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  • 151.
    Ekholm, Sara
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Falk Friberg, Linn
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Personlig eller professionell?: Konsumenters tillit för svenska modeföretag på Facebook2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Communication in the context of social media has created new opportunities for companies to interact with their customers. There are several business categories available on these platforms where fashion companies playing an important part. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that contribute to the reliability of Swedish companies Facebook pages in fashion for women. This research examines companies Facebook post by looking at patterns in consumers perceptions. The study applies a qualitative approach where our primary data collection consists of twelve interviews. With the support of theoretical concepts such as brand awareness, corporate communication, electronic word-of-mouth and trust we created a base for strengthening our results. In our research, we describe how brand awareness and individuals reviews are distinguished in an aspect of trust. According to these subjects we discovered that consumers experiences is in a greater importance than other customers perception of a product or company. Furthermore, we describe whether the company’s communication and tonality matters in an aspect of creating credibility on brand pages. The result of our survey shows that respondents have shared sentences about which tonality companies should apply to confirm their seriousity. This research also explains how consumers use Facebook posts different dimension in terms of comments and reactions, to investigate whether the post is reliable or not. Reactions are used by customers to investigate whether individuals interpretation reflects on what themselves are experiencing. Likewise, the comment field is used as a place where consumers can create reviews about the content in a specific post. Lastly, we present how the design of images is important for the perception of the company’s credibility and seriousity.   

  • 152.
    Eklund Taavo, Mia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Appelgren, Therese
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Popup-rutor på eget initiativ: En kvalitativ studie om implementering av click-popups i webbgränssnitt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, alternative popup windows have been investigated from a user perspective by being implemented in the web interface of an e-commerce website. This was done with the aim of improving the interaction and user experience on websites where popup windows are applied as a marketing tool. The intention was to eliminate a negative suser experience that popup windows cause when they occur in the form of internal or external events that interrupt the user and leads the attention away from the main focus. A website prototype for e-commerce was designed where popup windows were placed in the interface, in the shape of so-called click-popups. The prototype was then used as a tool for implementing a user test, where 13 participants were allowed to navigate the site, thereby giving the opportunity to interact with the click-popups found in the interface. A subsequent questionnaire then answered what the participants thought about their experience. The result of our study showed that the click-popups reformed both interaction and user experience in a positive direction. This could be distinguished because the majority of participants interacted with several click-popups and we received positive response regarding their experience, which is different from previous research regarding other types of popup windows where similar results could not be found. We could conclude that the reason for this was the possibility of making own decisions as well as the lack of interruption. It was thus found that the disapproved properties that popup windows usually are associated with in fact can be reduced.

  • 153.
    El-Boustany, Elias
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Persson, Adam
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    "Käftsmällar" i Hollywood: Hur våld konstrueras med berättartekniska verktyg2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this exam is to increase the understanding of how to use storytelling-techniques to emphasize the viewers experience of a fighting-scene. Throuhg an analisys of selected movieclips and interviews with persons who have knowledge about imagery and visual techniques.we have interpred and compared the techniques used in the clips, how they are used and what type of feeling is mediated to the audience.

  • 154.
    Eneroth Johansson, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ryås, Cornelia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Vad som påverkar animatörers val i skapandet av fotorealistisk 3D-animation2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to show some possible factors that affect the animators’ choices when working on photorealistic animation based on references. Research in computer graphics has since 1970 had as a main goal to achieve photorealism. When working on 3D-production for film, animation is a part of the process. This part aims to give life to digital characters, among other things. References are used as a tool to achieve photorealism. This could for example be a video of animals or people moving in the same way as the characters in the animation is supposed to do. But many experiences show that the animation could be uninteresting and lack credibility if the animator sticks to close to the reference. This forces the animator to deviate from the reference material in order to achieve a photorealistic animation. We want to find out which choices the animators are making in that situation and what they are based upon.

    The paper highlights six animators’ views on what affects their choices when working with photorealistic animation. From the interviews a number of factors that the animators themselves found to affect them, was distinguished. The factors that the paper highlights with the support of theories and the answers from the interviews are clarity, interest, characters, influence of others, time, intuition, judgment, experience, subconscious factors and personal background. 

  • 155.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Persson, Sandra
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Hur Snapchat som applikation integreras i marknadsföringens utveckling inom företag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There have been changes in the way companies think about marketing. Developments in technology have made the communication easier and faster. Marketing has gone from focusing on the product or service to a customer-focused mindset where companies want to deepen their customer relationships in order to create more personalized and valuable offers according to the customer needs. Social media has become a major part of everyday life and companies therefore tries to reach their customers there. Since the emergence of new social media and it's growing in popularity, companies need to consider the benefits and how they will use the media in connection with its marketing purposes.

    Snapchat is an application that has increased in popularity and in users in recent years. In the current situation, Snapchat is one of the largest social media among teenagers. Companies therefore begin creating their own Snapchat accounts where users can follow and share their pictures and videos.

    Our thesis aims to examine how companies view the use of Snapchat, from a marketing purpose, and then compare this with previous research on the marketing and use of private Snapchat. We want to find out how Snapchat is different from other social media that companies use and what their strategies are, and how they look on the intimate communication with followers. Through qualitative interviews, we get an understanding of how companies view the topic.

    The result shows that all respondents appreciate the personal and rapid two-way communication. Respondents perceive the application as more spontaneous, unfiltered and playful compared to the other social media that they use. Snapchats interface, however, create problems for companies as they do not have access to a detailed statistical review of its followers and its published content. It is clear to see patterns of the companies' basic concept of marketing and previous research on the topic. Since the development of marketing is constantly changing, the companies are starting to think more different.

  • 156.
    Eriksson, Matilda
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Förståelse och interaktion i Runkeeper: En kvalitativ studie av Quantified-selfers uppfattning och erfarenheter av förståelse och interaktion i Runkeeper2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to find out how Quantified-selfers' interpretation of the collected data occur by describing their experiences. As interaction with the system and the collected data is a contributive element to the interpretation, the purpose was also to see how the interaction occur in a system used by Quantified-selfers, and how the interaction influence and results in their understanding. This was investigated by interviewing users of the fitness-tracking application Runkeeper and observe, and discuss, a reconstruction of their interaction with the application.The study showed that the reflection and interpretation of the statistics of the collected data differed between the users as they saw different patterns and came to different conclusions based upon it. Mainly, the participants perceived the statistics as easy to understand but there were also some obstacles for the interpretation. Interaction played an essential part when the users were to look at the statistics and interpret it. It led to the interpretation by different goals and sub-targets and it occurred when the users explored and abstracted, or elaborated the collected data. In the discussion it is reviewed why the interaction and the interpretation occur the way they do. Finally it is suggested how systems for Quantified-selfers, in the future may be designed to facilitate the reflection and interpretation of the collected data.

