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  • 151.
    Bernhardsson, Malin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Rask, Rebecca
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Småföretags användning av externa redovisningstjänster: En kvalitativ studie med inriktning mot mark- och byggbranschen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Small firms use of external accounting services - A study with a focus on land and construction industry.

    November 1, 2010 the abolished of audit requirement for small businesses within a certain thresh-old happened. The auditor's role in the company is reviewing its management and maintaining a generally accepted accounting principles, and also to every year go through the accounts with an audit report. Both positive and negative factors have been developed at the Swedish tax agency, The Serious Fraud Office and the major accounting firms. The problems surrounding the abolition of the accounts was a lesser quality, said the Swedish tax agency. Furthermore, the removal of the audit requirement leads to more cheating and negligence in accountancy. Many aspects are there with the basis for the choice of using external accounting services or not.

    The study aims to gain insight into why small businesses use external accounting services, by en-suring various aspects that influenced the choice.

    The study is based on a qualitative study with focus on five small businesses, where interviews were conducted among business leaders. Furthermore, we have been in contact with two banks to see whether the aspect of credit kindness affected small businesses. The interviews were the basis for the empirical material that also made the study possible. During the study, the focus was on getting a deep understanding, rather than a broad study with several interview subjects and indus-tries.

    It could clearly be understood that the managers of small businesses will never opt out of the ex-ternal accounts they currently use, although the possibility exists. The benefits could clearly over-come the disadvantages, then both time and lack of knowledge existed among business leaders. It was considered more important than the cost to get help with the audit. It was also noted that an unconscious choices was made by them, because the small businesses did not have a thought about not use external accounting services. The choice of taking advantage of the services could not be based on one aspect, it was instead many aspects that formed the basis for the crucial elections. A majority of aspects went hand in hand, because they could not be discerned to be a decisive factor

  • 152.
    Berntsson, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Dijnér, Julia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Att kuva fiendens armé utan att slåss är höjden av framgång: En kvalitativ studie om socialt ansvar som strategi på en konkurrensutsatt marknad2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Coporate Social Responsibility innebär att företag ska ta hänsyn till sitt sociala ansvar på ett ekonomiskt, miljömässigt och socialt plan som medborgare i samhället. Hurvida Coporate Social Responsibility, kan ses som en strategisk fördel för organisationer har länge diskuteras i diverse forum. Både kritiska och nyanserade tankar avlöser varandra i diskussionen kring om en väl etablerad CSR-strategi kan skapa konkurrensfördelar och gynna verksamheten. Tidigare forskning visar att det är svårt att definiera CSR-strategins effekter i relation till lönsamhet och konkurrens och det blir upp till organisationer att själva göra en tolkning i vilket avseende de vill att strategin ska vila på. I denna rapport har vi undersökt och försökt få en djupare förståelse i om det finns något samband mellan konkurrens, lönsamhet och CSR eller om gapet där mellan är för stort. Vi har fokuserat på att undersöka hur Svenska Spel och ATG ser på sitt sociala ansvarstagande i relation till att skapa konkurrensfördelar. Då det är en marknad som är under utveckling där flera utländska aktörer ökar konkurrensen. Vi har blivit införstådda i hur dessa bolag tolkar sitt CSR-arbete och vad teoretiker anser om socialt ansvarstagande gentemot konkurrens i att skapa lönsamhet. Genom en kvalitativ studie har vi kommit fram till att CSR både hämmar och främjar bolag i konkurrens. CSR är inte alltid fördelaktigt för företag då det kan hämma företag att svara till marknadens alla krav. I detta fall försvagas alltså konkurrenskraftigheten. Där emot kan CSR verka som något positivt i det att arbetet på lång sikt kan ge fördelar så som legitimitet och som förebyggare av framtida skador, och på så sätt vara till fördel i en konkurrens.

  • 153.
    Berntsson, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Dijnér, Julia
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Brand extension in uncharted territory: a qualitative study on holistic brand management as a strategy to extend the retail brand2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's market is not in the same shape as it used to be and from selling products only, companies today should rather sell consumer experiences (Keller and Kotler, 2015). Carbone (1998) says that the experience of the brand is far more important than the product springing from the brand. A brand extension can grow from different parts within the organization, such as products, services or the organization as a whole, and depending on those components it will affect a brand prospects. Retailers who do not wish to produce their own product lines are in a very different position compared to manufactures in the theory of brand extensions. Retailers has to create their own value apart from the provided manufacturer brands, which makes retailers more multi-sensory in practise and must create unique strategies that represent the whole brand. Researches that discuss the question if marketing has to reform, refer especially to implementing holistic brand management in their marketing strategies. The holistic brand strategies suggest that the brand is being more than just a product, as it is connected to everything an organization does to increase their future prospects, through what the brand represents and offers (Keller and Kotler, 2015).

    This study has investigated if brand extensions can be executed within retail, out of a holistic point of view. Therefore, this thesis has examined the influence of following components: brand extensions, holistic brand management, holistic marketing, brand equity, brand experience and brand identity. This has been done through a qualitative collection of data from previous research and empirical material from our semi-structured interviews with brand experts Mats Rönne and Claes Hydén who works with consulting organizations and people in matters of branding. Furthermore, the theoretical and empirical findings have been compared and analysed to increase our understanding about the context of this thesis. Even if theories have been scarce on the subject of innovative methods for brand extensions, we have with the help of gathered theoretical and empirical findings come to the conclusion that brand extensions can be made out of a holistic point of view. The way of making this possible and successful is to reconsider the retailer brand as being something more than solely a provider of products. A retailer has to make brand extensions from seeing themselves as either a holder of a certain competence, being in a specific category, or give a certain attitude or experience, in addition to who the customers are and how the market looks. Crucial for the extension to work is that the fit between the core brand and the brand extension is maintained high, or the the customer perception of the brand may be damaged.

  • 154.
    Berthelsen, Andreas
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Petersson, Andreas
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Distansarbetets påverkan på motivation och prestation över tid: En fallstudie i administrativ verksamhet2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Som en följd av covid-19 pandemin har ett stort antal organisationer som tidigare inte tillämpat distansarbete tvingats att övergå till detta. Det uppstår då frågor kring vilken inverkan detta har på medarbetarnas arbetsmotivation och arbetsprestation. 

    Uppsatsens syfte är att genom en fallstudie studera hur en övergång till distansarbete kan påverka arbetsmotivation och arbetsprestation. Samt att se om dessa faktorer förändras över tid. 

    För att besvara forskningsfrågan och uppnå uppsatsens syfte har det genomförts kvalitativa intervjuer med medarbetare i en organisation som i samband med covid-19 pandemin övergått till distansarbete. Detta i syfte att studera deras upplevelse av hur övergången påverkat arbetsprestation och arbetsmotivation. Detta kopplas sedan till och analyseras utifrån teori baserad på tidigare forskning kring de berörda ämnena. 

    Uppsatsens slutsats är att i det tidsperspektiv som studerats och med avseende på den studerade organisationen så har övergången till distansarbete varit övervägande positiv. Det finns en bild av att medarbetarnas motivation och prestation har ökat när verksamheten övergick till distansarbete. Detta tillskrivs till stor del de goda förutsägningar för distansarbete som funnits på plats och skapats i organisationen. Medarbetare som funnit motivation i övergången, arbetsuppgifter som lämpar sig för distansarbete, strukturerad och välfungerande kommunikation, goda tekniska förutsättningar och goda förutsättningar i hemmiljön. Dock identifieras hinder i form av svårigheter vid mer kreativa arbetsuppgifter som kräver samverkan. 

    Den studerade organisationen rekommenderas att även efter pandemin fortsätta erbjuda sina anställda möjligheten att arbeta på distans. Dock att de flesta arbetsveckor innehåller arbetsdagar på ett fysiskt kontor. Detta i syfte att kunna utföra arbetsuppgifter som kräver samverkan men även för att ge medarbetarna en möjlighet att bibehålla relationen till organisationen och de andra medarbetarna. 

  • 155.
    Bertilsson, Camilla
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Simonsson, Emma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hålla social distans när det krävs att vara närvarande: En fallstudie om organisationsförändringar inom detaljhandeln när världen drabbas av en pandemi.2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to create a deeper understanding of how organisational change, which was founded in a crisis (pandemic Covid-19), affects leadership as well as employees in the retail industry. A case study with a mixed method with a deductive approach has been performed to create a deeper understanding of the perception of organisational change based on crisis. The research is based on a mixed method to get both depth and width of the respondents' answers. Five qualitative interviews were conducted, and a questionnaire was sent to a sample of the organisation's members. Theories related to retail in crisis have been lacking, even less research on retail in pandemics. The theoretical frame of reference has focused on the organisation, leadership, the employee in organisational change, communication and lessons learned and innovation, all related to crisis. Theories have been collected and analysed from 22 peer-reviewed articles. A major organisation in the retail industry has been explored how they have worked with organisational change during the Covid-19 pandemic. Results from the semi-structured interviews conducted with leaders and the questionnaire sent out to the organisation's employees and leaders are presented. The questionnaire sent to the organisation's members was answered by a total of 50 respondents, of which 36 Employees, seven Leaders with personnel responsibilities, five Leaders without personnel responsibilities and two Other. The survey data were analysed with univariate and bivariate statistics and examined both individually and through index. has been identified that communication, routines, crisis preparedness and follow-up are important parts that largely affect how crises like the pandemic are handled within an organisation. Employees have been affected during the pandemic through changed working methods, increased workload and some have been given completely new work areas. This has affected the employees' view and attitude towards the organisation. Leadership has been affected during the pandemic in that leadership has focused on employee well-being to a greater extent than increasing physical sales. A present and empathetic leadership is required with more adaptation to the needs of the employees. When the pandemic is over, employees are a crucial factor in rebuilding the organisation. By taking advantage of the lessons created during the pandemic, increased social sustainability is created.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 156.
    Bertilsson, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Björkman, Caroline
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lean under arbete: En kvalitativ studie över verksamhetsutveckling i en offentlig verksamhet sett ur ett medarbetarperspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lean has its origin from the Toyota Production System (TPS) which is Toyota’s unique concept for a production with minimalized use of resources. During the first time Lean became popular there was a focus to make industrial processes more effective. When the Lean concept became popular the second time the focus was on softer values, such as focus on the co-worker’s role, instead of just seeing Lean as a tool to make processes more effective. Factors like learning and participation for co-workers is then important ingredients for the work with continuous improvements in an organization. This made the Lean-concept more interesting also for the public sector. Studies about Lean from a co-worker perspective is then of interest. The purpose with this study was to explore how learning and participation appear for co-workers in a public organization, where Lean is the model for their improvement work. The study has been done with a qualitative approach in order to be able to examine the learning and participation amongst co-workers, in connection with their Lean-work. By doing structured interviews with co-workers at VGR IT, empirical data has been collected about their work with Lean. We have then compared and analyzed that data. In the theoretical framework research within the areas learning and participation in connection to Lean is presented. The conclusion is that system thinking is a central part both for learning and participation in a Lean organization. The co-worker’s knowledge cannot easily be shared with other co-workers and the organization overall. During the work with continuous improvements, the co-workers can have a feeling of participation because they contribute to the organization as a whole. Lean-meetings is a crucial factor in the work with learning and participation in connection with their work with continuous improvements.

