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  • 151.
    Emilsson, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Ernstson, Ulf
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Gustavsson, Linn
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Sustainable Innovations in Small Enterprises for the Transformation of the Primary Healthcare Sector2020In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 16, p. 1-19, article id 6391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small enterprises face multiple and complex challenges when developing digital technologies. The aim of this article is to explore the role of sustainable innovation in small enterprises in relation to the ongoing transformation of the primary healthcare sector. The purpose is to gain understanding of innovation processes within the framework of sustainable development, applied to a local primary healthcare center. Data were collected through seven semi-structured interviews. A qualitative thematic analysis was conducted. Five themes appeared in relation to the ongoing transformation of the primary healthcare sector: (1) The process of sustainable innovation in a long-term perspective; (2) the companies’ views on innovations in healthcare; (3) effects of innovations in healthcare; (4) sustainable product or service development, and (5) the role of collaboration in the innovation process. The companies expressed a positive attitude to new innovations, as a natural part of developing the companies. The article concludes that incremental development of tools in small businesses supports the transformation of processes and services in the primary healthcare sector. Cross-disciplinary teams in collaboration facilitates the necessary learning and the required creation and sharing of knowledge.

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  • 152.
    Emilsson, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Skyvell Nilsson, Maria
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Johansson, Kristina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Berndtsson, Ina
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Pedagogical challenges in nurse education: A Case Study Focusing on the Completion Rate in Theoretical Education at a Swedish University2014Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 153.
    Emilsson, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Karlsson, Christina
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Experiences of using surveillance cameras as a monitoring solution at nursing homes: The eldercare personnel's perspectives.2023In: BMC Health Services Research, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: As the number of older people increases, so does the need for care. However, the workforce in eldercare cannot increase at the rate required to match the needs. Welfare technologies, such as surveillance cameras, can replace physical visits and be used at night to monitor older people in order to keep them safe, while not disturbing their sleep. The aim of the paper is to analyze obstacles and opportunities associated with implementation and use of surveillance cameras at nursing homes from the perspectives of the practitioners who use the technology, their working environment and the conditions of the older people with cognitive impairment who live in nursing homes.

    METHODS: Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with the eldercare personnel at nursing homes to understand their experiences of implementation and use of surveillance cameras. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ) was used as a guidance tool.

    RESULTS: The results show that the eldercare personnel experienced lack of adequate information, education and support related to using surveillance cameras. Several benefits are highlighted, such as better working environment and that the residents were not unnecessarily disturbed at night. However, the results also show that it is important to clarify that surveillance cameras cannot replace the human presence.

    CONCLUSIONS: The conclusions from this study are the importance of prerequisites for implementation, and that using surveillance cameras contributed to improvements in the working environment at night and created possibilities to maintain security and integrity for older people living in nursing homes.

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  • 154.
    Emilsson, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Josefsson, Rasmus
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    En studie om intern kommunikation i distribuerad agil systemutveckling med tvärfunktionella utvecklarteam2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the help of a qualitative approach and by means of semi structured interviews, this study investigated how distributed agile system development affects the internal communication between cross-functional teams. The interviews are conducted with staff who work in IT-projects with distributed agile teams.

    The result of the study shows that there are challenges in the form of technical problems during meetings over the Internet, misunderstandings and a higher probability of inaccurate comprehension regarding team members tasks. Secondly, it seems that, unlike similar earlier studies, cultural differences and language barriers were not a major problem. Thirdly, unlike earlier studies, it emerged despite the well-functioning infrastructure problematic moments in the form of human factors.

    At the end of this study, we propose that there is a need for continued research in order to explore the contexts in which the human factors affect distributed agile teams.

  • 155.
    Eriksson, Felix
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Isoaho, Simon
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Kritiska framgångsfaktorer avseende samarbete i agila utvecklingsprojekt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många agila utvecklingsprojekt misslyckas att leverera och blir försenade på grund av en snabbt skiftande marknad där projekt förändras under tidens gång. De faktorer som påverkar individer och dess samarbete inom ett agilt utvecklingsprojekt är därtill otydliga.

    Denna studies mål var därför att utreda vilka kritiska framgångsfaktorer som finns gällande individer och dess samarbete i ett agilt utvecklingsprojekt.

    Kvalitativa intervjuer har genomförts med individer som arbetar inom agila utvecklingsprojekt på stora verksamheter i Sverige. Detta för att kunna kartlägga vad som är viktigt för att lyckas med implementationen och användandet av den agila utvecklingsmetoden.

    Intervjuernas resultat kunde brytas ner in i tre kategorier som har en påverkan för att lyckas med utvecklingsprojektet: produktion, personer och samarbete samt arbetsmiljö. Analysen, baserat på intervjuerna och tidigare forskning inom agila utvecklingsmetoder och samarbete i utvecklingsprojekt, visar att kommunikation är den viktigaste påverkande faktorn. Graden av bra kommunikation inom och utanför projektet är en stor faktor till att en projektgrupp kan ha ett agilt och flexibelt arbetssätt som kan förändras i takt med att utvecklingsprojektet pågår. Därtill visar även studiens resultat att val av kommunikationsverktyg är en viktig faktor för ett bra samarbete mellan individerna.

  • 156.
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Exploring Socially Sustainable, Smart Manufacturing: Building Bridges Over Troubled Waters2024In: Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: Establishing Bridges for More Sustainable Manufacturing Systems Proceedings of FAIM 2023, June 18–22, 2023, Porto, Portugal, Volume 2: Industrial Management / [ed] Francisco J. G. Silva, Luís Pinto Ferreira, José Carlos Sá, Maria Teresa Pereira, Carla M. A. Pinto, Springer, 2024, Vol. 2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary manufacturing organizations formulate strategies towards smart manufacturing. However, strategies often merely regard technological improvements of working processes and activities and pay limited attention to human-centric perspectives. This study addresses the complex phenomenon of reaching socially sustainable smart manufacturing by exploring the human-centric perspectives in the eras of Industry 4.0 and Industry 5.0. Data were collected through an explorative qualitative case study with focus groups applying the history wall approach to document informants’ choices of activities that impact digitalization. To investigate informants’ interpretations and experiences of digital initiatives and prospects, the history wall approach was coupled with the analytical lens of the co-workership wheel, with its four conceptual pairs: trust and openness, community spirit and cooperation, engagement and meaningfulness, responsibility, and initiative. A total of 17 informants from different organizational levels at a case company participated. Activities, impacting digitalization, brought forward were grouped into technology, organization, and external impact. Results showed that human-centric and intangible perspectives surfaced as prerequisites when navigating industrial digitalization. Further, digital initiatives and prospects risk drowning in re-occurring organizational changes making successful implementation difficult. Thus, organizations cannot rely solely on technology, but must consider activities related to organizational aspects and impacts from the external environment, when introducing digital initiatives. Intrinsically, recognition of the co-workership concept, emphasizing human-centricity, can support the foundation necessary for bridging the gap towards socially sustainable smart manufacturing and strengthening the emerging I5.0 research.