  • 157.
    Eriksson, Åsa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    "Strike a pose, there’s nothing to it": En kvalitativ studie om kvinnor & selfies2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A selfie is a self-portrait photograph, taken by holding a mobile camera device and pointing it at oneself. Today's technology opens for new imagery and new ways to communicate, and the selfie is a prominent expression in the communication of today. Before social media and the Internet, photos were just physical objects stored in a photo album or a box at home, and the potential audience were limited. With the introduction of social media sites such as Facebook and Instagram, along with the prevalence of smartphones, selfies has become a socially acceptable way of expression available to vast audiences all around the world at the click of a button. But, does a selfie tell as much of our personality as the clothes on our body? The furniture in our homes, or what kind of music we listen to? Can a selfie replace a verbal introduction? How much of an effort is there behind a selfie? The purpose of this study is to investigate how young women interpret, use and consume selfies with the mobile photo-sharing application Instagram as a starting point. In this study I have used a combination of image analysis and group interviews. I have used two different groups of candidates, one that takes "selfies" on a regular basis, and one with lesser "selfie" frequency. I will proceed from Erving Goffman's dramaturgical perspective. Goffman believes that the interaction between people is comparable with a stage performance. The individual chooses their performance based on what kind of stage and audience is at their disposal. Image analysis concludes that a majority of respondents are inclined to take selfies with others. When the respondent is in a group setting it is not uncommon for them to try to fit as many people as possible in the photo, and as a consequence end up themselves on the fringe of the photo. When taking an individual selfie, image analysis shows that the more common setting is indoors, focused on the face of the subject. The majority of the respondent takes their selfies with the mobile phone straight ahead of them. The respondent begins to tilt the mobile phone depending on what she wants to capture in the picture. The study shows that selfies is complex and difficult to define and the appearance is central in the creation of a selfie. As a phenomenon, the selfie is a double edged sword, on one hand a popular form of expression and communication, and on the other it can be received by its viewers as repetitive and vain.

  • 158.
    Ernstsson, Helen
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Relationen mellan spelare och karaktärer inom onlinespel2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Is there is a relationship between the player and the character the player use when playing online games? Why does a player pick his character? Does the player affect its character, and does the character in turn affects the player? Does this impact exist from the very moment the player creates their character and does it continues throughout the game? And how does this impact look? Would a player pay with real money to make their character look good in the game?

    I have chosen to dig deeper into this and interviewed players about their thoughts on their character and how they create them. I chose the online game Tera Online to start from. I want to bring up the player's actions by the character and the player's experience in the gaming world to helps us understand how a player takes their decisions and affect its character. How the player sees himself against his own made up character and if the player chooses to reflect himself in his character or any other character that the player wants to be. In this work I have done interviews describing the relationship between the player and the player's character. I describe different concepts in the subject and also the player's interactions and observations when they play online games. The result shows that there is a relationship between the player and the character and discusses how it may look. It shows that the attractiveness and social status affects the player's choice of the character. And that it may improve if the player changes the clothes and appearance to something fancier. It also shows that the social and teamwork in online games meet the player's needs and satisfaction of playing.

  • 159.
    Fock-Nilsson, Albin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Huusko, Max
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Äventyrsspelens visuella dragningskraft: En neuroestetisk näranalys av datorspel2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay we present a qualitative analysis of the aesthetics of the environments in the adventure computer games Machinarium (2009) and Superbrothers: Sword and Sworcery (2011). The aim is to find out what makes two so visually different productions visually appealing, and see if we can find a common denominator between them. Creating alluring environments is important in many fields and the results can be used in everything from classical painting to game productions.

    Our basis of analysis comes from neuroaesthetics - a field of empirical aesthetics where facts are based on studies of how our brains react to a diversity of stimuli. Humankind has always had the need to visually interpret the world around us. You have to detect predators, react to disease in potetial mates and find and interpret your surounding in order to find a suitable lands for habitation. This presumably has made it’s mark in our aesthetic appreciation and is what the study of empirical aesthetics and neuroaesthetics is based on. Especially prolific in the field is Vilayanur S. Ramachandran, a neuroscientist who together with William Hirsten created the speculative theory of human artistic experience, and this is the main inspiration for the analysis.

    The analysis is based on two scenes from each game, and it showed that one with relative ease could apply most of the artistic laws to the games, the difficulty however was in knowing how much one could twist and bend the laws, how exact they were to be followed. It was also an important aspect to learn that, just as in the design world, every rule is not to be followed exactly if you want to make an interesting composition

  • 160.
    Fröjdendahl, Richard
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Catwalk på webben: En studie om en produktorienterad användarupplevelse2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The cost of returns is a big problem for a webshop. The purpose of this studie was to examine a user-experience related function on a webshop with clothes, additional to regular product pictures. It takes a closer look at a function called catwalk, which is a video where a model shows off clothes in movement. This studie was created with the purpose to see if this function could have any impact on the consumers positive experiences within searching for a specific product, in this case clothes. It also observes if the function provides a safer feeling for the consumer when it comes to evaluate a potential item for purchase. This, to see if the amount of return products eventually could be reduced. Six girls in the age span of 20-35 years old was observed when they searched for clothes, and afterwards they was interviewed about their thoughts of the catwalk-function. Results ars showing that the participants was given a safer feeling when it came to choosing the right product, and was given more help in the search progress. By experiences like these, the consumers desire to return a product reduces. The function was used mainly in the ending process of selecting a product, and could be compared to a changing room in a physical clothing store. This function is a distinct indication of user-experience (UX).

  • 161.
    Fuentes Martinez, Ana
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gender and prior knowledge factors in pupils’ beliefs about programming in mathematics2019In: ICERI2019 Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2019, p. 5703-5703Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent introduction of computer programming in all Swedish school curricula is a significant addition that came along together with several revisions aiming at enhancing pupils’ ICT skills. One of the reasons behind this implementation model was to accelerate the rate at which substantial results would be noticeable. It was also expected that teaching algorithmic thinking from early years would help to reduce the gender gap that has largely been observed in technology and engineering programs in higher education. In this study we wanted to explore students’ beliefs and performance in programming in relation to gender and previous experience. This paper reports on data obtained from first year high school students whose teachers actively attempted to incorporate programming into their mathematics lessons over the course of a school semester during the first year after the reform. We address three questions: a) Is there a difference in in attitudes or beliefs toward programming between students that had programming experience and those who had not? b) Is there a difference in attitudes or beliefs toward programming between male and female students? and c) Is there a difference in code understanding between male and female students? The third question is further analyzed to test the confidence gap hypothesis, which holds that women feel less confident than men in their own abilities. Five student groups from schools across Sweden were selected for the survey among those whose teachers were actively using programming in mathematics. A cross-sectional study was designed addressing the research questions based on data gathered from a group administered questionnaire (N=138). In order to assess students’ understanding of code, three programming exercises in increasing level of difficulty, concluded the survey. Alongside each programming exercise, the respondent had the possibility to express how confident he or she felt about the given answer. For the purposes of data comparison, the chi-squared test of independence was used. The analysis of the data indicates that there are relevant gender differences in students’ views and attitudes towards programming but not in their actual performance when answering code questions. In this case, differences could be attributed to previous programming experience which also seems to influence students’ anxiety toward the reform. However, previous programming instruction did not seem to influence pupil’s beliefs about how useful they thought programming will be in their upcoming education or professional life. Female students were on average less positive regarding how useful they think programming might be for them in the future. We could also confirm the tendency for women to underestimate their programming achievements. Most relevant, female students were more likely to state that they were unsure when the answer was right, whereas male students often felt sure about their wrong answers.