  • 157.
    Billings, Colin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Zadro, Ana
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Perception of renewable energy and the electric vehicle: A qualitative study on the Swedish and American consumer2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the world is being developed every day at a fast pace, today's society is being faced with many environmental issues. One way of decreasing the negative impact on the environment is through innovations in transportation. Therefore, this study looks into consumer perceptions of electric vehicles. In order to see differences between American and Swedish perceptions of electric vehicle this research also puts emphasis on the renewable energy as an important aspect that might motivate consumer purchase of electric vehicle. Purpose of this study is to generate new findings on the Swedish and American consumers of electric vehicles. More specifically, this study hopes to be able to contribute in a way that might help to explain understanding consumer's perceptions concerning renewable energy in today's world and how they affect the buying process of electric vehicle.This work is qualitative in nature, and data is obtained from structured interviews. Five Swedish and five American citizens were included in this study.

    Results generated from interview respondents are presented constructively in the evidence chapter followed by more detailed presentation in analysis discussion.The results indicate that the examined Swedish respondents have more positive attitudes and perceptions of renewable energy, while American respondents chosen in this study do not show such positive traits when it comes to renewable energy. Positive Swedish perceptions of renewable energy are in line with their positive perceptions of electric vehicle, while opposite goes for American respondents. This master thesis concludes with practical recommendations for future studies that can be done, as well as with our general findings.

  • 158.
    Bjerendal, Caroline
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Olofsson, Maja
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kändismarknadsföring: En studie om kända personers inverkan på konsumenter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies have nowadays difficulties to appear on a market where competition is high, therefore they are constantly seeking new ways to reach out to consumers. Some companies choose to use a celebrity to catch the attention of the consumers. There are various risks and pitfalls for the company to consider in the selection of celebrity, which was something that the study examined. This study also investigated the characteristics of a celebrity that influences consumers and how well the respondents in the study are able to associate a celebrity with a brand.

    The results of this quantitative study showed that it is important for companies to choose the right kind of celebrity to market their product to catch the attention of the consumer. The respondents who participated in the study showed that the characteristics of a celebrity that affect consumers the most, was that the celebrity is respected in society, and that he or she possesses expertise. As a closure of the survey there were shown pictures of different Swedish celebrities where the respondent would choose among answer options which brand he or she represented. This was to examine the memory capacity of consumers. Many of the respondents were able to answer the right celebrity to the right brand.

  • 159.
    Bjerendal, Caroline
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Olofsson, Maja
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Sinnesmarknadsföring2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats handlar om människans fem sinnen. Att arbeta med sinnena vid marknadsföring är fortfarande relativt nytt på marknaden. Sinnesmarknadsföring betyder att butikerna bland annat försöker öka kundernas köplust genom att påverka respektive sinne. Den ökade köplusten sker på ett undermedvetet plan för kunden.

    Genom att göra en kvalitativ undersökning har vi tagit reda på hur mycket våra fem sinnen påverkar vårt köpbeteende i butiker. Undersökningen genomfördes via mailkontakt med fyra respondenter på fyra olika företag. Vi undersökte även med hjälp av egna observationer vilket av de fem sinnena som används mest. Av svaren framkom att marknadsföring över lag är viktigt för företagets överlevnad och att gå vägen genom våra sinnen kunna påverka kundens välbefinnande till det positiva. Det sinne som genom studien framkom att det används mest inom marknadsföring är synen. Det är även det sinne som är lättast att påverka

  • 160.
    Bjertner, Emelie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Erlandsson, Helene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hälsa på arbetsplatsen: en fallstudie om ledarskapets betydelse för hälsofaktorer bland de anställda2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    a The new regulations of Arbetsmiljöverket (AFS 2015:4) inform about the significance of well-being among the employed ones, as this is considered to be matter worth high-lighting and bringing up for discussion. Several scientists are choosing to center the important relationship between leadership and the workers health since the leadership and its execution is meant to be crucial whether the employees health in their jobs will be progressive or destructive. It is a process that should be viewed over and improved in order  not to let it crease in its efficiency. To rephrase that it is utterly essential that the health is brought up as both a physical and a mental phenomenon because, if not so, the assumptions result of the employees capacity might not be as prosperous.

    Workplace health promotion is successively becoming more usual as multiple organisations have realized the value of strong and healthy staff members, who are content and approving of their duties. As an employed, the person is not to be seen as a labouring machine he or she is an individual who feel, think and has his och hers certain requests and demands which all must be seen to. Being seen and feeling needed is important as the worker otherwise might feel that the organisation lacks the essence of justice, he or she is supposed to feel the possibility of climbing and prosper in the noticeable hiearchy of the organisation. Leadership and health stand as two central themes in this study, as the theory, empirics and analyses all three are focusing on other aspects, such as health, leadership, workplace health promotion and different leadership styles.

    The survey questions within this study are: what are significance does the managers leadership and decisions affect the employees health condition, and secondly how can the leader best promote well-being among the workes?

    The case study is based on seven interviews with both the employees and the leader. Observations of the store has been done, whereupon these all have had a great impact on the study and its results. The shop that has been the basis for the study is a relatively small clothing store that targets female customers, who are found of shopping clothes of a good quality and for an expensive price.

    By making a comparison between the theories and the empirics, an analysis, just much as a conclusion have been able to be formulated. For example, some of our many discoveries have shown the significance of a good leadership in order to archieve a safe and comfortable working ambience, but also unfortunately that the shops authorities at the moment are considered to be flawed. Furthermore the results are too clearly displaying what kinds of characteristics which, according to the interviewed ones, are making a good leader. A leader is better being a person who gives stability within the organisations, a person who is to be counted with, who creates a safe and sound working environment and who sees the importance of the workers health as a crucial priority. The study mentions a number of leadership styles, while the study was designed, it became clear that flexibility was important and to adapt leadership style to the situation in the workplace.

  • 161.
    Bjertnér, Emelie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Erlandsson, Helene
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Egenföretagare belägna i mindre kommuner: deras användning av sociala medier som marknadsföring2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande arbete behandlar ämnet marknadsföring via sociala medier med inriktning på företagare belägna i mindre kommuner. Syftet med studien var att få en bättre inblick i hur företagare i mindre kommuner använder sig av sociala medier som marknadsföringsstrategi hur denna marknadsföring påverkar företagen samt vilken sociala media som lämpar sig bäst för dessa.

    I bakgrunden redovisas en introduktion till ämnet, där du som läsare ska få förståelse om vad som kommer behandlas i uppsatsen och därmed lättare kunna ta del av både teori och empiri. Problemdiskussionen är den del där vi författare redovisar många av våra egna tankar och förutfattade meningar till ämnet. Hur vi gått tillväga för att genomföra studien presenteras i metodavsnittet. Vetenskapligt synsätt & undersökningsansats, design, datainsamling och tillförlitlighet & överförbarhet är alla delar vi diskuterar i detta avsnitt.

    Den valda teorin är till största del vetenskapliga artiklar som behandlar ämnet marknadsföring och sociala medier på ett eller annat sätt. Flera av forskarna har tagit upp relevanta modeller och verktyg för att beskriva och förklara sina resultat, dessa har vi försökt att på bästa sätt redovisa i teoriavsnittet. Empirin är det kapitel som innehåller vårt inhämtade material. Materialet har inhämtats genom fem kvalitativa intervjuer och har sedan transkriberats och bearbetats till en text. Här redovisas företagarnas syn på sociala medier och användningen av dessa som marknadsföring. Genom att återge citat ska du som läsare få en klar bild om vad företagarna själva sagt i intervjuerna. Utifrån teorin och empirin kommer vi sedan att analysera ämnet och de undersökningsfrågor vi valt att ställa. I analysen diskuterar vi ämnet och våra forskningsfrågor utifrån teorin och de svar vi inhämtat från intervjuerna.

    I slutsatsen presenteras våra slutsatser och en diskussion kring vår forskningsfråga förs. Några av de slutsatser som tagits är b.la. att Facebook och Instagram är de två kanaler som företagarna anser vara de mest fördelaktiga att använda i sin marknadsföring. Dock mynnar detta ut i att Word of Mouth är det som ligger till grund för att sociala media ska få önskvärd effekt. Om inte inlägget får spridning så är det bara ett inlägg.

    Med denna studie hoppas vi kunna bistå med information som kan vara till fördel för de företag vi intervjuat samt andra företag belägna i mindre kommuner som kan ha nytta av denna information när de ska utforma sin marknadsföring.

