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  • 151.
    Karlsson, Oscar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    En studie av Lantmäteriets beaktande av strandskyddet och samråd i fastighetsbildning för bostadsfastigheter inom strandskyddsområden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lantmäteriet decided during 2017 to cancel principle consultation with Länsstyrelsen (county administrative board). The goal was to shorten the time for each case and reduce the number of unnecessary consultations. The purpose of this paper was to examine how frequently consultation takes place for residential properties in areas of protection of the Swedish shoreline. To examine this subject a mapping of this type of residential properties were made for Västra Götalands län. This study has been in cooperation with Plan- och bygg avdelningen (The Department of Community Planning and Building) for county administrative board in Västa Götalands län. The data underlying this study consists of cases that have been sent to this department during 2017. In the examination of this study a mapping of this type of properties has been made. The reason for this is to examine how frequently at consultation have taken place with county administrative board or the specific county.

    The mapping showed that there was more of this type of cases in some parts of Västra Götalands län in 2017.

    The study showed that consultation took place in 31 % of the cases for this type of properties in protective shoreline areas. It also showed that in 23 % of the cases no consultation took place and/or the protection was not taken into account. The result of the study showed that cadastral surveyors decide for them self without consolation in 46 % of the cases. The study showed an indication that this subject has to be further resourced, not only in this part of Sweden but in all of Sweden.

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  • 152.
    Karnström, Fredrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Johansson, Michael
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Ledningsintrång i enskilt vatten: en studie på djupet2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To provide property units with access to electricity, utilities may need to be located in a privately owned water area. Rights, obligations and compensation between an electricity network company and a private property owner for this infrastructure can be ensured by means of various tools originating from different statues. The aim of the study is to map how the industry assesses encroachment of utility into private water. To investigate this, a survey of the country's electricity network companies has been carried out with some additional interviews. The study shows that the two most common tools to provide legal protection for the utilities are to establish agreement easements according to Jordabalken or to obtain utility easements through a cadastral procedure according to Ledningsrättslagen. Many electricity network companies use agreement easements, which, after enrolling in the real property register, provide in principle the same protection as a utility easement but at a smaller cost. To assess the amount of compensation, flat rates and templates are the dominant methods, due to the difficulties encountered in the use of conventional appraisal methods in connection with this type of encroachment. There are guidelines in the form of a valuation manual from the cadastral authority, policies from the trade association Energiföretagen Sverige and practices from the Supreme Court both on how the encroachment should be perceived and ultimately compensated. Despite this, there are still doubts among the country's electricity network companies, which act in various ways. The conclusion of the Supreme Court case NJA 2007 p. 695 is that the individual should be compensated and receive financial compensation for the decrease in market value resulting from the encroachment, even if the encroachment is only of legal proportions and no real impact on the ability to use the land in question occurs. Energiföretagen Sverige has developed its own method regarding compensation. This compensation shall correspond to the decrease in the market value of the property, even though many of the electricity network companies consider that there is no encroachment and thus no depreciation of the burdened property. Nevertheless, despite the flat-rate approach, many respondents feel that compensation is difficult to assess, which points to uncertainty.

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  • 153.
    Kihlberg, Sofia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Skott, Thomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Särskilda skäl för upphävande av strandskydd genom detaljplan2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The general shore protection in Sweden applies 100m from the shoreline by the sea, lakes and watercourses but can be extended up to 300m. Sometimes it is required that a building or facility must be adjacent to water where the shore protection applies and it is in these cases the shore protection exemption comes in. The shore protection can be revoked by a repeal in the detailed plan and in cases where this occurs, criteria in 7 ch. 18 c § MB be fulfilled. This thesis aims to investigate which of the reasons in MB that the municipalities in Västra Götaland county use and how often each reason is used. Are there differences between the municipalities depending on geographical location and population? A case study has also been done to show what the courts consider to be valid and invalid reasons for revoking shore protection and an interview study where the manicipalities has answered how they respond to the new bill that is underway regarding changes in shore protection legislation.Analyzes consisting of qualitative and quantitative methods has been used to achieve the result. In the detailed plan study, the quantitative method is the basis for the survey where the municipalities were divided into different categories and a comparison was then made to investigate whether there are differences between the different types of municipalities.The result of the detailed plan study show that there are no major differences between different municipalities. The most common reasons for revoking shore protection are recitals one and five in Chapter 7. 18 c § MB. The case study shows that each case is unique and that it is therefore difficult to draw any conclusions about when the reasons in MB can be considered fulfilled. The study also shows that it is sometimes difficult to assess legal cases as there is a lack of case law within certain reasons. In the interview study, we unfortunalety did not get so many answers, but from the answers we received, it can be seen that the municipalities are generally positive to the part of the bill that involves smoother management of shore protection when a new detailed plan is introduced in an area where shore protection has already been repealed. The Country Administrative Board is more critical of the proposal.

  • 154.
    Kimovski, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lundén, Anders
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Svenska företags anpassning till distansarbete ur ett cybersäkerhetsperspektiv2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Covid-19 has led to more people working from home and reports have shown that cyberattacks taking advantage of the situation have increased. This has prompted law enforcement agencies and cybersecurity bureaus to release recommendations on how to increase the cybersecurity when working from home. The purpose of this research was to gauge how Swedish companies have adapted to the current situation from a cybersecurity perspective, and whether they have been affected by the increasing number of cyberattacks. In this research five people were interviewed about the cybersecurity in their workplace. Results show that an adaptation to remote work on a larger scale was performed without any greater issues, and that the companies have had some form of policy, routines, and technologies in place to strengthen the security. Increased number of remote workers have had seemingly no impact on the amount of cyberattacks. 

  • 155.
    Kling, Johanna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Utformning av tydliga detaljplanebestämmelser: För skydd av byggnaders kulturvärden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a detailed development plan, the municipality regulates the use of land and water areas and the built environment. Cultural values of buildings can, through the Planning and building act, be protected by provisions in a detailed development plan. The caution provision means that when changing a building, its cultural values and characteristics are to be taken care of. Prohibition against distortion is the strongest protection a building can get. It regulates what to preserve and therefore cannot be changed on a building. In order to further strengthen the protection of cultural values on a building, it may be subject to a demolition ban. The Planning and building act require that the provisions in the detailed development plan should be so clearly designed that everyone who reads it should be able to interpret and understand the provisions. In order to apply the requirement for clarity, Boverket has developed general advices on the design of planning regulations as well as a solid material on the theme "cultural value" and how to protect interesting cultural values of buildings in detailed development plans. Previous studies have shown that the design of regulations that protect cultural values is a problem among Sweden´s municipalities.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether communities around Sweden nowadays make clear provisions according to the law´s requirements, as Boverket has published general advices and a lot of material on its website.

    To achieve the purpose, two questions have been answered. To what extent does inadequate planning provisions in detailed development plans among Sweden's municipalities exists, regarding to caution provisions, prohibitions against distortion and demolition bans? In what way are they inadequate? To answer the questions, 323 detailed development plans from 37 municipalities around Sweden have been reviewed.

    Of the 95 provisions on the protection of cultural values found, shortly half were inadequately designed, and therefore difficult to interpret.

    Inadequate provisions can lead to difficulties in understanding which cultural values the municipality wants to protect and how they should be protected. Since certain provisions may lead to economic compensation for property owners, it is imperative that they are used correctly and properly designed.

    Deficiencies can result in property owners losing the possibility of economic compensation and complications in reviewing of building permit. The risk is also that interesting cultural values get lost and thereby parts of our cultural heritage. To overcome the problem, a state review would be preferable.

  • 156.
    Kopka, Mathias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Kartläggning av dagvattenhantering i detaljplaner: en studie av tre kommuner inom Skåne2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In connection with exploitation in new areas the storm water management is an essential matter to deal with to always avoid causing damage on the environment. Storm water is momentarily existing water masses that runs off hardened surfaces, examples of storm water is snow, rain and hail. Hardened surfaces are roofs, walls and other constructions. Storm water symbolizes that it is temporary existing, therefore does not lakes count as storm water because it is permanent.