  • 162.
    Fuentes Martinez, Ana
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ekström, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Kritiska föreställningar och reflektioner om robotar och artificiell intelligens i svensk skola: när lärarnas programmeringskunskaper spelar roll2019In: VILÄR 5-6 december 2019, University West, Trollhättan: Abstracts / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: University West , 2019, p. 9-10Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Robotar och artificiell intelligens (AI) är redan en del av verkligheten och kan komma att göra intåg i skolan inom en snar framtid. I en studie av Hrastinski et al (2019) belyses lärares och forskares kritiska reflektioner om vad användningen av robotar och AI kan innebära för en utbildningskontext. Studien konstaterar ett ökat behov av kompetensutveckling, men påvisar också en viss oro över en förändrad lärarroll, mänskliga relationer, individualisering, pedagogisk ledning och etik. Både lärare och forskare visade upp en begränsad förståelse för skillnaderna mellan de två teknologierna. Dessutom framkom det i studien att det finns en skillnad mellan deltagarnas tankar om införandet av robotar och AI; lärarnas resonemang handlade om möjligheter att förbättra den nuvarande undervisningspraktiken medan forskarna såg en potential till att transformera undervisningen.

    I Sverige har läroplanen nyligen reviderats med följden att alla elever, från förskolan till gymnasiet, ska lära sig datalogiskt tänkande och programmering. Förändringen innebär ökade fortbildningskrav på lärarna, vilket har medfört att många svenska universitet erbjuder programmeringskurser för verksamma lärare. För att studera hur de ökade programmeringskunskaperna påverkar lärarnas syn på användningen av robotar och AI i undervisningen ombads sjutton universitetslärare, med ansvar för programmeringskurserna, att i en enkät reflektera över hur dessa teknologier kan forma framtidens undervisningspraktik. För att kunna jämföra med Hrastinskis tidigare studie, fick universitetslärarna föreställa sig en undervisningssituation där (a) sociala robotar och (b) robotar med artificiell intelligens var en realitet. De reflekterade över vilka utmaningar och möjligheter användningen av robotar och AI skulle kunna medföra i ett framtida klassrum. Hur skiljer sig universitetslärarnas reflektioner från resultatet i den tidigare studien?

    Analysen visade att universitetslärarna resonerade kring potentiella vinster med att individualisera undervisning och befria lärare från rutinuppgifter. Deras framtidssyn låg också närmare lärarnas än forskarnas i Hrastinskis studie, då de inte heller förutspådde någon betydande transformation av den nuvarande undervisningspraktiken. Resultatet indikerade att universitetslärarna generellt sett hade mer kunskap om robotar och AI än deltagarna i den tidigare studien. Trots det var de skeptiska till de kognitiva fördelarna med att använda en fysisk robot istället för en traditionell dator. Utifrån framtidsscenariot med programmeringskunniga lärare i klassrummen, föreslog universitetslärarna inte någon ytterligare kompetensutveckling, vilket står i kontrast till reflektionerna i Hrastinskis studie. Om universitetslärare tror att programmeringskunskaper kan överbrygga kompetensgapet, och de inte förväntar sig någon radikal förändring av undervisningspraktiken, då kanske tröskeln för att integrera robotar och AI i undervisning är lägre än vad den tidigare studien förutsåg.

  • 163.
    Fältström, Anton
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Perus, Malin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Att skräddarsy för publiken: En studie om publiksegmentering och marknadsföring för film genom filmtrailrar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Almost since the beginning of movies there has been movie trailers. There is a lot of research about movies but not as much about movie trailers. The thing that combines movie science and marketing.  The main method used to make the analysis during the writing of this paper has been modes of reception which was used through a survey that was sent you by sharing on Facebook. In the survey there was a test to see the rate of which the test subjects had to tell if they where interested too watch it.  An analysis was done on these 2 trailers together with 2 major blockbusters in the genre wardrama, the movies Apocalypse now and Saving private ryan and 2 trailers for Dunkirk. These trailers were pinned against each other too see the differences and similarities between movie trailers from the same genre and to see the trailer development with time with 19 years between them.

  • 164.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Work-integrated Learning: Increasing societal impact by decreasing the gap between research and practice2018In: ICERI2018 Proceedings, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we outline models for conducting work-integrated learning research. Our experiences from two decades of doing research in close collaboration with practitioners are presented and discussed. Our main message is that by engaging practitioners in all steps of the research project there is a potential for research outcomes to have high societal impact, and theoretical contribution

  • 165.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gellerstedt, Victoria
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Vallo Hult, Helena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Work-Integrated Learning: Impact of Individual and organizational Digitalization on Knowledge management and Expertise Sharing2019In: INTED2019 Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, 2019, p. 3601-3609Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim with this study was to examine the impact of digitalization and the use of ICT for knowledge sharing in an organization. A secondary aim was to further develop knowledge management models to also include collaborative knowledge production and expertise sharing. Based on such a model, we developed a questionnaire answered by 265 respondents. We found that the relationship between using ICT for knowledge sharing was correlated to knowledge sharing also when adjusted for established factors like organisational climate and social norms. We conclude that digitalization, both individually and on an organisational level is an important asset for knowledge management, and that the use of ICT could support knowledge sharing beyond known and established important factors.

  • 166.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    The Goalkeeper: a tool for monitoring learning outcomes in PhD education2015In: ICERI2015 Proceedings, 2015, p. 6223-6230Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The journey from being a new Ph. D.-candidate towards passing the doctorate grade is often a bumpy road with both unexpected and complex challenges that has to be turned in to learning experiences that adds to progression. In this paper we describe the development and use of a tool (the Goalkeeper) designed to support, structure and visualize this journey. It is a tool for supervisors, doctorate students as well as people responsible for quality assurance of a doctorate education. Based on our experiences of having utilised the tool we argue that it is important that the implementation of such a tool is firmly grounded in a quality culture where support of progression and formative assessment dominate over summative assessment and control.

  • 167.
    Gottfridsson, Samuel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Vedberg, Niklas
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Från 2D e-handel till virtuell verklighet: En användbarhetsstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Summary

    3D and e-commerce on the web is constantly growing and new technology for Virtual Reality is on its way to be more accessible to the public. Studies show potiential benefits with an Virtual Reality and/or 3D combined with e-commerce, but despite this there’s no wide distribution of the use of 3D on e-commerce sites. Because of this, we find it relevant to research this area.

    In this paper we first build a prototype for an virtual reality e-commerce application, following Norman’s 6 design principles, theory on how most e-commerce websites are built and theory of 3D interactive environments. Secondly we evaluate the prototype, where we observe users in a qualitative usability test with a pre- and post-questionnaire. The test is conducted by 10 participants, where 5 participants are inexperienced at navigating in a virtual envronment, and 5 are experienced.

