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  • 151.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    The Old Town District: Not Just a Scenic Backdrop - Stakeholders' Perspectives in Urban Re-generation2017In: Uddevalla Symposium 2017: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies: Revised papers first presented at the 20th Uddevalla Symposium 15-17 June, 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2017, p. 111-127Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes its point of departure from an urban place innovation study with focus on local stakeholders with particular interest in the Old Town District in a Norwegian community. The aim of this paper is to identify place innovation challenges among local community stakeholders and to discuss approaches to integrate stakeholders in urban regeneration. We have conducted qualitative interviews with 21 different stakeholders representing local entrepreneurs, non-profit organizations, the municipality, elected officials, tourism organization and residents with particular interest in the Old Town District. Additional observations and document studies were conducted. The results reveal stakeholders' views on challenges and opportunities related to how such regeneration collaboration might be conducted. The complex nature is characterized by strong cultural heritage and a mix of opinions and visions. We argue that urban regeneration requires an integrated approach based on stakeholder collaboration and engagement in order to develop the potential of an old town district into something that is more than a scenic backdrop. We discuss several implications as prerequisites for integrated collaborative approaches in place innovation (urban regeneration).

  • 152.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Torsein, Ellinor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Conceptualizing University-Society Collaboration: A Literature Review Focusing on Drivers of Collaboration2018In: ICERI2018 Proceedings, 2018, p. 9036-9042Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaboration and learning are vital for development in all sectors of society and there is a constant need for new ideas, innovation and development. Crucial for dealing with contemporary complex challenges on a local, regional, national and global scale is a need for the inclusion of many perspectives and competences. However, collaboration is never friction free but challenging. A reason for this might be that there are different expectations on goals and outcomes due to that collaborating organizations bring different contexts, Inter-organisational collaborations, cultures, traditions etc. These challenges are addressed by several approaches for university-society collaboration, e.g. Work-Integrated Learning (WIL), University-Industry-Government (Triple-helix), University Community Partnership (UCP), and Public Private Academic Partnership (PPAP). These are all aiming at planning, performing, compiling and leveraging knowledge exchange and co-creating sustainable results. What is less developed is what genuine impact such results do have on society, i.e. societal impacts. Thus, there is a need for gaining more knowledge in research about what key mechanisms that constitutes successful collaboration between academia and various public and private organizations in research projects.This conceptual paper explores the underlying concepts of principles that are used as guidelines for successful university-society collaboration. It draws on a literature review of key concepts selected from established frameworks and models that are current in the field of university-society collaboration, e.g. co-creation, trust, relationship building. The aim of the paper is to gain deeper insights in the complex dynamics of research collaboration by combining previous models with current research literature and suggest implications for both model development as well as principles of conduct when societal impact are to be ensured in university-society collaboration. Hence, the research questions to be addressed in this paper are: What are the key concepts that underlie the dynamics of university-society collaboration in the research literature? How can successful university-society collaboration be conceptualized in order to facilitate co-creation and societal impact?

  • 153.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Degree of Digitalization and Citizen Satisfaction: A Study of the Role of Local e-Government in Sweden2018In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 16, p. 59-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate whether there is a relationship between degree of e-government in Swedish municipalities and perceived satisfaction among citizens generally. This is a large-scale quantitative study based on validand reliable Swedish national surveys. Based on these surveys, a new comprehensive index for measuring "degree of digitalization" was constructed. Citizen satisfaction was measured using established indices covering three dimensions:satisfaction with living in the municipality, satisfaction with performance of government activities (delivered services), and satisfaction with transparency and influence. The results show that there is a relationship between the degree of digitalization in a municipality and the perceived satisfaction among its citizens. The degree of digitalization is related to all three dimensions of citizen satisfaction. Additionally, this study indicates that the strength of this relationship is in parity with or even stronger than the relationship between citizen satisfaction and other crucial factors such as educational level and median income

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  • 154.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna KarinUniversity West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    A Nordic Perspective on Co‐Operation for Sustainable Destination and Regional Development2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research report contributes to a Nordic perspective on co-operation for sustainable destination- and regional development based on studies conducted within a Swedish-Danish Interreg project 2012-2014 (MARIFUS). An introduction chapter with major themes initiates this report followed by five chapters1 written by researchers from Aalborg University, Denmark (Incevida) and University West, Sweden (School of Business, Economics and IT). The purpose of this report is to give deeper nsights in Nordic destination and regional development by empirical case studies. These studies have been presented and discussed at seminars during international scientific conferences within regional science (the 16th Uddevalla Symposium 2013 in Kansas City, USA and the 17th Uddevalla Symposium 2014 in Uddevalla, Sweden) organized by University West. The contributions are nterdisciplinary in that sense that they are written by scholars from different scientific disciplines such as business administration, informatics, planning and culture studies. However, all scholars have a destination and/or regional perspective as a point of departure in the case studies conducted. The three-year project offered great opportunities to cross-border learning and applied research in close co-operation (Work integrated learning) with project partners and students.The studies are partly supported by the project MARIFUS “Maritime Inlands – past, present and future strengths” financed by the European Union Regional Development Fund (Interreg IV A). The editors express sincere gratitude to all authors and all partners of the MARIFUS project. 

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  • 155.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Industrial PhD Education: Exploring Doctoral Students Acting in the Intersection of Academia and Work-Life2022In: Proceedings of the Informing Science and Information Technology Education Conference,  InSite 2022,: Informing Science and Information Technology Education Conference, Online July 6-7, 2022 / [ed] Jones, Michael, Informing Science Institute , 2022, p. 1-16Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim/Purpose:

    The aim is to explore the benefits and challenges of industrial PhD education through the perspectives of industrial PhD students who are acting in the intersection of academia and work-life by applying a work-integrated learning (WIL) approach to highlight issues that academy and industry need to consider.

    Background:

    Industrial PhD education is a vital part of collaboration between academia and society although still an under-researched field. This paper reveals the perspectives of the industrial PhD students who are at the same time involved in both academia and industry, with the same academic demands as traditionally enrolled academic PhD students combined with demands and expectations from their industrial employers.

    Methodology:

    Qualitative methods were applied and 19 semi-structured interviews with industrial PhD students were conducted. The empirical context is a Swedish university profiling work-integrated learning offering PhD programs for industrial PhD students from both the private and public sectors.

    Contribution:

    This explorative study contributes to advance the current knowledge of third cycle education to deepen the insights into benefits and challenges in industrial PhD education through the perspectives of industrial PhD students acting in the intersection of academia and work-life. By applying a WIL approach on third-cycle education, issues that academy and industry need to consider for successful collaboration within doctoral education are identified.

    Findings:

    Findings indicate that industrial PhD students acting in the intersection of academia and work-life are developing practical and transferable skills requested by employers outside academia, hence increasing societal impact. Findings show that industrial PhD education generates several WIL benefits. Novel challenges identified include unclear financial agreements, conflicts of interest, administrative bureaucracy, work promotion opportunities, and lack of be-longing and identity, hence not exploiting the full potential of WIL. This has been further intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic with restricted travel and dependence solely on virtual connections.

    Recommendations for Practitioners:

    It is vital to recognize that challenges do exist and need to be considered to strengthen industrial PhD education as well as collaboration between academia and society. Increased communication and continuous interactions between academia and industry during the entire industrial PhD education are needed.

    Recommendations for Researchers: Future studies of WIL in industrial PhD education are encouraged.

    Impact of society

    This study contributes insights into PhD education transforming along with societal needs based on successful university-society collaboration.

    Future Research:

    Further research is encouraged to deepen and broaden the industry perspective of industrial PhD education.

  • 156.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Network collaboration for local and regional development the case of Swedish women entrepreneurs2020In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 539-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore women entrepreneurs participation in networks with focus on local community collaboration. In recent years interest in the importance of women entrepreneurship worldwide has increased, especially from the viewpoint of local and regional development. Previous studies show that local competitors coordinated in networks can gain cross sector knowledge sharing and boost the attractiveness of a region. Using case study methodology with 14 qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews in two phases with business counselors and women entrepreneurs, participatory observations and document studies, this study explores women entrepreneurs in smaller cities and their collaboration in networks with particular reference to a Swedish context. Results state that women entrepreneurs are active and participate in various local community networks and that networks are viewed as valuable assets for business development. Women entrepreneurs strategically choose to join strong networks that have an impact on local community development. Challenges faced by women entrepreneurs are mainly related to the role as entrepreneur and running a business in a smaller city. However, some specific gendered challenges are lack of trust or respect from other business and public actors, especially in contact with authorities. The women entrepreneurs have mixed experiences of local community support hence the main sources for renewal processes and knowledge sharing are co-owners, staff, digital tools, networks partners, families and friends.

  • 157.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Understanding Women Entrepreneurs' Encounters with an Increasingly Digitalized Workplace2019In: Uddevalla Symposium 2019: Unlocking the Potential of Regions Through Entrepreneurship and Innovation Revised papers presented at / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2019, p. 73-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to explore how women entrepreneurs encounter and learn to use ICT at work in response to calls for further research regarding ICT and small businesses, especially women entrepreneurs' adaptation to an increasingly digitalized workplace. Qualitative methods were applied including a total of 13 interviews in two phases with 11 women entrepreneurs, and observations of the irdigital presence. Findings indicate the benefits of digitalization of small businesses, although the women entrepreneurs also emphasize digital disadvantages such as negative online comments and reviews and digital stress. Informal learning and self development were practiced. In order to remain competitive, the women entrepreneurs were aware that they constantly have to learn new things to capture the potential and keep up the pace in digitalizing their workplaces. The importance of recruiting young digitally skilled employees was strongly highlighted.