    In natural conditions rainwater penetrates green areas, but when it falls on hardened surfaces for example storm water cannot penetrate a car road, then it starts flowing along the road in a quicker pace then it normally would do in green areas.

    The purpose of this study is partially to get an overall image of how storm water and storm water in zoning plans. And to compare survey storm water information from zoning plans in the three communes in Skåne county and to produce altitude maps for the chosen communes.

    To get additional knowledge about storm water a lot of time has been been laid on literature studies. The study has chosen 20 random zoning plans from each municipality that has been taken directly from their map portal. To get a realistic answer as possible in the study zoning plans older than 1995 are excluded.

    In the municipal of Malmö, it shows that 85 % of the zoning plans contains information about the management of storm water. Second is Lund where it contains information about storm water management in 55% of the zoning plans. Helsingborgs zoning plans only have 40 % of the zoning plans that contains information about storm water management.

    To get a clearer image the author produced simplified altitude maps that shows how the altitude levels causes problems and where the development is mostly concentrated. After looking on Malmös altitude map it gets clear why they need to be in the leading edge of storm water management, their altitude levels are less than ideal.

  • 157.
    Kraljevic, Marijana
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Penetrationstestning av Asterisk-Linux baserad IPPBX2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, a Linux based IP PBX was implemented using Asterisk which is an opensource software that can be implemented in any computer. Asterisk is a software based IPtelephony solution that can be run on a UNIX based operating system but it can also be run on Mac OS. It is usually called a communication server as it can contribute with several different functionalities. It can be an IP PBX, VoIP gateway, call center system, conferencesystem, voicemail server and many other functionalities. It is under the GNU GPL licenseand the project has an official website where there is information on how to install it and how to configure it. Wikin is the official documentation page for Asterisk and it is not open to the public to change. Based on this, it is advised that Asterisk should be installed from the source code to get a good implementation in terms of insight and security. However, there are opinions that Asterisk is not an easy system to implement not because the configuration itself is difficult as Asterisk consists of text files but because the information is fragmented, contradictory and sometimes not updated. In this essay, Asterisk was implemented from the source code and the advice given in the wiki was followed to be later evaluated through penetration tests. The penetration tools used were SIPVicious, Nmap and Wireshark. The result showed that there were some small changest hat affected the result of what the tools could see and the most significant factor for two of the tools was the TLS encryption, but one of the penetration tool Nmap was unaffected by that measure. The measure that was easiest to implement and most effective was to just change the port number to another because then the tools could not provide information. The tools used were few and a further study with a more comprehensive penetration testing is required and more safety implementations are required to get a complete safe system. This essay shows that Asterisk requires a lot of its implementers in terms of time and knowledge, factors that small business may not have an abundance of. That Asterisk was created by an entrepreneur who provided Linux support and who himself wanted a non-proprietary solution for his IP telephony solution might say it all. An open source project that provides a free usable code but that requires support and good documentation to be able to be implemented securely. Information and support that is difficult to get in an open source based project.

  • 158.
    Kristensson, Anders
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Rämsvik, Peter
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Herrelösa fastigheter2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A stray property is a property that lacks a rightful owner with the ability to represent it. In 2004, the National Land Survey carried out a survey on behalf of the government to find out how many stray properties there were in the country. After a comparison between the Swedish Tax Agency's organisational register and the Land Survey, they concluded that there were then 365 stray properties. The study was carried out in connection with the development of new legislation that would facilitate the problems caused by the properties. Since then, no further investigation has been carried out and official statistics on the situation are missing today. The regulation that would facilitate handling and reduce the emergence of the number of new stray properties came into force on 1 April 2005. The purpose of this study is to investigate what the situation with stray properties looks like today and whether the legal regulation introduced in 2005 works as it was supposed to. The most common reasons why properties become strays are that they are abandoned during bankruptcy proceedings or that they are formed by applying the opt-out in Chapter 3. 9 § FBL in the case of real estate formation. However, stray properties can also arise in other ways, suchas unshifted estates. When property is abandoned by a bankruptcy estate, it is called abandonment. There is currently no explicit legal regulation on abandonment, so at present the procedure is being exercised on the basis of a controversial case-law. The study can show an alarming result, these properties appear to have increased in number and in addition, the municipalities testify that the number of darkness is high. The report deals with several examples of problems caused by these ownerless properties, as well as the different situations and circumstances faced by authorities, municipalities and their residents. At the same time, the possibilities that can be found for accessing and handling of stray properties are presented within the framework of Swedish legislation. Is possibly a stray property the perfect object for occupation?

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  • 159.
    Lagrell, Lovisa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Attefallshus: Som komplementbostadshus2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current situation of imbalance in Sweden's housing market makes it difficult for several social classes to find housing. The amendments to the law in PBL, in 2014 and 2020, concerning building permit-exempt measures would contribute to a more efficient system for housing construction that would result in more housing. PBL section 9: 4 a was amended and allowed a building area of 30 square meters for ancillary buildings and ancillary residential buildings. Complementary house has been given the popular name attefallshus after Stefan Attefall.It was the construction of attefallshus, as an ancillary residential building, that would contribute to a reduced housing shortage since it can be used as a permanent dwelling. This study examines the start and final decision of complementary housing in Västra Götaland county in the years 2017–2020Between the years 2014 and 2020, 366 applications were received by the building committee, where 305 were approved, the rest were written off or rejected. One of the cases that was denied a start decision had not been reported in drawings for the use of kitchen and hygiene. The municipalities that stood out were Orust and Gothenburg, which accounted for 65% of the total granted start decision. Lilla Edet municipality was alone in not having any startdecision at all. The conclusion was that big cities and coasts is more attractive places to build attefallhus as a complementary housing.With regard to the final decision, 116 of 117 cases were granted. Gothenburg and Orust municipality were at the top. But the number of final notices is low compared to initial notices, which may be due to people applying for start decision but for various reasons do not complete the construction. One reason may also be that the knowledge among the inhabitants is low, the municipalities' routine is lacking, which results in the final decision being missed.A questionnaire was sent out to the municipalities about the approach to the final decision. Several mentioned that a certificate is required which shows that the start decision and control plan are followed according to conditions. Only one municipality answered the question that if no final decision is received, a reminder will be sent out to applicants with an attached start decision. Such a routine should be done in all municipalities to reduce the risk of missing the final decision. Of Västra Götaland County's 49 municipalities, 15 answered, of which 10 contributed with material to the study.

  • 160.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Axgärde, Åsa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    External customer satisfaction through team-development based on appreciative inquiry2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 161.
    Larm, Christina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Länsstyrelsen överklagar lantmäteribeslut2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the year 2017, the local guidelines for consultations, and recommendations for the handling of property formation cases were phased out. By a new decision that included all counties in Sweden, the 21county administrative board´s would use the same guidelines, avoiding local deviations that had been previously approved and thus reducing the number of consultations. In Värmland and Västra Götaland counties, the guidelines called “Gröna Häftet” were removed, which had been used as a support in deciding surveying. By contacting the respective county administrative board and requesting judgments for the period 2016 to 2018, where the county administrative board has appealed against land survey decisions regarding property formation cases an investigation has been done concerning whether appealed cases have increased or decreased. 