    From the results we have created design guidelines for similar applications. The disadvantages we identified with the concept was that the control mechanics was experienced as more complicated by the inexperienced participants and that the navigation wasn’t perceived as efficient. The advantages was that the products was in 3D, which meant that you could see the goods from different angles and that the 3D products gave a better perception of reality. In some cases it was also appreciated that the experience was similar to how you buy products in physical store

  • 168.
    Grundén, Kerstin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Implementation of a Contact Centre: a Local eGovernment Initiative2012In: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference of e-Government: ESADE Ramo Llull University Barcelona, Spain 14-15 June 2012 / [ed] Dr. Mila Gascó, Reading, UK: Academic Publishing International, 2012, p. 329-335Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: A case study of the implementation of a contact centre (CC) in a Swedish municipality was described and discussed. The implementation was an example of a local e-Government initiative. Seventeen employees at the municipality were interviewed. The initial implementation of the CC was done quickly, with a top-down approach. There were initial problems with negative attitudes towards the CC from the employees at the municipal departments. The new technology systems contributed to increased efficiency and to a more process-oriented organization. The CC was largely well-functioning, and many handling officers were relieved of work tasks related to the implementation of CC. There was a need for further competence development among the service handling officers at the CC. The number of incoming matters increased, related to the increased availability to citizens of municipal services.

  • 169.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Jansson, Elisabeth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Virtual Experiences: Towards an understanding of the role of ICT in the innovation systems of creative industries2005In: Uddevalla Symposium 2005: Innovations and Entrepreneurship in Functional Regions, Uddevalla: Högskolan Trollhättan Uddevalla , 2005, p. 501-512Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 170.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, CharlieUniversity West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics. Professor Emeritus of the Economics of Technological Change, Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University and Professor Emeritus, Blekinge Institute of Technology.Bernhard, IréneUniversity West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Geography, Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship: New Horizons in Regional Science series2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developed countries must be incredibly innovative to secure incomes and welfare so that they may successfully compete against international rivals. This book focuses on two specific but interrelated aspects of innovation by incumbent firms and entrepreneurs, the role of geography and of open innovation.

  • 171.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Introduction: Geography, Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship2018In: Geography, Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship: New Horizons in Regional Science series / [ed] Gråsjö, U., Karlsson, C. och Bernhard, I., Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 1-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 172.
    Grönblad, Erik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Öman, Marcus
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Kan animation öka motivationen i skolan?: En kvantitativ analys av en animerad prototyp i skolmiljö 2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate if animated pictures combined with spoken and written text can increase primary school students' motivation. We will design and create a prototype based on earlier research and theory about how to design animated images for educational use. We conduct an experiment involving 55 students. The students would perform an identical school assignment, half the group performed the task without our prototype and half the group used our prototype. Afterwards students answered a questionnaire in which they rate their experience and motivation of the task. This in order to explore whether students' motivation increased by using the prototype or not. The results show no clear correlation between students' motivation and use of the prototype. We discuss possible reasons for this in our text and give suggestions for further research.

  • 173.
    Gustavson, Anton
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Jönnerstig, Eduardo
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Multiplayerupplevelse i webbapplikationer utvecklade med Node.js och WebSocket2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research was to delve into the process of developing real time applications for the web via the use of JavaScript based frameworks and code libraries – that run on both the client and the server. To aid us in this endeavor we have developed a test application in the form of a real time multiplayer game. We believe this project to be an appropriate model for experimentation as the market is currently showing an increasing interest in tools which facilitates the development of platform independent games. We have specifically examinined how technologies such as Node.js and WebSocket can be used in order to deliver a multiplayer experience that adequately satisfies the demands and expectations of the prevailing market as it pertains to applications of this kind.Apart from measuring the actual latency for each game round during our experiments, we have also made use of subjective evaluation through the Mean Opinion Score (MOS). This research paper also introduces the term "multiplayer experience" in order for us to encapsulate and relate to the user's subjective experience of simultaneous interaction.Our research has led us to conclude that there is no definitive or all-encompassing metric by which to judge the threshold for acceptable latency that is applicable to all games. The results from our tests do however show that Node.js and WebSocket – at least in regards to our own application – can be used to deliver an acceptable multiplayer experience.

  • 174.
    Gustavsson, Sara
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Helmersson, Jonas
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Från Ronja Rövardotter till Hundraåringen: Kartläggning av hur specialeffekter och visuella effekter används inom svensk filmbransch idag och vad branschens inställning till det är2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    "Technology has been a key element in the changing creative possibilities available to filmmakers, but deep down the questions of staging, point of view, pace, suspense, time and psychology faced by filmmakers as they walk onto the set in the morning have remained remarkably consistent." Cousins, 2004, s13.

    The way of filmmaking has always been changing and it continues to change but as the quote leads up to it seems like the attitude stays the same. It is essentially about telling a story, which affects the audience. To tell a story with the different approaches the creators favors.

    Thanks to the technical development, many of these effects, both physical and digital have become practicable and who knows what the technique and digital progress will lead to in the future of filmmaking. After all, we are only in the beginning of the digital era. In the same time, the old and proven effect making techniques might inculcate as both classic and recognizable working methods.

    In this essay, we will talk about how the techniques of digital and practical effects are being used in the Swedish film industry. What does the decision makers in the business think about using effects in filmmaking and why are effects being used the way they are in todays film industry? We also wanted to examine what regulates he use of effects based on economical, technical and artistic considerations.

    We have collected our data from interviews with three representatives from production companies and three film financiers. We have also collected information considering the definitions of visual effects and special effects from six filmmakers who that works with effect making on a daily basis. It has become apparent that there are some confusion considering the definitions of the concepts of visual effects and special effects between the producers and financiers and the filmmakers. In order to ease future communication, we will in this essay define these concepts out of our results.

    Our result suggests that there is a will in the Swedish film industry to work with effects in filmmaking but in the same time parts of the industry lacks of resources and capability. Simultaneously, we can note that the ignorance around the concept of effects causes communication problems for digital artists and prop makers. For instance, on the Swedish film gala "Guldbaggegalan" they added a new category only a few years back and this year they took it away because of the problems of recognizing what's visual effects and what's not. It is interesting that there is an interest in developing effects in filmmaking and at the same time takes away the award. Instead of taking it away, they should focus on educating people about effects.