  • 157.
    Eriksson, Kristina M.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    To digitalize or not? Navigating and merging human: and technology perspectives in production planning and control2022In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary manufacturing companies are navigating industrial digitalization anticipating increased production efciency and competitiveness in a volatile environment. This study focuses on the implementation processes of digital tools for production planning and control (PPC), i.e., advanced planning and scheduling (APS) software, in relation to the application of analog planning with physical fow boards. Digital tools can support understanding the consequences of production changes and variations, hence facilitating adaptable and resilient manufacturing. However, technological changes can be daunting, and efective implementations require dynamic capabilities to remain competitive in elusive environments. The aim is to study the implementation processes of an APS software to understand the requirements of fruitfully moving from analog planning to next-generation digital tools for decision support in PPC. The paper presents an explorative case study, at a manufacturing company within the energy sector. The interview study took place over 9 months during 2020–2021, investigating current and retrospective aspects of the case across 2019–2021. The case study comprises 17 in-depth interviews with a range of company employees, e.g., logistics managers and functions responsible for digitalization development. The results highlight the challenges of implementing and especially trusting digital tools for PPC. To realize the value of digital tools for PPC, it is argued that it is imperative to simultaneously apply a human-centric perspective in decision making to ensure trustworthy, sustainable, and resilient human-data-technology nexus implementations towards smart manufacturing

  • 158.
    Eriksson, Olle
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Söderberg, Jimmy
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Om trivsel och inlärning på högskolenivå i distansutbildningar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a total of five students from two different courses were interviewed about how they experience the enjoyment and learning during studies in distance courses. There were three students from an education and two from another training. To find out how students perceive their distance we have used semi-structured interviews. The different aspects we have assumed is: how they perceive distance education learning platform, lectures over the net, critical thinking, community, motivation, and computer anxiety. Learning platform was considered by all those we interviewed said it was easy to navigate and that it had sufficient tools to conduct distance education. None of the respondents wanted the learning platform would implement more communication components than discussion boards and e-mail. All respondents have been using video lectures that they have been satisfied with. The difference is that a training course had live lectures, while the second training had pre-recorded lectures. Critical thinking had a varied meanings for training. Motivation and fellow-ship were the aspects that had the greatest impact on a student in a distance learning. Comput-er anxiety was something that had little impact because the respondents who participated in the study had a high level of computer experience.

  • 159.
    Eriksson, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    The role for IT-support in Lean concepts: A qualitative study of municipalities2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis have the intention of to create a deeper understanding around IT-supports role in Lean concepts, and has been done with a hermeneutic approach and a theory creating approach as a case study with qualitative method, semi-structured interviews has been used as data collecting technique. The interview respondents were one IT-manager and one department manager from 4 municipalities. The data has then been analyzed by part- and comprehensive analysis with a hermeneutic approach and presented in the 4 different cases, that the municipalities used represent, and in one where all is combined. The results show massive use of computers but not any use of IT-support for Lean according to the respondents. Conclusions that where made was that programs like the business system in use in the organization and Microsoft Office package not is seen as a IT-support for Lean despite that several of the respondents use it to do Lean things like processes and that this is more or less considered as an obvious package to have.

    They have a tendency to think it has to be a separate IT-system or program especially made for Lean for it to be important and be interpreted as an IT-support for Lean.

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  • 160.
    Eringfält, Johan
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Hedvall, Erik
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Elektroniska val i Sverige: En insikt i medborgarens tankar kring införandet av elektroniskaval2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The pursuit for improvement and simpler solutions to common problems is something that is a common trait for humans. Digitalization is now seen as a solution to many common problems found in Sweden where it previously was utilizing pen and paper. Digitalization is spreading within Sweden and the election process is now in discussion. Other countries have carried out research on how an electronic voting system could work as well as how the citizens of that country viewed electronic voting systems. Earlier studies conclude that age, sex and other external factors initially determine whether a person is likely to use electronic voting systems or not. The purpose of this study is to investigate the attitude a Swedish citizen has towards a roll out of an electronic voting system. Two hypotheses were formulated from earlier research within the subject. These were: "More men than women will choose voting over the internet" and "More younger, than older people will choose voting over the internet". The main question and the hypotheses will be answered via an electronic questionnaire which contained both qualitative and quantitative questions. The result of our questionnaire concluded that the attitude of most of our respondents were positive and the main reason was convenience which arose from the ability to vote from home. The problem of feeling insecure about the systemwas also discussed and was a part of why some felt electronic voting systems were not something they wanted to use.To sum up, this study gives the reader an insight as to what a Swedish citizen feels about electronic voting systems and why they would choose to use or not to use it.

  • 161.
    Estifanos, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Modiri, Omid
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Ungdomars syn, erfarenheter och upplevelser av nätmobbning: intervjuundersökning av gymnasielever2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I och med det ökade internetanvändandet bland ungdomar har tillväxten av nätmobbning ökat. Studiens syfte är att få kunskap om problemet genom att använda sig av ungdomar som kunskapskälla. En individuell intervjuundersökning genomfördes där ungdomarna beskrev sin syn, upplevelser och erfarenheter om nätmobbning för att få en förståelse kring problemet och vad man kan göra för att förhindra det. Empirin har samlats in genom kvalitativa intervjuer där tolv svenska gymnasielever deltagit. Det framgick att anonymitet är en stor faktor till varför nätmobbning ökat men möjligheten till att kunna vara anonym får ungdomar att agera och skriva saker de vanligtvis inte hade gjort. Ungdomar använder ett grövre språk, och accepterar mer på Internet än vad de hade gjort i verkliga livet.Eleverna saknar säkerhetstänk på Internet, de ser Internet som en arena utan lagar och regler där man inte behöver stå för sina handlingar. Det finns inga konsekvenser av ens handlingar på Internet, vilket resulterar i att det är svårt att dra en gräns för hur långt man kan gå med nätmobbning. Grupptryck är även en faktor till varför nätmobbning ökar bland ungdomar då det är viktigt att passa in bland ungdomar. Det framgår även att ungdomarna hade önskat att vuxna i skolan hade engagerat sig mer för att förhindra nätmobbning.

  • 162.
    Fernström, Nathalie
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Holmeby, Emilia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Ungdomars påverkan av sociala medier2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet has helped people around the world gain new opportunities to communicate with each other. Global communication has also been streamlined, especially with the phenomenon of social media. Social media is a big part of many people's daily lives these days and it is a phenomenon that many people use every day. This has resulted in many young people spending a very large part of their waking hours to the use of social media. But there are also downsides and implications of using social media. It is not only the risks relating to what information young people choose to share, but also what information they consume and to which degree they consume information. Social media has become a venue for different types of social comparison. The aim of the present study is to investigate what impact using various social media has on young people's self-image and self-esteem. To achieve this purpose, we made a quantitative study by distributing a survey with relevant questions to young people between 15-19 years in Sweden. The selection was done by snowball sampling which means we distributed a link to the survey to secondary schools throughout Sweden and through a viral post on Facebook with a request to share the survey. The answers from the survey were analysed by comparing means, bivariate regression analysis and independent t-tests. The result was then related to previous research and Festinger's (1954) Social comparison theory as a theoretical framework. The survey measured the self-image and self-esteem of the respondents' using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale and the State Self-Esteem scale. Young people today has much wider social network than in the past thanks to social media. Therefore they have the opportunity to compare their appearance with and get affected by far more people than before. Young people are also concerned about how they appear on social media, which have been shown to influence young people's self-esteem and self-image greatly. The results in this study suggest that girls generally have a lower self-image and self-esteem than boys. Girls are most affected by the appearance related factors, even if these factors also affect men significantly. The boys are affected not only by the appearance related aspects, but also especially the questions regarding popularity, masculinity and power. They have also been shown to have a more risky behaviour on social media than girls. The conclusion of this study is that most respondents are affected, but to varying degrees, by comparison on social media.