  • 158.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    University-Industry Collaboration in Higher Education: Exploring the Informing Flows Framework in Industrial PhD Education2020In: Informing Science: The International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline, ISSN 1547-9684, E-ISSN 1521-4672, Vol. 3, p. 147-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim/PurposeThe aim is to explore the informing flows framework as interactions within aPhD education practicing a work-integrated learning approach in order to revealboth the perspectives of industrial PhD students and of industry.

    Background An under-researched field of university-industry collaboration is explored revealing both the perspectives of industrial PhD students and of industry.

    Methodology Qualitative methods were applied including interviews and document studies. Intotal ten semi-structured interviews in two steps were conducted. The empiricalcontext is a Swedish PhD program in informatics with a specialization in workintegrated learning.

    Contribution By broadening the concept of work-integrated learning, this paper contributesempirical results on benefits and challenges in university-industry collaborationfocusing on industrial PhD students and industry by applying the informingflows framework.

    Findings Findings expose novel insights for industry as well as academia. The industrialPhD students are key stakeholders and embody the informing flows betweenpractice and university and between practice and research. They are spanningboundaries between university and industry generating continuous opportunities for validation and testing of empirical results and models in industry. Thismay enable increased research quality and short-lag dissemination of researchresults as well as strengthened organizational legitimacy.

  • 159.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Women Entrepreneurs in Local Community Networks: Participation, Challenges and Place Development2017In: Uddevalla Symposium 2017: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies: Revised papers first presented at the 20th Uddevalla Symposium 15-17 June, 2017, Trollhättan, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2017, p. 129-147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore women entrepreneurs' participation in local community networks with focus on place development. In recent years interest in the importance of female entrepreneurship worldwide has increased, especially from the viewpoint of local and regional development. Previous studies show that local competitors coordinated in networks can boost the attractiveness of a place and achieve network synergies. This study is a continuation of an earlier study of Swedish municipal business counsellors' support to female entrepreneurs in tourism where findings show that there was a lack of support for women as entrepreneurs. Using a qualitative method approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews and document studies, this study explores women entrepreneurs' participation and collaboration in local community networks, challenges and local support with particular reference to a Swedish context. The study is based on interviews with 11 women entrepreneurs who were selected from three municipalities in Sweden. All respondents are active in the tourism sector and participate in local community networks. Results indicate that cross-sector networks, preferably strong networks that may have an impact on local community development, are important, especially from the perspective of a small entrepreneur. Smaller informal groups of other local entrepreneurs are also vital for inspiration and renewal processes. Furthermore, findings indicate that participating in collaboration in networks (face-to-face and digital), smaller groups or co-ownership is seen as means to develop the business as well as contributing to boost the attractiveness of a place. Challenges faced by women entrepreneurs are mainly related to the role as entrepreneur and running a business in a smaller city. However, some specific gendered challenges are lack of trust or respect from other actors, especially in contact with authorities and the dual roles in combining entrepreneurship and family. Respondents have mixed experiences of local community support. However, several women entrepreneurs stress the importance of local support, stating the importance of family and friends.

  • 160.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Work-Integrated Learning and Collaboration in Higher Education 3rd Cycle: The Case of Industrial PhD Students2020In: INTED2020 Proceedings: 14th International Technology, Education and Development ConferenceValencia, Spain. 2-4 March, 2020. / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, Valencia: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2020, p. 2344-2353Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today universities and higher education face challenges related to collaboration with the society. Societal impacts and innovation from academia are highly valued from governments and interaction with and impacts on society and practice are of crucial importance for universities today (Gellerstedt, et al. 2018; Galan, 2018). University West in Sweden has a profile area in work-integrated learning (WIL), which generally aims to address issues on integrating theory and practice in education in a sustainable and coherent way (Olsson et al. 2019; Gellerstedt et. al. 2015). In this paper the arguments are based on a study of a PhD-education (3rd cycle) in Informatics with the specialization of work-integrated learning. at University West.

    The focus is on the collaboration between the university and industry through industrial PhD-students who are active in the university-industry interface i.e. fully employed by the industry during their PhD-education.Research on collaboration between PhD- students and industry is, according to Thune scarce. Previous research mainly focuses on the students´ learning outcomes and educational experiences (Thune, 2009) although some benefits of this kind of collaboration are recognized (Assbring and Nuur, 2017). Thus, research on interaction and informing flows between university, students, research and practice needs to be further developed ( Bernhard et al, 2018).

    In a recent study aiming at evaluating a PhD education (third-cycle) and research environment from a WIL perspective several collaboration activities were identified at key stakeholders in university as well as in the industry (Bernhard et al 2018) by adopting an informing science model in order to conduct a current state analysis. The findings implicate e.g. that flows from PhD-student and research environment towards stakeholders were generally strong, while the opposite flows were weaker. This was especially crucial for the flows originating in practice.Thus, the overall aim of this paper is to explore university-industry collaboration and identify possible aspects of societal impact of industrial PhD-student education. The research is conducted as a case study and qualitative methods will be applied.

  • 161.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Inclusive place innovation as a means for local community regeneration2020In: Diversity, innovation and clusters: spatial perspectives / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Urban Gråsjö and Charlie Karlsson, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2020, p. 57-80Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter contributes knowledge on the challenges of collaboration within local community regeneration in order to identify innovative approaches at work in smaller cities through case studies in Sweden and Norway. Place innovation perspectives are applied to address issues of diversity and inclusiveness in the renewal of a small city centre or district based on cultural heritage. In-depth qualitative interviews in 2016–2018, participatory observations and document studies were conducted. The results reveal stakeholders' views on challenges related to collaborative approaches for place innovation. The complex nature of the two cases is characterized by diverse perspectives, conflicts and attitudes; limited inclusion of stakeholders; lack of digital communication and information as well as face-to-face information, and indistinct place identity. Findings indicate that place innovation requires an integrated approach based on including diverse stakeholder perspectives through common communication spaces, cultivating place identity and applying a step-by-step regeneration.

  • 162.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Stakeholder Collaboration for Place Innovation: Challenges and Visions in Local Regeneration2018In: Uddevalla Symposium 2018: Diversity, Innovation, Entrepreneurship – Regional, Urban, National and International Perspectives: Revised papers presented at the 21st Uddevalla Symposium, 14–16 June, 2018, Luleå, Sweden / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2018, p. 127-145Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes its point of departure from urban place innovation studies with focus on stakeholders' interests and involvement in developing local communities in smaller cities. The aim of the present paper is to identify place innovation challenges among local community stakeholders and to discuss approaches to involve stakeholders in local regeneration through case studies in Norway and Sweden.

    In-depth qualitative interviews have been conducted during the years 2016-2018. In total 40 different stakeholders representing local entrepreneurs, non-profit organizations, municipalities, elected officials and residents with particular interests in regeneration of the local communities have been interviewed. Additional participatory observations and document studies were conducted. The results reveal stakeholders' views on challenges and opportunities related to collaborative approaches for place innovation. The complex nature of the two cases is characterized by cultural heritage, authenticity, indistinct place identity, insufficient communication and inclusion together with a mix of nostalgia and resignation. Findings indicate that place innovation requires an integrated approach based on stakeholder collaboration and engagement in order to develop the potential of city centers.

  • 163.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration. Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Women Entrepreneurs' Participation in Local Tourism Networks in Sweden: a Pilot Study2016In: Uddevalla Symposium 2016: Geography, Open Innovation,Diversity and Entrepreneurship. Revised papers presented at the 19th Uddevalla Symposium, 30 June- 2 July, 2016, London, UK / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2016, p. 257-267Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In tourism contexts entrepreneurship contributes to the ongoing transformation and development of places and regions. In recent decades interest in the importance of women entrepreneurship in the perspective of local and regional development has increased worldwide. The tourism industry is characterized by a high degree of women entrepreneurs in small enterprises, innovation capacity and also a high growth of benefits from networking. The aim of this study is to explore women entrepreneurs' participation in local tourism networks in Sweden. Using a qualitative method approach, this pilot study on women entrepreneurs' participation in local tourism networks explores local support and collaboration in networks with particular reference to a Swedish context. Findings indicate that there is no special focus on or support for women entrepreneurs in any of the three cases. Furthermore there is limited knowledge ofthe local distribution of male and female entrepreneurs. There are contextual characteristics of the Swedish tourism sector that may affect women entrepreneursand their participation in tourism networks.

  • 164.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping Univeristy, Linköping.
    Automation of Digital Public Services: Challenges when Working with Automated Systems and Striving for Inclusion of End-Users2019In: Uddevalla Symposium 2019: Unlocking the Potential of Regions Through Entrepreneurship and Innovation. Revised papers presented at the 22nd Uddevalla Symposium, 27–29 June, 2019, L'Aquila, Italy / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2019, p. 91-105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of automated systems for decision making and decision supportin public administration is forming new practices and challenging public values. Automated decision-making systems are mainly used in administrative systems but require end-users of services to submit relevant data in correct ways to make the services functional. However, not all potential or intended users of these services have the competence and capacity to use them. There is a pressing need to uncover and analyze how professional staff at public agencies respond to users' problems caused by digitalization in general and automation in particular for those who have problems using the services since there is a legal requirement to provide impartial public services. The case study presented in this paper builds on a bottom-up qualitative study including in-depth interviews and observations at two Swedish authorities, the Swedish Public Employment Agency and the Swedish Social Insurance Agency, in two Swedish municipalities. The main contribution by the case study shows how challenges that the professional staff face when they have to support everyone when the main management method is to use automated systems. The first way of addressing risk of exclusion is improved personalized support by the professional "street-level" bureaucrats, and the second is the important support also provided by other citizens and users of the services that enhances inclusion. The study indicates the importance of forming new support structures when public services are digitalized with ambitions to be more efficient.