  • 162.
    Björk, Kajsa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Fyhr, Karin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    CSR som strategi: Från ord till handling  - En fallstudie inom en svensk statlig organisation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) is a controversial term linked to responsibility. Companies may choose to voluntarily adopt CSR for different reasons such as regulation, legitimacy or pressure from various stakeholders while state companies have demands from state authorities. One way to communicate their responsibility is through a sustainability report. But how can CSR be combined with goals and strategies in practice and what impact has CSR management in a government organization? Our purpose has been to provide knowledge of how CSR affects strategy formulation and performance management in a government organization. From an external perspective on the societal level to an internal perspective on organizational and individual level, we have sought to identify how the control is done in practice within a business unit. We have made a qualitative case study and collecting empirical data from focus group interviews, semi-structured interviews, business documents and social media. From the empirical data we have analyzed the organization's CSR work in terms of strategy, objectives, governance and sustainability, and the institutional impact on this practice. Our results showed that CSR is exposed to institutional pressures from different stakeholders. Furthermore, the results showed that the organization in our study succeeded in uniting CSR theory with practice. The informants at management stressed the environmental dimension of CSR, while informants at the unit level emphasized the social aspect as central.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 163.
    Björk, Victor
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Wiberg, Lisa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Motstånd vid förändring: En kvalitativ studie där konsulter intervjuats beträffande upplevda motståndskrafter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Change is a process that organizations frequently encounter and is necessary when the need to stay up-to-date with the changing dynamic business environment. With a growing globalization, advanced communications capabilities and a constant changing industry the organizations of today need to be flexible if they are to survive. The term resistance to change has many different interpretations by authors. Resistance can be seen as an individual problem or that the resistance is embedded in the organization's culture and structure. This study examines the resistance forces that can occur in individuals when an organization has a process of change and how an external consultant can manage the process of change and the resistance to it.

    The aim of this study is to get a deeper knowledge and insight to the resistant forces that change management can be struggling with in organizations. Furthermore the essay seeks how to deal with these challenges and thus try to increase the understanding and knowledge in the handling of problems with processes of change.

    We have made a qualitative, hermeneutic study and used the interview as a methodology for the collection of empirical data. We’ve interviewed five consultants that are located in different parts of Sweden. The essay is searching for soft data in the form of consultants experiences in change processes. When collecting theory on the investigated subject, key areas have been examined and chosen to focus on, which is organizations processes of change, what kinds of resistant factors consultants experience in change projects and how they handle them. This will then be interpreted in the upcoming empirical section and put against the theory which then will be analyzed accordingly.

    The study has shown that the foundation of fear to change lay in the individual’s feelings toward the unknown. The fears arising from the individuals is thought to be the most difficult to manage by consultants. In order to address these fears in an effective manner the need for good communication is essential and that the leaders in a change process have a good sense of empathy and the desire to understand how people feel and react to the change.

  • 164.
    Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Granath, Elisabeth
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    6-timmars arbetsdag: är det möjligt?2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste åren har sjukskrivningstalen stigit, och i och med det har debatten kring ar-betstiden tagit fart igen. Diskussionen kring 6-timmars arbetsdag har funnits ända sedan 70-talet då den senaste arbetstidsreformen gick igenom, men under årens lopp har dis-kussionen aktualiserats av olika skäl. För 40 år sedan var anledningen jämställdhet mellan könen, medan det under 90-talet var ur arbetslöshetsynpunkt. Syftet med vår rapport har varit att fokusera på arbetsgivarens motiv och vilka effekter en arbetstidsförkortning kan få för organisationen. Vi har tittat på vilka effekter ledningen förväntade sig och vad re-sultatet blev efter införandet. Effekter som har nämnts i tidigare forskning som vi har tagit del av är ökad produktivitet och effektivitet, minskad personalomsättning samt ökat all-mänt välmående hos personalen. Vi har genomfört en kvalitativ fallstudie som bestod av en djupintervju av Vd:n för ett företag som införde 6-timmars arbetsdag för delar av sin personal 2002. De effekter som företaget förväntade sig införlivades, dessutom tillkom många oväntade och positiva effekter som t ex ökat välmående bland personalen och en vinstökning redan första året. När vi har jämfört den teoretiska referensramen med den insamlade empirin har vi kommit fram till att många av de effekter som beskrevs i teorin har också visat sig stämma i den fallstudie som gjorts. Empirin har visat fler effekter som vi inte har funnit något vetenskapligt stöd för, som minskad sjukfrånvaro och en attrakti-vare arbetsplats. Dock är det svårt att dra slutsatser ifrån den analys vi gjort då de studier som redan finns i ämnet är få till antalet och mellan 10-15 år gammal vilket kan innebära att en del av det kan upplevas som irrelevant idag.

  • 165.
    Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Granath, Elisabeth
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Personalnyckeltal: Ett användbart styrinstrument?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most discussed topics in today's society is the health among employees. Having staff absent due to illness, both short term and long term, is in many ways expensive for organisations. Reporting KPI's that measures different aspects of the human capital of the organisations, e.g. staff ratios like sick leave and employment rate, is something that all organisations in Sweden have to do. This paper is meant to investigate how staff ratios are used in public organisations in Sweden and how they are communicated from top manage-ment to operative level. The studies also cover the question whether there is some staff rati-os that is more used by top management than others, concerning staff and what effects this kind of control instrument have. A qualitative study was made, by interviewing HR-managers and HR-staff from six municipals in Sweden to collect empirical data. The con-clusion in this paper were that HR-managers experience that staff ratios are used in the or-ganisations management, but not as much as they would have liked. This might be due to the fact that when the staff ratios were developed, the organisations goals and strategies were not considered. Another reason could be that the HR-managers are not aware of their potential power. Although, some staff ratios regarding sick leave and employment rate were of more interest by the top management than other staff ratios, and there were no visible effects connected to the use of those control instruments. It could be associated with the theory of legitimacy, where municipals want to show that their actions are based on the current debate climate in the Swedish society, concerning high ratios of sick leave in the country as a whole. The respondents in the study all agreed that it was hard to get the re-sults of the staff ratios all the way out in the organisations. This is mainly due to the chal-lenge of communicating the meaning of the staff ratios and what consequences the results might have on the organisation.

  • 166.
    Blom, Ebba
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Söderberg, Victoria
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Beröm som styrmedel: En kvalitativ studie om chefers erfarenheter av att ge beröm2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In organizations, the company's management is designing a strategy to enable the organization to reach set goals. In order to get their employees to work in accordance with these goals, reward systems can be used. This is to promote employee motivation and to know what is expected of them. According to previous studies, praise is a proven effective way of creating desired behaviours and that praise can lead to increased motivation. Motivation is described as being positively related to work performance, yet, praise as a management control is an unexplored area.

    This study is aimed at examining whether manager's experience that praise as an instrument of control is sufficiently informative and motivating for employees in an organization.

    Reward systems are effective ways of motivating employees to work in accordance to organizational goals. Praise is used to reward employees, and it is important that it is used fairly, consistently and in close proximity to performance, as it can lead to a higher quality. Praise is also described as informing the employee about what is consistent with the organization's expectations and goals.

    Semi-structured interviews have been conducted with managers who hold a staff responsibility to gain their view of praise as a guiding instrument.

    The result showed that the respondents were not aware that praise could be used as a management control, but it was something everyone used to use in their leadership. They describe that praise both motivates, informs and creates more satisfied employees. Praise is described to be necessary to achieve the organization's goals, where more desired effects appear than unwanted. Praise can be given anywhere and anytime, as long as it is genuine, honest and encouraging.

  • 167.
    Blom, Johanna
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Vägen till kvalitetsmål med ISO 9001:2015: ur ett ledarskapsperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The historical background of how quality assurance came to businesses around the world was because customers and other actors wanted to be informed and informed about the product / service that the business provided undergone one or more quality assurance. This means that businesses that supply a product or service meet the requirements that the supplier had promised at the time of purchase (Pujo & Pillet, 2002). In other words, implementing quality assurance means securing all planned and systematic activities that meet the set goals and quality requirements of the organization to the organization itself and to third parties. However, businesses in today's trade can use many different quality assurance programs, however, ISO is one of the most common (Chung, 1999). Either you have a certification that proves that the business meets all the requirements for calling itself certified. Or, a business aims to implement a quality management system but is not certified.

    The thesis will describe how previous research has used quality assurance and the establishment of quality in organizations from a leadership perspective in order to achieve quality objectives with ISO 9001: 2015. The method for this thesis consists of a case study of a company which will be called Staples throughout the thesis. Staples is located in western Sweden and runs an architectural firm with reference projects in streets, squares, residential areas, colleges, offices, parks and smaller buildings in southern and central Sweden. Interviews have been conducted with Staple's management team consisting of three people and Staple's quality manual has been taken as a result of the case study.

    Staple's economics sales have increased by eighty four percent since the implementation of ISO in year 2015. ISO 9001: 2015 has proven to be able to quality assure Staple's operations internally and with product to the end customer, and this has resulted in increased earnings in both net sales and earnings. It also has a great impact on how the leadership can manage a quality management system. Bøgh Andersen et al (2018) point out that all employees in a business must agree and understand what needs to be done to achieve quality goals by having a clear leadership.

  • 168.
    Blom, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Jonsson, Heléna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Rekryteringsprocessen: en tidskrävande process eller ett resultatrikt verktyg?2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: En rekrytering som är genomförd där utfallet är mindre lyckat, är både dyr och tidkrävande, företag i allmänhet skulle behöva få en förbättrad förförståelse. En passande arbetsplats och en god arbetsmiljö är förmodligen något som de flesta människor vill ha oavsett befattning. Konsekvenserna utav en bra rekrytering med rätt person på rätt arbetsplats, skulle gynna alla i företaget. Om företag skulle ha större kunskap och förståelse om varför de skall arbeta med processen vid rekrytering och till vilken förtjänst, kan det utgöra en bra nyckel till framgång. Vi vill med vår undersökning bidra till att företag får en medvetenhet och aktivt börjar arbeta med rekryteringsprocessen i nyrekrytering, intern och extern. Vi vill även visa hur företag kan uppnå en positiv och resultatrik rekrytering i ett personalekonomiskt perspektiv och berika olika verktyg företag kan ha under rekrytering.