  • 163.
    Fili, Saman
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Murguz, Amar
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Sociala mediers framgång; en potentiell fara för personlig integritet: En kvalitativ studie kring studenters inställningar till och medvetenhet kring personlig integritet samt sociala medier.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media has become pervasive technology that deeply penetrates the everyday of its users and studies have shown that especially students have a hard time imagining life without social media. With regards to this, social media exposes its users to threats to privacy and with it comes the debate of privacy concerns. Personal data has become the means with which users pay to be able to use social media. This side of social media offers a discreet but wellfunctioning datamining process wheras the more obvious side entails amusement, agility, social relations and such. From a privacy perspective, datamining becomes problematic where threats to privacy are being experienced. With this background, the underlying study examines personal integrity and how it is affected by social media usage. More specifically, students' attitudes regarding privacy and social media is examined based on Alan Westins theory. Students differ in age but come together in lives of the students as there are similarities in stress and pressure. This, with earlier research showing a need for online presence entail students to become an interesting target. The research question is answered qualitatively where interview where conducted with ten students from Högskolan Väst. Based on these interviews, empirical data was gathered, analyzed and discussed. The study showed that the majority of respondents were pragmatic in their approach to social media and prefer therefore to have control over the spreading of their information. They like to decide who gets to see what. The conclusion is that students' personal integrity is threatened by their use of social media as the study showed a lack of knowledge in the fact that their data is being used and spread to third parties

  • 164.
    Fischer, Gerhard
    et al.
    University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, (USA).
    Lundin, Johan
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics. Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, (SWE).
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Department of Education, Umeå University, Umeå, (SWE).
    The challenge for the digital age: making learning a part of life2023In: The international journal of information and learning technology, ISSN 2056-4880, E-ISSN 2056-4899, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The main argument behind this paper is learning in the digital age should not be restricted to creating digital infrastructures for supporting current forms of learning nor taking schools in their current form as God-given, natural entities, but changing current forms of education by developing new frameworks and socio-technical environments for making learning an integral part of life. The authors provide a framework for this argumentation as well as a call-to-action for research on the co-evolution of learning, media, and learning organizations. Design/methodology/approach: This paper theoretically and argumentatively explores the core assumption that the digitalization of society results in challenges and opportunities for learning and education based on fundamental transformations (Collins and Halverson, 2009; Fischer et al., 2020). Findings: The digital age greatly enhances the opportunities and supports the necessity for “making learning a part of life”. But while the growth of technology is certain, the inevitability of any particular future is not. The impact of schooling goes beyond that new information about computers, the Internet, and social media are integrated into the schools of today. The transformation of schools needs to be informed by an understanding of the impact of mindset formation that will determine people’s approach to learning for the rest of their lives. The authors’ framework is focused on moving “beyond gift-wrapping” by not only fixing and existing systems but to change them and not only reforming but transforming them. Originality/value: It is the authors’ hope that this article will be of interest to many stakeholders (including learners, teachers, curriculum designers, technology experts, parents, and politicians) and provide a foundation for an ongoing debate and informed actions for “Making Learning a Part of Life” in the digital age. © 2022, Gerhard Fischer, Johan Lundin and Ola J. Lindberg.

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  • 165.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Against users2015In: Proceedings of the 38th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS 38), Oulu, Finland, 9-12 August. (USB) / [ed] Anssi Öörni, Netta Iivari, Kari Kuutti, Harri Oinas-Kukkonen and Mikko Rajanen, IRIS , 2015, p. 1-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the 50’s users has played a great role in the research aboutinformation systems. However, users have mainly been considered as operators of the information system or as managers receiving the output. In this article I argue that users are not operators but clerks performing their job. In the same way as I’m a driver and not a car user when I drive my car, the clerk is performing the work, not using an information system. Knowing how to use the information system the clerk produces useful inform ation without paying any specific attention to the artifact. This perspective put certain demands on the designer of the artifacts, in fact (s)he should be a meta-designer, providing the clerks with useful tools for designing their own workflows

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  • 166.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    An Enhanced Communication Model2009In: International Journal of Digital Accounting Research, ISSN 1577-8517, E-ISSN 2340-5058, Vol. 9, p. 31-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of information is often taken for more or less granted in research about information systems. This paper introduces a model starting with Shannon and Weaver data transmission model and ends with knowledge transfer between individual persons. The model is in fact an enhanced communication model giving a framework for discussing problems in the communication process. A specific feature of the model is the aim for providing design guidelines in designing the communication process. The article ends with identifying a need for develop the model further to incorporate also communication within and between organisations of different kinds.

  • 167.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Becoming Professor: With Almost no Publications2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, ISSN 0905-0167, E-ISSN 1901-0990, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 135-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. I consider my career as rather exceptional. I think I am the only living person in Sweden who achieved a professor chair with only one international journal publication; a publication I use as an example of a totally incomprehensible text! The following is the storyof how I achieved this. I first describe two important issues that have governed my decisionsin the career: Being interpretivist in a dominating positivist research paradigm and my decision not to publish. This is important for understanding my interpretation of what was happening. Then I describe the four universities where I have worked, first by providing the story, then describing how the discipline developed at that place and finally some reflections on the research we conducted. I summarize by giving an historic overview of informatics as Iperceive it after 44 years of teaching and finally I reflect upon my career according to my goals.

  • 168.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Introducing e-learning in municipal contact centers: a Swedish case study2011In: Uddevalla Symposium 2011. Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Technology and Transformation of Regions: Revised papers presented at the 14th Uddevalla Symposium, 16-18 June, 2011, Bergamo, Italy / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2011, p. 307-318Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 169.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Investigation of scientific background for the IRIS community: evaluation of method2016In: Proceedings of IRIS39, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, August 7-10, 2016. Ljungskile, Sweden: Electronic Proceedings / [ed] Pareto, Lena, Svensson, Lars, Lundin, Johan, Lundh Snis, Ulrika, Trollhättan, 2016, p. 1-13Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In IRIS business meeting 2015 it was decided that we should undertake a description of 40 years of trends, topics, theories and methods used by the IRIS community. In this paper a method for doing such an investigation is described and the problem of the paper is to find ways of improving it. This is done in a pilot investigation, which is evaluated. The conclusion is that at least one more test need to be done. 