  • 165.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Urban Planing and Development. Division of Political Science, Department of Management, Linköping University, Linköping (SWE).
    Bringing all clients into the system: Professional digital discretion to enhance inclusion when services are automated2022In: Information Polity, ISSN 1570-1255, E-ISSN 1875-8754, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 373-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of automated systems for decision-making and decision support in public administration is forming new practices and challenging public values since public services must be impartially accessible and designed for everyone. New robotistic process automation (RPA) systems are generally designed based on back-office structures. This requires clients to submit relevant data correctly in order for these services to function. However, not all potential or intended users of these services have the competence and the capacity to submit accurate data in the correct way. Front-line case workers at public agencies play critical roles in supporting those who have problems using the services due to the a forementioned accessibility requirements and there by work in bridging digital divides. This article analyses strategies used by front-line case workers to complement RPA and improve the inclusion of all clients in the services. It builds on qualitative case studies at two Swedish authorities, including in-depth interviews and observations. The study shows that the discretion of the front-line case workers is limited by the RPA systems, and they also have limited discretion to support clients in their use of the digital services. Instead, they develop strategies in line with more service- and socially-oriented values; duty-oriented values are integrated into the RPA. The analysis shows the importance of forming new support structures for inclusion when public services are automated to maintain the core public values of inclusion and democratic legitimacy.

  • 166.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    An Eye for an I: Focus on integration in WIL2022Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis describes the development and change of forms within a course with a focus on Work-Integrated Learning (WIL). For several years I have been responsible for a course and at the same time author of the syllabus for the course and seen how weak the integration is, and how it is perceived by the students, between theoretical knowledge and the practical work during an internship period. This has resulted in two interventions and processing of the syllabus and above all the methods and pedagogy used for the implementation of the course.

    In the beginning, the internship period contained four presentation seminars where the result was only a joint listening to the other students' stories and presentations. This resulted in a discussion and conceptual paper that focused on the importance of integration and how this can be made visible. The first change in curricula was inspired by Flipped Classroom, where students had to submit their narratives in advance in an online shared document. Prior to the seminar, it was assumed that they would then read each other's text and reflect on similarities and differences in experiences and learning in the workplace where they had their internship period. This resulted in a more reflective conversation during the seminars which can be called Peer Reflections where the conversation was always based on previous reflections and each other's thoughts.

    The second intervention was carried out in implementation at the same time as it was to be compared with the student's experiences of seminars in a control group that carried out a similar course structure with presentation and examining seminars. The change was inspired by a model from Australia that they call Huddles. This is a concluding seminar as a briefing of the practice. The issues that are discussed are carefully selected in collaboration with the students and have a clear anchoring in their experiences during the practice. The change, which was then implemented, after inspiration from Huddles in one group, with as before four seminars during the internship with carefully selected themes. At the same time, I was inspired by models for evaluating differences in teaching when technology is introduced, such as the SAMR model (substitution, augmentation, modification, and redefinition) and how this could be seen as a form of progression if technology was changed to AIL. The SOLO taxonomy was also the inspiration for describing the assignments and themes before each seminar.

    The research questions presented in this licentiate thesis focus on the students' experiences of how these changes contribute to a better understanding of the integration of what is taught at the university in the form of theory and the practical knowledge they learned in the internship.

    Qualitative data collection has taken place through observations and focus groups in both the group where changes have been implemented and in the group that conducted accounting and examining seminars. The results show that the integration in the students' understanding of theory and practice increases. They also experience a progression in their reflections and the seminars, while the students in the control group experience their seminars as scattered and they do not contribute to any knowledge development.

    The licentiate thesis also contributes to considering WIL as a complex concept with different areas of responsibility. The university teaches on the theoretical side, Work-Integrated Education (WIE) while on the other side of the dichotomy theory and practice where students are largely responsible for Workplace learning (WPL). Between these, several different activities can be carried out, including Huddles, which can be described as work-based learning (WBL). The university can contribute to these activities with, for example, simulations, the teaching of relevant software used by companies and organizations in the field. Workplaces can also contribute with concrete assignments in the form of various projects that the students are allowed to carry out or perhaps with guest lectures and concrete cases. Seeing WIL as an umbrella covering different forms of activities with different organizational responsibilities can make it easier to see the importance of the different activities and these can be integrated. WIL is not only WIE.

    In addition to the view that AIL is an umbrella concept with several different types of activities, ideas are also given on how Huddles can be introduced as a pedagogical method and how progression can be developed within Work-integrated Education and Learning with inspiration from different models.

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  • 167.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Work Integrated Learning through other people's stories about their workplace: sociocultural perspective of WIL2020In: VILÄR: 3–4 December 2020 University West,Trollhättan. Abstracts / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2020, p. 6-7Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A not uncommon view in higher education is that there is a clear difference between theoretical knowledge, what you learn at the university and the practical skills, what you learn in the workplace. Both forms of knowledge are considered important and why different activities in the area of Work Integrated Learning (WIL) are included in the teaching that aim to achieve the learning objectives that are in the syllabus. A relatively common form of examination of these goals is that students write a report on their workplace learning. By conducting seminars or huddles where students are given the opportunity to learn from each other's experiences, such integration can be improved. Within the program "Digital Media", at University West, students have the opportunity to participate in a 20-week internship at a workplace with a focus on activities that they themselves want to work with in their future professional careers. Every other week, four thematic seminars was held based on the students' written stories about the workplace and a unique theme for each seminar. Through summaries of the seminars, a questionnaire and a reflection report, the question was asked: How do students experience their learning based on classmates' narratives about their workplace? We conducted 4 peer seminars, in order to talk about similarities and differences in the narratives, and a digital survey, Possibility to Learn at Workplace (PLW)consisted of two parts, one that focused on the workplace and another focused on the university's teaching activities. The students' final written report also dealt with reflections on the student's personal learning and development. These reports were treated through thematic content analysis.

    The results show how learning is improved through socio-cultural activities in the form of the thematic seminars. The survey showed that the seminars were good support for creating new knowledge among the students.

  • 168.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Work-integrated learning through peer narratives about workplace experiences2023In: International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning, ISSN 2538-1032, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 277-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes students' experiences of different activities arranged by a Swedish university in connectionwith their internship. The article presents two approaches for conducting seminars while students are on aninternship. One student group attends formal, structured seminars while the other group attends seminars in theform of focus groups called huddles, where the theme of conversations is carefully selected and has its origins instudents’ narratives on their authentic experiences during the internship. The more ’traditional’ formal seminarsare perceived by the students as scattered, while the conversational approach based on personal experiences helpsstudents to develop a professional identity. Conversational focus groups were perceived as the pedagogicalmeasure that contributes most to students’ development. This research emphasized the deep learning affordedstudents and the insights emerging from the conversations. The organic nature of the conversations enableddevelopment in both intended and unintended learning outcomes.

  • 169.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Andersson, Mikael
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Research design for learning in WIL2019In: VILÄR 5-6 december 2019, University West, Trollhättan: Abstracts / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: University West , 2019, p. 5-6Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Digital Media program, students have the opportunity to complete an internship. In addition to the objectives of the syllabus, they specify their own learning objectives. These knowledge goals rarely align with the course objectives found in the syllabus but focus more on what practical skills they believe they will learn.

    In this paper we present planned activities to explore the students' experience and learning during the internship period using mixed methods. The main question is: To what extent can both academic theoretical goals and students' skills goals be combined during the internship period? Students fill out a form of how they themselves feel they are ready for working life, a readiness. Self-esteem of readiness can also be seen as an indicator of what Bandura calls Self Efficacy (Bandura, 2010).Group interviews are conducted and recorded and then transcribed and analyzed, based on survey results investigate whether students who carry out WIL activities feel better prepared for professional life after completing their studies (Purdie et.al., 2013). Students also hand in written reflections on their own learning, where students describe and argue for their learning based on a model called RAT (Replacement, Amplification, Transformation) (Hughes et al., 2006).

    Further data is collected through two surveys based on LPW (Learning Potential of the Workplace). It consists of 12 different questions developed by Nikolova et.al. and were presented in article (Nikolova et al., 2014). Collected data is processed and analyzed and should be able to give a clear picture if the internship only served as Work Integrated Education (WIE) or if it was also Work Integrated Learning (WIL). The difference between these concepts is discussed by Billet, which means that merely replacing one form of teaching with another does not always lead to the workplace contributing to student learning (Billett, 2018).

  • 170.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    An eye for an I: a framework with focus on the integration of work and learning in higher education2018In: INTED 2018: Proceedings, 2018, p. 4923-4927Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher education plays a new role in the society and the highly specialized labor market, and higher education institutes are expected to interact with and contribute to the surrounding society. University West in Sweden is since 2002 commissioned by the government to develop the pedagogical strategy called work-integrated learning (WIL) and WIL is the “trade mark” for the University. This means that pedagogical methods are based on WIL and that the faculty is working on further refinement and development in order to maximize the pedagogical gain offered by using the synergy between theory and practice.

