Svk has an energy fee for all energy that is taken out of or fed into their transmission system. A manual calculation of a simple outage was performed with the purpose of explaining the theory behind power losses. To calculate the power losses and the voltage drop on lines, the Pi-model was used. The manual calculation was also compared to a calculation made using PSS/E.For the other calculations of losses during outages PSS/E have been used. To calculate outages over time the average loads has been used. To get an understanding of how much an outage could cost, four power lines and three transformers has been calculated. The thesis concludes that power losses differentiate a lot from case to case and therefore a calculation program like PSS/E should be used for power loss calculations. Because of this an instruction for calculating power losses using PSS/E has been created. Outages on transmission lines were the hardest to predict as they could both increase or decrease the losses for the transmission grid. Generally, the power losses are mostly related to high loads and the surrounding grid. 

  • 192.
    Kalliomäki Berg, Victor
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Landanslutning av el för fartyg: påverkan på ekonomi och miljö2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The emission from the maritime sector is an increasing problem in harbors around the world and has a negative impact on both humans and the environment. One way to reduce the emission in harbors is to connect ships to shore power via an OPS (Onshore Power Supply) station. While the ship is connected to shore power the auxiliary engines onboard the ship can be shut down and the emission from the ship can be reduced.

    This study aims to evaluate economic and ecological profitability of OPS through models. One model for the installment period and one model for the amount of emissions that are reduced by using OPS.

    The models in the study is divided in two cases regarding size of the OPS. One at 4 MVA and one at 16 MVA. The models study the economic and ecological profitability by using OPS. The economic profitability is studied by examine the price change of electricity and fuels impact on the installment period and also the amount of port calls and time in harbor during calls impact on the installment period. The ecological profitability studies by examine the amount of emission that is reduced by using OPS.

    The results from the models in the study show sustainable conditions for implementing OPS, both from an economic and ecological standpoint. The installment period for an OPS, with the conditions stated in the report, varies between 3 - 13.5 years (depending on the size of the OPS, whether a frequency converter is implemented, price of electricity and fuel and also the amount of port calls and time in harbor during port calls under a year). The amount of emissions reduced by using OPS varies from 1.21 to 13.7 kton CO2, 22.8 to 257 ton NOxand 1.60 to 17.8 ton SO2, depending on the size of the OPS and the amount of port calls and time in harbor during port calls under a year.

    Sweden has suffered from very high prices for electricity during 2021 and there is a huge price difference depending on where you are in the country. These conditions greatly affect the result and is something to bear in mind when evaluating the results in this study. 

  • 193.
    Kalmertun, Filip
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Tallheden, Henric
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    G R&R-studier på manuella och optiska kontrollmetoder2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been performed at GKN Aerospace Sweden AB (GAS) in Trollhättan. The purpose with the study was to perform G R&R-studies on manual and optical control methods to examine the methods capability, reproducibility and repeatability. The result from the G R&R studies were used to identify improvement suggestions in metrology. The thesis has been delimited to ignore variation from various parts from a batch for manual control methods. Operator variation have been ignored from the optical control method.

    The project was performed as a mapping of seven manual control methods and one optical control method. The data collection was performed through several types of measurements. The supervisor at GAS decided what control methods to examine. It was decided what measurements to analyse with consultation from the supervisor and a GOM technician at GAS.

    To analyse the distribution of measurement results through G R&R-studies all measurement results were transmitted to Excel. Nine different measurement devices were used in the study. Ten G R&R studies were performed on manual control methods and 30 on the optical control method. The studies were categorised by what geometry was measured and by what measuring device that were being used. For each category a minimum acceptable tolerance width has been calculated to identify what capability each measuring device has on a specific geometry. The minimum acceptable tolerance width was calculated by multiplying the standard deviation with six and five. The standard deviation multiplied by five gives the area with 99,7 percent of the measurement deviation. The new value is then multiplied by five to get the acceptable deviation of the tolerance width of 20 percent that GAS use. Which gives the minimum acceptable tolerance width.