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  • 170.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    IT and the new society: from XML to Habermas2011In: Challenges for the Future in an ICT Context: ... for Stig / [ed] Viveca Asproth, Sundsvall: Dep. of Information Technology and Media, Mid Sweden University , 2011, 1, p. 103-122Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 171.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Om intellektuell upphovsrätt2007In: Digital life : magasinet för en digital livsstil, no 11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 172.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Om kopieringsskydd2007In: Digital life : magasinet för en digital livsstil, no 9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 173.
    Flensburg, Per
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    The new informatics revolution - not2008In: Proceedings of the 31th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, IRIS 31: Public systems in the future – possibilities, challenges and pitfalls, Åre, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems development seems to be taught in a very traditional way in the Swedish unversities. It is supposed that an inhouse development starting from scratch will be at hand. This is shown using an investigation of current books in the area, of contemporary educations in systems deveopment. But the needs from the business word are different and this is shown in an investigation of job advertisments in Sweden. The conclusion is that informatics as subject is at a deep crise: We educate students for a work that was at hand in the 80´s and not for the 21st century!

  • 174.
    Flensburg, Per
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Bernhard, Irene
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Nåfors, Annika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics.
    IT-Supported Work Processes for Contact Services in Swedish Municipalities: The Initial Design Steps2009In: Proceedings of ECIME 2009. The 3rd European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation held at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden on 17-18 September 2009 / [ed] Jan Ljungberg & Kerstin Grundén, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet , 2009, p. 497-503Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A contact service in a municipality is a place where the citizens can apply for processing of their claims concerning municipal jurisdiction. Examples could be application for a place at pre-school, planning permission or change of dustbin etc. The clerks at the contact centre should be able to provide immediate service in most of the matters. This requires the work-process for each matter to be known. Before starting of a contact service this knowledge existed in the administration for the actual claim. In many cases it was tacit and not described. This paper discusses the problem of making this knowledge explicit and described in order to be used at the contact service. Issues concerning work organisation, personnel and job satisfaction are recognised, but not in focus. Instead our focus lies on the work content, processing of the claims, which the clerks are dealing with. It is a qualitative study, based upon three existing contact services and one, which is in the design phase. We start with a brief discussion of different types of knowledge, related to classical epistemologies within the organisation area (Nonaka & Takeuchi, Brown & Duguid, Cook & Brown, Polyani, etc). Based upon empirical material from the cases we identify some typical knowledge categories. It might be general knowledge about rules, procedures and such things; it might be experience-based knowledge from previous claims, typical claims and work praxis developed over time. It might also be knowledge about the specific citizen and about the specific application. But it can also be totally new categories. Two categories we are pretty sure to identify are matter-oriented knowledge, concerning the actual matter and procedural knowledge, concerning the processing of the matter-oriented knowledge. In our previous research about work-flow four levels have been identified and we suspect the same basic reasoning might apply here.

  • 175.
    Flensburg, Per
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Holl, Alfred
    Technische Hochschule Nürnberg Georg Simon Ohm / University Nuremberg, Germany.
    Das älteste gedruckte schwedische Rechenbuch (Aegidius Aurelius, Arithmetica, Uppsala 1614): (Aegidius Aurelius, Arithmetica, Uppsala 1614)2017In: Tagungsband zum wissenschaftlichen Kolloquium vom 21.–23. April 2017 in der Berg- und Adam-Ries-Stadt Annaberg-Buchholz / [ed] Gebhardt, Rainer, Annaberg-Buchholz: Adam-Ries-Bund , 2017, p. 313-326Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 176.
    Flensburg, Per
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Kurti, Arianit
    Social Informatics in the Future2006In: Social informatics: An Information Society for All? Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human Choice and Computers (HCC7), IFIP TC 9, Maribor, Slovenia, September 21–23, 2006 / [ed] Berleur Jacques, Impagliazzo, John, Nurminen Markku I., Boston, USA: Springer Boston , 2006, p. 87-96Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When Internet in the middle of the 1990s made its breakthrough a revolution occurred compared to the industrial revolution. Suddenly the cost for information transport was reduced to almost zero and genuinely new opportunities arose. Work, that can be performed by unskilled workers, are outsourced and the focus is on the business process. This requires a genuine new way of doing business; we see a need for trust, loyalty, and sharing of values. Education of users at the workplace will be a major concern and a common language and a mutual and deep understanding of the concepts and social contexts used is a prerequisite. A 3D apple model for context is described. For defining the social context, a user centred approach must be used. We need genuinely new informatics paradigms adapted to the network economy. This requires a massive re-education of all workers, both white and blue collar. To sum it all up: Reliable and sustainable production, availability of reliable information, trust, and flexibility are the means for us to survive in this new economy.

  • 177.
    Flensburg, Per
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Computer Science and Informatics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Milrad, Marcelo
    Center for Learning and Knowledge Technologies (CeLeKT), Växjö University.
    Current approaches to network-based learning in Scandinavia (Guest Editorial)2007In: Educational Technology & Society, ISSN 1176-3647, E-ISSN 1436-4522, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 178.
    Flod, Nicholas
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Kajdic, Eldin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Designriktlinjer för att anpassa Augmented Reality-applikationer till högskoleutbildningar: Att anpassa användningen av Augmented Reality-applikationer till högskoleutbildningar2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As technology keeps evolving, new ways to access information begin to emerge. A subject that recently has received more attention is Augmented Reality (AR), which can be explained as a reality enhanced with virtual information. Using AR for educational purposes is something that recently has started to gain attention, which has created a greater demand for AR-applications that can be used in higher educations. As the subject is relatively new, there are yet no clear design guidelines and principles to be followed when developing these types of applications. To create successful AR-applications with good usability, it is vital that developers follow design guidelines and mainly focus on the needs of the application's users.

    This thesis aims to answer the research question "which design guidelines should be followed when developing AR-applications for higher education?".

    To be able to answer this question, this thesis has collected data by exploring a wide range of previous research consisting of a combination of AR, Design and Higher education. The reasoning behind why a literature study was conducted was to acquire knowledge of how AR-applications are being used at present time, as well as finding already existing design guidelines that may be applicable to the end result of this thesis. This thesis was later backed up by user observations and interviews with purpose of collecting empirical data to further amplify the final design guidelines. Previous research found that a lack of user experience related AR-studies has led to insufficient information on both evaluating and designing AR-applications for educational purposes. The creation of AR-applications for higher education is relatively new, which means that there are no direct guidelines for what is right or wrong in terms of design. The research also found that customizing the applications to multiple platforms, making rewards systems, following certain design principles and keeping cultural differences in mind could lead to significantly improved results in terms of usability and user satisfaction.

    The results from the user observations and interviews imply that students are in need of in-app tests, clear instructions, intelligible interfaces and immediate feedback, as user AR-application interfaces sometimes can be confusing, resulting in frustrated students. By following the proposed design guidelines, this study may benefit developers who intend to create AR-applications to be used in higher education.