    Work-integrated-learning activities are often implemented in a course as methods aligned to the learning outcomes regarding knowledge in the specific subject. However, another perspective is that the capacity to reflect and understand the integration of theory and practice could actually be a learning outcome in itself. From this perspective, it is vital to theoretically frame and formulate stringent learnings outcomes. To have a clear framework for this is important for curriculum design, course delivery and assessment, as well.

    In a self-evaluation conducted at the University, including focus groups with, both undergraduate and post graduate students, teachers, researchers and managers, a call for a framework has been expressed.

    In this conceptual paper, we propose a framework to support, design, delivery and assessment of work-integrated-learning progression, i.e. understanding of the integration between theory and practice. This framework is inspired by theories regarding constructive alignment [3], the SOLO taxonomy, agentic learning, SAMR-model and the RAT-model. RAT means Replacement, Amplifying and Replacement [4] while SAMR is the acronym for Substitution, Augmentation, Modification and Redefinition [5]. Our WIL-4U has also been inspired by SOLO taxonomy [6]

    In short, the framework for progression includes a progression from being descriptive regarding the observed practice, skills for comparing and evaluating practices, to be agentic in how theory and practice could be used in synergy for evolving, new theory and development of practice. Thereby, putting on eye on the “i” in WiL.

    Ultimately such a framework could support the progression of “WiL-understanding” through an educational program, and that students after graduation have developed readiness for “life-long-learning” and could be agentic at workplaces in the sense that practice and theory are used in synergy.

  • 171.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Winman, Thomas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Work-integrated-learning: So what?: A framework for describing the level of integration between work and learning2017In: ICERI2017 Proceedings, 2017, p. 443-451Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge society of today is characterized by a continuously ongoing technological development and digitalization that steadily calls for new competencies and transforms existing professions. For being able to provide up-to-date competence in a fast-changing labor market there is, perhaps more than ever, a need for extensive cooperation between Universities and surrounding society. A number of different models supporting the civic university has been established, e.g. “entrepreneurial university”, the triple-helix model and the increasingly popular adoption of “work-integrated learning” (WIL). 

    Work-integrated learning offer students authentic learning experiences and create synergy between theory and practice, e.g. by cooperative educational programs, internship, sandwich programs and case based teaching. Beyond the pedagogical benefits with experiential learning, WIL also supports the transfer between higher education and work, i.e. increases readiness, employability and also encourage a more agentic engagement. Furthermore, research results show that WIL-students have career benefits regarding salary in early career and job advancement. Even though, WIL and similar strategies for combining theory and practice seems to have promising pedagogical and career advantages, the theoretical underpinning is still underdeveloped. For instance, the methodology for how learning is promoted and which role external partners could play is vague. 

    At University West with more than 25 years’ experience of WIL a holistic approach to WIL have been adopted and WIL permeates all the Universities activities: education, research and extensive collaboration with the surrounding society. Over the years our efforts have been formalized and a taxonomy for will-activities have been developed. In sum, we know that WIL have promising potential, and we know what to do. But, in a recently performed study at this University, based on focus groups interviews and consolidation of our experiences we identified that even if the question “what?” is responded to, there is an important sub-question to be addressed, namely: “so what?”. When adopting different WIL activities, both small and large scale activities, e.g. a guest lecture or an internship, it is reasonable to reflect on whether these activities are used in an optimal way? What kind of impact does the WIL-activity imply? What could be achieved by successful integration between theory and practice? Could it be visualized?

    Inspired by models used for integrating technique in education (RAT, SAMR and TPCK-models), we have developed a framework for the progression of work-integrated learning in education. The framework is in a sense a model for “Wil-value”. This framework could be used on different levels and in different context: in a single course, educational program, in research projects, cooperation with surrounding society, mentorship and on partner workplaces.

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  • 172.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Andersson, Mikael
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Flipped And Open Seminars As A Method For Work Integrated Learning2019In: INTED2019 Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres (eds), Valencia: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2019, p. 4458-4466Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2002 University West, Sweden has had a mission from the Swedish government to develop methods for work integrated learning (WIL). WIL is thus a “trademark” of the university and the university is continuously developing teaching models to enhance a synergy between theory and practice with the goal to improve education and students’ lifelong learning. A challenge in such work is a decreasing engagement among students to participate in seminars at campus, especially during periods of internship. In the study underlying this paper we therefore explore a new teaching and learning method that aims to stimulate students to come to campus and to discuss their experiences with peer students and teachers during their internship.The internship and the seminars are organized as a ‘WIL course’ in the fifth semester of the candidate program ‘Digital Media’. As part of the course the students spend four days a week in a workplace where they contribute substantially to the work at the workplace. One day a week they spend at campus to reflect, write and discuss topics related to the work and organization at the workplace e.g. organizational culture, how a work day is organized, how design work is organized, and how the workplace treats its customers. The students and teachers meet once every second week for a seminar where they discuss the above-mentioned themes. The reflections made at the seminars and the conversations are important for the learning goals at the course. However, the teachers experience a moderate interest from the students’ side to participate and the students tend to be ill prepared.To increase the value and learning for the students, a new approach for better structure and engagement has been introduced, where students in beforehand writtenly reflect on questions about their workplace in relation to the theme of the week. They write in open and shared documents so that all students before the seminare can take part of each others reflections and as such come to the seminar with a wider perspective on the particular theme. The seminar is then held at the campus where the themes are discussed and workplaces compared with help of a shared matrix where the students can place their workplace regarding level of structure, formality, creativity etc . As such the seminar has a ‘flipped’ character and the ICT tools for learning used are open and editable over time for all participants.The empirical material is based on 24 hours participant observations, 10 students’ written reflections and the course curricula. The findings show that the flipped and open approach to the seminars has made the students more engaged in reflections about their workplace, not only during the seminar at campus but also during their work at the workplace. The shared document stimulates reflections of differences between workplaces that has not been so clear before, and the matrix has helped the students to take the reflections to a higher level by reflecting over organizational culture and workplace conditions. By comparing each other’s experiences from a spectrum of different aspects/themes they get a more nuanced picture of the skills and competences needed in the workplace, and they get more strengthened in their professional role. The recurrent discussions over time during the course therefore contribute to make the students more experienced than they would had been by only having got the experience from their own workplace.

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  • 173.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Andersson, Mikael
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Work Integrated Learning and Work Integrated Education: A Study On Learning Processes and Learning Methods for Working Life2020In: INTED2020 Proceedings: NTED2020 Proceedings: 14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference Valencia, Spain. 2-4 March, 2020. / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, 2020, p. 4106-4112Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a common view in higher education to make clear distinction between theory, what you learn in school, and practice, what you learn in the workplace. Work integrated learning (WIL) is an approach in higher education that problematizes this distinction and that supports the understanding of an integrated view of theory and practice. In this paper we report from a study in which we investigate how students become increasingly ready for working life during a course. We explore “the process of learning to be ready for working life”, that we herein call ‘Work Integrated Learning’ (WIL) and we explain how WIL can be supported by ‘the methods used to enhance readiness for working life’, which we refer to as Work Integrated Education (WIE). The first aim of this study is to better understand how students develop readiness for working life. A second aim is to shed light on the distinction between WIL and WIE in order to understand how different types of knowledge sources for students can support the feeling of being ready for working life.The study is conducted at the bachelor’s degree programs ‘Digital Media’ and ‘3D-animation and visualisation’, at University West, Sweden. During the fifth semester, students have the opportunity to carry out internships in a workplace. The internship is conducted as a course at the university that gives higher education credits. The time spent on the course is split between the workplace (80%) and the university (20%). Every second week the students write down reflections on a given topic related to experiences in the workplace. Topics can be for instance custom relations, professional roles and ethics. The reflection texts are shared openly on the learning management platform so that all students can read each other’s reflections. Thereafter the group meet with faculty teachers in a seminar to discuss each other’s reflections. In the end of the seminar the teachers present a matrix including dimensions related to the topic discussed and the students are given the task to place the organisation they are practicing at in the matrix. The purpose of the shared reflection texts, discussions and work with the matrix is to give the students the opportunity to compare each other’s working experiences and to shed light on aspects of the experience that can help them to feel prepared for working life.The study is a mixed methods approach and consists of three sets of data: group interviews, online surveys and students' written reports. The research questions we seek answers to are:- How do the work of writing and discussing experiences from the workplace contribute to students’ personal understanding of what kind of workplace they search for in work life?- To what extent can both academic theoretical goals and students practical goals be combined during Internship?Preliminary results show that the student learn something on top of the course curricula. In the seminars discussing and reflecting upon each others experiences from different workplaces, they start to construct a vision for a future workplace of their own. A set of preferences on company size, the way the creative process is conducted, values, type of clients and other factors that define the company where student make internship.

  • 174.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Perneman, Jan-Erik
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    An Intercultural University with Hubs, Nodes and Feeds2011In: EDU Learn 2011 Proceedings, 2011, p. 4755-4758Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Linköping University and University West in Sweden have during the last decades developed intercultural courses together with indigenous groups in the Nordic countries, Latin America and Africa.

    We have recently developed ideas about how the modern web-based tools could give the possibility to create a sustainable and mutual communication . The ideas are based on the use of technologies in the field of Web 2.0 and refer to tools such as blogs and RSS feeds and readers of such feeds.