    The Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and land registration authority handles property formation cases relating to beachfront areas through a surveying service that the county administrative board then reviews. Property formation means the conversion or regeneration of properties. This process includes property regulation in connection with subdivision, splitting or merger of a property. The handling of these cases can take place at a municipal surveying authorityor at a state surveying authority. If there is any disagreement in the case, the county administrative board can appeal the decision to the Swedish Environment Court. This can only be done if the ordinance takes place outside the detailed planning area. If the ordinance applies to a detailed planning area, the county administrative board has no rights to appeal. In cases where the Swedish Environment Court find that the Land Survey authority has made an incorrect or flawed decision, the Swedish Environment Court may refer the case back to the Land Survey. Once the Land and Environment Court has ruled, one of the owners of the case can appeal if it is deemed that the judgment is wrong. The appeal must be submitted within a three-week period to the Swedish Environment Court, which in turn forwards it to the  Swedish Environment Court of Appeal, which takes a decision on the appeal.

    In the survey sent out to the Swedish 21 county administrative boards, 14 responded, which corresponded to 67%. Of these 14, 13 responded to the survey, one abstained. When asked if the county administrative board's appeal against survey decisions had increased, 8 replied that there had been an increase. The other 5, had neither noticed an increase or a decrease. 

  • 162.
    Larsson, Anton
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Blomgren, Alexander
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Linux vs Windows: Spelprestanda2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is examining the differences in gaming performance in Linux and Proton compared to Windows. The goal is to get a better view of differences in performance between the different operating systems. Performance is measured in average FPS (an average of how many frames is shown per second) and 1% lows (the worst performance one can expect). In addition the hardware usage on graphics card, processor and RAM ismonitored and documented during the tests. The tests were conducted on fresh installed versions of each operating system, on the same computer and with the same graphics settings on each game. The results show that generally Windows has a higher average FPS(3 out of 4 titles) while Linux has higher 1% lows (3 out of 4 titles). On the hardware results an even usage can be seen but with each title there were components that stuck out from the rest. The tests show that a good Linux port can perform as good as and even better than Windows.

  • 163.
    Larsson, Arvid
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Sääf, Jakob
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Estimering av kvalitet vid horisontalvinkelmätning med totalstation2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of angle measurements is important, otherwise can lead to uncertain results and costly delays. In some cases, this quality is unknown due to the age or wear of the instrument, therefore it is important to be able to estimate the quality of anglemeasurements. The purpose of this study is to estimate the horizontal angle quality of a Leica VIVA TS15 G 3” r1000 total station tunnelling station. This instrument should measure horizontal angles with an accuracy of 1mgon.

    To accomplish this the directional method was used, which utilizes the method of least squares, and which only requires directions for estimation. The total station was levelled indoors, and it was examined for instrumental errors. Afterwards the angles in a circle were measured clockwise in the direct mode, then the angles in a counter-clockwise, this constituted one full repetition. In this study, 20 repetitions were conducted for 4, 6, 8 and 10 angles.

    Next, the variance of unit weight and the residuals were estimated with the least squares method. The residuals were analysed with quantile-quantile plots, histograms, as well as kurtosis and skewness tests to determine if they followed a normal distribution. Another statistical test was carried out with a 95% level of confidence, to determine if the estimated variance and the nominal variance of the total station were equivalent. Only the observations with 6 horizontal angles were deemed equivalent with the nominal variance. Due to this conflicting answer another statistical test was preformed to assess if the estimated variances with 4, 8 or 10 angles were equivalent with the variance of 6 horizontal angles. They were not equivalent with a 95% level of confidence. It was deemed the total station could measure with the nominal accuracy of 1mgon with a small number of repetitions.

  • 164.
    Larsson, Elin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Särskilt skäl för strandskyddsdispens: Kan övergivna hus och tomter utgöra ianspråktagna områden?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to analyze how special circumstances in accordance with chapter 7, 18 c § 1 p. of the Swedish environmental code (miljöbalken) is applied in practice. What factors contribute to shore protection (strandskyddet) reinstatement so that home privacy protection (hemfridsskyddet) no longer applies, and when a claimed property (ianspråktagen tomt) is considered abandoned. This study is based on the following questions: 1. In what condition should a building and its yard be in order to grant a shore protection dispensation (strandskyddsdispens) in accordance with chapter 7, 18 c § 1 p. the Swedish environmental code? What determines most; the condition of the building or the yard? 2. Where does one draw the line between a claimed property and an abandoned property? 3. What factors contribute to an existing building no longer having a home privacy protection zone (hemfridszon)? To answer these questions, a survey was directed to 75 different municipalities in Sweden as well as an analysis of five different legal cases. The methods used in this study are a qualitative method and a legal method. The theoretical part of the study presents what the legal situation looks like today, which especially must be regarded in the issues of shore protection dispensation as well as a description of the background and objectives of the article of law that is this study’s focus. The result of this study shows a summary of the responses to the questionnaire and case law analysis. In the analysis, the questions were answered by municipalities based on their rationale and case law. The analysis shows that the building’s condition is the most important factor in the assessment, that public perception of the area is of great importance and when the building was last considered inhabitable. What is also important in assessing whether there are special considerations for shore protection dispensation is that the plot demarcation (tomtplatsavgränsningen) should be given, what the type of building is on the site and if the area closest to the shoreline ensures free passage for the public. The conclusion shows that the study subject area is complex and that the problem is in the interpretation and assessment of individual cases, based on current legislation. The study indicates that there is not a specific answer as to how exactly the assessment takes place, because it depends on the situation in individual cases. The study’s discussion features interesting rationale as well as an idea which might facilitate the assessment if there are special circumstances for a shore protection dispensation in accordance with chapter 7, 18 c § 1 p. of the Swedish environmental code.

  • 165.
    Larsson, Kevin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lundgren, Simon
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Performance Evaluation of Scaling Strategies in Cloud Environments Kevin2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Konceptet cloud computing har diskuterats sedan 1960 talet och det blev verklighet 1999 när salesforce.com startades. En av de största fördelarna av cloud computing är möjligheten att ta bort eller lägga till mer virtuella maskiner utan någon manuell handläggning, i.e. skalning. Det finns inte mycket forskning kring skalningsstrategiers prestanda i cloud miljöer. Detta examensarbetet undersöker och jämför applikationsbaserad, benchmarkbaserade och statiska skalningsstrategier. Huvudfrågeställningarna presenterade i detta examensarbete är; Finns det en prestandaskillnad mellan virtuella maskiner i cloud miljöer? Om det finns kan man då använda skalningsstrategier för att bara använda de bästa maskinerna? Test gjordes i fyra datacenter i Amazons EC2 cloud. Det finns ett flertal olika standard skalningsstrategier i cloud miljöer, ett exempel är AWS Auto Scaling som skalar baserat på ekonomiska aspekter och ålder av konfiguration. Detta examensarbete presenterar ett annat perspektiv genom att undersöka prestandan hos virtuella maskiner. Skalning baserat på prestandan av en applikation gav en prestandaökning på upp till 1.72% jämfört med en LIFO strategi. Den bästa skalningsstrategin var den applikationsbaserade (LuxRender) och den näst och den tredje bästa var den CPU-baserade och den benchmarkbaserade Consolidated.

  • 166.
    Larsson, Markus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lindström, Johan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Modernization of the legacy application simSUNDTv22021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of systems that are placed in the category of legacy applications steadily increases. These are systems that are either too costly or complex to maintain for usage in their current state. With this comes the need to modernize these systems. One of the systems that are in this situation is the ultrasonic testing simulation software simSUNDTv2. 

    This thesis describes the project of modernizing the simSUNDTv2 software and delivering a foundation to the customer, which can be used for further modernization work of the system. By using an iterative reengineering process, a modernized software that accommodates the customer needs is developed. From this case study, lessons learned throughout the process are compiled and presented.