    Forskningsfråga: Kan företag frångå kostnader med hjälp utav rekryteringsprocessen under rekrytering?

    Syfte: Vårt syfte med undersökningen är att ta reda på om rekryteringsprocessens alla delmoment används vid rekrytering av personal. Fyller rekryteringsprocessen någon resultatrik funktion eller är det en process som endast kräver administrativ tid? Vi vill med vår undersökning bidra till att företag får en medvetenhet och aktivt börjar arbeta med rekryteringsprocessen i nyrekrytering, intern och extern.

    Metod: Studiens forskningsfrågor är besvarade genom användning av ett kvalitativt tillvägagångssätt i metoden. För att besvara studiens forskningsfrågor har en kvalitativ metod används. Insamlad data är utfört med en semistrukturerad djupintervju i ett rekryteringsföretag som är nischad på detaljhandeln.

    Resultat och slutsats: Med hjälp av analysen av resultatet i studien är vårt slutresultat att företag kan frångå kostnader om ett företags rekryteringsprocess är väl genomförd och applicerbar på det specifika företaget. Det utlästa resultatet innebär att rekrytering sker i gynnsammaste mån om det följs efter företagets egna mål, visioner och riktlinjer. Processen skall ske på samma vis vid varje rekrytering och alltid vara väl genomförd.

  • 169.
    Blomberg, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Johansson, Jonas
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    En politisk framgångssaga: ur ett marknadsföringsperspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This single case study focuses to examine the Swedish democrats' marketing on social medias. Due to their success the last eight years we found this relevant to examine in relation to the technological development that has taken place over the past decade. The purpose of this study was to analyse the Swedish democrats marketing on social medias due to the fact that their marketing has been denied various times on other marketing channels. This study contributes to a better understanding of social media´s impact in terms of political marketing. Our research question was therefor how the Swedish democrats market themselves on social medias. This party reaches the public through other marketing channels as well but those have not been taken in consideration in this study. We chose a qualitative approach where interviews were used together with an e-research. The e-research was oriented towards Facebook, the Swedish democrats official website, Youtube, Twitter and Instagram. The interviews were conducted with political scientists on universities in western Sweden. Social medias is a phenomenon that is used frequently by large segments of the population and it gives political parties the opportunity to mediate their messages in a simple and cost-effective manner. The theory has it´s origins from four marketing areas; message, environment, social medias and target group. Majority of the empirical data consisted of interpretations of the Swedish democrats marketing on social medias and was performed with the four marketing areas in focus. The interpretations was linked to theory and the results from the interviews were summarised. The empirical data clarified that the Swedish democrats are using shock strategies on social medias. Because of the fact that the Swedish democrats have ideologies that differs from other Swedish parties we believe that social media has therefor played a crucial role in how this party can send their messages to the public. Social media also gives the opportunity to share all types of messages, even the xenophobic ones. The shock strategy that the Swedish democrats use involves messages which are contrary to the values and standards that are considered legitimate in the society. The party's extreme messages are easier to spread on social medias than other forums, for example nationwide television where their marketing has been denied on several occasions due to their unethical context. However it may be a problem that the retired part of the public who often seems to be the target audience is not completely comfortable with modern technology. It is therefor a risk that the target audience misses important parts of the party´ This underground role that this party represents opens up for sympathizers to discuss and argue about the Swedish democrats most important questions. Without social media we strongly believe that the Swedish democrats would not be able to send their messages as effectively as they do today so that technological development has been a major contribution factor to the Swedish democrats' successes.

  • 170.
    Blomberg, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Skager, Elina
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    "En kvalitativ fallstudie som berör resultatet av personalsatsningar samt dess påverkan på personalen"2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna fallstudie ger förslag över vilka åtgärder som kan vara rimliga att utföra på organisationer där personalen inom vissa områden ej är prioriterad. För att ge möjlighet till konkreta förslag av vilka åtgärder som Fysiken Friskvård i Göteborg AB bör utföra utfördes kvalitativa intervjuer med anställda i organisationen. Detta utfördes synkroniserat med observationer av verksamhetens organisationskultur som gav bra överblick över de positiva samt negativa aspekter som anställda upplever på arbetsplatsen. Genom bearbetning av intervjumaterial tillsammans med vetenskapliga teorier blev det möjligt att konkretisera åtgärder som förhoppnings ska gynna motivationen hos de anställda med mindre sjukfrånvaro och personalomsättning som följd. Fallstudien tydliggör exempel på personalsatsningar som är kostnadsfria men även kalkyler som påvisar vilka finansiella resultat som personalsatsningar kan generera i. För att kalkylen inte ska vara vinklad av författarna har även potentiella negativa utfall av kalkylerna synliggjorts. Detta ska ge ett bredare underlag för Fysiken Friskvård i Göteborg AB att ha med sig vid beslutsfattande med förhoppning på mer motiverad personal som vill stanna kvar i verksamheten. Ur ett längre tidsperspektiv är målet även att lönsamheten ökar som ett resultat av de personalsatsningar som organisationen väljer att genomföra.

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  • 171.
    Bohlin, Patrik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Steen, Sebastian
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Intern kommunikation och tillhörighet: en studie om förhållandet mellan butiksanställda och organisation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internal communication and employees' sense of belonging is something that is given more attention by companies in recent times. This study takes its starting point in how these two work and interact in an organizational context. We have examined how internal communication works between a store and its organization as well as what the internal communication means for employees' sense of belonging to the organization. The purpose of the study is to understand how internal communication works between the store and its organization with focus on nearby stores and senior management. We have also shed light on the significance of different media formats and how they affect employee's sense of belonging to their organization. This will demonstrate how internal communication can be more efficient and beneficial to modern organizations, management and students of economics. We have used a hermeneutical approach and the report is based on qualitative evidence. Our collected empirical data are primary data that we have gathered by interviewing five people, including a store manager, at a company in electronic trade. Our theoretical basis consists of a secondary material in the form of 25 scientific articles that are relevant and previous research in the field. In our conclusions, we have highlighted how internal communication can function and found that it is in a satisfactory manner in the target store. What we found especially important in our case was that employees have several well-functioning communication formats which include updated intranet, personal visits of superiors, email, telephone contact and videos. The important thing about these communication media was that they should always be available and that the information meets the criteria set by the ICC to be clear, continuous and concise. We also found these criteria were fulfilled in the store. We also found in our empirical basis factors which imply that internal communication is a factor that has a significant impact on employees' perceived sense of belonging to their organization.

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    fulltext
  • 172.
    Bolinder, Oscar
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Björk, Victor
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Beröm och dess inverkan på motivation och vägledning: en kvalitativ studie på komplexa arbetsplatser2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of praise on employees' motivation and guidance in organizations that perform complex tasks. Previous research has focused on praise and its impact on employees' motivation and guidance that perform simpler tasks. We therefore chose to focus our study on how praise affects the motivation and guidance of employees who perform complex tasks to expand existing research. The empirical material which our research is based on is a qualitative case study in the form of interviews with eight social workers. The results show that praise does not have a negative effect on the motivation of employees who perform complex tasks as long as the praise is not considered to be controlling. Praise shows a positive impact on motivation as the praise gives a sense of competence and gives employees a greater commitment. On the other hand, employees who perform complex tasks do not strive for praise as they already possess a high degree of motivation at work. Finally, praise seems to have a positive impact on the guidance of employees who perform complex tasks. Our results contribute to existing research on praise and its impact on the motivation and guidance of employees who perform complex tasks.

  • 173.
    Bordi, Josephine
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Olsson, Sanna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Motiv till energiinvestering inom fastighetsbranschen: En fallstudie av två kommunala fastighetsbolag och de väljer att energiinvestera2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The debate on sustainable development and the environment is a hot topic in today's society. Environmental investments require financial resources and it is also these resources that control the world. Real estate companies are now facing major renovation and new construction needs. Many of today's buildings are responsible for a large portion of the total energy consumption, about one-third. The EU has since 2007 worked out an upcoming building code placed in service by 2020, which means that all new buildings and major renovations need to be "nearly zero energy buildings" as possible. Even in the current situation it is possible to perform new construction and renovations that meet these requirements. Many real estate companies do not realize the long-term profitability of investments in energy and therefore believes that it is not able to get any profit in such an investment.

    The aim of the study was to create an understanding about the decision-making basis of real estate companies and how they use the decisions in major investment in terms of energy efficiency, and if there could be opportunities to consider the environment.

    To answer the research question, a qualitative case study has been applied in the study and the empirical results were mainly collected through semi-structured interviews. The interviews were conducted with informants with leading position of AB Eidar and AB Vänersborgsbostäder. Furthermore, we have used the real estate companies’ annual report documents and information available on the forthcoming EU norm.

    This paper's theoretical framework has been based on institutional theory, legitimacy theory and decision theory. The theory illustrates how the environment affects companies in their decision-making, and also how companies in the same industry tend to be influenced by each other. 

    We have in the analysis concluded that there is an awareness and willingness to invest in energy. Despite the two real estate companies express a positive attitude towards investing in energy, we can still see a difference between their actions. This is due largely to the historical and economic conditions. We could further identify how management's personal attitude of each real estate company to some extent could reflect the company's values. The analysis has also been characterized by the real estate companies' differing perceptions of tenants' willingness to pay.