    Readers can be set so that the transmitted information is displayed in the individual's own language, although it is written in another language. Similar features are also available for direct real-time translation of such blogs or other websites. Many blogs also allow, by special functions, to read and subscribe to the content of other blogs. By creating structures that link the course blogs "inwards" towards a common hub, portal information are made ​​available in such a way that the individual participant or group courses can easily find relevant information from other participants or from the education provider. The use of such hubs also create incentives to study digital communication tools and how these can operate in different educational models with education and lifelong learning in focus.

    Course blogs or group blogs are created on various free sites on the web. Examples include Wordpress.com or Blogger.com. The place does not matter if there's a feed so others can subscribe. If the group wants to link information from other blogs or sites with feedback there is a need for functionality locally on the system. The aforementioned systems have such features.A study group blog provides feedback to the course blog and a group blog can also subscribe to various feeds for different categories of course blogs. The hub shares in the same way information in both directions with one or more course blogs. The hub may also include links to the various systems and also addresses for individual feeds or combined for different course groups or a common language.

    The implementation of a hub according to the above model of intercultural courses also provide experiences that can be used for other courses in which several courses are given to groups that are dispersed geographically and also in time. There is also an opportunity to communicate and provide material from their own or joint "learning environments". It can be seen as experiments with forms of support to the "Personal Learning Environment" and opens for use of the “Open Educational Resources ", especially such as the participants themselves find interesting and want to spread to others.

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  • 175.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pineda, Maria Victoria
    Information Technology Department, College of Computer Studies.
    The Great Learning Experience: An attempt to understand learning from the wies of the millenial learners.2011In: Connecting Communities: The A B C D of eLearning, Palawan, 2011, p. 1-5Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Millenial learners are individuals born after 1985 with very wide exposure to various types of media enhanced by technology. They are persons who had listened to music while in the wombof their mothers and had watched television starting at age 0. Most of them would have hada music player or a game pad or a mobile phone at age 8. (Deterle, Dede and Schrier, 2008)These millenial learners grew up with constant web connectivity at their fingertips to assist themin their homeworks.

    The present pedagogies our academic institutions employ to support the learning style ofthe web generation of students may not be as suitable. Social constructivism, transformativelearning or problem-based learning, while prevalent in the Asian context, may be more perfectfor cognitively dynamic students. Our students nowadays are more adept to constructingknowledge, content (Attwell, 2007) and even more independent in their learning priorities.This study attempts to understand the new learning practices among our students. This studyattempts to find out how college students define what a good learning experience is. It is alsothe intention of the study to explore new educational practices and hopefully drive ways ofdesigning and developing the future of learning activities.

    The study was conceived in May 2011 and was planned to collect data in the form of shortvideos in a span of six months, from June to December. There will be two sets of samples, onefrom the students of De La Salle University of the Philippines (DLSU) and the other from thestudents of University West (UW) in Sweden.

    The experiment asked for a two minute video that will be created and expressed by anindividual or group of students. This meant planning and organization to compose the thoughts,the message and the content of the video. Since this contains the expression of the studentsthemselves, the self-expression equates to a great degree of authenticity.

    This paper will impart the work-in-progress of this experiment, the Great Learning Experience.To date, there are twenty videos from DLSU and fifteen videos from UW. This paper will tell themethods used in the different classes and the initial findings. Comparison of the UW and DLSUvideos is not included in the paper.

  • 176.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Pineda, Maria Victoria
    De La Salle University.
    What Drives a Great Learning Experience for Millennial Learners: Swedish and Filipino Observations2012In: PeLS Online Journal, ISSN 2094-781X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 3-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Millennial learners are individuals born after 1985 with very wide exposure to various types of media enhanced by technology. They are persons who had listened to music while in the womb of their mothers and had watched television starting at age 0. Most of them would have had a music player or a game pad or a mobile phone at age 8. (Deterle, Dede and Schrier, 2008) These millenial learners grew up with constant web connectivity at their fingertips to assist them in their homeworks.The present pedagogies our academic institutions employ to support the learning style of the web generation of students may not be as suitable. Social constructivism, transformative learning or problem-based learning, while prevalent in the Asian context, may be more perfect for cognitively dynamic students. Our students nowadays are more adept to constructing knowledge, content (Attwell, 2007) and even more independent in their learning priorities. This study attempts to understand the new learning practices among our students. This study attempts to find out how college students define what a good learning experience is. It is also the intention of the study to explore new educational practices and hopefully drive ways of designing and developing the future of learning activities. The study was conceived in May 2011 and was planned to collect data in the form of short videos in a span of six months, from June to December. There will be two sets of samples, one from the students of De La Salle University of the Philippines (DLSU) and the other from the students of University West (UW) in Sweden.The experiment asked for a two minute video that will be created and expressed by an individual or group of students. This meant planning and organization to compose the thoughts, the message and the content of the video. Since this contains the expression of the students themselves, the self-expression equates to a great degree of authenticity. This paper will impart the results of this experiment, the Great Learning Experience. There weretwenty videos from DLSU and fifteen videos from UW. This paper will tell the methods used in the different classes and the findings. Comparison of the UW and DLSU videos is not includedin the paper.

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  • 177.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Vallo Hult, Helena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Combining pedagogical strategies and ICT support for fostering the digitalized agentic learner2017In: INTED2017 Proceedings, 2017, p. 1433-1441Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher education is facing exceptional challenges due to an increased complexity on the labour market. The work life of today is highly specialized and demands continuous education, i.e. lifelong learning. Higher education must focus on developing competencies for work life, beyond traditional theoretical knowledge [1]. To cater for these demands, higher education must adopt more application-oriented and trans-disciplinary research [2]. Moreover, colleges and universities could more systematically take responsibility for career development and adjust curricula for both traditional and non-traditional students [3]. A crucial question to address is how higher education could foster a student to become a “lifelong learner”? From a pedagogical perspective, it is of course vital to teach a student how to learn [4], aiming at achieving the skill to become a self-directed learner. Interestingly, it is argued that the qualities for being a proactive and agentic learner in higher education are the very same abilities required for effective professional practice [5]. We need to use educational strategies, e.g. work-integrated learning (WiL), as a part of the preparation of becoming an agentic learner, that permit them to successfully negotiate, engage and learn from what they are afforded, for both personal and professional outcomes [6]. Furthermore, we need to adopt important key factors that support fostering agentic learners [7]. 

    In parallel to pedagogical strategies and key factors, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) could play an important role for continuous learning [8-10]. Research shows that over the recent years, social media has been pointed out as a tool, not only for external communication, but also for informal learning within organizations [11-14]. 

    In this paper we wish to suggest a combination where important pedagogical strategies are combined with ICT-support. Moreover, we wish to suggest a strategy for how this combination could be practiced in higher education, making the transfer to work life smoother. 

    We acknowledge that students of today most often have good knowledge of the use of various digital tools such as Facebook, Youtube etc. This is however often constrained to the use of various platforms and tools for entertainment and social contacts. How these tools can be used for learning portfolios, both during their studies and for lifelong learning, is less known and used. We suggest that students during their education choose digital tools based on individual preferences and build a personal learning environment (PLE) [15]. The PLE should include “open tools”, such tools are available outside closed systems within organizations, in order to be useful also after graduation. The student has the possible to develop and re-use knowledge of tools and platforms to work in the new context, working life. However, the use of a PLE will not in itself do the trick. 

    Portfolio is one of many tools to assess learning. When the digital development progressed and applications on the Internet has expanded, the portfolio characteristics can be changed to the e-portfolio [16]. We advocate that both teachers and student need support for developing pedagogical strategies that optimize the use of ICT and aims at fostering agentic learners. We suggest that an e-portfolio may constitute such a joint support. 

    In this paper we will show that an e-portfolio and PLE can support important factors for fostering agentic learners who in an efficient way take advantage of modern ICT. In sum, we suggest an approach for fostering “digitalized agentic learners”. 

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  • 178.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    "Just in Time": Tidig feedback för ökat lärande2018In: VILÄR Abstraktbok / [ed] Kristina Johansson, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2018, p. 7-7Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Genomströmning är ett begrepp som ofta används för att mäta hur lönsam en kursär för lärosätet. Det ger ett ekonomiskt mått på en kurs. Det är också ett mått på kvaliteten i studenternas arbeten. Ju bättre kvalitet och måluppfyllelse en inlämningsuppgift har desto större sannolikhet för ett godkänt betyg. Samtidigt kan det också ge en indikation på huruvida innehållet är svårt att ta till sig eller om kursmål är svåra att uppnå. Kursen Integritet och demokrati i Digitala Media vid Mediaavdelningen, Högskolan väst, har under flera år kämpat med relativt lågt antal godkända examinationsuppgifter vid första examinationstillfälle. Problemet diskuterades i lärarlaget och för att åtgärda problemet bestämde lärarna sig för att lämna feedback till studenterna i ett tidigare skede av kursen, med ett tydlig fokus på vad som behövde förbättras för att bli godkänd. Åtgärden resulterade i en ökad genomströmning och i denna text diskuteras vikten av att ge feedback i tid. Metoden för iterativ feedback ser vi också kan användas vid utbildningstillfällen där arbetsintegrerat lärande är ett kursmål.