  • 179.
    Forsberg Ehn, Sofia
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Mossberg, Filippa
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Från kaffeautomaten till digitala mötesrum: Mjukvaruutvecklares upplevelser av att arbeta med agila utvecklingsmetoder under rådande pandemi2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At the beginning of 2020, the world became aware of the covid-19 virus that caused a pandemic. People and companies have had to adapt as a result of the current situation in order to reduce the spread of the virus, which has forced employees to work remotely. Previous research has shown that there are challenges in working with agile methods remotely where teams or parts of teams work distributed. However, these researches largely concern agile software development projects in which IT companies operate globally. This study has examined how the work is conducted remotely where all team members work distributed as a result of other reasons than the global software development. The purpose of this study has been to investigate how employees who are part of teams experience the work with agile development projects that are conducted remotely as a result of the current pandemic. Therefore, the following two research questions have been formulated as “In what ways do employees who are part of teams feel that the interaction with colleagues works during the current pandemic?” and “How do employees feel that remote work functions when they work distributed as a result of covid-19?”. To investigate this, eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with software developers working with Scrum within a medium-sized IT company located in western Sweden. The majority of the respondents have been part of the same team for several years and therefore have a good relationship with their colleagues. The results showed that the work with agile development projects conducted remotely as a result of the pandemic has functioned well. The respondents have not experienced any difficulties intransferring Scrum in regards to distance work, which could depend on the fact that they have worked within the same team for a long period of time. In order to be able to perform the job, both interaction and communication are required, something that the respondents experienceas working well even remotely. However, informal communication has not been able to be fully replaced by digital tools, something that previous research highlights as a limitation when teams work distributed.

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  • 180.
    Forsman, Berit
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Frail Older Persons' Experiences of Information and Participation in Hospital Care2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 16, article id E2829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to describe frail older persons' experiences of hospital care of information and participation when being an inpatient at a hospital. A qualitative method was used. Data were collected at the hospital from 20 interviews with frail older patients, together with observations in the environment at the hospital ward. A content analysis was performed. Patients experienced not receiving information about their care and rehabilitation, or receiving such information in noisy surroundings. They experienced situations of misunderstanding related to their medication, which indicates the need for appropriate discharge calls for frail older patients. They expressed feelings of distress concerning the future, caused by hasty admissions or relatives' problems to handle the situation. The results highlight the need to receive appropriate information and to participate in decision-making. The level of health literacy should be taken notice of when giving information, using peaceful and quiet environments when informing frail older persons. Person-centered care should be recognized to a greater extent in order for healthcare professionals to give information to frail older people in a health literacy-friendly way. This might make it easier for frail older persons to participate in a partnership in care.

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  • 181.
    Forsman, Berit
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Obeid, Ayman
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Breddinförande av e-handelinom omsorgsförvaltningen i Trollhättan2021In: Organisering, implementering och användning av välfärdsteknologi: Resultat från eTeam-projektet / [ed] Ann Svensson, Camilla Gjellebæk, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2021, p. 55-60Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 182.
    Forssell Eriksson, G.
    et al.
    Ytterbyskolan, Kungälv .
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Coping Skills of Students in Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication2013In: ICERI2013 Proceedings, 2013, p. 1210-1216Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactive and communicative situations within social environments are prerequisites for learning in collaboration. Synchronous computer-mediated communication is often used as a means to achieve active learning in collaboration. Synchronous communication thus offers the opportunity to actively engage students in collaborative learning activities. This paper is based on an ethnographic case study of synchronous communication between students in the lower secondary school collaborating in a cross-border project involving Danish, Norwegian and Swedish students. The project is aimed to promote the students in their Scandinavian intercomprehension skills using their own native languages when the students are collaborating in different joint projects. The aim of the paper is to analyze the characteristics of the coping skills of the students within a collaborating learning project using synchronous computer-mediated communication.One of the students in each group in each of the collaborating countries acted as a group leader, decided in advance. The students were also prepared in advance of what to synchronously discuss with their collaborating Scandinavian student groups. However, a critical part of the synchronous collaboration was the assignment for the group collaboration leader. It has been obvious that the student assigned for the role really is coping with this situation. The group collaborating leader has to take initiative, relate the discussion to the actual subject, distribute the word between the participants, ask questions and distribute the questions between the students in the different collaborating countries speaking different neighbor languages. To help in this situation is to have visible name tags on each student. A prerequisite is that the group collaboration leaders have to have the social skills as self-esteem, empathy, emotional intelligence as well as problem solving. Thus, these students need different types of cognitive, affective and social skills related to cope with a real situation performed synchronously with support of information and communication technology. Some students sometimes prove specific coping skills in this real context in the school and are not necessarily those students who are the most skilled within their native language.The engagement from the teachers is of vital importance for the students' active participation in the synchronous collaboration. Therefore the teachers have to take part in the background in each room in the different countries within the collaborating computer-mediated synchronous session. This will imply a more serious and engaged participation of all the students. The instructional strategies and advices the students got from the teachers in advance were of significant importance. Moreover, the teachers' engagement also has an impact on the students' sense of trust and security between each other and between the students in each collaborating country within the synchronous communication.

  • 183.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Gävle, Sverige.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    Jaldemark, Stefan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Sverige.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå universitet, Umeå, Sverige.
    Lundin, Johan
    Gothenburg University, Applied Information Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå universitet, Umeå, Sverige.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Öberg, Lena-Msrie
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för data- och systemvetenskap, Sverige.
    On the Swedish national graduate school for digital technologies in education - GRADE: Expectations and experiences of doctoral students and supervisors2018In: ICERI2018 Proceedings: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, Sevilla, 2018, p. 769-774Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Graduate School for Digital Technologies in Education (GRADE) is a cooperative venture between six Swedish universities established during 2018. Within the field of educational sciences and in the area of digital technologies in education, GRADE aims to strengthen the expertise in the area and to increase national and international cooperation in research training activities.Over a number of years, and from multitude of sources (cf. Brown & Davis, 2004; Fisher, Higgins & Loveless, 2006; Kafai & Resnick 1996), research has stressed that increased digitalization in schools leads to a complexity that needs to be taken into account on different levels, from different perspectives and with different designs, methodologies and theoretical perspectives (cf. Olofsson, Lindberg, Fransson & Hauge, 2015; Price, Jewitt & Brown, 2013; Tondeur, Valcke & van Braak, 2008). At a micro-level, the learning situation of students, teachers and school-leaders changes and it becomes important to deepen the knowledge about the impact digital technologies has on the fundamental conditions for teaching and learning of different school subjects (cf. Chun, Kern & Smith 2016; Leung & Baccaglini-Frank, 2017). On a macro-level, conditions for education as such changes and digital technologies becomes an important object of study as agents of change (Wong & Li, 2008). The digitalization of K-12 schools has long been highlighted in policy as a necessity (cf. Kirkman et al, 2002; OECD, 2010). However, research and evaluations (cf. Fransson et al, 2012; OECD, 2015; Wastiau et al, 2013) show that many substantial challenges remain. One of the fundamental pillars of GRADE is the interdisciplinary approach. Several disciplines are present (Applied IT, Curriculum studies, Education, Informatics, Technology and Learning, Educational work, Work-interated Learning) in researching digital technologies in K-12 schools with the ambition to contribute to the continued implementation, integration and use of digital technologies in Swedish K-12 schools that stems from the evidence-based knowledge produced within the activities of GRADE. The research within GRADE will be characterized by close cooperation with stakeholders from school practice, with the aim to contribute to concrete school development. In GRADE, a multi-level approach that involves multiple layers or levels of school activities will be encouraged. When possible, studies will be longitudinal. This will imply studies from an organizational and management perspective, e.g. studies of school leaders and other members of senior management positions responsible for digital technology use and implementation. Also implied are studies of teachers' teaching practices and didactical considerations, as well as studies of the students in classrooms and their learning using digital technologies. This will also imply that several issues with a bearing on the digitalization of education, for example regarding school policy, teaching, learning, assessment and professional development will be researched from different perspectives and with different methodological approaches. In this paper, these points of departure will be explored based on the expectations and experiences of the first twelve admitted doctoral students and their supervisors