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  • 174.
    Brandt, Rebecca
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Karlsson, Kajsa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Prestationsmätning och motivation: En kvalitativ studie om skillnader mellan hierarkiska positioner2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations have increasingly chosen to work with performance measurement of its employees to have the opportunity to influence, control and develop work performance and ensure that they are in line with the organization's strategy and goals. This applies to employees gain insight into the role of performance measurement system of the organization and the aims and objectives are well communicated to all concerned. The problems concerning the creation of a performance measurement system to see what motivates different employees to perform further. Differences regarding motivation and hierarchical level has been demonstrated by previous research. The study's purpose was to gain insight into the impact of a performance measurement system can create linked to motivation, and how the employee's motivation is different in relation to hierarchical positions within organizations. The aim is also to see whether it is possible to detect a difference in factors which justify the different levels. The theoretical framework is based on Theory of scientific literature under study major themes performance, performance measurement, motivation and hierarchical positions. The chapter concludes with an analysis model. A qualitative approach in the form of eight individual interviews were conducted to collect the empirical material.The data were then prepared to the theoretical framework through our analytical model.

    The result explains a short presentation of the organization and then presents the data collected through interviews of employees in the business. The structure of our earnings was built up after our analysis model. From the survey it emerged that the various professional roles were motivated by different motivational factors from which hierarchical position they had in the organization. Performance measurement system in relation to motivation influenced by the employees' interest and participation for their work within the organization. A strong commitment and interest in their work means that employees are motivated more by performance measurement. In conclusion justified both official level and the operational level of the system, however, varied the strength of the motivation of the various employees.

  • 175.
    Brattberg, Daniel
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Marketing communication and customer relationships in small firms2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    "Marketing communication and customer relationship in small firms", written by Daniel Brattberg, is a bachelor degree thesis which aim to acquire better understanding about how and why, and to what extent, small firms in the construction business use marketing communication and work to improve their customer relationships. In this thesis, a qualitative study was performed and interviews were conducted at two small organizations operating in the West of Sweden in the plumbing and heating industry and the construction industry.

    The construction business is very competitive and in order to withstand the competition, firms need to market themselves. By using marketing communication firms could (among other things such as help to improve customer relationships) differentiate, reinforce, inform and persuade (DRIP). Perhaps the most important role marketing communication play is to make conversations between the participants happen. In this case the firm and the audience. By investing in relationship marketing firms might keep current customer and make them loyal and perhaps even an advocate of their brand and by this improve their profits and decrease their costs for having customers. However, marketing communication and relationship marketing could be costly due to gathering important information before messages are communicated and relationships created and using different kind of tools in the process. This might be too costly, in both time and money, for small firms and these organizations might use other ways to communicate and creating relationships with the audience.

    The study showed that the marketing communication for smaller organizations in this line of business is very limited and was consistent with existing theories about small firms marketing actions. Reasons for their limited marketing activities are high prices and limited production capacity which made the firms unable to respond to the markets demand for their products and services. The marketing communication that did exist (e.g., their website and logos on vehicles) served as a role to raise awareness and inform potential customer of what kind of work these organizations will perform and to reduce the uncertainty experienced by potential customers. The firms did, however, use other ways to be visible for the audience, such as sponsorship and appear in public events. The organizations did recognize the fact that their main strength was relationship marketing, but although, the organizations did not actively work to support the relationship process, (i.e., relationship marketing) with their customers through different channels. The organizations did little to nothing to find new ways to communicate with the audience or facilitate the process of customer relationship or the process of word-of-mouth even though they expressed this (WoM) as their main source for work

  • 176.
    Brattberg, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Tengberg, Fredrika
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Green Marketing Communication: A Study of Green Website Communication in the Logistic Sector2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The transportation industry is highly criticized for its environmental impact, primarily CO2 emissions, and is a known sector of the so-called "dirty" industries. Due to governmental regulations and different stakeholders' needs and wants for environmental friendly products and solutions, companies operating in this sector have taken measures to limit, and sometimes compensate for their environmental impact. However, some companies do more, and some less. Some companies take one step further than to just follow regulations, and use green marketing to position themselves and create competitive advantages. Given the expanding green market and the need and potential for green marketing, firms might try to take advantage by, or feel compelled to, market themselves as green, even though the financial crisis 2008-2009 shrank the economic scope which perhaps forced some companies to concentrate on their core business. Because of this, it is interesting to have a closer look at green marketing and green communication for international transportation companies to find out what they are doing, and more importantly, how they communicate their green marketing.

    In this qualitative study we aimed to identify green marketing communication observed at 29 international logistic companies' websites. The 29 selected companies were chosen by the premises that they were; logistic companies established in the logistical hub in Gothenburg, Sweden, and were working cross-borders, internationally or globally.

    Our results showed that when looking at the internal aspects of green marketing communication, the focus is on communicating employee education whilst communication concerning innovations and corporate culture appears not to be prioritized.

    Communication about green culture is not that common, but can be found in "wishful" holistic green companies.Communication regarding external activities had a focus on strengthening the company brand and by using PR and emotional messages, promote them as environmental friendly corporations. The most common green offer were value-added services such as CO2 emission calculators, which was communicated by using informational-based messages.Key words: green marketing, international marketing, the transportation industry, ecological marketing, environmental marketing, online marketing communication, sustainable marketing, stakeholders and supply-chain.

  • 177.
    Broberg, Matilda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Stenqvist, Sofie
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Detaljhandelns marknadsföring: Butikers påverkan på kunden2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats har vi valt att undersöka detaljhandelns marknadsföring och hur den påverkar kunden. Vi har valt att rikta in oss på specialexponering i livsmedelsbutiker. Specialexponering i butik kan vara korgar med varor som placeras i en gång eller på hörnet av en hylla. Vi vill undersöka vilka varor som butiker väljer att exponera och hur kunderna påverkas av dessa exponeringar. Syftet med denna uppsats var att studera hur kunder påverkas av specialexponering i butik samt deras köpbeteende. Vi ville också veta hur butikerna jobbade med specialexponering och vilka varor de väljer att exponera och varför. Vår uppsats kan användas av studenter som vill skaffa sig kunskap inom ämnet men även som ett underlag för fortsatt forskning. Butikerna kan använda uppsatsen för att få en inblick hur kunderna påverkas av deras exponering. Vi har valt att samla in primärdata via intervjuer, observationer och enkäter. Vi har utfört observationer i en livsmedelsbutik genom att studera några platser där specialexponering förekom. Vi har utformat enkäter där vårt mål var att undersöka människors köpbeteende när de handlar livsmedel. En intervju har gjorts med en butikschef i en livsmedelsbutik. Undersökningen visade att det fanns olika faktorer som påverkade kunden att köpa en oplanerad vara. Priset visade sig ha störst betydelse vid ett köp men det var även många som inte visste varför de köpte en oplanerad vara. Vi kan se utifrån vår undersökning att alla någon gång gjorde ett impulsköp. Kunderna påverkas och inspireras av kampanjvaror som leder till köp. Vi har kommit fram till att butiker använder sig av sambandsexponering vilket påverkar kunderna.

  • 178.
    Broman, Madelene
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Eriksson, Therese
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hållbarhetsredovisningens omfattning och innehålli börsnoterade företag: Inom branschkategorin konsument-sällanköp2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability reports means to measure and present what the company has achived in the field of sustainable development. The amount of companies that presents sustainabilty reports have increased during the recent years, and this study examines the reports of listed companies within the sector of consumer durables. A company of today needs to be perceived as legitimate if it is to continue to operate its business. If the society does not perceive a company as legitimate they will not buy its products. As companies in the sector of consumer durables are dependent on customers buying their products, the purpose of this study was to see how many of the companies that chose to present sustainability reports, how extensive and comprehensive they were, and why the out-come looked like it did. To find out which companies that are categorized under consumer durables on the Swedish stock exchange, the website bolagsfakta.se was used. It was then examined whether these companies had chosen to present a sustainability re-port by examining the annual reports and various independent reports available on their websites. In order to assess all companies under the same conditions, FAR's criterias for the best sustainability report award was used. A previous study indicates that the per-centage of companies in Italy that chooses to present a sustainability report is very low (Passetti and others, 2014). Despite the fact that there is an increasing pressure on companies to present these reports. (Ngwakwe, 2010). The result of this study's data collection showed that 60 percent of the companies in the sector of consumer durables presented a sustainability report. The data collection also showed that many of the companies fulfilled several of the FAR criterias. The high result may be due to the recent developments in the field of sustainability reporting or that it currently seems to be a trend of presenting sustainability reports.

  • 179.
    Bruce, Petter
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Gunnarsson, Edvin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Talent Management som kompetensutvecklingsstrategi: en kvalitativ studie om en organisation verksam i en kunskapsintensiv bransch2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For the past decade, technological advancements have facilitated a shift from an industrial to knowledge-based economy, which has resulted in the emergence of a more dynamic labor market. Organisations should therefore invest in their human resources, to accommodate the requirements in competence-building, that a knowledge-based society entails. Talent Management is a competence development strategy, which focuses on attracting, accommodating and retaining high-performing and talented individuals. By focusing on and engaging with these employees, it minimizes the risk of valuable employees transferring to other organisations, while at the same time maintaining reliable competitive advantages. The purpose of this paper is to establish comprehension of how organizations in knowledge-based industries can utilize Talent Management, from the perspective of managers and how to prevent the negative aspects commonly associated with Talent Management. The empirical data has been gathered through a qualitative method, through conducting interviews with five managers within the same organisation affiliated to the automotive industry. The answers that were provided by the respondent have been compiled and quoted under the empiric data section, to provide transparency. The empirical data has been compared and interpreted under the analytical section using the theoretical framework that is associated with empirical studies. We have arrived at the conclusion that organizations can use Talent Management based on an individual learning process for each individual employee. From this process an education plan is conceived that accountsfor the employees current competence and potential. Further we can also conclude that organisations likewise apply Talent Management from collectivist perspective as to prevent the negative aspect linked to Talent Management. By nurturing the competence development of each employee within organisations, can ensure the employees feel engaged and involved from competence development aspects.