    These lessons learned are meant to be considered to further improve the modernization process used, to meet the customer needs more effectively. The compiled list contains observations related to the benefits of the methodology used. It also contains modifications that should be made to the modernization process to adapt it to some ofLehman’s Laws of Software Evolution

  • 167.
    Larsson, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Sundahl, Amelie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Markåtkomst för järnvägstunnlar – hur säkerställs det?: En sammanställning av statistik och motiv från år 2004 till idag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1 January 2004 it is possible to form three-dimensional properties in Sweden. One of the purposes of the new legislation was to enable ownership of tunnels. Tunnels can be used for many different purposes, including railway. The Swedish railway needs improvement regarding the capacity. When the railway is expanded and rebuilt, it may sometimes be suitable to build a tunnel. This may be the case when the railway is passing a city or built in a hilly landscape. Unlike when the railway runs on the ground, where the rail holder owns the land in very long real estate, the land access for the tunnels has traditionally been solved with easements. The changes in the legislation in 2004 makes it possible to own the tunnels in the form of three-dimensional properties. In this bachelor thesis, the authors investigate if the actors concerned are using the new legislation and, if so, when, how and why. In the thesis, all railway tunnels whose cadastral application have been submitted between 1 January 2004 and 20 May 2018 or whose railway plan has become final before 20 May 2018 was investigated regarded the land access. This includes 27 railway tunnels, from Malmö in the south of Sweden to Umeå in the north. The data was divided into two periods to investigate if any change occurred regarding how the land access was solved during the period. The result displays that this is the case. In the first time span, easement was clearly the dominant choice, while three-dimensional properties was the main pick in the second. However, as the study shows, easement is still sometimes used as a choice. Five interviews have been carried out in the thesis, four of which are related to two current projects, the new railway tunnel in Strängnäs and Västlänken in Gothenburg. The purpose behind the interviews was to find different motives regarding the choice of land access. The two interviews with the cadastral surveyors reveals that both three-dimensional property formation and official easement are suitable solutions and that the choice in between de facto lays with the applicant. The two interviewed land negotiators at Trafikverket shared the motives on which the choices were based. Both official easements and three-dimensional property formation have pros and cons, meaning that the choice must be decided for each tunnel apart.

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  • 168.
    Larsson, Tobias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Thorsén, Rasmus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Cryptocurrency performance analysis of Burstcoin mining2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Burstcoin is a cryptocurrency which differ from the well-known Bitcoin, among several integral component which encompass any cryptocurrency, the mining process is one which differ greatly between the two. This difference is basically that the Bitcoin mining process require constant computational calculation, while Burstcoin mining requires a file known as plot file to be read at intervals. As with many altcoins, Burstcoin have very little analysis surrounding it and as such the efficiency of the mining process in how it is usually configured can be questioned. Therefore, the thesis will focus on factors which might affect performance regarding how efficiently the plot file can be read. To begin with, knowledge about which timespans are interesting for Burstcoin mining will be investigated, more precisely the block forge times for the Burstcoin blockchain will be determined to ascertain if any specific timeframes are important regarding how fast a plot file should be processed. Following, three tests will be made focusing on the performance aspect. The first test focus on whether the file system cluster size matters in how fast a plot file is processed and determines if the processor is bottlenecking the processing speed of the plot file. Secondly, it is investigated if the size of the hard drive where a plot file is located play any role in how fast it is processed. The third test compares how fast a plot file is being read when the hard drive which houses the file operates at the SATA 2 standard compared to the SATA 3 one

  • 169.
    Le, Kenny
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Emil
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    En utvärdering av hybrid SD-WAN i en nätverksemulator2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This evaluation study of hybrid SD-WAN intends to implement this technology in a network emulator and evaluate some key components such as implementation, connectivity, redundancy, traffic management, monitoring and the user interface. The goal for this evaluation is to test basic functions of SD-WAN.Based on the results collected from a complete implementation of a hybrid SD-WAN, the conclusion was that the graphical interface simplified the whole configuration process and implementing a hybrid SD-WAN in a network emulator is favorable for a company that wants to test different vendors SD-WAN solutions before they implement it on their own network.

  • 170.
    Lindevall, Filip
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Jäverby, Robin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Kommunal finansiering av allmän plats: Tillämpning i förtätningsområden som genomgår en omvandling från fritidshus till permanentbostäder2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has become common practice to plan by densifying and several municipalities have stated in their comprehensive plans that growth should arise through densification. When densifying vacation home areas, a conversion from vacation homes to permanent residences can occur and these areas are named densification areas in this study. A consequence of increased land development and a changed living situation in these areas is that refurbishment or establishment of new municipal facilities may be necessary. In detailed development plans with municipal mandate, the municipality is responsible for ensuring the construction of public spaces and that completion is coordinated with other developments.

    The purpose of this study is to examine how Sweden's municipalities fund the development of public spaces in detailed development plans with municipal mandate in densification areas. The study examines why a municipality practice a specific procedure and if there are other factors that interfere with the method to fund public space. To fulfil the study's purpose a quantitative analysis was used to answer how the municipalities are funding public areas and four interviews were held to find out why they are choosing a specific way of funding.

    The results show that the choice of financing vary, as it is based on the landowner situations in densification areas. There are always individual landowners in addition to other landowners. It is common for a municipality to combine several methods for financing public space. When there are only individual landowners in a densification area the common method is using street costs or taxes. When a municipality owns parts of the area in addition to individual landowners, most municipalities use real estate sales and taxes. When a land developer owns part of a densification area the majority of municipalities settle an agreement that the land developer renders a contribution to the municipality which is equivalent to the cost of public space, or the land developer build and transfer public areas free of cost.  The population of a municipality has a greater influence for the choice of financing public space than the geographic location of a municipality.

    It is evident that politics plays a part in the choice of funding. There is however no relation between a municipality’s political party or ideological direction, and a municipality’s choice of funding. Municipal officials reckon that economic sustainable development steers the municipality’s choice of funding, but the authors believe that all dimensions of sustainable development are relevant.

  • 171.
    Lindmark, Rickard
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Johansson, Markus
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Log4shell: Vad är det och hur har det påverkat oss?2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project focus on what the exploit Log4shell is, and how it has affected different organizations. Log4j is a logging-tool that is used wide within the company-world and when the exploit of the tool was discovered many people were affected.

    The purpose with this project is to figure out how organizations has been affected and how they have handled the exploit using a survey. A recreation of an attack has been done to get a deeper knowledge of how the exploit works and how hard it is to execute.

    The survey shows that the companies has handled the exploit quite similar to each other and the answers are analysed in this project. The recreation of the attack shows that it is not impossible for an unexperienced malicious person to utilize the exploit. This is shown with a step by step-list and a discussion on the subject.

  • 172.
    Loconsole, Annabella
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Thomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Tano, Ingrid
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    de Blanche, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Comparing the CDIO educational framework with University West’s WIL certification: do they complement each other?2021In: VILÄR: 9-10 of December, 2021, University West, Trollhättan, 2021, p. 15-16Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) need to continuously improve their quality to prepare the students to the society of the 21st Century. They need to develop efficient ways of collaborating with various partners in the surrounding community. Close ties with business and industry, and diversity among staff and students are necessary, especially within engineering education. An engineering degree should prepare students to develop a wide range of knowledge and skills. These range from technical, scientific, and mathematical knowledge but also soft skills such as teamwork, business skills and critical analysis, which are also central sustainability competences. It is vital that learning for engineers takes place in the context of authentic engineering problems and processes to develop these skills and to put theory into practice. 

    Several initiatives focused on incorporating these skills in higher education exists. CDIO (Conceive, Design, Implement, Operate) is one of the most prominent initiatives within engineering education. CDIO targets the typical tasks an engineer performs when bringing new systems, products and services to the market or the society. The CDIO initiative was created to strengthen active and problem-based learning and improving students' communication and professional skills. CDIO focus on improving practical and work-related skills to better prepare engineering students for their future professional life.

    University West employs another initiative, Arbetsintegrerat lärande (AIL), which “roughly” translates to Work Integrated Learning (WIL). WIL shares much of the same philosophy as CDIO. All programs at University West are currently undergoing an AIL-certification process. For engineering programs, that have been working with CDIO, it is interesting to compare them. It is currently unclear how they differ. 