  • 179.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Högberg, Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Designing For An Active Learning Classroom: How Technology Makes A Difference In Higher Education2019In: ICERI2019 Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres IATED Academy, 2019, p. 4109-4116Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Active Learning Classroom (ALC) has been introduced in many universities designed to promote active, student-centered learning to facilitate new teaching and learning situations. However, it is well known that technology per se do not create new teaching practices. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of technology in instructional design created for an active learning classroom. We explore a case of instructional design in an ALC, within the context of a university in Sweden and students at a bachelor's degree program in informatics. An action oriented research approach was applied. Data includes; engaged classroom observations; a student survey; and teachers’ interviews. The results show that technology came to play an important role in the instructional design in terms of affecting the engagement and pace in the teaching situation. Contributions includes unpacking how the functionality of technology can affect the teaching situation in a technology intense ALC environment as well as instructional design suggestions created for a ALC and that is considered fruitful by students and teachers.

  • 180.
    Bernhardsson, Patrik
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Hur uppfattar studenter tankebokensimplementering i Web 2.0-verktyg?: En kvalitativ studie om hur studenter uppfattar tankeböckers implementering i Web 2.0-verktyg2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien i denna uppsats är explorativ och förståelseinriktad. Syftet med undersökningen är att undersöka om respondenterna uppfattar att man med hjälp av Web 2.0-verktyg kan stödja lärande utifrån tankebokens koncept.Undersökningen har genomförts på en grupp studenter på Digitala Medieprogrammet vid Högskolan Väst. Studenterna läste vid tillfället en kurs som heter Digitala Distributionsformer, en kurs kring hur man använder olika former av digitala distributionsformer både via internet och mobil. Undersökningen består av en fokusgrupp av dessa studenter, samt observationer kring studenternas användning av de digitala verktygen.Resultatet visar att bloggar ger fördelar och uppmuntrar studenter till ett reflekterat lärande genom t.ex. tankebok som form. Tankebok i blogg kan därigenom bli ett stöd i lärandet.

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  • 181.
    Bernhardsson, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Personal Learning Environment For Learning After University2018In: INTED 2018: Proceedings, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is becoming increasingly common for universities and schools to use some form of digital system between teachers and students. They usually use a Learning Management System (LMS). Watson [1] discusses the concept and systems used today and believes that the intentions with LMS are good but they lack valuable functions. They have most often been used to distribute instructions to students. It is a unified information that applies to all participants and is not in any way individualized or gives the individual student the unique support that may be needed for a good learning environment.

    Learning in the digital era requires new skills focusing on different digital artefacts [2]. Learning is also a lifelong process that not only happens in an institutional context. Learning takes place in both formal and informal contexts. Learning and work-related activities are connected today, and education needs to be shaped to support a continued process even after completion of formal learning [3].

    Instead of standardized one-way solutions for transferring instructions, in which is the way many LMS are used, students should during their time at the college learn tools that support learning and communication with others. By using the tools used in working life during the study time, the boundary is blurred between the school's LMS and tools commonly used in working life. [3]. Many LMS used in higher education is not used in business and the skills gained by students through LMS cannot easily be transformed into knowledge of the tools that companies use. By introducing tools that are widely used in business, students can create their own set of tools for communication, project management and information retrieval. The tools can then contribute to encouraging their own critical search of information based on which they can shape their unique knowledge and to act as an "agentic learner" [4]. The use of an LMS that students cannot use after completing studies does not give the same opportunities for continued learning as a set of ‘open tools’. They need to create a Personal Learning Environment (PLE) so that they can then continue to use same tools after completed studies. [5]

    Richards et al [6] describes a driven student as an "agentic learner". A self-employed individual with both pleasure and ability to learn as such can determine what needs to be learned from knowledge goals in a syllabus related to the individual's existing knowledge. In order to become such a driven student, a larger "toolbox" for learning is needed than a standardized LMS solution often offers.

    It is not new tools within LMS, adjustments and minor changes, which are needed. It is a whole new perspective where the focus is shifted from LMS to PLE. It is difficult to create understanding among students how tools locked in an LMS provide knowledge for an upcoming work life. A whole new set of tools is needed or what is described as a system change by Reigeluth [7]. A whole new perspective on what tools that support lifelong learning and not only university studies. Since the LMS is connected to the university the LMS is closed for external access and the student cannot access it after they leave the University.

    In this paper we discuss, based on a theoretical perspective, whether open cloud-based tools can form the student's PLE to replace the university's LMS.

  • 182.
    Billett, Stephen
    et al.
    Griffith University, Brisbane (AUS).
    Hedman, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Alternatives To Supervised Placements: Work Integrated Education In Action: editorial board2023Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When work integrated education (WIE) is discussed, the archetypal examples of supervised placements for medical, nursing, physiotherapy, and teacher education students are usually referenced. They comprise students engaging in authentic work activities and interactions, closely supervised by qualified and more experienced practitioners. Ideally, those supervisors identify and select students’ work activities and support and guide their engagement and learning. These arrangements often arise from long-standing occupational traditions of care and responsibility towards patients and students and have legislated arrangements demanding such supervision.

    However, for many occupations such traditions do not exist and, where they exist, placements are less structured. Moreover, the ability to provide placements are restricted by the size of the enterprise, the work undertaken and/or the number of students seeking these experiences. One deputy vice chancellor quipped “how can I provide supervised placements for 1500 undergraduate business students each semester?”. A good question.

    So, in seeking to provide WIE experiences across all occupational fields, it is not possible for many of the courses in which our students are enrolled. The educational challenge is, therefore, to identify how these students can come to experience, engage, and develop occupational understandings, procedures and dispositions (i.e., to think and act like practitioners). Hence, we need to find alternatives to provide these experiences. In the response to the quip above, it was suggested, for instance, that most undergraduate students engage in paid part-time work that provide experiences to assist understand many aspects of business practices. That is, processes of recruitment, supervision, customer interaction, stock provisions and organisation, financial processes and supervision. Engaging students in sharing, comparing and critiquing these work experiences, can secure insights from peers’ experiences and provide access to students who do not work part-time.

    Such alternatives might include students being workplace visitors able to observe and engage in some tasks, or interviewing practitioners to understand what constitutes their work, and is central to its enactment. Law students might attend court proceedings to understand those processes, finance students engaging in auditing of not-for-profit organisations’ accounts, or projects required the kinds of thinking and acting of practitioners. This kind of approach has been long rehearsed within faculties of engineering, creative arts etc. So, we can identify and use these kinds of experiences. But what if the students are dispersed around the world? The web based “Webmaster” program at University West faced this problem. Moreover, these students are in different stages of life, often having to balance work, family and study commitments. We have found that providing these students with glimpses of work practices offers an alternative to workplace visits.

    Moreover, the field of “web” is marked by openness and sharing, and videos on, for example, YouTube providing insights into workplace activities are abundant. A search for “A day in the life of an UX designer”, for instance, generates hundreds of video suggestions and in courses relating to that topic, students are provided with a list to view and then engage in discussions about them. Through using these kinds of materials, students gain insights into different work practices. Other alternatives have included engaging business representatives as guest lecturers, but with our students located across time zones this can be an option that is time-restricted. A “flipped” guest lecture or workshop is provided to campus-based students, and “re-enacted” by students in the Webmaster program, supervised by teachers.

    Moreover, as occupational practices are increasingly mediated by and through electronic technology, the need to engage in the physical and social environment of workplaces becomes less important. Alternatives not requiring physical presence in work sites can ease the demand on employers. The key consideration is, instead, for students to gaining access to and engage in the kinds of thinking and acting required for electronically-mediated work activities and interactions. In such contexts, supervised placements are not feasible and less applicable as an effective WIE approach, because future work environments are not necessarily place-based.

    The challenge we face includes preparing students for diverse work contexts. Remote work, nomadic work practices and gig-based work are becoming common, and these may or may not represent possible future work contexts for our students. We also aim to explore different forms of “one-to-many” engagements (Dean & Campbell, 2020), where, for example, enterprises can provide video-challenges, i.e., examples of problems they are currently facing, and engage groups of students in seeking to respond to these problems, while being supervised by teachers.

    Such short bursts of intense and focused WIE would benefit both our students and partner enterprises and serve to strengthen student employability.

  • 183.
    Bjureblad, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Skarp, Lina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Den "ofullkomliga" perfektionen: En kvantitativ studie i hur väl filmpubliken kan urskilja digitalt framställda ansikten från verkliga skådespelare2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns that actors in the future are at risk of being replaced by digital copies (Wahl, 2019) and the problem that photorealistic faces often end up in the Uncanny Valley (MacDorman et al. 2009) are addressed in this study. The study examines which factors that affects the believability in a digitally created face. With this study we want to contribute to the current research on what factors can reveal a digital face. By investigating what elements affect the conviction of digital facial replacements we can get a better understanding of the technical development. The research has been based on a quantitative method. A questionnaire was sent out via Facebook to people with an interest in film and/or animation. The form contained clips from various big-budget films in which actors' faces were retouched or completely replaced by CGI. The participants in the survey were presented with questions involving which characters they thought were digitally created and whether they recognized any of the actors. The result showed that it is easier for the film audience to discern digital faces if they recognized the actor. We could not see that the technical development had any noticeable effect on the result. From our investigation it appeared that digital characters appear more convincing in darker environments and if using moderate facial expressions.