    All manual control methods have a minimum acceptable tolerance width of under 1 mm while the optical control method has certain measurement results where the deviation was to big to give a reliable result. The reliable results had a minimum acceptable tolerance width of up to 7,46 mm. For the general tolerance widths that was created for manual control methods it is assumed that they can be used in the factory. That assumes that there are good conditions when the measurements are taken and that no factors that was not included in the studies affect the measurements.

    The tolerance widths for the optical control method are different depending on what geometry that is being measured. Thus it cannot be said with confidence that optical measurements can be used on all kinds of geometries. To be able to use optical measurements on more geometries there need to be more studies made with changed conditions.

    For manual control methods the deviation of the measurement results depended mostly on reproducibility. For optical control methods it is not possible to define a specific factor that affects the deviation the most. The factors that have affected the deviation off the optical control method is alignment, how shiny the part is, high concavity and camera access.

    An improvement area that was detected after analysing the G R&R results was the alignment of the part against the nominal CAD drawing. It was revealed that the alignment varied on each scan. The alignment was examined with two tests that revealed that the measurement results deviated with changed alignments.

    It is recommended to ensure that the alignment of the parts that is being evaluated with optical control methods is the same while being used for evaluation of parts or similar studies to avoid a potential source of errors. The calculated tolerance widths might be useful anyways considering that the source of error only slightly affected the measurements.

    The result from the project shows that manual control methods are more accurate than the optical control method on most of the surfaces. As mentioned earlier there are many sources of error that can affect the results from optical measurements. Thus there are potential for improvements of the accuracy for optical measurements in the future to increase the capability.

  • 194.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Stray, Malte
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Åskans påverkan på CAIDI i ett starkt kablifierat nätområde2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to examine how CAIDI, in a particular area of Vattenfall Eldistributions power grid, has changed as the overhead lines in the area have been switches out to ground cable. Also, to see how CAIDI is affected by thunder.

    After the storm Gudrun occurred in 2005 the number of cables in the Swedish power grid has increased rapidly and large investments have since then been made by VEAB. The areabthat the study has focused on has been a part of a large investment project which goal has been to modernise, secure for the future and decrease the failure rates for VEAB’s customers.

    The purpose of the study is to summarize how VEAB’s investments have contributed to achange in CAIDI. Also, to see how the thunders impact on the power grid changes as the amount of ground cable in the power grind increases.

    The investigation is based on interruptions that occurred over the years 2003 to 2021. Data and statistics are gathered from VEAB’s database called NETBAS. In NETBAS the statistics are divided into yearly number of customers interruptions and duration of customer interruption.

    The result shows on a continues decrease of both customer interruptions and duration of customer interruptions as the amount of ground cable increases. The conclusion that can be made from this study is that the increase of ground cable generates a lower CAIDI. The affect that the thunder has on CAIDI is marginal regardless of whether the power grid consists of overhead lines or ground cable.

  • 195.
    Karlsson, Casper
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Analysis of harmonic cross-modulation in HVDC line-commutated converters for practical design purposes2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of HVDC has many benefits over HVAC for some specific power transmission purposes. However, two major problems with HVDC links are that the converters produce harmonics and consume reactive power. Electrical filters are used to compensate for this and are a major cost driver of HVDC links. An accurate analysis of the modulation makes it possible to design an optimal filter solution in order to make the link financial viable. This report investigates how the complex cross-modulation phenomenon affects the harmonics. The investigation is limited to line-commutated converter technology (LCC) and excludes the newer voltage-source converter technology (VSC) for which the crossmodulation behavior is very different and requires completely different analysis techniques. This report refers to several MATLAB programs. All of these have been developed by the author as part of this thesis work. The report starts by explaining analytically, with the help of switching functions, how harmonics are cross-modulated across line-commutated converters. It is then explained and shown how a MATLAB program, BOWSER, in the time-domain can be used to calculate accurate switching functions when the converter is supplied with a general voltage source and when the DC current contains ripple. After that it is explained and shown how a second MATLAB program, DONKEYKONG, can be created to model an HVDC link in the frequency domain by iterating BOWSER. The cross-modulation phenomena is then finally analyzed in the frequency domain with the help of DONKEYKONG. The result is that the cross-modulation phenomenon can be divided into two groups, affected by grid and DC-side impedance as well as the overlap angle variation. Which will affect the characteristic and non-characteristic harmonics in different ways. It was found that the characteristic harmonics are affected by the cross-modulation due to grid and DC-side impedance by up to 12 % and that low order non-characteristic harmonics can diverge up to 900 % when the converter was supplied with 1 % fundamental unbalance. It also showed that the non-characteristic harmonics have almost the same amplitude for all power transmission levels of the HVDC link. The report shows that the cross-modulation caused by the grid and DC-side impedance, which is sometimes ignored or treated in a simplified way, can affect the practical filter design a lot. It also shows step by step how the MATLAB programs are created