    In this study we compare the CDIO educational framework with the WIL-certification through a series of workshops to identify in which areas they overlap and which areas they differ. Would a program that has adopted the CDIO educational framework automatically fulfill the WIL-certification?

     

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    VILÄR2021
  • 173.
    Lund, Jesper
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Vallebrant, Niklas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lagen om allmänna vattentjänster: Avgränsning av verksamhetsområden i 6 §2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2007, the Public Water Services Act came in to effect. According to the sixth paragraph in this law, all municipalities shall arrange water supplies and sewerage in a "wider context" if it is necessary with respect to human health or the environment. But sometimes, municipalities choose not to connect certain areas to the operational area even though they should do so according to the sixth paragraph in the Public Water Services Act. These areas are commonly referred to as § 6 areas which means that these areas fulfill the condition "wider context" in the Public Water Services Act, but are outside the operational area. What does it mean that the municipalities shall ensure water supply and sewerage in a "wider context"? The term "wider context" is not defined in the legal text, but preparatory work to the law states that 20 to 30 properties can be seen as a guideline. This amount can be reduced if there are special reasons for it. But how do the municipalities interpret the term? This is the first question that this study answers. The second question that has been answered is why the municipalities choose to not connect some certain areas to the operational area, despite the fact that the conditions for "wider context" in the sixth paragraph are fulfilled. The study concerns the following municipalities: Lerum, Lysekil, Svenljunga, Skövde and Vänersborg. In order to gain information and to find answers to the questions, a combination between legal methodology, a quantitative and a qualitative method has been used. The municipalities VA-plans, which are guiding for municipal VA planning, have been reviewed and interviews have been conducted to supplement the VA-plans and provide a deeper understanding of municipal decisions. The study shows that it varies from municipality to municipality how the term "wider context" is interpreted as the number varies from eight to twenty properties included. Some of the municipalities also use the terms "assembled dwellings" and "assembled built environment" from the Planning and Building Act (2010:900). As for the second issue, there is a connection between how the municipalities have assessed these areas. The reason why some areas not are connected to any operational area is because they have a low priority based on a need and possibility assessment.

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  • 174.
    Lundell, Carl
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Åström, Elias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Litecoin data analysis: A closer look at Litecoin node communications2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite rising popularity, there has been no prior node-level Litecoin data analysis as of writing. 

    By setting up ten Litecoin nodes in different parts of the world, we captured this data during the period of a week and broke down the different types of messages found in the Litecoin protocol, the amount of data being transmitted, and what countries the connections were coming from. 

    Pinpointing the exact messages that were present in the data was done by a custom made Litecoin packet-dissector. 

    The results are presented in tables and diagrams containing the exact amount of data, message frequency, and unique IP-address locations during a full week of capture.

    The data shows that a clear majority of connections are made to- and from United States.

    The most common message types are inventory calls, data requests, and transaction-data. 

    There is significantly more outbound than inbound data in total between all nodes.

    Although the Azure hosted nodes showed the opposite, it is believed to be a result of intervention by the hosting platform. 

  • 175.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    de Blanche, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Hattinger, Monika
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Belenki, Stanislav
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Artificial and Human Intelligence through Learning: How Industry Applications Need Human-in-the-loop2020In: VILÄR: 3–4 December 2020 University West,Trollhättan. Abstracts / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2020, p. 24-26Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses work-integrated learning from a workplace learning perspective.Two companies within the manufacturing industry (turbo machinery and aerospace) together with a multi-disciplinary research group explore the opportunities and challenges related to applications of artificial intelligence and human intelligence and how such applications can integrate and support learning at the workplace.The manufacturing industry is currently under extreme pressure to transform their organizations and competencies to reap the benefits of industry 4.0. The main driverf or industry 4.0 is digitalization with disruptive technologies such as artificial intelligence, internet of things, machine learning, cyber-physical systems, digital platforms, etc. Many significant studies have highlighted the importance of human competence and learning in connection to industry 4.0 in general and disruptive technologies and its transformative consequences in particular. What impact have such technologies on employees and their workplace?

    There is a lack of knowledge on how artificial intelligent systems actually take part in practices of human decision making and learning and to what extent disruptive technology may support both employees and organizations to “learn”. The design  and use of three real-world cases of artificial intelligence applications (as instances of industry 4.0 initiatives) will form the basis of how to support human decision making and scale up for strategic action and learning. Following a work-integratedapproach the overall research question has been formulated together with the two industry partners: How can artificial and human intelligence and learning, interact tobring manufacturing companies into Industry 4.0? An action-oriented research approach with in-depth qualitative and quantitative methods will be used in order to make sense and learn about new applications and data set related to a digitalized production.The contribution of this study will be three lessons learned along with a generic model for learning and organizing in the context of industry 4.0 initiatives. Tentative findings concern how artificial and human intelligence can be smartly integrated into the human work organization, i.e. the workplace. Many iterations of integrating the two intelligences are required. We will discuss a preliminary process-model called “Super8”, in which AI systems must allow for providing feedback on progress as well as being able to incorporate high-level human input in the learning process. The   practical implication of the study will be industrialized in the collaborating 

  • 176.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Smidt, Hanne
    University West, Study and Academic Support, Library and Educational Development.
    Fredriksson-Larsson, Ulla
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Tano, Ingrid
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Påsse, Marie
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Carlén, Urban
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Vallo Hult, Helena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Linder, Johan
    NU Hospital Group,Trolhättan (SWE).
    Johansson, Kristina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Real Estate, Economics and Society.
    Kvalitetsramverk för arbetsintegrerat lärande i högre utbildning (KAILU-project)2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 177.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Vallo Hult, Helena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Smidt, Hanne
    University West, Study and Academic Support, Library and Educational Development.
    Linder, Johan
    NU Hospital Group, Trollhättan (SWE).
    Carlén, Urban
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Johansson, Kristina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Real Estate, Economics and Society.
    Fredriksson-Larsson, Ulla
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Påsse, Marie
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Tano, Ingrid
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Enhancing Work-Integrated Learning (Wil) through Strategic Stakeholder Collaboration2023In: ICERI 2023 Proceedings: 6th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, Seville, Spain. 13-15 November, 2023 / [ed] Luis Gómez Chova, Chelo González Martínez and Joanna Lees, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2023, p. 1298-1302Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For graduates to be able to compete in the global world, study programmes must include knowledge, competences and skills that ensures that students with a higher education degree are ready for both a complex working life and continuous competence development. This demands competencies beyond traditional theoretical knowledge, such as preparing for uncertainty and unknown outcomes. Therefore, it is essential to engage students in learning to learn, i.e., lifelong learning so that the tools and methods for learning in higher education can also be developed through future work.

    At University West (UW) in Sweden, this means that programmes are developed in collaboration with societal partners to provide a relevant and attractive educational offer. The University West uses the concept of work-integrated learning (WIL) to embrace a sustained/systematic collaboration with strategic partners outside academia. We consider that knowledge is created in the encounter between academia and our strategic partners, through the integration of knowledge, skills and competences acquired both within academia and work life.

    To achieve a strategic and qualitative development of work-integrated learning (WIL), the Board of University West in 2018 decided to WIL-certify all educational programs including a sustainability perspective and enhance this process by engaging in strategic partnerships with stakeholders from civic society to international companies. The process is a development of existing and future programmes and their pedagogical approach. The WIL certification process has developed into a renewal of the pedagogical approach through a development process based on a lively exchange of experiences from study programme representatives from political science to nursing; and discussions with our strategic partners that benefits both students, staff as well as the strategic partners through competence development and lifelong learning.