  • 184.
    Björnberg, Hanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Coster, Marie
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Content marketing: En guide för digital marknadsföring på sociala medier2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this degree project is to explore how content marketing canbeused as a strategy in digital marketing in the limited area social media. The conclusion was brought together by our content analysis, along with some relevant theories in the subject. Our selection is based on fifty companies who each got positive attention for their content marketing. In addition we also conducted qualitative analyses on two of these companies content marketing. We realized when we went through the results that the companies have an entertainment value that relies on a strong customer relationship. A known deficiency was discovered about the companies results early on. We realized we would not be able to get an insight about the companies profits and increased traffic, because of this we where able to put in more effort in the other parts that comprises the full meaning of content marketing.Our conclusion is a graphic guide that shows the use of content marketing in digital marketing on social media.

  • 185.
    Blomgren, Marcus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Johansson, Victoria
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ljud och musik som marknadsföringsverktyg2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of our thesis is to examine how audio and music can be used for marketing purposes. To answer our purpose, we have conducted interviews with six respondents with experience and knowledge of using audio and music in marketing. The respondents came from three different specializations within the industry; producer, bureau and company. We have also analysed the respondents answers through theories such as content marketing, sensory marketing, musical fit and sonic branding. Our results show that knowledge of how audio and music affects us is of great importance to successfully use it in marketing. Further, our study indicates that audio and music tends to be used as a compliment rather than being in focus, which could risk that it instead becomes a deficient, rather than a winning concept.

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  • 186.
    Blomqvist, Mikael
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Spelvåld: en undersökning i syfte att upplysa2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay we deal with the subject of video game violence. We examine how popular games and game genres relate to physical violence and what similarities and differences can be found between these. In order to determine this, we analyze 12 different games in the action and adventure genre. We hope that our research will provide an understanding of how video game violence is portrayed and motivated.

    The 12 games are chosen mainly from a set of criteria that guarantees violent content. The games differ in age ratings between 7, 12, 16 and 18. We have examined the games through four perspectives; Violence, Visual, Context and Interactivity. The survey showed that the acts of violence do not differ much between the games in question. Instead, it's the visual aspects that differ and makes the violence appear as more or less realistic and explicit. The use of violence is motivated in different ways by the game and the player. The player is mainly motivated by the Self Determination Theory, driven by different types of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation depending on context. The characters in game are mostly portrayed as either good or evil. The good performs acts of violence because of a noble purpose while the evil are driven to violence of causes like greed, vengeance, commands and exercise of power.

    We have, as a result of our survey, also discovered that the PEGI-system in some cases is insufficient in its task of guiding the consumer. More information about the violent content on the box would make it easier for the consumer to judge whether the game is appropriate for a person. We have also seen several examples of how researchers on video-game violence ignores the games other aspects to simply categorize them as violent or non-violent. We hope that researchers in the future realize the problem with this ignorant approach.

  • 187.
    Borg, Margareta
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Alice for the iPad, popup-boken och 1800-talets visuella kulturer2015In: Ekfrase: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Visuell Kultur, ISSN 1891-5752, E-ISSN 1891-5760, Vol. 6, no 01, p. 37-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alice for the iPad (Atomic Antelope, 2010) is an application launched shortly after the first tablet was introduced by Apple in 2010. Based on The Nursery «Alice» (1890), an abridged bedtime version of Lewis Carroll's classic Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1866), the app adds subtle animations to John Tenniel's original illustrations. The app seems to be echoing and (re)constructing the past by varying and combining different patterns of movements, remediating the look of nineteenth-century popular pop-up books or «movables», as well as contemporaneous optical toys and apparatuses, which in different ways challenged the two-dimensional still image... One key issue addressed by the article is the meeting between a classical traditional style and the aesthetic premises of the digital image, as a way to highlight the former and to confirm authenticity. Alice for the iPad handles questions raised by adaptation, how to remain true to the original material under qualitatively different conditions. The article explores how the app is simultaneously visible and transparent, presenting itself as an optical toy or three-dimensional pop-up book from the past, yet producing its compelling self-reflective aspect precisely by mobilizing these «old» technologies.

  • 188.
    Borg, Margareta
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    "It´s Not For Real": The Tablet as Palette in Early Childhood Education2019In: International Journal of Education & the Arts, E-ISSN 1529-8094, Vol. 20, no 14, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study investigated how a group of three-year-old preschool children use the drawing application Doodlecast on iPads. The smoothness, rapid response, and distinctive digital visual expressions of the tablet provided visual feedback that influenced the children's preferences for colors. Doodlecast seemed to encourage the children to explore colors and superimpose and fill-in the iPad's screen. In addition, they painted very precise shapes and lines, which seemed to facilitate pattern making and discovery of signs and relations. The children used the eraser tool to correct, reveal, remove, and create shapes. Irrespective of the method –erasing, superimposing, or filling-in the screen – the clear and professional result seemed to provide a visual confirmation that the children were able to master formulas.

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  • 189.
    Boström, Emelie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Schagerholm, Emelie
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Responsiv webbdesign: en komparativ studie om responsiv fluid och adaptiv webbdesign2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, responsiveness on a website is a must since people use all possible devices to reach a website. It can range from mobiles, tablets, laptops and desktops to smart TVs and game consoles. In this report, we have done a comparative study with experiments to compare two techniques that can be used to create responsive web. Responsive fluid web design that in a fluid/compliant way adapts the elements of the website to the width of the screen and adaptive web design which, with the help of media queries, creates a more "jumpy" design that can change the layout at specific breakpoints/ resolutions. The purpose of the report has been to see how they differ in adaptability, number of lines of code, file size and load times. We have tested by creating two different layouts, a simpler blog page and a slightly more advanced portfolio page, see Appendix 1. We first created these with only responsive fluid techniques to then apply media queries in the second test to improve the layout where it "breaks". The results showed that the adaptive technique was better at adapting the entire layout to different units, it also had better load times but higher number of lines with code and therefore also larger file size compared to the responsive fluid side. Our conclusion is that media queries are still needed to a great extent to help fix the layout in specific places, but that new functions of the grid systems can lead to that media queries is going to be used in the future only to create features on specific units more than to control the layout.

  • 190.
    Boström, Tina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Holmberg, Niklas
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    "Bilderna som jag lägger upp, ja de betyder väl kanske ingenting": En kvalitativ intervjustudie om bilddelning i sociala medier och privat kommunikation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how we use photo sharing in a communicative purpose, where social media is used as a tool for information and documentation of what we experience. This study tries to answear the following research questions;

    ■ What thoughts do our respondents have regarding image sharing and the desire to document with images?

    ■ What is the attitude towards social media?

    ■ How do one choose social medium in both private and public photo-sharing?

    ■ What can likes and comments in connection with a shared photo create?

    ■ How does one protect the integrity in photo sharing and social media?

    Method: Qualitative in-depth interviews.

    Results: We came to the conclusion that the image plays a very complex and important role in how our respondents communicate with pictures of family, friends and society. There was a standard for how to share information and images, most of the respondents were conscious in what parts should and should not be shared publicly. The image was used to save a memory and for documentation, and works as a communicatively medium to consciously or nconsciously send messages to their friends, families and acquaintances. We saw that image sharing is about sharing, documenting, promoting and communicating, but also about group membership, affirmation and integrity.

  • 191.
    Broeren, Jurgen
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Jalminger, J
    Västra Götaland County.
    Johansson, L-Å
    Alkit Communications, Mölndal.
    Parmerud,, A
    Alkit Communications, Mölndal.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Rydmark, Martin
    Gothenburg University.
    Information and communication technology: a person-centered approach to stroke care2012In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies / [ed] P M Sharkey, E Klinger, Readings: University of Readings , 2012, p. 329-335Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the possibilities of information and communication technology (ICT) in stroke care, addressing a person-centered care (PCC) approach. Attention is paid to user involvement, design, videogames, and communication between health care professionals mutually as well as with patients, and how to share performance data with an electronic health record. This is the first step towards a supportive ICT system that facilitates interoperability, making healthcare information and services available to citizen’s across organizational boundaries. 

  • 192.
    Broeren, Jurgen
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Akademin, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Johansson, Britt
    NU-sjukvården, Uddevalla kommun.
    Ljungberg, Christer
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Rydmark, Martin
    Sahlgrenska Akademin, Götebrog Universitet.
    Stroke rehabilitation using m-Health Care and 3D virtual environments: work in progress2010In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies / [ed] Sharkey, Paul & Sánchez, Jaime, 2010, p. 115-122Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     We have now started testing a telehealth system for stroke rehabilitation in a rural area in Sweden (NU- Hospital Group Area). For collection of assessments and audiovisual communication, the telehealth system has bidirectional contact with the home-based units. To date, three stroke subjects’ participated; they were instructed to play 3D computer games with the hemiplegic upper extremity. The intervention led to clinical changes for all subjects. The analysis of the audiovisual communication revealed that the both stroke subjects and therapists were not yet effective in regulating their turn taking process. The data suggests the feasibility of a distance based approach using 3D virtual environments for upper extremity rehabilitation after stroke.