  • 184.
    Fridolfsson, Emma
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Hagberg, Elina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Påverkan av digitala läromedel hos högstadieelever: Kvalitativ studie avseende elevers åsikter kring digitala läromedels inverkan på elevernas motivation, engagemang och studieresultat2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate how the learning is affected amongst middle school students through the use of digital learning materials. The study is based on students in the age of 13–15 and excludes teachers, principals and other actors. A qualitative study has been conducted where semi-structured interviews have been used as a method. The empirical data in the study consists of nine interviews with students who have experience on digital learning materials. The results of the study show that digital learning materials affect student learning but in various ways. The study shows that digital learning materials create the conditions to make the learning methods become various. The diversity in learning methods produces positive influence from students' point of views. Digital learning materials increase student motivation and commitment, which leads to better study results. The study showed that the majority of students preferred a mixture of traditional and digital learning materials, which should not be eliminated. An important finding is the relation between teacher capabilities in digital tools and learning opportunities for students. In several subjects, the teachers do not use digital learning materials due to the lack of competence, which generated the negative consequences for students. This decreases the diversity of learning methods which is considered as a crucial respect to enhance their learning.

  • 185.
    Fritzon, Anders
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Wester, Linn
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Säkerhetsaspekterna med "Bring Your Own Device": Hur företag hanterar egna enheter på arbetsplatsen, samt säkerheten som krävs för en tryggare arbetsplats2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2007, a whole new market of mobile phones was created, which we today call smartphones. As smartphones developed at a furious pace, new technology and security issues also surfaced for companies. Since 2009, "Bring Your Own Device" (BYOD) made companies start thinking and plan their activities for the wireless technology that we use all the time, and this caused information security to come into focus. BYOD has become so much larger that it has meant a new creation of policy documents and safety issues that are coming into focus among companies that use BYOD. Consequences, threats, risks, etc. are things that companies need to be aware of if they are going to use BYOD in their businesses. By interviewing five different companies of different sizes and industries, an impression of how Swedish companies manage BYOD and its security aspects can be determined. While providing clear facts, one can also increase awareness among other companies and help the thinking about why they should adopt BYOD into a company. BYOD was difficult for the companies to define. Should employees own a device or could a company own a device and the employees use it? The purpose of this report is to contribute knowledge about how companies manage BYOD, and if they know what the consequences for safety are that may arise. This study provides the following results, if the companies use BYOD and if so, how they use their mobile devices when connecting to different networks. And how companies provide security to minimize the risks that can be generated when companies make use of BYOD. Safety is always a focus of companies and they are aware of the consequences that may occur if security does not functions within the company.

    Safety is always in focus of the companies and they are aware of the consequences that may occur if the security functions within the company. Smaller companies find it easier to use a BYOD approach in dealing with less information within the company. If companies are not protected, they can suffer from threats and viruses even though they were fully aware of the consequences.

  • 186.
    Färnefors, Viktoria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Making Sense of Automation: A case study on public values in the automation discourse2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Automation is on the rise in the Swedish public sector and it is claimed to be a partial solution to the financial difficulties that many municipalities are facing. Concerns have been raised about how the use of software robots to automate processes could affect the public values that permeate the work in public administration. This thesis investigates how public values are manifested in the discourse among employees in the municipal social services regarding automation in public administration. As the use of software robots is a relatively new phenomena in public administration, there is need for empirical research on the effects. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect empirical data. To complement the interviews, a minor document analysis was performed. The results indicate that efficiency is expressed as the major driver for automation. In relation to other public values a need is expressed to protect or to use safeguards so that other values are not affected in a negative way. To uphold or increase values, like legality, service and quality, measures must be taken as it is not seen as a natural benefit of automation. Automation is expressed as a threat against individual assessments, since the robot cannot make subjective judgments based on citizens unique needs, which is identified as a major concern in the discourse and an important area for future research.

  • 187.
    Färnefors, Viktoria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lindman, Oskar
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Användaracceptans av IT inom svensk hälso- och sjukvård: En kvalitativ studie om användaracceptans av ny teknologi under postimplementation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Implementation of IT in healthcare is by many considered to have several benefits. On the one hand, it can improve the health care by, among other things, making it more efficient. On the other hand, it can give economic advantages, for example by health care providers being able to save money. At the same time, there are studies showing problems may arise at the implementation of new technologies in healthcare. Problems reported include hesitation regarding the profitability of the technologies, and staff deeming the technology taking up too much time. There have also been reported difficulties in the post-implementation phase, for example increased strain on personnel and worsened communication between staff and patients. In the light of this, this study has investigated which factors influence the user acceptance of IT in healthcare during the post-implementation phase. This study has, with a qualitative approach and based on the theory UTAUT, carried out a number of interviews with personnel working in healthcare who recently took part in an implementation of new technology. Then, the result was analyzed to find out which factors most influence the acceptance of technology in healthcare. The result shows that expected performance is the factor that matters most for acceptance of new technology. The voluntariness and if the usage has become norm in the workplace both have a large effect on whether the technology is accepted or not. When the work routine is of a more complex nature it is also important to have a good understanding of the processes which the technology is built around. The study also shows that there is a need to adjust the UTAUT model to better explain acceptance within the context of Swedish healthcare. The degree of voluntariness should be more than a moderating variable, and a new construct, regarding knowledge about the processes and routines that govern the work in healthcare, ought to be considered.

  • 188.
    Gabrys, Piotr
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Införande av IT-system i kommunala organisationer: Faktorer som kan påverka resultatet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An implementation of an IT system is a socio-technical change that places many demands on the organization if the implementation is to be considered successful. There are challenges of both the technical, social and organizational nature. Descriptions of the implementations that were perceived as successful often refers to common factors that contributed to the successful implementation, so-called success factors. The purpose of this work is to obtain knowledge about those factors and how they can affect system implementations in municipal organiza-tions. In this work those so-called success factors are identified based on theory and studies of practical circumstances in organizations. The factors are examined and knowledge about them is gathered and presented. This work is conducted using a qualitative interview study of two organizations in two small municipalities with large experience on system implementations. The interviewed persons have varying roles in the organizations and different experiences of implementations. The results are the respondents' perceived views, experiences and comments on implementations regarding such as system usability, leadership, training and commitment.