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the lessons learned so far and present a conceptual quality framework for WIL in higher education with a clear connection to sustainable development. Based on the experiences from the development of the institutional WIL project and a Swedish Innovation agency (VINNOVA) research project we aim for a better understanding and insights into how theoretical and practical knowledge can enhance learning both within academia and within strategic partners. Data collection activities include workshops and focus groups with selected participants from the target groups at the university (managers/prefects and teachers) as well as at the collaborative partner organization (managers and supervisors/mentors). Initial findings suggest that the meeting between academia, working life and the surrounding society can ensure that insights, solutions and mutual development are created to meet the challenges society faces. The paper will discuss the methodology of creating work-integrated learning environments that include well-functioning communication and a community of practice (Wenger, 1998) connecting learners, teachers, and other staff with local, regional and national stakeholders.

  • 178.
    Lundin, Patrick
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Cogelja, Tony
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Implementation av ELK Stack2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ELK Stack is an open source log system which consists of Elasticsearch, Logstash and Kibana. Elasticsearch is a noSQL search database that is used for data storage. The pipeline program Logstash receives data from inputs and sends it to outputs, filtering of the data occurs in Logstash between input and output. Kibana presents data in a graphical environment where diagram is created to provide a simple overview. This report is made as a collaboration with University Wests IT-department which is in need of a new loggingsystem, to replace their current solution. The new solution ELK Stack builds on the existing one where syslog is used. ELK Stack was installed in a test environment and tested according to the IT-departments demands.

  • 179.
    Lundmark, Elias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Persson, Chris
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    de Blanche, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Thomas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Increasing Throughput of Multiprogram HPC Workloads: Evaluating a SMT Co-Scheduling Approach2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simultaneous Multithreading (SMT) is a technique that allows formore efficient processor utilization by scheduling multiple threadson a single physical core. Previous research have shown an averagethroughput increase of around 20% with an SMT level of two, e.g.two threads per core. However, a bad combination of threads canactually result in decreased performance. To be conservative, manyHPC-systems have SMT disabled, thus, limiting the number ofscheduling slots in the system to one per core. However, for SMT tonot hurt performance, we need to determine which threads shouldshare a core. In this poster, we use 30 random SPEC CPU job mixedon a twelve-core Broadwell based node, to study the impact ofenabling SMT using two different co-scheduling strategies. Theresults show that SMT can increase performance especially whenusing no-same-program co-scheduling.

  • 180.
    Lundqvist, Ida
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Rydsmo, Elvira
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Bostäder och strandskydd: Skilda kommunala förutsättningar2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study deals with the shoreland protection legislation and the current investigation from 2020. The shoreland protection legislation counteracts the development for smaller municipalities that need being able to exploit attractive locations. The inquiry aims to differentiate shoreland protection legislation by making it easier to build in rural areas and more restrictive on the exploited coast. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether the shoreland protection legislation is interpreted differently in municipalities on the Bohuslän coast and municipalities with mainly rural areas in Dalsland, and to find out whether the municipalities see any change if the inquiry's proposal is implemented. The study was conducted with a qualitative method through semi-structured interviews and with a legal dogmatic method to establish the municipalities' interpretation of applicable law. The conclusion shows that the municipalities make different interpretations of the legislation, which means that the county administrative board has an important role to equate the results for those who apply for an exemption for beach protection. Although some municipalities consider the regulations to be strict, they agree that the legislation is significant for sustainable community building. There is a need for differentiation of the regulations for municipalities that are struggling with depopulation related challenges. We find that the rural municipalities consider that the inquiry's proposal does not provide sufficiently differentiated legislation. The proposal does not significantly affect the coastal municipalities, but nevertheless agrees that it will not lead to any major change. While the proposal will not massively impact the coastal municipalities, the municipalities on the coast agree that the proposal will severely affect inland municipalities.

  • 181.
    Lundqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    de Blanche, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Andersson, H. Robert H.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Thing-to-thing electricity micro payments using blockchain technology2017In: Global Internet of Things Summit (GIoTS), 2017: Proceedings of a meeting held 6-9 June 2017, Geneva, Switzerland, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 261-266, article id 8016254Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thing-to-thing payments are a key enabler in the Internet of Things (IoT) era, to ubiquitously allow for devices to pay each other for services without any human interaction. Traditional credit card-based systems are not able to handle this new paradigm, however blockchain technology is a promising payment candidate in this context. The prominent example of blockchain technology is Bitcoin, with its decentralized structure and ease of account creation. This paper presents a proof-of-concept implementation of a smart cable that connects to a smart socket and without any human interaction pays for electricity. In this paper, we identify several obstacles for the widespread use of bitcoins in thing-to-thing payments. A critical problem is the high transaction fees in the Bitcoin network when doing micro transactions. To reduce this impact, we present a single-fee micro-payment protocol that aggregates multiple smaller payments incrementally into one larger transaction needing only one transaction fee. The proof-of concept shows that trustless, autonomous, and ubiquitous thing-to-thing micro-payments is no longer a future technology.

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  • 182.
    Lundqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Loconsole, Annabella
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Tano, Ingrid
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    de Blanche, Andreas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Comparing the Cdio Standards with the Work Integrated Learning Certification2022In: Proceedings of the International CDIO Conference 18th International CDIO Conference, CDIO 2022 Reykjavik / [ed] Gudjonsdottir M.S., Audunsson H., Donoso A.M., Kristjansson G., Saemundsdottir I., Foley J.T., Kyas M., Sripakagorn A., Roslof J., Bennedsen J., Edstrom K., Kuptasthien N., Lyng R., Chalmers University of Technology , 2022, p. 37-47Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving the quality of higher education is an important responsibility of universities and colleges. Several approaches have been developed with the goal of improving the quality of university study programs. In this paper we compare the CDIO (Conceive, Design, Implement, Operate) and the work-integrated learning (WIL) initiatives based on recently completed WIL certifications at University West. Through a series of workshops, the CDIO standards are compared with the aspects and criteria of the WIL certification guidelines, to identify overlapping areas and differences between the two initiatives. The results show that both initiatives overlap but also differ in several aspects. These differences could be useful to strengthen the WIL certification process at University West as well as clarifying the connection between CDIO and work-integrated learning.  

  • 183.
    Lundström, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Algebra, trigonometri och analys2023 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 184.
    Lundström, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Double Calculus2023In: Surveys in Mathematics and its Applications, ISSN 1843-7265, E-ISSN 1842-6298, Vol. 18, p. 27-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a streamlined, slightly modified version, in the two-variable situation, of a beautiful, but not so well known, theory by Bögel [1, 2], already from the 1930s, on an alternative higher dimensional calculus of real functions, a double calculus, which includes many two-variable extensions of classical results from single variable calculus, such as Rolle’s theorem, Lagrange’s mean value theorem, Cauchy’s mean value theorem, Fermat’s extremum theorem, the first derivative test, and the first and second fundamental theorems of calculus. 

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  • 185.
    Lundström, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Elementär optimeringslära2021Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Elementär optimeringslära inleds med en repetition av grundläggande matematikkunskaper om algebra, ekvationer, matriser, funktioner och derivata. Därefter behandlas linjär optimering, först i två variabler med fokus på geometrisk förståelse och därefter, i det allmänna fallet, med simplexmetoden. Denna metod tillämpas i boken även inom det spännande matematikområdet spelteori. Boken redogör för olika metoder för optimering av allmänna tvåvariabelfunktioner, dels över kompakta områden, dels med Lagranges sats givet ett bivillkor och dels med Hessianen. Boken tar avslutningsvis upp optimering på grafer med Kruskals, Prims och Dijkstras algoritmer.

  • 186.
    Lundström, Patrik
    University West, Department of Technology. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Generalized Brauer Algebras2002In: Communications in Algebra, ISSN 0092-7872, E-ISSN 1532-4125, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 2229-2270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using some ideas of Brauer, we introduce what we call generalized Brauer algebras and, as a special case, Brauer orders. We show that many well-known classes of so-called crossed product algebras, and in particular, the well-known crossed product orders, can be obtained as special instances of our construction. We prove several results showing when Brauer orders are Azumaya, maximal, hereditary or Gorenstein.