  • 180.
    Bruzzone, Béatrice
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lefranc, Quentin
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    The market of building automation focusing in France and Germany2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The industry of Home Automation appeared during the 70's. At its beginning, the industry was destined to provide offer for the need of comfort life, safety and security for household e.g. alarms system. But this industry failed in being adopted by the large public. Over the year, phenomenon and new technologies impacted Home Automation that changed of direction. With the crisis and the issues of environment, the offer turns toward energy control management. It has been support by the emergence of new technologies as IOT and by the emergence of Building Automation that become the most important part of the industry. Known as BAS, it provides the same products but target private buildings. As little research has been made on the subject due to the novelty, we decided to do a research that will be useful by providing a market analysis. This is the academic purpose that we chose: "how does the market of Building Automation looks like". We decided to add an international level that corresponds with the major of our study "Focusing in France and Germany". Finally, we complement our research with a practical aspect "From the point of view of start-up new entrant". We decided to do a qualitative research that provided patterns, attitudes, behavior. The literature research from academicals sources and governmental sources mainly. As well, we made a qualitative survey answered by companies and organisations in France and Germany. We decided to organize our empirical data into three parts; the macro-environmental analyze supported by the theory of PESTEL; then we focus on the industry sustained by the theory of Porter Five Forces. Finally, we analyzed in a deeper way the market and consumers thanks empirical data. Each of those tools constitute an element of our analysis model we called NOD view (National, Offer, Demand). This research concluded that since years, the sector met many changes that are caused bymany factors and influences as the government capabilities and attitudes (legal and political incentives, technologies; economic drivers) as the situation in the rivalry opacity (threats and opportunities) and finally as the capacities and attitudes of consumers (awareness impact, interest factors, characteristics of the buildings) Those three aspect provide the overview and answers of our three question's aspects.

  • 181.
    Bråse, Frida
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Nordqvist, Rebecca
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hur kundperspektivet levandegörs i företag: En undersökning om hur kundperspektivet används i företag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focus on how the customer perspective is incarnated and problems with it. There is a relatively small amount of research in the area but the research that exists shows that customers is important for the company. A relevant way to work with the customer perspective is through customer satisfaction.

    The purpose of this paper was to study how the customer perspective is incarnated and its problems by studying how companies work internally with customer satisfaction. The aim is to increase the understanding of how the customer perspective is used. To make this research a qualitative method was chosen and interviews with nine people who has knowledge about the topic have been made.

    In the theory chapter it is clear that the customer perspective is incarnated through 5 different applications of use based on other management controls. The areas of use that have been found are: information gathering, target setting, motivation, skills development and sustainability. Many of the respondents had similar answers. Everyone thought that satisfied customers are important and that the company should fix problems the customer observed. Everyone had targets for customer satisfaction and they also rewarded personnel if targets were achieved but in different ways. Everyone educated their personnel in customer service and all of them took consideration of their customers when they planned for the future. However, there were different opinions about sustainability in consideration of the customer perspective. The empirics and the theory agreed substantially.

    Our conclusion is that information gathering, target setting, motivation and skills development are used to incarnate the customer perspective. Sustainability is also used but only to a small part. Another conclusion is that motivation and target setting is used to incarnate the customer perspective, but they have problems. An additional conclusion is that the financial perspective is more prioritized than the customer perspective.

  • 182.
    Buchholz, Nina
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Consumers’ Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence: In the context of social media influencers2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to create knowledge about which attributes of consumers andwhich attributes of social media influencers (SMIs) have an impact on consumers' susceptibility to interpersonal influence (CSII) in form of electronic word-of-mouth (eWoM) spread by SMIs. In order to fulfil this purpose, the following two research questions wereanswered: What attributes of consumers affect their susceptibility to interpersonal influence in form of eWoM spread by SMIs? What attributes of SMIs affect consumers' susceptibility to their interpersonal influence in form of eWoM? Six hypotheses based onprevious research were developed which suggested that age, gender and educational levelof the consumers have an influence on their degree of susceptibility to the eWoM spreadby SMIs. Moreover, it was hypothesized that congruence, motivation and transparencyof the influencer have an impact on the degree of consumers' susceptibility to the eWoMspread by SMIs. In order to be able to fulfil the purpose of this study, a quantitative research in form of an online survey was conducted. The collected data from 176 participants was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Thestudy could not confirm that age, gender and educational level of the consumers or themotivation and transparency of the SMIs have an impact on consumers' susceptibility to the eWoM spread by the SMIs. However, the study confirmed that there is a moderate positive correlation between the congruence of the endorsed brand and the promoting influencer and the consumers' susceptibility to the influence exerted by the SMI.

  • 183.
    Bulawa, Nicole
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Corporate social responsibility as differentiation from international competition: A case study of the German book retailing sector2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research was to examine how differentiation from international competition can be reached through Corporate Social Responsibility and was conducted in cooperation with the Mayersche Buchhandlung, a German book retailer. This research was realized within the second semester of the Master of Science program in International Business and was written by Nicole Bulawa.

    The problem that was addressed within this study is the exposure of the Mayersche Buchhandlung to international competition, such as Amazon. A problem solution was provided through an investigation of how the Mayersche Buchhandlung can improve their CSR practices in terms of a general CSR framework. This was supplemented through recommendations on how this can be communicated to customers taking the country-of-origin effect into account.

    Research was conducted in accordance to a qualitative research strategy with focus on a single case study which facilitated the collection of in-depth information. Data was collected by means of secondary and primary data. More specifically, primary data were gathered through semi-structured interviews and website content which were analysed through qualitative content analysis. Within the first research question an examination of the integration of CSR within the company's overall strategy took place as well as an investigation of CSR practices through a CSR framework. In accordance to research question two CSR communication in terms of general and online CSR communication was investigated. This took place in correspondence to the country-of-origin effect of Germany.

    Data has been collected with reference to the integration of CSR within the company's overall strategy which showed that the absence of a guiding CSR strategy for CSR practices. Furthermore, it also became evident that the company followed extensive CSR efforts with regards to all five CSR framework areas. Nevertheless, improvements covered aspects, such as certifications/awards of external parties, as it was a generally lacking aspect within the company. Furthermore, evidence showed that the company placed increasing focus on donations and sponsorship of community projects which were related to the company's core business. In accordance to this study this emphasis could be improved through increased emphasis in this area.

    Evidence with regards to general and online CSR communication showed similar patterns in which it became apparent that focus should be placed on differentiation as a communication objective. Furthermore, based on the data intensified usage of an emotional message appeal was suggested within the company's CSR communication, general and online, because of the social character that CSR inherits. Lastly, increased storytelling with regards to myths and origins and hero stories within CSR communication messages was proposed as it communicates sympathy and a valuing of employees by the company. Lastly, the country-of-origin effect of Germany on CSR communication showed that social issues with different importance rankings in Germany have been addressed. Nevertheless, no evidence could be found for the country-of-origin effect of Germany on CSR communication as addressed social issues were related to the company's profession and industry and not the country the company is located in.

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  • 184.
    Bytyqi, Drenushe
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Abdulkhalek, Doaa
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kvinnan som entreprenör: Vilka personliga egenskaper och drivkrafter kan identifieras?2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien inriktar sig på att förstå hur kvinnliga entreprenörer motiveras och får sin drivkraft för att lyckas med både familjeliv och arbetsliv. Studien visar hur kvinnor inom samma bransch jobbar mot att nå sitt mål i olika salonger/lokaler trots att de har ett hem och barn att ta hand om. Teorin visar vad entreprenörskap i grund och botten är samt hur viktigt det är att tro på sig själv för att företaget ska lyckas nå hög lönsamhet. Teorin visar också att det inte finns någonting som säger att entreprenörskap är kvinnligt eller manligt menat. Motivation, drivkraft och en bra självkänsla är allt du behöver för att nå dina drömmar. Studien är baserad på information som är framtagen av intervjuer från respondenter inom samma bransch, med ett mål att lyckas med både familjeliv och arbetsliv till 100%.Genom intervjupersoner får du en bra inblick i hur motivationen och drivkraften kommer till trots att kvinnan har ett fullspäckat liv och behöver få det att gå ihop med arbetslivet.

    Resultatet visar att både för och nackdelar bör påpekas som egen företagare eftersom att det inte är allt för lätt att få det att fungera om det uppstår situationer som hindrar individen från att jobba. Det behöver inte betyda att individen i fråga måste stänga ner sin verksamhet om han eller hon en gång får det svårt, utan det avgörs på vad du gör för att få det att fungera för att slutligen nå ditt mål. Livet som egen företagare är inte alltid lätt men kämpar du för det du vill så är ingenting omöjligt.

  • 185.
    Bytyqi, Drenushe
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Halaoui, Houda
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Reklam på sociala medier: En kvalitativ studie om hur konsumenter upplever reklam på sociala medier2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The fact that the use of social media dramatically strikes year after year, causes organizations to focus more on catching consumer interest through the publication of advertising on social medias. Our interest in this subject was captured in the view of the fact that the use of social media has increased so much that we found it interesting with a study that focuses on interpreting how individuals experience this.

    Depending on the fact that consumers experience advertising in a variety of ways, our survey shows that it is very important for how advertising spreads, since too much advertising at the wrong place or opportunity can result in something negative if the advertisement is not of interest to the consumer while advertising may result in something positive if there's an interest on what is spread. With material from a qualitative data collection, we gained an understanding of the individuals thoughts, experiences and opinions about advertising spread on social medias.

    The study is based on information developed using literature as well as semistructured interviews of individuals with different occupational roles as well as ages. The theory shows that consumers no longer use social media exclusively to communicate with friends but also to take part in advertising, be informed about products and to buy products. Furthermore, the result shows that consumers acts on the basis of their interests, needs and wishes, and these factors are a contributing factor to their experience and purchase decisions.