  • 193.
    Bäck, Pernilla
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Sidhu Koskela, Niklas
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    En mobil stads-applikation i Trollhättans utveckling mot en smartare stad2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper maps out the possibility to create and implement a mobile application based on a project brief from mCity, that will help Trollhättan in becoming a smarter city. The reader gains a deeper understanding of how, with the help of data collection and analysis can infer patterns and based on that, create an interface as well as content that meets project objectives and contribute to the development from a Smart City perspective.We have, by interviewing local government employees and citizens, created a prototype built upon approved methods in usability that meets the above criteria which has also been tested on further citizens to evaluate the usability and user experience.Using this mapping, we believe that the future development and implementation of this and/or a similar type of application has been facilitated and the reconciliations made, indicate that such an implementation would also be of Trollhättan's advantage in its quest to become a smarter city

  • 194.
    Bäckström, Emelie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Classon, Sandra
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    ÅH! Vad trendigt: Inspirationssökning, inställning till design, trender och plagiering hos designers och studenter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our essay is based on qualitative interviews that we have carried out with professional designers and students who are new to the field of design. From now on, we do only refer to these as "students". We have also collected literature studies to our work and reported these. The reason why we have chosen to interview designers who work professionally with design and design students is that we wanted to be able to compare the answers from these both groups with each other to see what parts they agree on and disagree on when it comes to inspiration, trends and ethics.Our result that we have retrieved in this essay shows that professional designers and students both agree and disagree in different parts when it comes to inspiration, trends and ethics. Both of these groups use, for instance, the social network Pinterest to find inspiration. The professional designers are rather looking for inspiration through portfolio pages where they know they will find materials of good quality than by Google. The students, however, do often search for inspiration by Google by using keywords. When it comes to design trends the professional designers consider trends as important in order to develop the society and themselves as designers. The students on the other hand have a desire that all design should feel timeless and that we should focus on creating sustainable design instead. When it comes to where the line between being inspired by a design and to copy it outright goes, both professional designers and students agrre on that it is permissible to copy some elements from other design work that they then use to create something own. But they agree on that a design has become a plagiarism of something else if an entire layout or design has been copied without any modifications were made

  • 195.
    Börjesson, Sarah
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Stor på marknaden, liten i flödet: En kvalitativ fallstudie om visuell kommunikation, varumärkesidentitet och engagemang för företag på Instagram2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today companies need to create a strong brand as means of competition to handle the increased globalization, a part of this work is to create brand awareness and brand association through a clear visual identity. Social media is seen as a tool for companies to strengthen their brand and the relation to the consumer. Instagram is the fastest growing network, whose purpose is the visual communication. It can therefore be seen as a tool for companies to strengthen their visual brand identity. But while there are opportunities, there is also a picture of companies finding it difficult to break through and create commitment. The purpose of this study has therefore been to examine how companies with visual communication and their brand identity can create content that creates commitment. A qualitative case study has been implemented where a company's work with their content on Instagram has been examine, to see how they are working from the concepts and what it has generated in commitment. The methods quantitative content analysis and semi structured interview has been used. The result of the study shows how visual communication and brand identity can contribute to create a feeling and cognitive thought activity at the recipient. Two important dimensions in commitment on social media and how the consumer engages with a brand. In the end recommendations for future studies are made to compare one or more companies, and influencers, in their work with their content on Instagram. But also a comparative qualitative analysis between the company's posts.

  • 196.
    Carlsson, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Johansson, Jenny
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Inte helt med på noterna?: En kvalitativ studie kring kommunernas tonalitet på Facebook2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of our degree project is to create an increased understanding of what tonality municipalities use in their posts on Facebook. The aim of the work is that afterwards there should be clearer guidelines for how a municipality should express itself on Facebook in order to promote the commitment that arises. Our questions are: What tonality does municipalities use in their posts on Facebook? And how does the municipality's tonality on Facebook affect the commitment that occurs? Research will be limited to the four municipalities: Munkedal, Trollhättan, Uddevalla, and Vänersborg, all of which have different degrees of commitment to their Facebook publications (SKL, 2010). The reasons behind the choice of municipalities are that it gives us a wide range of urban and rural municipalities as well as the spread of size between these municipalities. As a method, we used a case study and a content analysis. We categorize the ways we see that municipalities use Facebook. The categories we could distinguish were encouraging, inviting, authoritative and informative. In addition, we saw how the municipalities could express themselves either personally or impersonally.   When it comes to our first issue, we saw that in many places an informative and impersonal tonality is used. It was also that the tonality of posts shifted from posts to posts within the same municipality, which gave the impression that they had no strategy behind how to express themselves on Facebook.

    When it comes to our second issue, we can see much earlier research suggesting that personal tonality is more inviting than neutral (Zavattaroa, Frenchb and Mohantyc, 2015, Kellher and Miller, 2006). Much of the communication that takes place is of typical state-of-the-art design. It is one-way communication that does not call for discussion and creates significantly less commitment than two-way communication (Liu and Horsley, 2007). We therefore recommend municipalities to strive for a two-way communication which gives rise to a greater degree of feedback from the followers (Moonhee et al. 2014).

  • 197.
    Carlsson, Anna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Webbtillgänglighet: en studie om tillgängligheten på Sveriges regioners hemsidor2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work is to investigate whether Sweden's regions work with accessibility on their websites. As internet usage increases, it is therefore important that everyone can use the web, no matter who you are. Today, there is the Web Accessibility Directive, which requires that you comply with the international standard for accessibility called Web Content Accessibility (WCAG), which contains a collection of guidelines that can be followed to get a more accessible web. have chosen to use a quantitative content analysis as a method, and with a coding scheme as a basis for examining how accessible the websites of the adapted regions are. Based on the guidelines, which are a requirement for the Web Accessibility Directive, some of these were selected which later form the basis of the survey. The results show that the regions comply with the requirements to some extent, but that there are still regions that have not given full priority to complying with the requirements. It is obvious that there is a lack of knowledge about accessibility among developers and web designers today, which can have a significant effect, and it emphasizes how important it is that accessibility is taught on the same terms as other subjects in web development. 

  • 198.
    Carlsson, Lotta
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Ramare, Isabella
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Visionen av det framtida stadslivet: En semiotisk analys av informationsfilmer om det Västsvenska paketet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The future is often created by visions since we tend to strive towards them to reach the future wedesire, a vision can thus affect both lives and destinies (Rubin, 2013:40). Therefore it's relevant to attempt to understand how visions of the future are visualized and communicated. It's also important for these visualizations to be well-made and thought-through so that people understand and want to follow the vision (Baum, Locke, Kirkpatrick, 1998:45). We chose to examine this phenomenon by studying three movies about the West Swedish Package; The dream of the good life (2011), West Swedish Package - an investment that paves the way for the future (2014) och Västsvenska Paketet - Möten mellan människor (2014). Using a semiotic analysis we examined how the vision of future urban life was presented. We also looked at the rhetorical elements that are used to present the vision. We found several similarities in how the vision was presented in the films. Overall they show a very optimistic future. They paint a picture of the good life where only certain kinds of people and lifestyles are depicted. On the rhetorical plane they use a lot of emotionally persuasive arguments (patos), they try to gain trust (etos) and they use some logical arguments (logos). We also discuss if an overly optimistic image of the future could generate a negative response, especially in such ad ebated topic as the West Swedish Package.

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  • 199.
    Carlsson Norlin, Alexandra
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Storm, Alicia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    IoT: Säkerhet vs användbarhet, vad värderas högst?2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IoT, or Internet of Things, have risen in popularity over the years. IoT can be useful for individuals in different aspects and they can offer an increase in productivity. Although IoT is useful it can also bring security risks. This study will discuss if these advantages will outweigh the device’s security risks and if the users are conscious of the risks that exist. The study will report on how IoT is structured and the risks existing within these layers, as well as what the consequences with the risks are for the users. The study will also report on earlier studies who have looked at people's perceptions of IoT from a security and utility aspects. There have been a number of interviews done in order to examine the research question in the study. The interviews in question have been done in different age groups. This study correlated with different aspects of previous studies and found that there’s a lack of understanding of what the risks with IoT are, but also found that the users wouldn’t change their behavior even after having gained a deeper understanding of the risks. The advantages with IoT are therefore perceived to outweigh the potential risks. The study then discusses if the biggest issue could be the risks that will surface with the expected increase of IoT-devices in 2030 if security measures aren’t taken early enough. The conclusion is that regardless if the solution is to give control back to the users and through this create an awareness of the risks with IoT, or a legislation that forces manufacturers to safeguard the security, that action needs to be taken now to make IoT safer in the future.

  • 200.
    Carlsson, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Flensner, Karin K
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design. School of Education, Humanities and Social Sciences, Halmstad University,.
    Teaching vocational pupils in their pyjamas: a socio-material perspective on challenges in the age of Covid-192022In: The international journal of information and learning technology, ISSN 2056-4880, E-ISSN 2056-4899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose 

    Due to the global outbreak of Covid-19, Swedish teachers in upper secondary education were forced to conduct emergency remote teaching. As of today, there is a stream of research that addresses digitalization in education in light of the pandemic. Previous studies show that the challenges with the sudden intensification of digitalization have been particularly challenging in practical and aesthetic subjects. The research question is as follows: What challenges did vocational teachers experience during the emergency remote teaching caused by Covid-19 and what emergent tactics can be identified invocational teaching practice?

    Design/methodology/approach 

    The empirical data consists of (1) interviews with two vocational teachers and, (2) workshops with 25 teacher students from different vocational programmes that addressed vocational teaching during the Covid-19 crisis.

    Findings 

    Emergency remote teaching meant challenges due to the changed socio-material environment that cannot easily be transformed to a vocational teaching setting. The challenges were related to authentic situations and material, problem solving and dexterity. Tactics that emerged as a response to the challenges were mainly connected to attempts to mimic vocational practices.

    Originality/value 

    Contributions include explaining specific challenges and possibilities in developing vocational competence when teaching is digitalised. Furthermore, it increases the understanding of the relationship between theory and practice in vocational education. By adopting a socio-material perspective onvocational competence, the authors enhance the understanding of the importance of a shared socio-material environment

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