  • 187.
    Lundström, Patrik
    University West, Department of Technology. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Normal Integral Bases for Infinite Abelian Extensions2001In: Acta Arithmetica, ISSN 0065-1036, E-ISSN 1730-6264, Vol. 100, p. 79-83Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 188.
    Lundström, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Primitives of continuous functions via polynomials2022In: International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, ISSN 0020-739X, E-ISSN 1464-5211, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In standard books on calculus the existence of primitive functions of continuous functions is proved, in one way or another, using Riemann sums. In this note we present a completely different self-contained, however probably folkloristic, proof of this existence. Our proof combines, on the one hand, the so-called Stone Weierstrass theorem on uniform approximation of continuous functions on the unit interval by polynomials, and, on the other hand, a classical result from calculus on the existence of limits of differentiated sequences of functions. The sought for primitive is then constructed as the limit of primitives of the polynomials approximating the original function.

  • 189.
    Lundström, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Oinert, Johan
    Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Blekinge Institute of Technology, SE-37179 Karlskrona (SWE).
    Group gradations on Leavitt path algebras (vol 19, 2050165, 2020)2023In: Journal of Algebra and its Applications, ISSN 0219-4988, E-ISSN 1793-6829, article id 2492001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results that are stated in P. Nystedt and J. Oinert [Group gradations on Leavitt path algebras, J. Algebra Appl. 19(9) (2020) 2050165, Sec. 4] hold true, but due to an oversimplification some of the proofs are incomplete. The purpose of this note is to amend and complete the affected proofs.

  • 190.
    Lundström, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Öinert, Johan
    Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona (SWE).
    Corrigendum: Group gradations on Leavitt path algebras2023In: Journal of Algebra and its Applications, ISSN 0219-4988, E-ISSN 1793-6829Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The results that are stated in P. Nystedt and J. Öinert [Group gradations on Leavitt path algebras, J. Algebra Appl. 19(9) (2020) 2050165, Sec. 4] hold true, but due to an oversimplification some of the proofs are incomplete. The purpose of this note is to amend and complete the affected proofs.

  • 191.
    Lundström, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Öinert, Johan
    Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Blekinge Institute of Technology, SE-37179 Karlskrona (SWE).
    Simplicity of Leavitt Path Algebras via Graded Ring Theory2023In: Bulletin of the Australian Mathematical Society, ISSN 0004-9727, E-ISSN 1755-1633, Vol. 108, no 3, p. 428-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suppose that R is an associative unital ring and that E= (E-0, E-1, r, s) is a directed graph. Using results from graded ring theory, we show that the associated Leavitt path algebra L-R(E) is simple if and only if R is simple, E-0 has no nontrivial hereditary and saturated subset, and every cycle in E has an exit. We also give a complete description of the centre of a simple Leavitt path algebra.

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  • 192.
    Lundström, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Öinert, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Karlskrona (SWE).
    Richter, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Karlskrona (SWE).
    Non-Unital Ore Extensions2023In: Colloquium Mathematicum, ISSN 0010-1354, E-ISSN 1730-6302, Vol. 172, no 2, p. 217-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study Ore extensions of non-unital associative rings. We provide a characterization of simple non-unital differential polynomial rings R[x; delta], under the hy-pothesis that R is s-unital and ker(delta) contains a non-zero idempotent. This result gener-alizes a result by oinert, Richter and Silvestrov from the unital setting. We also present a family of examples of simple non-unital differential polynomial rings.

  • 193.
    Lycke, Liselott
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Tano, Ingrid
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Building quality culture in higher education2017In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 9, no 3-4, p. 331-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe an approach to build a quality culture within a higher education institution. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is based on Action research and a Case study. Findings: The authors show the result of the mapped processes of a higher education institution, Management planning and control, Education, Research and Support, and describe how the mapping was performed, working in cross-functional teams. Further on, they discuss the result of the pilot and the plan for implementation. Originality/value: A process-oriented approach in higher education institutions, with its complexity, creates opportunities for successful quality assurance and control when having an integrated quality assurance system. © 2017, © Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 194.
    Magnusson, Jenny
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Andersson, Elisabeth
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Bolundare2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On Mars 1st 2020 a law change was performed in Sweden's Planning and Building Act (PBL) 9:4 a. The change made possible for the constructor to build an accessory dwelling with an area of 30 square meters without a planning permission. All you need is an approval from the municipalities that you can start to build. Before the law change you could build a small house that could be up to 25 square meters and the building could be either an accessory dwelling or an accessory building (garage, storage, guest house) without a planning permission. The new law changes do not involve the accessory buildings, it only involves the accessory dwellings so that they can be 30 square meters. The accessory building can still only be 25 square meters. The change has caused some trouble, which municipalities and construction companies have noticed. There is a greater interest in building a 30 square meter garage instead of housing. Individuals find it difficult to understand the new regulations, which means that the municipalities spend a lot of time explaining the building rules for the individuals. In this study the 30 square meter accessory dwelling is called bolundare and the 25 square meter accessory dwelling is called attefallare. This study investigates the view of the 30 square meter accessory dwelling that the municipalities and construction company have. It also investigates which rules that apply when an individual want to lease their bolundare and how many starting clearances municipalities have given. The purpose with this law change was to allow bigger accessory dwelling to lessen the housing shortage that we have today. In this study we saw that the municipalities did not think that bolundare will affect the ability of permanent housing. The construction companies were more positive, even if one of the companies did not think that bolundare will be a quick fix in the housing market.The result shows that the municipalities are not completely satisfied with the changes in the law and that the rules are complicated to the individuals. It also emerges what difference it is between a bolundare and an attefallare. The result also shows that individuals have difficulties understanding the rules that refer to when an individual want to lease their bolundare. There is already a proposal from the Committee on Civil Affairs to change PBL 9:4 a one more time this year. More specifically august 1st 2020. The proposal says that all accessory buildings and accessory dwelling should be allowed to be 30 square meters without a building permit. If it will be allowed remains to be seen.

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  • 195.
    Mahbuby, Hany
    et al.
    Faculty of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (IRN).
    Amerian, Yazdan
    Faculty of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (IRN).
    Nikoofard, Amirhossein
    Faculty of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (IRN).
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Application of the nonlinear optimisation in regional gravity field modelling using spherical radial base functions2021In: Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica, ISSN 0039-3169, E-ISSN 1573-1626, Vol. 65, no 3-4, p. 261-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gravity field is a signature of the mass distribution and interior structure of the Earth, in addition to all its geodetic applications especially geoid determination and vertical datum unification. Determination of a regional gravity field model is an important subject and needs to be investigated and developed. Here, the spherical radial basis functions (SBFs) are applied in two scenarios for this purpose: interpolating the gravity anomalies and solving the fundamental equation of physical geodesy for geoid or disturbing potential determination, which has the possibility of being verified by the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)/levelling data. Proper selections of the number of SBFs and optimal location of the applied SBFs are important factors to increase the accuracy of estimation. In this study, the gravity anomaly interpolation based on the SBFs is performed by Gauss-Newton optimisation with truncated singular value decomposition, and a Quasi-Newton method based on line search to solve the minimisation problems with a small number of iterations is developed. In order to solve the fundamental equation of physical geodesy by the SBFs, the truncated Newton optimisation is applied as the Hessian matrix of the objective function is not always positive definite. These two scenarios are applied on the terrestrial free-air gravity anomalies over the topographically rough area of Auvergne. The obtained accuracy for the interpolated gravity anomaly model is 1.7 mGal with the number of point-masses about 30% of the number of observations, and 1.5 mGal in the second scenario where the number of used kernels is also 30%. These accuracies are root mean square errors (RMSE) of the differences between predicted and observed gravity anomalies at check points. Moreover, utilising the optimal constructed model from the second scenario, the RMSE of 9 cm is achieved for the differences between the gravimetric height anomalies derived from the model and the geometric height anomalies from GNSS/levelling points. © 2021, The Authors.