  • 175.
    Habtegaber, Salem
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Frisch, Olivia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Karaktärsdesign​ ​och​ ​stereotyper: En​ ​kvalitativ​ ​studie​ ​av​ ​upplevelse​ ​av​ ​karaktärer​ ​i​ ​dataspelen​ ​Mass​ ​Effect​ ​och Dragon​ ​Age2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stereotypes​ ​and​ ​sexualization​ ​in​ ​games​ ​and​ ​other​ ​media​ ​have​ ​bee​n​ ​​heavily​ ​​criticized​ ​over​ ​the years.​ ​​We​ ​have​ ​chosen​ ​to​ ​examine​ ​Bioware's​ ​character​ ​design​ ​within​ ​the​ ​game​ ​series​ ​​Mass​ ​ Effect and​ ​​Dragon​ ​ Age​ .​ ​In​ ​our​ ​study,​ ​we​ ​have​ ​chosen​ ​to​ ​work​ ​from​ ​both​ ​genus​ ​perspective, intersectionality​ ​and​ ​stereotypical​ ​traits​ ​that​ ​occur​ ​in​ ​the​ ​game​ ​world​ ​and​ ​character​ ​creation.​ ​We conducted​ ​four​ ​interviews,​ ​where​ ​we​ ​focused​ ​on​ ​the​ ​external​ ​factors​ ​on​ ​the​ ​characters​ ​we​ ​had selected​ ​from​ ​the​ ​games.​ ​Respondents​ ​were​ ​shown​ ​pictures​ ​of​ ​four​ ​different​ ​characters,​ ​two characters​ ​from​ ​each​ ​game,​ ​a​ ​woman​ ​and​ ​a​ ​man.​ ​The​ ​purpose​ ​of​ ​the​ ​interview​ ​was​ ​to​ ​see​ ​how​ ​the various​ ​respondents​ ​reacted​ ​to​ ​the​ ​characters'​ ​appearance​ ​and​ ​what​ ​they​ ​thought​ ​about​ ​them. The​ ​result​ ​of​ ​the​ ​interviews​ ​and​ ​the​ ​survey​ ​indicates​ ​that​ ​​sexualisation​​ ​and​ ​stereotypical​ ​traits​ ​is still​ ​ongoing​ ​among​ ​games​ ​today​ ​but​ ​has​ ​been​ ​reduced.​ ​In​ ​both​ ​the​ ​female​ ​sex,​ ​and​ ​the​ ​male​ ​sex of​ ​the​ ​characters​ ​was​ ​the​ ​stereotypical​ ​traits.​ ​The​ ​two​ ​male​ ​characters​ ​got​ ​similar​ ​responses​ ​about their​ ​looks.​ ​They​ ​were​ ​criticised​ ​how​ ​stereotypical​ ​their​ ​appearance​ ​where​ ​and​ ​that​ ​they​ ​didn’t stick​ ​out​ ​in​ ​anyway.​ ​The​ ​two​ ​female​ ​characters​ ​got​ ​different​ ​responses​ ​from​ ​the​ ​respondents.​ ​One of​ ​the​ ​female​ ​characters​ ​got​ ​positive​ ​feedback​ ​about​ ​how​ ​equal​ ​she​ ​looked​ ​to​ ​the​ ​male​ ​characters. The​ ​other​ ​female​ ​character​ ​received​ ​a​ ​negative​ ​response​ ​because​ ​the​ ​respondents​ ​felt​ ​her appearance​ ​was​ ​sexualized​ ​and​ ​her​ ​body​ ​had​ ​been​ ​highlighted​ ​in​ ​an​ ​unnecessary​ ​way.  

  • 176.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    A Duality of Digitalization: How Can We Understand the Tension Between Professional's Beliefs and Affordances with Digital Services in Civic Orientation?2015In: Conference Proceedings: ABSTRACTS All Concurrent Sessions Presented at the 19th World Conference on Cooperative & Work Integrated Education, WACE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the last 2 decades, workplaces have been provided with digital services for optimizing work activities and processes. A variety of professions have incorporated their tasks for teaching and learning through the utilization of novel digital services. Teachers and students have the opportunity to interact with each other regardless of geographical locations through distance education and learning. Overall, the phenomenon of digitalization has generated consequences and effects for the society in general, and workplaces and professionals in particular.

        Recently, a notion of digitalization has reached projects conducted on a national level for integrating newcomers in Sweden. The Swedish government has appointed members from University West, together with a municipality in West Sweden to launch a novel digitalization project. The project emphasizes challenges and issues with designing, developing and evaluating an open digital experience in Civic Orientation. This paper examines and discusses a duality of digitalization by investigating how we can understand the tension between professional’s pre-understanding and affordances of digital services in Civic Orientation. We will present results from interviews with professionals at the municipality, together with results from a survey evaluation. We argue in the paper, that it is beneficial for further research, to understand the tension between professional’s beliefs and affordances of digital services.

  • 177.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bernhardsson, Patrik
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    CollaborGeneous: A Framework of Collaborative IT-Tools for Heterogeneous Groups of Learners2015In: New Horizons in Design Science: Broadening the Research Agenda / [ed] Donnellan, Brian; Helfert, Markus; Kenneally, Jim; VanderMeer, Debra; Rothenberger, Marcus; Winter, Robert, Springer International Publishing , 2015, Vol. 9073, p. 376-380Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present our designed prototype: CollaborGeneous. CollaborGeneous is a framework of collaborative IT-tools for heterogeneous groups of learners in Civic Orientation. It is designed to serve different types of activities for producing, maintaining, distributing and presenting digital learning-material within Civic Orientation. The significance of introducing our prototype is relevant for both practitioners and researchers within Design Science Research. The novelty of our artifact lies in its characteristic of use in the intersection between Civic Orientation and Information Systems, providing different groups of learner's necessary tools to collaborate and create an open digital experience of Civic Orientation.

  • 178.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bernhardsson, Patrik
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    An information systems design theory for adaptabe E-learning2016In: Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, ISSN 1530-1605, Vol. 2016-March, p. 4414-4423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An Information Systems Design Theory is a prescriptive theory that offers theory-based principles, which can guide practitioners and scholars in the design of effective information systems and set an agenda for on-going research. This paper introduces and describes an ISDT for adaptable E-Learning. We formulate our ISDT based on two cycles of Action Design Research. The cycles were conducted in an authentic organizational setting with end-users, responsible for organizing, producing and distributing civic orientation. Based on our findings, we propose that our ISDT, together with its components, can be used to design, implement and support an information system that incorporates E-Learning, which is not explicitly constrained to the formal context of higher education. © 2016 IEEE.

  • 179.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Rossi, Matti
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Introducing PADRE: Participatory Action Design Research2015In: Workshop Programme and Proceedings: AIS SIGPRAG Pre-ICIS Workshop :Practice-based Design and Innovation of Digital Artifacts, SIGPrag , 2015, p. 1-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Action Design Research (ADR) is a Design Research (DR) method that enriches the DesignScience Research (DSR) paradigm, by providing stages and principles for designing IT artifacts and allowing for their emergence in an organizational context. The method has been used and elaborated by scholars, extending the mode of the method and its stages, incorporating and adopting knowledge from related approaches such as Participatory Action Research(PAR) and Participatory Design (PD). In this paper, we have adopted principles and philosophy from PAR and PD to extend and elaborate the AD R method, by providing afront-end of Action Research (AR) that emphasizes learning through incremental iteration. We will introduce our elaborated method as Participatory Action Design Research (PADRE) and demonstrate how we have used it in our own research. We argue that the ADR method can benefit from incorporating learning within and across each and every stage iteratively. We also argue that learning can be used as an repository of knowledge, which informs and gets accumulated for formalization of learning that can be re-used within different cycles of ADR.Hence, we introduce PADRE and provide a model that consists of a set of key-components, which extends and elaborates the ADR method.