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  • 196.
    Karlsson, Eric
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Skogsberg, John
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förslag till produktivitetsökning på Parker Hannifins F1+ montering2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A degree project performed at Parker Hannifin Manufacturing Sweden AB, Trollhättan, that results in this report. The aim of the work was to identify the current situation at F1+assembly to identify potential opportunities for improvement. The F1+ assembly is the department where Parker's product F1 is produced in different sizes. The goal was to generate solutions that improve the productivity in the current situation and create aproductivity gain of 10%. A current situation analysis was carried out in the assembly which resulted in the identification of differences between the current working standard and the 2013 working standard. Parker have implemented improvements in the assembly that have not been documented, which leads to a difference in working standards from 2013 to today,2020. In addition to the differences between the two working standards, unoptimizedworking tasks were detected in the material handling process. These resulted in materialhandling being the bottleneck and hence this was prioritized in the work and resulted in several solution proposals, both long-term and short-term. The work has been based on the methodology DMAIC, which is a project model for improvement work. It includes five phases, defining, measuring, analyzing, improving and controlling. The last phase, controlling, has not been considered because of the time frame. The methods used were literature studies as well as observations in the assembly to reviewand collect information. With the information, the assembly could be analyzed using videorecordings, these recordings were reviewed and designed the current situation analysis, which became a basis for the generation of the solution proposals. Using the DMAIC methodology and brainstorming, several proposals could be generated. All solution proposals presented meet the client's requirements, which means that the goalis met. The work results in five solutions that address the identified problems. The solutions developed are rebalancing the working standard, Pick by Voice, Pick to Light, automaticapplication of label and a Co-bot. There are pros and cons to all the proposals that are presented. Pick by Voice is the proposal that was considered most appropriate because there is low investment cost and they got good knowledge internally. However, the response time can be perceived to be slow, despite this, Pick by Voice would be the most appropriatesolution to create the possibility of productivity increase above the target set at 10%.

  • 197.
    Karlsson, Rickard
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Uppdatering av selektivplan för SSAB Oxelösund2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the result and purpose of a selective protection plan. The methods described applies mainly to radial grids. Meshed grids require that other conditions are taken in perspective which not is further explained in this report. 

    The number one priority is always safety because even a well configurated and planed protection can fail. This is the reason why every part of the grid must be supervised by at least two, by each other, independent protections with the means to trip the circuit-breaker and ensure that the safety requirements are fulfilled. If the trip can be made in coordination to reduce the consequences of a blackout, this is always prefarable, as long as the condition for safety is not affected. The work behind a selective protection plan is to find a balance between these criteria. 

    The report aims to show in what ways the selectivity analysis is applied to the electrical grid components and how this affects the grid in case of a fault. The safety requirements for disconnecting an electrical fault are met, and there are partially conditions for coordination between the protections in the electrical grid of SSAB. The method used within the electrical system is based on blocking the high stage over current function in the protection above the primary protection as seen from the fault location. The problem with this method is in case the fallback protection is based on the low stage over current function, which is often delayed substantially as compared to the high current function. The consequences of prolonged fault-currents in the system affect all the electrical components from the feeder to the fault. This will also have an impact on the voltage stability which can further affect the rest of the electrical grid within SSAB.

    A suggestion is presented to investigate an alternative method to block the high current stages. One alternative could be to introduce more differential protections. There is also a need to investigate the over current parameters for the low voltage circuit-breakers,which are not included in this study.