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    Springer
  • 196.
    Meghraoui, Mustapha
    et al.
    EOST-Institut Terre et Environnement de Strasbourg University of Strasbourg, CNRS-UMR, Strasbourg, (FRA).
    Sundararajan, Narasimman
    Department of Earth Sciences Sultan, Qaboos University, Muscat, (OMN).
    Banerjee, Santanu
    Department of Earth Sciences Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Maharashtra, Mumbai, (IND).
    Hinzen, Klaus-G.
    University of Cologne Bergisch Gladbach, Nordrhein-Westfalen, (DEU).
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Roure, François
    Géosciences IFP Energies Nouvelles, Rueil-Malmaison, (FRA).
    Chaminé, Helder I.
    Laboratory of Cartography and Applied Geology School of Engineering (ISEP), Polytechnic of Porto, Porto, (PRT).
    Maouche, Said
    Center for Research in Astronomy Astrophysics and Geophysics, Alger (DZA).
    Michard, André
    Paris-Sud University, Paris, (FRA).
    Preface2022In: Advances in Science, Technology and Innovation: 2nd Springer Conference of the Arabian Journal of Geosciences, CAJG-2 2019 Sousse25 November 2019 through 28 November 2019 / [ed] Meghraoui M., Sundararajan N., Banerjee S., Hinzen Klaus-G., Eshagh M., Roure F., Chaminé H.I., Maouche S., Michard A., Springer Nature, 2022Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 197.
    Mellbin, Amanda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Simson, Kristina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Brukningsvärd jordbruksmark - för en hållbar framtid2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to clarify the agricultural land that is suitable for cultivation and protection from a national and sustainable perspective within physical planning. The general inquiry in this study is whether there is a problem between preserving or developing agricultural land. Studying Swedish legislation, and any potential obstacles, as well as its clarity and applicability have been important to respond to the aim of this study. The study focuses on Swedish legislation that affects municipal physical planning. The County Administrative Board's has a provision of advice- and monitoring role when the municipal wants to plan for use of land- and water areas but has no empowerment to inform or interfere in agricultural land that is suitable for cultivation. Agricultural land is mentioned as an area of "national importance" in the Environmental Code in chapter 3, section 4 but other areas in the same chapter are mentioned as "national interests". This means that the Swedish Government protect the agricultural land differently than the other areas that are mentioned in this chapter. The chosen methods to clarify the Swedish legislation is applied using a legal dogmatic method and a sociology of law method. These methods are used to present Swedish legislation that concerns the municipal physical planning, as well as the County Administrative Board's and their part in monitoring the use of land and water. The study is an overview of the current situation and what has changed since the year of 2013, carried out by conducting a survey, an interview and studying precedents from the Land and Environment Court of Appeal from the year 2016 until present day. The interviews suggest a proposition that a changed Planning and Building Act can alter the municipal and the County Administrative Board's roles and authority regarding regulation and advice in the planning process. The forecast is that agricultural land is going to continue to be developed. The results from the survey indicate that the municipal and the County Administrative Board's believe that the development of agriculture land adjacent to the urban center are going to be reduced by the year of 2030. Housing development is known as a significant national interest and according to the survey it is the main reason to develop agricultural land. The survey result also indicates an increased awareness of agricultural land and the importance for food production and sustainable development. A proposition from authorities to evaluate agricultural land in a different way than before can also contribute to a deeper understanding of agricultural land's value and importance in achieving sustainable development. According to this study the legal postion changed in the year of 2016 which has consolidated the maintenance of agricultural land. The cases in this study from the Land and Environment Court of Appeal mention: no matter how much the agricultural land is being cultivated or not, no matter the classification and no matter if it is pasture or arable land, the agricultural land is suitable for cultivation and therefore not appropriate to develop.

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  • 198.
    Menhem, Hassan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Ghiassi Tari, Kianoush
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Val av brandvägg i Linux utifrån konfigurationssvårigheter2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, the use of digital infrastructure is increasing. Data traffic usually contains confidential and sensitive information that must be protected from unauthorized access. In order to protect this information a firewall is required. Linux environment accommodates several firewalls. The most used firewalls are Nftables, Firewalld, Shorewall, and UFW. This study compares the firewalls mentioned above regarding installation and configuration complexity. This comparison is based on the number of steps, time, and complexity that each firewall requires to be installed and configured. In this study, four virtual computers were used to install the firewalls. Each firewall had to go through different scenarios, such as allowing or blocking data traffic. All logged data elicited from the examinations have been documented in tables and diagrams that show the overall results. The results show that UFW is to be preferred over other firewalls because it has a lower difficulty level, a smaller number of steps, and shorter time intervals. The result of this study is valuable for those who are willing to install a firewall that is easy to deal with.

  • 199.
    Mogren, Malin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Johansson, Jonny
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Fritidshus i plan- och bygglagen: undantaget från tillgänglighetskraven2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to Planning and Building Act (PBL) 8 chap. 6 § 2 there is an exception for holiday homes so that they do not have to meet ordinary accessibility requirements. Holiday homes do not have to be accessible and useful for people with reduced mobility or orientation. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether the exemption in the legislation is used by applying for a building permit for holiday homes with the intention of escaping the requirements of the PBL. The study also examines how the building committees handle building permits for large holiday homes and the criteria used to separate holiday homes from permanent houses. Large holiday homes are being investigated, as a generalization could show that the chance is greater that such a home has been built to take advantage of the exemption.Through a legal dogmatic study, information is collected about the current legal situation, which is then compiled with a forensic sociological study. There are uncertainties in the forensic sociology survey as a limited proportion of the municipalities in Västra Götalandincluded in the survey, responded to the interview form.To live permanently in a holiday home, neither a building permit nor registration is required. According to the legislation, those who live permanently in a holiday home must still ensure that the house meets the requirements for accessibility and usability. The responses from the municipalities nevertheless show a tendency for the exemption to be utilized to a certain degree. There is no definition for holiday homes in PBL and in practice a large holiday home could just as easily be a permanent home. When the municipalities handle building permit applications, they still must distinguish between the different forms of housing, what determines is what is stated in the application.It is difficult to prove that property owners use the exemption to escape accessibility requirements. It also entails certain disadvantages to state holiday homes in the application if the intention is to live permanently. It can mean a higher cost to adapt accessibility afterwards, there may also be some problems if the municipality introduces area regulations.From a long-term perspective, a proportion of the population is excluded from the holiday home market when a significant proportion of properties are not built adapted to accessibility.

  • 200.
    Mohamed, Aboura
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Rslan, Hamza
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Anslutningstopp med pre-kompressionsvolym2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a thesis work where an end cap of a hydraulic truck pump has been developed and two new models have been designed. The work was carried out to develop the existing model by modeling two new models according to a requirement that they must contain cavity (pre-compression) with a certain volume at dead points (BDC and TDC). This is to reduce the pressure that arises at the dead points center of the end cap as pressure transients without affecting other functions negatively in the end cap. The degree project has been carried out at Parker Hannifin (Pump and motor) in Trollhattan. Three concepts have been compared and one concept has been selected. Two new models of the end cap according to the requirements have been developed. By cavity (pre-compression filter volume) is meant that a hole is drilled from the dead ends of the end cap which links the cylinder port to an additional volume obtained from the end cap. Based on a requirements specification that has been developed together with the marketing department, a concept has been selected and the geometry has been determined, regarding e.g. suction-port and pressure-ports dimensions the diameter of the drilled hole, the volume of the cavity and the customer requirements. Using the calculated geometry, two CAD models of the end cap have been made and the material determined. The models are then used for FEM calculations to check that no deformations at the end cap become too large. The models have shown that they meet the requirements set in the requirements specification and customer requirements and have also shown that they can withstand the working pressure of the F1 pump. The development of the end cap is very successful based on the FEM calculations, reconciliation with the requirements specification, customer requirements and scientific sources. 

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