  • 180.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Rossi, Matti
    Information Systems, Aalto University, Finland.
    PADRE: a Method for Participatory Action Design Research2016In: Tackling Society's Grand Challenges with Design Science: 11th International Conference, DESRIST 2016, St. John's, NL, Canada, May 23-25, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] Editors: Parsons, J., Tuunanen, T., Venable, J., Donnellan, B., Helfert, M., Kenneally, J. (Eds.), Springer International Publishing , 2016, Vol. 9661, p. 19-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Action Design Research (ADR) is a Design Research (DR) method that enriches the Design Science Research (DSR) paradigm, by providing stages and principles for designing artifacts and allowing for their emergence in an organizational context. The method has been used and elaborated by scholars, extending the mode of the method and its stages, incorporating and adopting knowledge from related approaches such as Participatory Action Research (PAR) and Participatory Design (PD). In this paper, we have adopted principles and philosophy from PAR and PD to extend and elaborate the AD R method, by providing a front-end of Action Research (AR) that emphasizes learning through incremental iteration. We will introduce our elaborated method as Participatory Action Design Research (PADRE) and demonstrate how we have used it in our own research. We argue that the ADR method can benefit from incorporating learning within and across each and every stage iteratively. We also argue that learning can be used as a learning nexus, which informs and gets accumulated for formalization of learning that can be re-used within different cycles of ADR. Hence, we introduce PADRE and provide a model that consists of a set of key-components, which extends and elaborates the ADR method

  • 181.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Winman, Thomas
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Designing a Web-Based Education Platform for Swedish Civic Orientation2014In: Proceedings of the 37th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS 37), Ringsted, Denmark, 10-13 August. / [ed] Ahmad Ghazawneh, Jacob Nørbjerg and Jan Pries-Heje, Ringsted, 2014, p. 1-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Newcomers in Sweden face a problem of learning the Swedish society with respect to laws, culture, democratic values, education system, labor market and aspects of taking the role as a parent. The municipality of Gothenburg and the county administrative board in Västra Götaland are appointed by the Swedish government to educate newcomers in civic orientation. This paper describes some problems in providing distance education for Swedish civic orientation in forms of advanced learning modules (ALM). Requirements for implications for design were gathered through several conducted workshops together with relevant stakeholders through a participatory design approach. We concluded that our design for implications can be processed for future research and used together with a system solution.

  • 182.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Purao, Sandeep
    Information and Process Management, Bentley University, USA.
    Rossi, Matti
    Information Systems, Aalto University, Finland.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Action Design Research as a Method-in-Use: Problems and Opportunities2017In: Designing the Digital Transformation: DESRIST 2017 Research in Progress Proceedings / [ed] Maedche, Alexander [Hrsg.]; Brocke, Jan vom [Hrsg.]; Hevner, Alan [Hrsg.], Karlsruhe: KIT Publishers, 2017, p. 110-118Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the results of a study to investigate how scholars engage with and use the action design research (ADR) approach. ADR has been acknowledged as an important variant of the Design Science Research approach, and has been adopted by a number of scholars, as the methodological basis for doctoral dissertations as well as multidisciplinary research projects. With thisuse, the research community is learning about how to apply ADR's central tenets in different contexts. In this paper, we draw on primary data from researchers who have recently engaged in or finished an ADR project to identify recurring problems and opportunities related to working in different ADR stages, balancing demands from practice and research, and addressing problem instance vs. class of problems. Our work contributes a greater understanding of how ADR projects are carried out in practice, how researchers use ADR, and pointers to possibilities for extending ADR.

  • 183.
    Haj-Bolouri, Amir
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Purao, Sandeep
    Bentley University, Bentley, USA.
    Rossi, Matti
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Action Design Research in Practice: Lessons and Concerns2018In: Proceedings ECIS 2018 / [ed] Frank U.,Kautz K.,Bednar P.M., 2018, article id 1755Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the results of a study of how scholars engage with and use the action designresearch (ADR) method. Since its publication, ADR has been acknowledged as an importantvariant of DSR, and has been adopted by a number of researchers. It has been adopted as theprimary research method for doctoral dissertations as well as research projects in severaldisciplines. With the increasing use of ADR, the research community is also learning about how toapply ADR in different contexts. In this paper, we focus on how researchers are using the method.Drawing on primary data from researchers who have recently engaged in or finished an ADRproject, we identify several recurring themes: managing expectations with actual outcomes ofADR-projects, coordinating work across different ADR-stages, and balancing the focus on probleminstance versus class of problems. Our work contributes a greater understanding about how ADRprojects are carried out in practice, how researchers can avoid some of the common pitfalls, andhow the method can be applied more effectively.

  • 184.
    Hallgren, Anna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Disney: Från cartoon-komik till uncanny valley2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A conducted quantitative survey regarding a comparison of spectators experience of two of Disney's object characters in Beauty and the Beast from 1991 and 2017 revealed that object characters could be perceived uncanny. The cartoon characters were perceived to be more vibrant, due to exaggeration, which need to be used to a lesser extent to produce credible "photorealistic" 3D CGI-animated characters.

    The study indicates that the animation in photorealistic film needs to be more adapted to a greater tactile perceptiveness regarding the material of the character, which makes anthropomorphic object characters less anthropomorphic, and vivid, hence uncanny.

  • 185.
    Hattinger, Monika
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production System.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Unpacking Social Media to explore professionals work practice2016In: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, Ljungskile, August 7-10, 2016 / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika Lundh Snis, 2016, p. 1-14Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations are inspired by the massive social media use in the private domain and try to filter interactions and knowledge sharing in socialmedia also for professional purposes. Even if the interest in social media isstrong in the private domain, the use is far less widespread in organizations. The trajectory of traditional information spread through web platforms into use of new and open social media platforms stresses organization's and professionals to enrich user-generated content and take part in and enhance social networking. This study explore how social media is used in organizations and how professionals´ practice is challenged by use of social media of reaching out, sharing knowledge and interaction with target groups. Through illustration of two research cases; municipality-citizens' interactions and university-industry collaborations, three affordances of social media practice are emerging; incentives, perceptions and openness, where social media is constituted as the boundary object

  • 186.
    Hedlund, Elin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    (Ur)kunden har alltid rätt: En studie om plagiat och användandet av plagiatkontrollsystem vid ett svenskt lärosäte2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to better understand how the universities in Sweden work to prevent plagiarism, how they use plagiarism detection tools and what knowledge the students have or wish to have about plagiarism. This was studied through interviews with teachers and administration staff from one smaller university in Sweden together with a questionnaire for students attending any university in Sweden. The study shows that the information about plagiarism can be clearer from teachers according to the students, to prevent plagiarism as far as possible. It also shows that the university is already working to improve the information so that the students in a better way can understand, but it is hard to know how to give the information and what information that the students need. The examined university are using the system Urkund as a plagiarism detection tool and the study shows that teachers in general are satisfied with the system and how they use it. However, some teachers see an opportunity to use the detection tool in their teaching practises but need more knowledge of the system to do so efficiently. The students reportedly know what plagiarism means according to the study, but they do not have a deeper knowledge about it which they want from their universities, especially how the school is handling plagiarism cases and how the plagiarism detection tool works. The study concludes with recommendations for the universities to improve their work against plagiarism.