  • 198.
    Karlsson, Samuel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ohlström, Björn
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av pressmetod för nållager: Med fokus på ergonomi och effektivitet2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is the written part of a bachelor thesis on commission by Parker Hannifin Manufacturing Sweden AB in Trollhättan. The thesis main objective is to examine a newpress method. A method which can improve efficiency as the current method is considered insufficient to meet an increased workflow. With the increased workflow, the handling of details has also boosted and as the press station cannot adjust to the operator’s height it deemed necessary to investigate the ergonomic situation. To map the current method and establish relevant technical and ergonomic requirements, both interviews, measurements and experiments were conducted among other things. To analyze which categories of presses are available and which are suitable according to current requirements, an evaluation of available products was carried out with a subsequent concept screening. Measurements and analyzes of the current ergonomic situation, as well as time occupied by the press, were carried out to validate any changes in the layout and placements of the press. This resulted in a recommended placement of the press station and a compilation of the parts included in the press station, including a recommendation of press system. After compiling the results, the needs expressed by the concerned interests were considered fulfilled. But with a note about the placement of the prestation and the ergonomic handling of the details both prior and after the press, which has not change due to conclusions made in results. Finally, a proposal for future method is presented, where the press can be automated and integrated into a cell. The cell is including the workstations with a direct relation to the press. This will reduce or even remove the repetitive and time-consuming work done by operators, as done today. 

  • 199.
    Karlsson, Victor
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Product Design for Safer Trampolines in Domestic Use2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The trampoline has become popular among children and adolescences during the recent years which is good because it endorses psychical activity. However, around 100 000 persons are injured every year only in the United States, study shows. Because of the amount of people and because the young age group can obtain long term injuries, there are reasons to find new ways to improve trampoline safety.

    Firstly, the problem was identified by doing data analysis with NEISS which is a database that contains consumer product-related injuries. The data provided information regarding the most critical types of injuries which is caused by trampoline use. With an FMEA the three most critical injuries were identified and those were: lower leg-, lower arm- and internal head injury. Secondly, to understand the cause of the selected injuries, further data analysis and literature studies were done to find connections between the injury mechanism and the anatomy.

    The results show that internal head injuries often occur after fall from the trampoline, lower leg injuries were the result of an incorrect landing, and lower arm fractures were caused by landing on an outstretched arm. In every injury case, the most vulnerable age group was children between 0-6 years of age. An explanation for this is that young children have not had their growth-plates hardened and are therefore more exposed to fractures.

    Lastly, with the help of the information about the injuries and the accidents, product developing process was initiated to create a product that can improve trampoline safety. The process included: identifying customer needs, product specification, conceptualization, system leveled design, and assessments for intellectual properties and patents, regulations, and product safety.

    This resulted in the development of a harness, specifically for backyard trampolines with the purpose to provide the user with stability, dampened landings and from falling off the trampoline. The harness can be used by young children for casual jumping and by older children for doing tricks.

  • 200.
    Khelil, Abdulruhman
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Skapa attraktiv och hållbar handel fri från bilberoende2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the work was to develop solutions that reduce car traffic in Trollhättan in order to create attractive and sustainable trade free of car dependence. The solutions were based on the theory that car bonding is influenced by instrumental, emotional and symbolic factors [6]. Six general solutions were developed as inspiration for the selected solutions (specialize in center trade and external trade/commerce), Purchase of Cargo-bike pool for the public, Complete driving ban in the city center of private cars, introduction of congestion tax, Individually adapted marketing of other means of transport and Improvement of public transport. In addition, solutions from three cities that belong to the same municipality category as Trollhättan were presented. To get a better idea of the ideas that work in a city Trollhättan's size. Subsequently, a SWOT analysis was conducted to find out the city's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. To find solutions that exploit the strengths plus opportunities but counteract the weaknesses and threats. Five definitive solutions were developed: Driving ban in the center with gradual introduction, (bicycle rental of electric bicycles and bicycle parking), repositioning of transit traffic, restructuring of the city center streets and (Parking house outside the urban area and introduction of entrance fee). The solutions work together to transform the city center from car-tight to bicycle-tight. The solutions were analyzed to describe how the solutions will work individually. Afterwards, the solutions' collaboration, cycle focus, improvements and challenges were discussed. Finally, it was concluded that the knowledge gained from the general solutions, the solutions from equally large urban areas and the SWOT analysis together produced the selected solutions for Trollhättan

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