    This work presents factors perceived to have contributed to the success, for example the lead-ers support and commitment, technical stability and user participation. The main conclusions of this work include that a number of success factors that are described in studies from other types of organizations can even be found in municipal organizations. Factors that affect the implementations success are found in fields that regards organization, qualifications, systems applicability and the systems users. There are different methods for evaluation, and different definitions of success, therefore they are not general shortcuts to success, but rather a base for the work before, during and even after the systems implementation. The specific circum-stances of each system implementation and organization overall strategy for system and busi-ness development may vary and influence the factors' effects.

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  • 189.
    Galan, Nataliya
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Post-formation venture development in the healthcare sector: The roles and contributions of different stakeholders2023Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 190.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Partitioning reference values of several Gaussian subpopulations with unequal prevalence--a procedure with computer program support2006In: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, ISSN 1434-6621, E-ISSN 1437-4331, Vol. 44, no 10, p. 1258-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To be able to interpret laboratory values, it is essential to develop population-based reference intervals. A crucial consideration is whether a reference interval should be divided into subpopulations or not, so-called partitioning. There are established methods for deciding whether partitioning should be done or not. However, these methods are only applicable when partitioning into two subpopulations is considered. The primary aim of this study was to suggest a procedure that was also valid for several subpopulations. The method assumes that these subpopulations are Gaussian. Furthermore, a secondary aim was to provide a tailor-made computer program to support calculations. METHODS: The fundamental idea is to partition reference intervals if the proportions of the distributions of the subpopulations outside the combined reference limit deviate from the nominal value of 0.025. This is made possible by finding the combined reference interval using an equation solver algorithm. RESULTS: It was found that an equation solver algorithm could easily identify the combined reference interval when combining two or more subpopulations, even if these subpopulations had unequal prevalences. It was also found that this could be done even if the ratio between samples does not reflect the ratio between prevalences. Using this algorithm, it was possible to study whether the proportion outside the combined reference limits in any of several subpopulations deviated from the nominal 0.025 by such a magnitude that partitioning was recommended. When similar figures to those found in earlier studies with other methods were tested, the procedure showed consistent results with these methods. The procedure was also found to be applicable when several subpopulations were considered. As a practical result of the study, a tailor-made computer program was developed and is now provided over the Internet. CONCLUSIONS: The suggested procedure could serve as an alternative or complement to existing methods. The procedure provides calculations of the combined reference interval, even if sample fractions do not reflect prevalence fractions. The important advantage with the suggested procedure is the generalisation to the situation when several Gaussian subpopulations, possibly with unequal prevalences, are considered. Finally, since a tailor-made computer program is provided, the procedure is simple to use.

  • 191.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    The impact of word of mouth when booking a hotel: could a good friend's opinion outweigh the online majority?2019In: Information Technology & Tourism, ISSN 1098-3058, E-ISSN 1943-4294, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 289-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online user generated reviews are transforming business and customer behavior and could have a major impact on sales. The primary aim of this study was to measure the impact of online reviews in comparison with the impact of a good friend's opinion. The question in focus was: to what extent could a single review made by a good friend compensate the opinion of the online majority? Subjects were randomly allocated to different versions of guest reviews of a fictive hotel: either constituting a positive or a negative online majority. After reading the reviews, respondents were asked about their booking intention. The respondents were also asked to re-evaluate booking intention given the additional information that a good friend has given a recommendation or an advice against booking the hotel. The study design was experimental and based on a survey which included 1319 respondents who were randomized to the different versions of guest reviews. The results showed that the overall valence of reviews is crucial for booking intention, also the latest two reviews were important even though the effect was much smaller. If the overall valence was negative the latest two reviews had no importance, no matter if these were positive or negative. But, if the overall valence was positive, then the booking intention could be diluted if the two latest reviews were negative. Concerning the primary aim of the study, it is concluded that a good friend’s word of mouth could outweigh the online majority. This means that a negative online majority could be outweigh by a good friend's recommendation and that a positive online majority could be outweigh by a goods friend's recommendation against booking the hotel. 

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  • 192.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Babaheidari, Said Morad
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    A first step towards a model for teachers' adoption of ICT pedagogy in schools.2018In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 4, no 9, article id e00786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important to identify and understand important factors underpinning the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in schools. And, it is important that ICT is adopted in a sound pedagogical manner. The aim with this study was to suggest a model for the actual use of ICT in schools and how it may be related to important factors such as technological pedagogical expectations. The design of the model was inspired by TAM2 and UTAUT models, but with some modifications. We have developed a model which highlight the pedagogical aspects beyond the technical ones. Furthermore, our suggested model also include the adoption of digital techniques in everyday life as a potential predictor of adoption of ICT at work. The sample consists of 122 teachers and we analyzed the model with a structural equation model. This study contributes with a suggested model including a new construct for measuring expected performance from a technological pedagogical point of view. This new construct was a significant predictor to actual use of ICT in school. Furthermore we also developed a new construct for adoption of ICT in everyday life, which also was a significant predictor to actual use of ICT in school.

  • 193.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Work-integrated Learning: Increasing societal impact by decreasing the gap between research and practice2018In: ICERI2018 Proceedings, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we outline models for conducting work-integrated learning research. Our experiences from two decades of doing research in close collaboration with practitioners are presented and discussed. Our main message is that by engaging practitioners in all steps of the research project there is a potential for research outcomes to have high societal impact, and theoretical contribution

  • 194.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Gellerstedt, Victoria
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bernhardsson, Lennarth
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Vallo Hult, Helena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Work-Integrated Learning: Impact of Individual and organizational Digitalization on Knowledge management and Expertise Sharing2019In: INTED2019 Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, 2019, p. 3601-3609Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim with this study was to examine the impact of digitalization and the use of ICT for knowledge sharing in an organization. A secondary aim was to further develop knowledge management models to also include collaborative knowledge production and expertise sharing. Based on such a model, we developed a questionnaire answered by 265 respondents. We found that the relationship between using ICT for knowledge sharing was correlated to knowledge sharing also when adjusted for established factors like organisational climate and social norms. We conclude that digitalization, both individually and on an organisational level is an important asset for knowledge management, and that the use of ICT could support knowledge sharing beyond known and established important factors.

  • 195.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Norström, Livia
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Do Municipal Facebook Performance and Citizen Satisfaction go Hand in Hand?2020In: Electronic journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 30-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relation between municipalities' social media performance and citizen satisfaction withthe municipality. An observational study was conducted, based on four different Swedish national public data sources. Thestudy shows that municipalities' Facebook performance is correlated to citizens' satisfaction with living in the municipalityand with satisfaction with municipal service provision. There was however no significant relationship between Facebookperformance and satisfaction with transparency and influence from a citizen perspective. In conclusion, one importantimplication of the study is that citizen perception regarding whether a municipality is a good place to live in or not is related to the use of social media for promoting the municipality. Furthermore, a relation between satisfaction and citizenperception of government service performance implies that social media could be valuable for interaction and co-creation.Finally, an implication is that usage of social media and the potential relationship to trust, influence and transparency mustbe further elaborated and studied. Overall, our recommendation is that municipalities and their citizens may benefit fromwell thought-out strategies of how to use social media for marketing, interaction and co-creating.