  • 186.
    Bäckström, Björne
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Blom, Ida
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kommunikationens påverkan på hur effektiviseringsåtgärder upplevs: En kvalitativ studie av kommunal verksamhet2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was based on the fact that efficiency measures are central in municipalities, which are non-profit organizations, but that there was no deeper understanding of how these measures are communicated to and experienced by employees. The purpose was thus to contribute with in-depth knowledge about how and in what way communication affects employees' experiences of efficiency measures in municipalities. As a basis for this, we have based on several different theories about what affects communication, such as leadership, transparency, preparedness for change and the choice of communication channel. We conducted semi-structured interviews with eight employees and managers in two Swedish municipalities. Our empiricism showed that efficiency measures were primarily communicated through physical meetings. It also showed that there was no great preparedness for change in the municipalities, that the level of transparency was experienced in very different ways by employees and managers and that the leadership exercised by the immediate manager affected the employee experience. Theory and empiricism were consistent with each other regarding how efficiency measures are communicated. Managers wanted to avoid intimidating employees by communicating too much information about efficiency measures, while employees felt that the information was many times too inadequate. Participation in decisions was perceived to be important from all hierarchical levels, but here too there seemed to be different opinions about what participation means in practice. As conclusions, we found that factors such as transparency, the quality of communication, preparedness for change and leadership tended to be perceived differently by employees and managers in municipalities. However, in the choice of communication channel, both employees and managers felt that "face-to-face" was the best option to communicate efficiency measures. All these factors were important and affected how well internal communication worked and how it was experienced by employees in municipalities, which in turn seemed to influence how successful the efficiency measures were carried out.

  • 187.
    Bühlmann, Hanna
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    CSR created risks2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a case study of perceived Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) created risks among experts in the subject, with a current or prior employment in a Swedish company with a high CSR profile. The purpose of this research was to find visible links between an organisations CSR execution, and an increased risk exposure. Hopefully, my research will contribute to a more critical approach towards CSR than I believe is seen today, and make the concept even more sustainable in the long run.

    My empirical data was retrieved from performed interviews with highly experienced CSR executives in different types of business areas, which I assessed held large experience and knowledge of the type of risks I wanted to examine. The result of this study showed that by performing CSR activities, organisations could be exposing themselves to numerous risks connected to the areas of operation, strategy, compliance and finance.

  • 188.
    Cailleux, Rémi
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Courtin, Florine
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Marketing of authenticity labelled products abroad: a study of French food products2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the international context, promoting a "food culture" requires that the country of origin is the center of all discussions. This dimension makes sense when giving importance to the "made in" concept and to the land when consumers purchase a food product. This is especially true for French companies who are committed to developing the country image and country of origin concepts.

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the knowledge on marketing of authenticity-labeled products by finding out the motives for labeling of the producers and in another hand the marketing mix used in a national and international market.

    The study is based on six interviews of representatives from producing companies located in South of France and specifically in the three regions of Midi-Pyrénées, Auvergne and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. This study is also based on a seventh interview done with the representative of a company that delivers a label.

    The theoretical frame of reference has developed the motives for labeling and the four Ps of the marketing mix: price, product, promotion and place. This part has also highlighted that the marketing of French origin products at an international level is certainly trustiest on the characteristics of France and the French but also the label of authenticity is a key element.

    Then, the interviewees have explained the reasons of showing a label of authenticity on their products that helps them on differentiating their products and to prove a geographical area of production and a higher quality. Later, the use of the international marketing mix by the producers is detailed.

    In this study, different insights are developed about the marketing of French food products. The authenticity-labeling gives a higher value to the product thanks to induced features of scarcity, quality and luxurious image.

  • 189.
    Cakar, Johannes
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Fikic, Dino
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ledarskap i svenska företag ur ett metaforiskt perspektiv2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Leadership is a word that can mean different things to different people. Leadership can by some diffuse, which is why one can use metaphors to explain and understand different types of leadership. Through this study, we have therefore aimed to increase knowledge and understanding of leadership within Swedish companies within the metaphorical perspective. We have conducted a qualitative study on four Swedish companies where we examined the way in which leadership is practiced and exercised from a metaphorical perspective.

    In this study, we have focused on six leadership metaphors: friend, saint, commander, cyborg bully, and gardener.

    Our study has shown that the friend metaphor has been overrepresented. The Swedish leadership model is therefore based on relationships and personal ties. In the metaphor of the saints, it turned out that high morale and close dialogue were what distinguished the respondents. The qualities that emerge from the bully metaphor were very rare. Our study has shown that the Swedish leader applies the friend, cyborg and gardener metaphor. Elements ofthe saint and master metaphor are applied, while the bully metaphor is very rare

  • 190.
    Callegård, Emma
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Thai, Vong
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kvinnligt och manligt ledarskap: Myt eller sanning?2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns en problematik gällande genusperspektiv och könsmaktsordning i vårt samhälle idag och detta har forskningen om bland annat ledarskap försökt belysa. Det handlar om att undersöka om det finns skillnader på hur en man leder och när en kvinna leder. Kvinnor har i större utsträckning svårare att nå chefs- och ledarpositioner inom flera plan i samhället. Nu 2021 kan kvinnor nå dessa positioner, men de har inte samma möjlighet till makt, inte i samma utsträckning som manliga ledare, för att kvinnor inte antas ha de egenskaper som män har. Det finns skillnad, och en kvinna är inte en man. 

    Syftet med denna studie är därför att ta reda på föreställningar och upplevelser om manligt och kvinnligt ledarskap hos ledare, samt på vilket sätt deras erfarenheter främjar alternativt motverkar könsstereotyper, och olika förväntningar på manligt och kvinnligt ledarskap. Genom semistrukturerade intervjuer har data samlats in och bearbetats igenom, samt analyserats med målet att få svar på frågorna; vilka föreställningar om ledarskap har ledarna? och, är ledarnas föreställningar och upplevelser könsstereotypa? Empirin visade att nästan samtliga respondenter ansåg att lyhördhet var en viktig och generellt bra ledaregenskap. Det gemensamma för alla fyra är att det krävs god kunskap inom social interaktion för att kunna vara ledare. Dessutom visar det sig att bland respondenterna finnas könsskillnader i ledningsstil, mellan manligt- och kvinnligt ledarskap. Även ur ett genusperspektiv var respondenterna överens om att kvinnliga ledare är mer fokuserade på att skapa goda relationer mellan sig och den anställda. Medan förväntningar på manligt ledarskap är att de skall vara beslutsamma, trovärdiga och självsäkra. Även om alla respondenterna uppgav att könsfördelningen mellan män och kvinnor blir allt mer jämlik finns det fortfarande en tydlig könsmaktsordning där vissa yrkeskategorier är mansdominerat respektive kvinnodominerat. Att det skiljer sig mellan vad cheferna respektive ledarna anser om manligt och kvinnligt ledarskap beror på samhällets förväntningar på hur en man respektive kvinna bör bete sig med bakgrund av sitt biologiska kön.

    Denna studie kan bidra till en förståelse kring könsrollernas betydelse inom ledarskapsområdet, och därmed bidra med ökad förståelse och kunskap om ledarskap ur ett genusperspektiv. 

  • 191.
    Calvo Fernández, Laura
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Branding strategies after mergers & acquisitons: A qualitative study for the Energy Industry within the Nordic countries2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The last few decades have been characterized by high levels in merger and acquisition activity, and this trend continues to be a very popular form of corporate and profitable growth. In the current context of globalization, the process becomes more complex when entering new markets. Capturing the intangible value in the merger, and growing that value through integration, it is a complex and poorly understood challenge. As a consequence of the increasing foreign economic activity, companies need to pay more attention in the creation of a strong brand that may compete internationally. Although many practitioners have been focused on mergers and acquisitions branding from different dimensions, none of them have performed a study analyzing the different choices in brand strategies after mergers and acquisitions and its subsequent economic and financial consequences.

    This thesis examines the alternatives that companies have in branding strategies after mergers and acquisitions. Concretely, a qualitative study is performed to analyze the main advantages and disadvantages of each brand strategy through a multiple case study of four leading companies within the energy sector in the Nordic countries. In addition, a descriptive and exploratory research is carried out in order to suggest the more appropriate brand strategy. The information was gathered through the published annual reports of these companies as well as books, press releases and information provided in their web pages.

    The results of this research indicates positive values and specific benefits for each brand strategy, suggesting business as usual brand strategy as the most beneficial and profitable one for companies that have carried out an acquisition. Findings are derived from concrete key figures and its variations in a six year period for the studied company. Concretely, business as usual brand strategy appear to be the most successful one with an overall increase for the period of 521,82% in revenues, a 457,52% of rise for EBITDA and an increase of 205% in the order backlog. However, the EBITDA margin decreased until a 2, 8% with an increase of 165% in the number of employees

  • 192.
    Carlberger, Caroline
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Perspektiv på balanserat styrkort: en kvalitativ studie i kommuner i Västra Götaland2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to explore different perspectives of the balanced scorecard (BSC) in municipalities in Västra Götaland and to determine if there were further opportunities for the implementation of the scorecard in municipalities in general. Although scientists presented BSC as a beneficial management tool over the years, it has been widely criticized. The criticism concerns difficulties in finding the cause-effect relationship, that scarce resources tend to create resistance in the implementation and that BSC is not intended for the public sector. Moreover, empirical studies show, however, that local authorities in the neighbouring countries Finland and Norway have been diligent in implementing BSC. Of the twelve municipalities in the study, only three reported to be using BSC. It was interesting to understand why only a few municipalities where using BSC and to study their perspectives of the scorecard. Three municipalities were selected for in-depth examination whereof one used BSC, one had used BSC and one did not use BSC. With a qualitative data collection method, the interviews were bases on an interview guide. The results showed that most difficulties with the scorecard were the allocation of scarce resources and to determine cause-effect relationships. Respondents said that the most important factor was not the name of the scorecard but its appropriate content. The motives for the selection of a municipal management tool were thus that this would work well and have a high degree of effectiveness. The conclusion of the study is that BSC needs to be continuously modified and developed. For more municipalities to choose the scorecard as a management tool, good practical examples from the municipalities that currently use the scorecard, are needed. This allows for municipalities to gain a better understanding of how the scorecard is used in practice and will hopefully increase the interest for implementing it.