  • 187.
    Heldal, Ilona
    et al.
    Högskolan i Bergen, Norge.
    Hammar Wijkmark, Cecilia
    Myndighetens för Samhällsskydd och Beredskap.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Simulation and serious games for firefighter training: challenges for effective use2016In: NOKOBIT - Norsk konferanse for organisasjoners bruk av informasjonsteknologi, ISSN 1892-0748, E-ISSN 1894-7719, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main criteria of effectively managing emergency and crisis situations is good preparedness. Simulation and serious games (SSG) are often advocated as promising technologies supporting training and increasing the skills necessary to deal with new, complex and often unexpected situations. This paper is based on an investigation of why a seemingly appropriate SSG technology was not used long after procurement. We identified potential obstacles and challenges of SSG implementation in organizations responsible for societal safety. The focus is on fire fighter training and is based on 33 interviews with major stakeholders from seven countries, from organizations with successful as well as unsuccessful experiences of SSG use. By contrasting the different incentives and views regarding the technology use, this paper contributes to a better understanding of challenges related to SSG implementation and use. The results confirm the possible benefits of SSGs, but also highlight an urgent need for new approaches to integrate these new technologies into organizational practices. Only by formulating local, organizational strategies with the SSG use can the technology be implemented successfully

  • 188.
    Hjertén, Alma
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Alva Soplin, Betsy
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    De formade ögonbrynens ilska: Queer coding inom Disneys porträttering av manliga skurkar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examinehow and what Disney communicate to their target audience, by analyzing the four animated feature films Peter Pan (1953), The Lion King (1994), Pocahontas (1995), and Princess and the Frog (2009). The animated movies have been analyzed through a qualitative method to get a better understanding of how Disney portray their male antagonists through queer coding. Through semiotics, and Peter Dahlgren's approach to analyzing media texts, we have gained a deeper understanding of what Disney is communicating. The study shows that there are many obvious cases of queer coding because of the stereotypically feminine way that the male villains are portrayed. The villains show signs of this femininity through everything from facial features to bodily movements. Through this detailed analysis it has come to our attention, that there is no doubt that the villains are being portrayed in a much more feminine way in comparison to the remaining characters in the movies.

  • 189.
    Hjortfors, Simon
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Jigfelt, Therese
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Den sociala strategin: Hur man skapar ett engagerande målgruppsanpassat Facebookinnehåll2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a deep dive into how the world's largest social network works and in particular how users interact with pages’ content on Facebook. In this essay, we find out what kind of content users interacts with and what content creators must consider in order to successfully reach their target audience and thus also increase commitment to the organization or business that the content creator advocates.

    Our study consists of a field experiment preceded from a focus group and literature studies. We have used these methods to get new thoughts and ideas from users and to be able to know what we measure and how we do it. The study shows what kind of content works best on a given target audience, and this is backed up by extensive statistics, theories about how to create the ultimate Facebook content and theories about what actually makes people interact with content on Facebook.

    We find that this is a topic with few universal truths. Given the diversity among users and their differing motivations, Facebook is a very complex area of research. It is exactly this complexity that we find interesting and appealing, and we know that companies are craving more knowledge in this area. We have compiled important knowledge on Facebook and we present quantitative results from qualitative research, completed with conclusions and recommendations.

    Join us when we confirm what many have said about focus groups, read about why companies and organizations need to rethink their communication strategies and learn to understand what actually matters in target communications on Facebook; The user

  • 190.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology,Division of Digital Learning, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå University, Department of Applied Educational Science, Umeå, Sweden.
    Arkenback, Charlotte
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied IT, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekström, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ericsson, Elin
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied IT, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Gävle, Sweden.
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    Mid Sweden University, Department of Education, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Ryberg, Thomas
    Aalborg University, Department of Communication and Psychology, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Department of Computer and System Science, Östersund, Sweden.
    Fuentes, Ana
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    Gustafsson, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Department of Applied Educational Science, Umeå, Sweden.
    Humble, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University, Department of Computer and System Science, Östersund, Sweden.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Department of Computer and System Science, Östersund, Sweden.
    Sundgren, Marcus
    Mid Sweden University, Department of Education,Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Utterberg, Marie
    University of Gothenburg,Department of Applied IT, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Critical Imaginaries and Reflections on Artificial Intelligence and Robots in Postdigital K-12 Education2019In: Postdigital Science and Education, ISSN 2524-485X, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 427-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly suggested that emerging technologies will revolutionize education. In this paper, two such emerging technologies, artificial intelligence (AI) and educational robots (ER), are in focus. The aim of the paper is to explore how teachers, researchers and pedagogical developers critically imagine and reflect upon how AI and robots could be used in education. The empirical data were collected from discussion groups that were part of a symposium. For both AI and ERs, the need for more knowledge about these technologies, how they could preferably be used, and how the emergence of these technologies might affect the role of the teacher and the relationship between teachers and students, were outlined. Many participants saw more potential to use AI for individualization as compared with ERs. However, there were also more concerns, such as ethical issues and economic interests, when discussing AI. While the researchers/developers to a greater extent imagined ideal future technology-rich educational practices, the practitioners were more focused on imaginaries grounded in current practice.

  • 191.
    Högberg, Karin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    In an urban food desert: A study of mobile farmers markets and social entrepreneurship in Washington, DC2019In: Uddevalla Symposium 2019: Unlocking the Potential of Regions Through Entrepreneurship and Innovation. Revised papers first presented at the 22nd Uddevalla Symposium 27-29 June, 2019, L'Aquila, Italy. / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2019, p. 205-216Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food deserts, i.e., socially distressed neighborhoods with little access to healthy food, constitute a growing concern in the United States. In this pilot case study, we explore a non-profit organization dedicated to creating a more equitable and sustainable local food system in the Washington, DC area from a social entrepreneurship perspective. In total, six interviews with employees at the non-profit organization were carried out between September 2017 and January 2019. Additionally, quantitative data from sales and education programs has been used as supplementary data sources. The paper contributes to the literature of social entrepreneurship by analyzing how mobile farmers markets are developed and organized through the theoretical lens of social entrepreneurship.

  • 192.
    Högberg, Karin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Making Sense of Organizational Social Media: An International Longitudinal Case Study of Hotel Employees2019In: Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences / [ed] Tung X. Bui, Honolulu: Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS) , 2019, p. 2377-2386Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When new Information Technologies (IT) are implemented in an organization, this creates new situations that need to be understood and made sense of. Sensemaking processes are vital when trying to identify the meaning users give when interacting with the new IT. The purpose of this study is to identify how hotel employees make sense of organizational social media over time. The empirical data was gathered overfour years in seven European countries and 14 hotels within an international hotel chain. In total, 37 interviews with 28 hotel employees were conducted. The findings explain how the hotel employees' dailywork routines are disrupted due to the social media implementation, but also what meanings the employees ascribe to social media in an organizational context. The study contributes to existing literature by providing illustrations about how users' sensemaking process concerning organizational social media influences their use over time.