  • 196.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    The Goalkeeper: a tool for monitoring learning outcomes in PhD education2015In: ICERI2015 Proceedings, 2015, p. 6223-6230Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The journey from being a new Ph. D.-candidate towards passing the doctorate grade is often a bumpy road with both unexpected and complex challenges that has to be turned in to learning experiences that adds to progression. In this paper we describe the development and use of a tool (the Goalkeeper) designed to support, structure and visualize this journey. It is a tool for supervisors, doctorate students as well as people responsible for quality assurance of a doctorate education. Based on our experiences of having utilised the tool we argue that it is important that the implementation of such a tool is firmly grounded in a quality culture where support of progression and formative assessment dominate over summative assessment and control.

  • 197.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics. University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Rawshani, Nina
    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    The Pre-hospital Research Centre of Western Sweden, Prehospen, University College of Borås, Borås, Sweden, Department of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Bång, Angela
    The Pre-hospital Research Centre of Western Sweden, Prehospen, University College of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Gelang, Carita
    The Pre-hospital Research Centre of Western Sweden, Prehospen, University College of Borås, Borås, Sweden, Department of Ambulance and Prehospital Emergency Care, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jan-Otto
    Department of Ambulance and Prehospital Emergency Care, Skaraborg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anna
    The Pre-hospital Research Centre of Western Sweden, Prehospen, University College of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Rawshani, Araz
    Department of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Could prioritisation by emergency medicine dispatchers be improved by using computer-based decision support?: A cohort of patients with chest pain2016In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 220, p. 734-738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To evaluate whether a computer-based decision support system could improve the allocation of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or a life-threatening condition (LTC). We hypothesised that a system of this kind would improve sensitivity without compromising specificity. Methods: A total of 2285 consecutive patients who dialed 112 due to chest pain were asked 10 specific questions and a prediction model was constructed based on the answers. We compared the sensitivity of the dispatchers' decisions with that of the model-based decision support model. Results: A total of 2048 patients answered all 10 questions. Among the 235 patients with ACS, 194 were allocated the highest prioritisation by dispatchers (sensitivity 82.6%) and 41 patients were given a lower prioritisation (17.4% false negatives). The allocation suggested by the model used the highest prioritisation in 212 of the patients with ACS (sensitivity of 90.2%), while 23 patients were underprioritised (9.8% false negatives). The results were similar when the two systems were compared with regard to LTC and 30-day mortality. This indicates that computer-based decision support could be used either for increasing sensitivity or for saving resources. Three questions proved to be most important in terms of predicting ACS/LTC, [1] the intensity of pain, [2] the localisation of pain and [3] a history of ACS. Conclusion: Among patients with acute chest pain, computer-based decision support with a model based on a few fundamental questions could improve sensitivity and reduce the number of cases with the highest prioritisation without endangering the patients.

  • 198.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Östlund, Christian
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Navigating in a new pedagogical landscape with an introductory course in applied statistics.2014In: Topics from Australian Conferences on Teaching Statistics: OZCOTS 2008-2012 / [ed] MacGillivray, H., Martin, M., and Phillips, B, New York: Springer , 2014, p. 119-148Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last few decades, a great deal of effort has been put into improving statistical education, focusing on how students learn statistics and how we as teachers can find effective ways to help them. At the same time the use of computers, the Internet, and learning management systems has grown rapidly, and offers new educational possibilities. In this chapter, we will discuss how these changes in the pedagogical landscape have affected our introductory course in applied statistics. The course and teaching context are presented in relation to guidelines for assessment and instruction in statistics and to seven principles for effective teaching. Teaching strategies, course content, and examples of course material are included. Furthermore, results from evaluations are discussed, especially focusing on diversity in student characteristics. These results indicate a variation in learning styles both between and within groups. Finally, we present some of our ideas for future development including strategies for individualization and the use of educational mining.

  • 199.
    Ghadban, Zahra
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Massoumnataj, Dennis
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Trafiksäkerheten med autonoma bilar: Faktorer som kan påverka trafikanters uppfattning kring säkerheten med autonoma bilar2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous cars are one of the most anticipated technologies that are rapidly evolving in the world today. The autonomous cars have already been applied on the roads today and will most likely continue to be applied in the future with the benefits they bring. But despite all the benefits, the society can still feel insecure about whether it can actually rely on fully autonomous cars. It is important that people feel safe both when they are in the car and when they are in the surrounding traffic. The study examines whether gender, age, trust and awareness have an impact on how people in the Swedish society perceive the safety of autonomous cars in the traffic. A quantitative research method in the form of a web-based questionnaire was used to collect data. The questionnaire was answered by a total of 265 respondents between the ages of 18-50+ of which 121 were men and 144 were women. The data collected was then analyzed through the statistical platform SPSS Software. The study reported that no association could be indicated between gender and the safety perception of autonomous cars and also for the factor age. However, a correlation was discovered for both factors trust and awareness.

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  • 200.
    Gillberg, Malin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Moment 22: sambandet mellan systemförvaltning och den uteblivna måluppfyllnaden vid övergång till ehandel hos en offentlig organisation i Sverige.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of e-commerce has become an established term for various businesses that in various ways occur via the internet. This study has its focus on e-commerce in the public sector in Sweden. In Sweden e-commerce is introduced in the public sector continuously. It has been introduced in various degrees. Today more than one third of the local government organizations in Sweden and more than half of the country council management organizations have embraced e-commerce.

    The research question for this study is:

    What conditions can affect an organization’s progress toward goals regarding e-commerce project viewed from a system management perspective?

    The purpose of this study is to identify and describe the conditions that may affect a public organizations progress towards goals for e-commerce projects, from a system management perspective. The study is qualitative in nature. The empirical data,in the form of a case study was gathered through interviews and document studies in the municipal administrative organization. The theory in the study was collected through literature with presentation of research in the area of system management and organizational theory.

    Two conditions were observed in the study. These conditions have led to the consequence that the progress towards goals for e-commerce project in the organization where the case study was conducted not has been achieved:

    1. Competence and resources: The organization has not had sufficient staff resources dedicated to system management for the entire e-commerce lifetime of the organization.There is lack of resources with the right IT skills in the current situation

    2. The vertical organization: The online ordering system is not designed for the type of vertical organization as public organizations has. The organization where the case study was conducted has implemented an order process that is not consistent with the intended order process online ordering system. The organization made this adjustment to overcome the problems it brings to have a system that is not adapted to the organization's structure.

    The two conditions that were observed during the study has direct connection to the consequence that the organization has failed to reach its goal with the e-commerce adoption. The study demonstrates the link between the organization’s failure to progress towards the goals with the e-commerce project and the management of the e-ordering system. The result is that the organizations did not reach their goals to turn over to e-commerce. The goal for all public organizations is that all their outbound orders for goods and services electronically with the exception since it is unsuitable to manage them electronic by confidentiality or security reasons.

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