  • 193.
    Carlson Lundberg, Maria
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kunskap – delad vårdnad: kunskapsdelning och kunskapsägande i transportindustrin2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper examines attitudes to sharing knowledge of a number of employees with high skills and experience in the service of the transport sector. The question is how the group sees the sharing of knowledge - it is natural or something not included in the employee's obligations?

    The paper aimed to demonstrate how employees look on such knowledge in various scenarios. A study was conducted where empirical data was collected on participants' perceptions through semi-structured interviews. In addition, some secondary data was collected in the form of information from other parties in the situations. Furthermore, a literature search was done to highlight previous research in the area.

    The conclusions are that many of the employees in the transport services sector see their knowledge as their own USP and that also the circumstances of knowledge sharing in itself has an effect on the will to participate in knowledge sharing.

  • 194.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Hattinger, Monika
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Desperately seeking industrial digital strategy: a dynamic capability approach2021In: International Journal of Information Systems and Change Management, ISSN 1479-3121, E-ISSN 1479-313X, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 345-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on managers’ perceptions of organisational capabilities for strategy formulation related to industrial digitalisation. A qualitative case study based on ten interviews in two manufacturing companies explores managers’ perceptions of industrial digitalisation. A dynamic capability framework, consisting of the organisational capabilities sensing, seizing, and transforming opportunities, is applied to recognise and analyse nuances in managers’ interpretation of prevailing organisational capabilities. Findings reveal that the studied companies have a limited maturity concerning knowledge, skills, and resources for industrial digitalisation which is needed in order to formulate a digital strategy. An additional core capability was discerned, i.e., ’seeking’. Seeking includes actions for articulating, appropriating, and involving in the very early phases of understanding and formulating a digital strategy. This article contributes to the existing dynamic capability framework by adding the core capability seeking illustrated in an elaborated and holistic ’dynamic capability loop’. The loop frames industrial digitalisation as a continuous process closely integrated with strategy formulation.  

  • 195.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Eriksson, Kristina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems.
    Taking Responsibility for Industrial Digitalization: Navigating Organizational Challenges2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 866-866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, an employee perspective has been applied in aiming to explore how organizations face challenges and take responsibility for industrial digitalization, thus extending the research on the human-centric perspective in relation to Industry 4.0 technologies. To give emphasis to the human-centric perspective, the co-workership wheel was applied to identify and analyze data. The findings of an explorative longitudinal qualitative case study consisting of 35 in-depth interviews with informants from a manufacturing company were used. Additional data collection consisted of documents and project meetings. By applying a human-centric perspective, llessons learned from this case study show that taking responsibility for industrial digitalization is challenging and the importance of an adaptive organizational culture and a focus on learning and competence are crucial. We argue that the findings give useful implications for manufacturing organizations navigating the challenges of industrial digitalization to sense and seize the benefits of Industry 4.0 technologies.

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  • 196.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Taking care of Digital initiatives: Managers approaching industrial digitalization2021In: Proceedings of the International Association for Computer Information Systems: Europe June 24 - 25 2021 - Virtual Conference, 2021, p. 22-24Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 197.
    Carlsson, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Rangraz, Masood
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Olsson, Anna Karin
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Managers’ Perceptions of Industrial Digitalization in the Early Phases of a Pandemic: A Qualitative Study2022In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings: 8th International Workshop on Socio-Technical Perspective in Information Systems Development, STPIS 2022 Reykjavik 19 August 2022 through 20 August 2022 / [ed] Bednar P., Bednar P., Islind A.S., Hult H.V., Hult H.V., Nolte A., Nolte A., Rajanen M., Zaghloul F., Ravarini A., Braccini A.M., CEUR-WS , 2022, Vol. 3239, p. 99-110, article id 183336Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how managers in the manufacturing industry simultaneously accommodated industrial digitalization and the impact of COVID-19. Managers’ views and understanding of industrial digitalization during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic are narrated through the circumstances that came to their proxy during the spring of 2020. The study result is based on qualitative in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted with eight small- and medium-sized manufacturing managers. This study contributes by giving empirically informed implications on manufacturing managers’ perception of industrial digitalization during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings show that industrial digitalization due to the COVID-19 pandemic is viewed differently from previous digitalization processes, causing new ways for managers to perceive how and why digital technologies may be implemented. © 2022 Copyright for this paper by its authors.

  • 198.
    Carlsson, Marica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Sundqvist, Therese
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Motivation: vad kan chefen göra för att motivera sina medarbetare?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att få kunskap om vad chefer anser om motivation och vilken betydelse det har för arbetet. Det vi ville undersöka var vad ledarna gör för att motivera sina medarbetare. Vi använde oss av en kvalitativ forskningsmetod och vårt empiriska material skaffades genom intervjuer inom utbildningsförvaltningen i en kommun i Västra Götaland.

    Genom analys av teori och intervjumaterial har vi kommit fram till slutsatsen att arbetsglädje och drivkraft är två viktiga faktorer vid motivation. Att motivation är något positivt och medarbetarna ska känna glädje att gå till arbetet. Det är även viktigt för en organisation att det finns engagerade och motiverade medarbetare för att driva verksamheten framåt och få ett lyckat resultat. Inom vissa organisationer kan det vara svårt för cheferna att motivera sina medarbetare då de styrs av starka riktlinjer samtidigt som det kan vara svårt för medarbetarna att bli motiverade. Därför är det av stor vikt att cheferna har kunskap och förståelse om motivation samt vad deras medarbetare motiveras av.

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  • 199.
    Carlsson, Matilda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Reho, Paola
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Hållbar modekonsumtion: en studie kring motiv och värderingar bland svenska konsumenters hållbara modekonsumtion2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom modebranschen har det hållbara modet vuxit fram för att stimulera den hållbara konsumenten. Intresset för att agera hållbart genom att välja hållbart mode växer sig dessutom starkare och resulterar i att konsumenten har genomgått en förändring i sitt konsumentbeteende. Vad som i sin tur agerar som motivationsfaktorer samt vilka värderingar som ligger till grund för den hållbara konsumtionen bland svenska konsumenter anses det finnas begränsad kunskap kring. Studiens syfte var därför att undersöka vad som motiverar svenska konsumenter till hållbar modekonsumtion, samt vilka värderingar som ligger till grund för denna typ av konsumtion bland konsumenter i Sverige.

    För att besvara detta syfte utformades en enkätundersökning som sedan publiceras i diverse sociala plattformar. Valet av en kvalitativ metod möjliggjorde att enkätsvaren kunde tolkas och analyseras tillsammans med teorin. Genom enkätundersökningen så möjliggjordes att så många konsumenter som möjligt nåddes utav undersökningen på den tid som finns disponibel. De teorier som användes i studien hämtades från diverse tidigare vetenskapliga artiklar och litteratur som behandlade studiens valda teman. Dessa var hållbar utveckling, hållbar modekonsumtion, motiv och värderingar. Genom dessa tidigare vetenskapliga studier och litteratur kunde på så vis förståelse fås för det valda ämnet, hur problemet kunde studeras samt hur det har studerats.

    Studien ger vidare en ökad förståelse för de motiv och värderingar som ligger till grund för hållbar modekonsumtion bland svenska konsumenter. Den ger även en insikt i att motiv och värderingar ofta går samman, vilket gör att det ena inte kan studeras utan det andra. Det som går att utläsa av studien var vidare att det finns fem framträdande aspekter som de svenska konsumenterna värderar samt motiveras mest utav i relation till hållbar modekonsumtion. Bland dessa fanns bland annat den sociala processen, det vill säga att uppnå en önskad självbild och uttrycka sin identitet till sin omgivning, samt miljömässiga aspekter, som att hållbara plagg ska vara bra för miljön i förhållande till människors arbetsmiljö. Studien utvisar att även attitydbeteendeluckan är förekommande bland svenska konsumenter och att trots viljan att konsumera hållbart mode finns där så utvisas inte det alltid i handling.

  • 200.
    Carlsson, Sandra
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Willermark, Sara
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Designing teaching material for workplace pedagogy in school2022In: ICERI 2022 Proceedings, iated Digital Library , 2022, p. 1154-1159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vocational education is crucial for providing the labor market with professional vocational competence in a time of societal change, especially considering a technological change (Belaya, 2018). One of the challenges that vocational teachers face is to find, select and sometimes create appropriate teaching material for the pupils' learning (Persson 2020). Although vocational teaching constitutes an under-researched field of study, there is a stream of research that has explored a variety of e-learning tools such as blogs, video-based instructions, e-portfolios, workplace simulations, and hyper-videos (e.g., Belaya, 2018; Hamid et al., 2020; Jossberger et al., 2015;) and identify several possibilities. Thus, it is of interest to explore how vocational in-service teachers select teaching material and if they design their own teaching material. This study aims to explore the use of various teaching materials in vocational teaching in a Swedish context. A qualitative survey was conducted with a total of 22 teachers connected to a vocational teacher education in Sweden. Work-place pedagogy is used as a theoretical concept that can be understood as; “Guidance by others, situations, and artifacts are central to learning through work because the knowledge to be learned is historically, culturally, and situationally constituted” (Billett, 2002, p. 27). Early findings indicate that, what vocational teachers conceptualize as learning material, are varying and are both consisting of analog and digital tools. Vocational teachers also tend to create their own teaching material because of the need for scaffolding for their pupils as well as the need for mimicking the authentic working life. Contributions include identifying what teachers design and what aspects they consider in the design process.

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