  • 193.
    Islind, Anna Sigridur
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lindroth, Tomas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Sørensen, Carsten
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Co-creation and Fine-Tuning of Boundary Resources in Small-Scale Platformization2016In: Nordic Contributions in IS Research: 7th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems, SCIS 2016 and IFIP8.6 2016, Ljungskile, Sweden, August 7-10, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] Ulrika Lundh Snis, Springer, 2016, Vol. 259, p. 149-162Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most research on platform innovation studies the phenomena from a distance due to lack of access. This paper reports from within an action research case of platform development in a small-scale context. The case is based on a regional business initiative with the goal to establish an arena for mobile commerce and stimulate local industry growth. It was conducted in collaboration between researchers and third-party developers. The article shows how the initial phases of platformization are characterized by socio-technical arrangements, co-creation of boundary resources and intimate knowledge communication. The paper contributes to platform research by acknowledging a small-scale context for platform research. It further develops distributed tuning of boundary resources into an intimate fine-tuning process that we illustrate is valid for a small-scale context.

  • 194.
    Islind, Anna Sigridur
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lindroth, Tomas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundin, Johan
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied IT, IT Faculty, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    University of Gothenburg, Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Co-Designing a Digital Platform with Boundary Objects: Bringing Together Heterogeneous Users in Healthcare2019In: Health and Technology, ISSN 2190-7188, E-ISSN 2190-7196, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 425-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare is increasingly permeated with digital platforms supporting cooperative care involving different professional groups and also patients. New mobile technologies allow for patients to continuously monitor and document their symptoms to support better healthcare, as well as self-care. The successful design of such multi-user platforms calls for new design approaches involving heterogeneous conditions and goals. This paper analyzes theuse of boundary objects in design as a mediator for different users' needs and conditions. Our research is conducted at a clinic supporting cancer survivors in their struggles with treatment induced illnesses, a treatment heavily dependent on new medical research as well as on patient involvement. The data is collected ethnographically over two years following a design project that developed a digital platform to support the care provided by the clinic. We describe how useful boundary objects transform over time, from rich narratives, to conceptual formulations and finally into concrete prototypes of the platform. We argue that understanding such a transformation can inform the design of healthcare platforms and guide future design processes, where co-designing with boundary objects can be especially useful as a design approach when doing design complex settings, such as healthcare settings.

  • 195.
    Islind, Anna Sigridur
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics. Reykjavik University, School of Computer Science, Iceland.
    Lindroth, Tomas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundin, Johan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Shift in translations: Data work with patient-generated health data in clinical practice2019In: Health Informatics Journal, ISSN 1460-4582, E-ISSN 1741-2811, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 577-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on how the introduction of patient-generated health data affects the nurses’ and patients’ data work and unpacks how new forms of data collection trigger shifts in the work with data through translation work. The article is based on a 2.5-year case study examining data work of nurses and patients at a cancer rehabilitation clinic at a Swedish Hospital in which patient-generated health data are gathered by patients and then used outside and within clinical practice for decision-making. The article reports on how data are prepared and translated, that is, made useful by the nurses and patients. Using patient-generated health data alters the data work and how the translation of data is performed. The shift in work has three components: (1) a shift in question tactics, (2) a shift in decision-making, and (3) a shift in distribution. The data become mobile, and the data work becomes distributed when using patient-generated health data as an active part of care

  • 196.
    Islind, Anna Sigridur
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lindroth, Tomas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Assmo, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Taking Care Seriously: Transforming Practices by Design2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 197.
    Islind, Anna Sigridur
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics. Reykjavik University, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik , Iceland.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lindroth, Tomas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundin, Johan
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Applied IT, Gothenburg , Sweden.
    Cerna, Katerina
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Education, Communication and Learning, Gothenburg , Sweden.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Oncology, Gothenburg , Sweden.
    The Virtual Clinic: Two-sided Affordances in Consultation Practice2019In: Computer Supported Cooperative Work, ISSN 0925-9724, E-ISSN 1573-7551, Vol. 28, no 3-4, p. 435-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Telecare has the potential to increase the quality of care while also decreasing costs. However, despite great potential, efficiency in care practices and cost reduction remain hypothetical. Within computer supported cooperative work (CSCW), one focus of telecare research has been on awareness support in distributed real-time communication in comparison to physical meetings since face-to-face consultations have been known as the “gold standard” of conducting care. Research has shown that it is hard to maintain qualities such as awareness through video-mediated meetings. In this research, the goal has not been to mimic the qualities of face-to-face consultations but rather to document the qualities of three types of patient meetings (consultations) and to understand in what kinds of situations each consultation type is a viable option. In this paper, we focus on the essential qualities of i) face-to-face consultations, ii) video-based consultations, and iii) telephone consultations and shed light on their affordances. The research contribution includes an extension of the affordance lens to incorporate socio-technical, two-sided affordances, that constitute important aspects for understanding complexity when heterogeneous actors co-existing in a practice, where affordances can differ for different “sides” in the complex practice—a view that is fruitful when dealing with heterogeneous actors and a set of analog and digital tools in a practice.

  • 198.
    Islind, Anna Sigridur
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lindroth, Tomas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundin, Johan
    Gothenburg University, Applied Information Technology.
    Steineck, G.
    Transition at Work: Introducing Video-mediated Consultation to Cancer Rehabilitation.2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 199.
    Islind, Anna Sigridur
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Rystedt, Hans
    ) University of Gothenburg, Department of Education, Communication and Learning, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Creating a Boundary Practice by Co-Design2016In: AIS SIGPRAG Pre-­ICIS Workshop 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the role of boundaries in a co-design process and how design work can be organized in order to manage the existing boundaries. The source of boundaries in design lies in the interface and dynamics between use practices, design practices and work practices.We will benefit from the boundary literature in order to contribute to practice-based design approaches in general, and to co-design approaches in particular.The researchis based on empirical data from a 2-year co-design process within the home care sector; involving participants from several professional groups: caregivers and care recipients. This paper focuses primarily on the caregivers (practitioners), the care recipients (elderly) and the designers. We particularly take into account the diversity of the participants in the co-design initiative and how these participants (representing two user groups) influenced the design process over time, and how their participation enabled the crossing of boundaries and the creation of a new boundary practice. Finally, the role of the designer is discussed in terms of redirecting its function towards facilitation instead of negotiation.

  • 200.
    Islind, Anna Sigridur
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Vallo Hult, Helena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    From Digital Fight to Digital Pride in Public Sector: Redefining Professionals' Roles and Work in Public Sector2016In: SIG USE 2016 16th Annual Research Symposium at ASIST 2016: Information Behavior in Workplaces, October 15, Copenhagen, Denmark.: Information Needs Seeking and Use (USE), 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The digitalization in the public sector poses challenges for the professionals that have previously not been using digital tools as a part of their everyday practice. Building on three qualitative research projects this study shed light on contradictions and tussles, as well as possibilities related to professionalism in the public sector. The three cases involve different professionals: cancer rehabilitation nurses, municipality communicators, and resident physicians. The paper aims to gain a better understanding of the impact of digitalization efforts on everyday work practices, and the emerging opportunities and challenges of using digital artifacts as a part of professional work. Our findings show how the transition toward digital work practices is pushing the professional boundaries of rooted professionalism in the public sector. The meaning of work and what it means to be a professional profoundly changes. The process of tuning professionalism in the public sector is not straight forward.

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